Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

Search results for: IGBT switch

201 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
200 The Experience with SiC MOSFET and Buck Converter Snubber Design

Authors: Petr Vaculik

Abstract:

The newest semiconductor devices on the market are MOSFET transistors based on the silicon carbide – SiC. This material has exclusive features thanks to which it becomes a better switch than Si – silicon semiconductor switch. There are some special features that need to be understood to enable the device’s use to its full potential. The advantages and differences of SiC MOSFETs in comparison with Si IGBT transistors have been described in first part of this article. Second part describes driver for SiC MOSFET transistor and last part of article represents SiC MOSFET in the application of buck converter (step-down) and design of simple RC snubber.

Keywords: SiC, Si, MOSFET, IGBT, SBD, RC snubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
199 Inverter IGBT Open–Circuit Fault Detection Using Park's Vectors Enhanced by Polar Coordinates

Authors: Bendiabdellah Azzeddine, Cherif Bilal Djamal Eddine

Abstract:

The three-phase power converter voltage structure is widely used in many power applications but its failure can lead to partial or total loss of control of the phase currents and can cause serious system malfunctions or even a complete system shutdown. To ensure continuity of service in all circumstances, effective and rapid techniques of detection and location of inverter fault is to be implemented. The present paper is dedicated to open-circuit fault detection in a three-phase two-level inverter fed induction motor. For detection purpose, the proposed contribution addresses the Park’s current vectors associated to a polar coordinates calculation tool to compute the exact value of the fault angle corresponding directly to the faulty IGBT switch. The merit of the proposed contribution is illustrated by experimental results.

Keywords: diagnosis, detection, Park’s vectors, polar coordinates, open-circuit fault, inverter, IGBT switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
198 High Power Low Loss CMOS SPDT Antenna Switch for LTE-A Front End Module

Authors: Ki-Jin Kim, Suk-Hui LEE, Sanghoon Park, K. H. Ahn

Abstract:

A high power, low loss asymmetric single pole double through(SPDT) antenna switch for LTE-A Front-End Module(FEM) is presented in this paper by using CMOS technology. For the usage of LTE-A applications, low loss and high linearity are the key features which are very challenging works under CMOS process. To enhance insertion loss(IL) and power handling capability, this paper adopts asymmetric Transmitter (TX) and RX (Receiver) structure, floating body technique, multi-stacked structure, and feed forward capacitor technique. The designed SPDT switch shows TX IL 0.34 dB, RX IL 0.73 dB, P1dB 38.9 dBm at 0.9 GHz and TX IL 0.37 dB, RX IL 0.95 dB, P1dB 39.1 dBm at 2.5 GHz respectively.

Keywords: CMOS switch, SPDT switch, high power CMOS switch, LTE-A FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
197 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
196 Design of a High Performance T/R Switch for 2.4 GHz RF Wireless Transceiver in 0.13 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz

Abstract:

The rapid advancement of CMOS technology, in the recent years, has led the scientists to fabricate wireless transceivers fully on-chip which results in smaller size and lower cost wireless communication devices with acceptable performance characteristics. Moreover, the performance of the wireless transceivers rigorously depends on the performance of its first block T/R switch. This article proposes a design of a high performance T/R switch for 2.4 GHz RF wireless transceivers in 0.13 µm CMOS technology. The switch exhibits 1- dB insertion loss, 37.2-dB isolation in transmit mode and 1.4-dB insertion loss, 25.6-dB isolation in receive mode. The switch has a power handling capacity (P1dB) of 30.9-dBm. Besides, by avoiding bulky inductors and capacitors, the size of the switch is drastically reduced and it occupies only (0.00296) mm2 which is the lowest ever reported in this frequency band. Therefore, simplicity and low chip area of the circuit will trim down the cost of fabrication as well as the whole transceiver.

Keywords: CMOS, ISM band, SPDT, t/r switch, transceiver

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
195 Design and Simulation of Step Structure RF MEMS Switch for K Band Applications

Authors: G. K. S. Prakash, Rao K. Srinivasa

Abstract:

MEMS plays an important role in wide range of applications like biological, automobiles, military and communication engineering. This paper mainly investigates on capacitive shunt RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and low insertion losses. To trim the pull-in voltage, a step structure has introduced to trim air gap between the beam and the dielectric layer with that pull in voltage is trim to 2.9 V. The switching time of the proposed switch is 39.1μs, and capacitance ratio is 67. To get more isolation, we have used aluminum nitride as dielectric material instead of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) because aluminum nitride has high dielectric constant (εᵣ = 9.5) increases the OFF capacitance and eventually increases the isolation of the switch. The results show that the switch is ON state involves return loss (S₁₁) less than -25 dB up to 40 GHz and insertion loss (S₂₁) is more than -1 dB up to 35 GHz. In OFF state switch shows maximum isolation (S₂₁) of -38 dB occurs at a frequency of 25-27 GHz for K band applications.

Keywords: RF MEMS, actuation voltage, isolation loss, switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
194 AC Voltage Regulators Using Single Phase Matrix Converter

Authors: Nagaraju Jarugu, B. R. Narendra

Abstract:

This paper focused on boost rectification by Single Phase Matrix Converter with fewer numbers of switches. The conventional matrix converter consists of 4 bidirectional switches, i.e. 8 set of IGBT/MOSFET with anti-parallel diodes. In this proposed matrix converter, only six switches are used. The switch commutation arrangements are also carried out in this work. The SPMC topology has many advantages as a minimal passive device use. It is very flexible and it can be used as a lot of converters. The gate pulses to the switches are provided by the PWM techniques. The duty ratio of the switches based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique was used to produce the output waveform of the circuit, simply by turning ON and OFF the switches. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink were provided to validate the feasibility of this proposed method.

Keywords: single phase matrix converter, reduced switches, AC voltage regulators, boost rectifier operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
193 A New Resonance Solution to Suppress the Voltage Stresses in the Forward Topology Used in a Switch Mode Power Supply

Authors: Maamar Latroch, Mohamed Bourahla

Abstract:

Forward topology used in switch mode power supply (SMPS) is one of the most famous configuration feeding DC systems such as telecommunication systems and other specific applications where the galvanic isolation is required. This configuration benefits of the high frequency feature of the transformer to provide a small size and light weight of the over all system. However, the stresses existing on the power switch during an ON/OFF commutation limit the transmitted power to the DC load. This paper investigates the main causes of the stresses in voltage existing during a commutation cycle and suggest a low cost solution that eliminates the overvoltage. As a result, this configuration will yield the possibility of the use of this configuration in higher power applications. Simulation results will show the efficiency of the presented method.

Keywords: switch mode power supply, forward topology, resonance topology, high frequency commutation

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
192 Optimisation of Photovoltaic Array with DC-DC Converter Groups

Authors: Fatma Soltani

Abstract:

In power electronics the DC-DC converters or choppers are now employed in large areas, particularly in the field of electricity generation by wind and solar energy conversion. Photovoltaic generators (GPV) can deliver maximum power for a point on the characteristic P = f (Vpv), called maximum power point (MPP), or climatic variations, entraiment fluctuation PPM. To remedy this problem is interposed between the generator and receiver a DC-DC converter. The converter is usually used a simple MOSFET chopper. However, the MOSFET can be applied in the field of low power when you need a high switching frequency but becomes highly dissipative when should block large voltages For PV generators medium and high power, the use of IGBT chopper is by far the most recommended. To reduce stress on semiconductor components using several choppers series connected in parallel is known as interleaved chopper. These choppers lead to rotas.

Keywords: converter DC-DC entrelaced, photovoltaic generators, IGBT, optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
191 An Android Geofencing App for Autonomous Remote Switch Control

Authors: Jamie Wong, Daisy Sang, Chang-Shyh Peng

Abstract:

Geofence is a virtual fence defined by a preset physical radius around a target location. Geofencing App provides location-based services which define the actionable operations upon the crossing of a geofence. Geofencing requires continual location tracking, which can consume noticeable amount of battery power. Additionally, location updates need to be frequent and accurate or order so that actions can be triggered within an expected time window after the mobile user navigate through the geofence. In this paper, we build an Android mobile geofencing Application to remotely and autonomously control a power switch.

Keywords: location based service, geofence, autonomous, remote switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
190 Development of Generally Applicable Intravenous to Oral Antibiotic Switch Therapy Criteria

Authors: H. Akhloufi, M. Hulscher, J. M. Prins, I. H. Van Der Sijs, D. Melles, A. Verbon

Abstract:

Background: A timely switch from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy has many advantages, such as reduced incidence of IV-line related infections, a decreased hospital length of stay and less workload for healthcare professionals with equivalent patient safety. Additionally, numerous studies have demonstrated significant decreases in costs of a timely intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy switch, while maintaining efficacy and safety. However, a considerable variation in iv to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria has been described in literature. Here, we report the development of a set of iv to oral switch criteria that are generally applicable in all hospitals. Material/methods: A RAND-modified Delphi procedure, which was composed of 3 rounds, was used. This Delphi procedure is a widely used structured process to develop consensus using multiple rounds of questionnaires within a qualified panel of selected experts. The international expert panel was multidisciplinary and composed out of clinical microbiologists, infectious disease consultants and clinical pharmacists. This panel of 19 experts appraised 6 major intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria and operationalized these criteria using 41 measurable conditions extracted from the literature. The procedure to select a concise set of iv to oral switch criteria included 2 questionnaire rounds and a face-to-face meeting. Results: The procedure resulted in the selection of 16 measurable conditions, which operationalize 6 major intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria. The following 6 major switch therapy criteria were selected: (1) Vital signs should be good or improving when bad. (2) Signs and symptoms related to the infection have to be resolved or improved. (3) The gastrointestinal tract has to be intact and functioning. (4) The oral route should not be compromised. (5) Absence of contra-indicated infections. (6) An oral variant of the antibiotic with good bioavailability has to exist. Conclusions: This systematic stepwise method which combined evidence and expert opinion resulted in a feasible set of 6 major intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria operationalized by 16 measurable conditions. This set of early antibiotic iv to oral switch criteria can be used in daily practice in all adult hospital patients. Future use in audits and as rules in computer assisted decision support systems will lead to improvement of antimicrobial steward ship programs.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship, intravenous to oral, switch therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
189 An Exploratory Study Regarding the Effects of Auditor Switch, Auditee’s Industry, and Auditee’s Location on Audit Fees in Australia

Authors: Ashkan Mirzay Fashami

Abstract:

This study examines the effects of auditor switch, auditee’s industry, and auditee’s location on audit fees in Australia. It uses fee data of Australian Securities Exchange 500 companies, considering all industry classifications throughout the country from 2006 until 2016. Main findings show that auditor switch does not affect audit fees. However, auditee’s industry affects audit fees. This effect occurs in information technology, financials, energy, and materials sectors among the top 500 companies. Financials, energy, and materials sectors face a fee rise, whereas information technology has a fee cut. The extent of fee changes is different among various industries, wherein the financial sector has the highest increase. Further, auditee’s location affects audit fees. Top 500 companies in Hobart, Perth, and Brisbane face a fee reduction, wherein the highest cut is in Hobart. Further analysis suggests that the Australian audit market is being increasingly concentrated in the hands of the Big Four audit firms.

Keywords: audit, auditor switch, Australia, fee, low-balling

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
188 Packet Fragmentation Caused by Encryption and Using It as a Security Method

Authors: Said Rabah Azzam, Andrew Graham

Abstract:

Fragmentation of packets caused by encryption applied on the network layer of the IOS model in Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) networks as well as the possibility of using fragmentation and Access Control Lists (ACLs) as a method of restricting network access to certain hosts or areas of a network.Using default settings, fragmentation is expected to occur and each fragment to be reassembled at the other end. If this does not occur then a high number of ICMP messages should be generated back towards the source host indicating that the packet is too large and that it needs to be made smaller. This result is also expected when the MTU is changed for certain links between devices.When using ACLs and packet fragments to restrict access to hosts or network segments it is possible that ACLs cannot be set up in this way. If ACLs cannot be setup to allow only fragments then it is a limitation of the hardware’s firmware holding back this particular method. If the ACL on the restricted switch can be set up in such a way to allow only fragments then a connection that forces packets to fragment should be allowed to pass through the ACL. This should then make a network connection to the destination machine allowing data to be sent to and from the destination machine. ICMP messages from the restricted access switch and host should also be blocked from being sent back across the link which will be shown in an SSH session into the switch.

Keywords: fragmentation, encryption, security, switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
187 Evaluation of Reliability Indices Using Monte Carlo Simulation Accounting Time to Switch

Authors: Sajjad Asefi, Hossein Afrakhte

Abstract:

This paper presents the evaluation of reliability indices of an electrical distribution system using Monte Carlo simulation technique accounting Time To Switch (TTS) for each section. In this paper, the distribution system has been assumed by accounting random repair time omission. For simplicity, we have assumed the reliability analysis to be based on exponential law. Each segment has a specified rate of failure (λ) and repair time (r) which will give us the mean up time and mean down time of each section in distribution system. After calculating the modified mean up time (MUT) in years, mean down time (MDT) in hours and unavailability (U) in h/year, TTS have been added to the time which the system is not available, i.e. MDT. In this paper, we have assumed the TTS to be a random variable with Log-Normal distribution.

Keywords: distribution system, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, repair time, time to switch (TTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
186 A Comprehensive Evaluation of IGBTs Performance under Zero Current Switching

Authors: Ly. Benbahouche

Abstract:

Currently, several soft switching topologies have been studied to achieve high power switching efficiency, reduced cost, improved reliability and reduced parasites. It is well known that improvement in power electronics systems always depend on advanced in power devices. The IGBT has been successfully used in a variety of switching applications such as motor drives and appliance control because of its superior characteristics. The aim of this paper is focuses on simulation and explication of the internal dynamics of IGBTs behaviour under the most popular soft switching schemas that is Zero Current Switching (ZCS) environments. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some mechanisms relating to current tail during the turn-off and examination of the response at turn-off with variation of temperature, inductance L, snubber capacitors Cs, and bus voltage in order to achieve an improved understanding of internal carrier dynamics. It is shown that the snubber capacitor, the inductance and even the temperature controls the magnitude and extent of the tail current, hence the turn-off time (switching speed of the device). Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the ZCS switching can be utilized efficiently to improve and reduce the power losses as well as the turn-off time. Furthermore, the turn-off loss in ZCS was found to depend on the time of switching of the device.

Keywords: PT-IGBT, ZCS, turn-off losses, dV/dt

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
185 Optimum Switch Temperature for Phase Change Materials in Buildings

Authors: El Hadi Bouguerra, Nouredine Retiel

Abstract:

To avoid or at least to attenuate the global warming, it is essential to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings where the biggest potential of savings exists. The impending danger can come from the increase in the needs of air conditioning not only because of the climate warming but also the fast equipping of emerging or developing countries. Passive solutions exist and others are in promising development and therefore, must be applied wherever it is possible. Even if they do not always avoid the resort to an active cooling (mechanical), they allow lowering the load at an acceptable level which can be possibly taken in relay by the renewable energies. These solutions have the advantage to be relatively less expensive and especially adaptable to the existing housing. However, it is the internal convection resistance that controls the heat exchange between the phase change materials (PCM) and the indoor temperature because of the very low heat coefficients of natural convection. Therefore, it is reasonable to link the switch temperature Tm to the temperature of the substrate (walls and ceiling) because conduction heat transfer is dominant. In this case, external conditions (heat sources such as solar irradiation and ambient temperatures) and conductivities of envelope constituents are the most important factors. The walls are not at the same temperature year round; therefore, it is difficult to set a unique switch temperature for the whole season, making the average values a key parameter. With this work, the authors’ aim is to see which parameters influence the optimum switch temperature of a PCM and additionally, if a better selection of PCMs relating to their optimum temperature can enhance their energetic performances.

Keywords: low energy building, energy conservation, phase change materials, PCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
184 Designing Floor Planning in 2D and 3D with an Efficient Topological Structure

Authors: V. Nagammai

Abstract:

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. Development of technology increases the complexity in IC manufacturing which may vary the power consumption, increase the size and latency period. Topology defines a number of connections between network. In this project, NoC topology is generated using atlas tool which will increase performance in turn determination of constraints are effective. The routing is performed by XY routing algorithm and wormhole flow control. In NoC topology generation, the value of power, area and latency are predetermined. In previous work, placement, routing and shortest path evaluation is performed using an algorithm called floor planning with cluster reconstruction and path allocation algorithm (FCRPA) with the account of 4 3x3 switch, 6 4x4 switch, and 2 5x5 switches. The usage of the 4x4 and 5x5 switch will increase the power consumption and area of the block. In order to avoid the problem, this paper has used one 8x8 switch and 4 3x3 switches. This paper uses IPRCA which of 3 steps they are placement, clustering, and shortest path evaluation. The placement is performed using min – cut placement and clustering are performed using an algorithm called cluster generation. The shortest path is evaluated using an algorithm called Dijkstra's algorithm. The power consumption of each block is determined. The experimental result shows that the area, power, and wire length improved simultaneously.

Keywords: application specific noc, b* tree representation, floor planning, t tree representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
183 Regulated Output Voltage Double Switch Buck-Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Energy Application

Authors: M. Kaouane, A. Boukhelifa, A. Cheriti

Abstract:

In this paper, a new Buck-Boost DC-DC converter is designed and simulated for photovoltaic energy system. The presented Buck-Boost converter has a double switch. Moreover, its output voltage is regulated to a constant value whatever its input is. In the presented work, the Buck-Boost transfers the produced energy from the photovoltaic generator to an R-L load. The converter is controlled by the pulse width modulation technique in a way to have a suitable output voltage, in the other hand, to carry the generator’s power, and put it close to the maximum possible power that can be generated by introducing the right duty cycle of the pulse width modulation signals that control the switches of the converter; each component and each parameter of the proposed circuit is well calculated using the equations that describe each operating mode of the converter. The proposed configuration of Buck-Boost converter has been simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment; the simulation results show that it is a good choice to take in order to maintain the output voltage constant while ensuring a good energy transfer.

Keywords: Buck-Boost converter, switch, photovoltaic, PWM, power, energy transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
182 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
181 Liquid Food Sterilization Using Pulsed Electric Field

Authors: Tanmaya Pradhan, K. Midhun, M. Joy Thomas

Abstract:

Increasing the shelf life and improving the quality are important objectives for the success of packaged liquid food industry. One of the methods by which this can be achieved is by deactivating the micro-organisms present in the liquid food through pasteurization. Pasteurization is done by heating, but some serious disadvantages such as the reduction in food quality, flavour, taste, colour, etc. were observed because of heat treatment, which leads to the development of newer methods instead of pasteurization such as treatment using UV radiation, high pressure, nuclear irradiation, pulsed electric field, etc. In recent years the use of the pulsed electric field (PEF) for inactivation of the microbial content in the food is gaining popularity. PEF uses a very high electric field for a short time for the inactivation of microorganisms, for which we require a high voltage pulsed power source. Pulsed power sources used for PEF treatments are usually in the range of 5kV to 50kV. Different pulse shapes are used, such as exponentially decaying and square wave pulses. Exponentially decaying pulses are generated by high power switches with only turn-on capacity and, therefore, discharge the total energy stored in the capacitor bank. These pulses have a sudden onset and, therefore, a high rate of rising but have a very slow decay, which yields extra heat, which is ineffective in microbial inactivation. Square pulses can be produced by an incomplete discharge of a capacitor with the help of a switch having both on/off control or by using a pulse forming network. In this work, a pulsed power-based system is designed with the help of high voltage capacitors and solid-state switches (IGBT) for the inactivation of pathogenic micro-organism in liquid food such as fruit juices. The high voltage generator is based on the Marx generator topology, which can produce variable amplitude, frequency, and pulse width according to the requirements. Liquid food is treated in a chamber where pulsed electric field is produced between stainless steel electrodes using the pulsed output voltage of the supply. Preliminary bacterial inactivation tests were performed by subjecting orange juice inoculated with Escherichia Coli bacteria. With the help of the developed pulsed power source and the chamber, the inoculated orange has been PEF treated. The voltage was varied to get a peak electric field up to 15kV/cm. For a total treatment time of 200µs, a 30% reduction in the bacterial count has been observed. The detailed results and analysis will be presented in the final paper.

Keywords: Escherichia coli bacteria, high voltage generator, microbial inactivation, pulsed electric field, pulsed forming line, solid-state switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
180 Mobile Number Portability

Authors: R. Geetha, J. Arunkumar, P. Gopal, D. Loganathan, K. Pavithra, C. Vikashini

Abstract:

Mobile Number Portability is an attempt to switch over from one network to another network facility for mobile based on applications. This facility is currently not available for mobile handsets. This application is intended to assist the mobile network and its service customers in understanding the criteria; this will serve as a universal set of requirements which must be met by the customers. This application helps the user's network portability. Accessing permission from the network provider to enable services to the user and utilizing the available network signals. It is enabling the user to make a temporary switch over to other network. The main aim of this research work is to adapt multiple networks at the time of no network coverage. It can be accessed at rural and geographical areas. This can be achieved by this mobile application. The application is capable of temporary switch over between various networks. With this application both the service provider and the network user are benefited. The service provider is benefited by charging a minimum cost for utilizing other network. It provides security in terms of password that is unique to avoid unauthorized users and to prevent loss of balance. The goal intended to be attained is a complete utilization of available network at significant situations and to provide feature that satisfy the customer needs. The temporary switch over is done to manage emergency calls when user is in rural or geographical area, where there will be a very low network coverage. Since people find it trend in using Android mobile, this application is designed as an Android applications, which can be freely downloaded and installed from Play store. In the current scenario, the service provider enables the user to change their network without shifting their mobile network. This application affords a clarification for users while they are jammed in a critical situation. This application is designed by using Android 4.2 and SQLite Version3.

Keywords: mobile number, random number, alarm, imei number, call

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
179 Fast Switching Mechanism for Multicasting Failure in OpenFlow Networks

Authors: Alaa Allakany, Koji Okamura

Abstract:

Multicast technology is an efficient and scalable technology for data distribution in order to optimize network resources. However, in the IP network, the responsibility for management of multicast groups is distributed among network routers, which causes some limitations such as delays in processing group events, high bandwidth consumption and redundant tree calculation. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represented by OpenFlow presented as a solution for many problems, in SDN the control plane and data plane are separated by shifting the control and management to a remote centralized controller, and the routers are used as a forwarder only. In this paper we will proposed fast switching mechanism for solving the problem of link failure in multicast tree based on Tabu Search heuristic algorithm and modifying the functions of OpenFlow switch to fasts switch to the pack up sub tree rather than sending to the controller. In this work we will implement multicasting OpenFlow controller, this centralized controller is a core part in our multicasting approach, which is responsible for 1- constructing the multicast tree, 2- handling the multicast group events and multicast state maintenance. And finally modifying OpenFlow switch functions for fasts switch to pack up paths. Forwarders, forward the multicast packet based on multicast routing entries which were generated by the centralized controller. Tabu search will be used as heuristic algorithm for construction near optimum multicast tree and maintain multicast tree to still near optimum in case of join or leave any members from multicast group (group events).

Keywords: multicast tree, software define networks, tabu search, OpenFlow

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
178 An Elegant Technique to Achieve ZCS in a Boost Converter Incorporating Complete Energy Transfer

Authors: Nagesh Vangala, Rayudu Mannam

Abstract:

Soft switching has attracted the interest of various researchers constantly. Many techniques are in vogue to achieve soft switching (ZVS and/or ZCS) in Boost converters. These techniques utilize an auxiliary switch to incorporate the ZCS/ZVS. Such schemes require additional control circuit and induce complexity in design. This paper proposes an elegant fly back approach which guarantees zero current switching of the main Switch without the need for any additional active device. A simple flyback transformer scheme is implemented which absorbs the initial turn ON energy (or the Reverse recovery energy of Boost diode) and delivers to the output.

Keywords: boost converter, complete energy transfer, flyback, zero current switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
177 A ZVT-ZCT-PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Direct Power Transfer

Authors: Naim Suleyman Ting, Yakup Sahin, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

This paper presents a zero voltage transition-zero current transition (ZVT-ZCT)-PWM DC-DC boost converter with direct power transfer. In this converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT. The auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). The main diode turns on with ZVS and turns off with ZCS. Besides, the additional current or voltage stress does not occur on the main device. The converter has features as simple structure, fast dynamic response and easy control. Also, the proposed converter has direct power transfer feature as well as excellent soft switching techniques. In this study, the operating principle of the converter is presented and its operation is verified for 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: direct power transfer, boost converter, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
176 Inactivation of Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Induces the Phenotypic Switch of Smooth Muscle Cells and Aggravates the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions

Authors: Miao Zhang, Limin Liu, Feng Zhi, Panpan Niu, Mengya Yang, Xuemei Zhu, Ying Diao, Jun Wang, Ying Zhao

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Clinical studies have demonstrated that serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activities positively correlate with the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of SSAO inactivation on the development of atherosclerosis. Methods: Female LDLr knockout (KO) mice were given the Western-type diet for 6 and 9 weeks to induce the formation of early and advanced lesions, and semicarbazide (SCZ, 0.125%) was added into the drinking water to inactivate SSAO in vivo. Results: Despite no impact on plasma total cholesterol levels, abrogation of SSAO by SCZ not only resulted in the enlargement of both early (1.5-fold, p=0.0043) and advanced (1.8-fold, p=0.0013) atherosclerotic lesions, but also led to reduced/increased lesion contents of macrophages/smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (macrophage: ~0.74-fold, p=0.0002(early)/0.0016(advanced); SMC: ~1.55-fold, p=0.0003(early) /0.0001(advanced)), respectively. Moreover, SSAO inactivation inhibited the migration of circulating monocytes into peripheral tissues and reduced the amount of circulating Ly6Chigh monocytes (0.7-fold, p=0.0001), which may account for the reduced macrophage content in lesions. In contrast, the increased number of SMCs in lesions of SCZ-treated mice is attributed to an augmented synthetic vascular SMC phenotype switch as evidenced by the increased proliferation of SMCs and accumulation of collagens in vivo. Conclusion: SSAO inactivation by SCZ promotes the phenotypic switch of SMCs and the development of atherosclerosis. The enzymatic activity of SSAO may thus represent a potential target in the prevention and/or treatment of atherosclerosis.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, phenotype switch of smooth muscle cells, SSAO/VAP-1, semicarbazide

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175 Wireless Integrated Switched Oscillator Impulse Generator with Application in Wireless Passive Electric Field Sensors

Authors: S. Mohammadzamani, B. Kordi

Abstract:

Wireless electric field sensors are in high demand in the number of applications that requires measuring electric field such as investigations of high power systems and testing the high voltage apparatus. Passive wireless electric field sensors are most desired since they do not require a source of power and are interrogated wirelessly. A passive wireless electric field sensor has been designed and fabricated by our research group. In the wireless interrogation system of the sensor, a wireless radio frequency impulse generator needs to be employed. A compact wireless impulse generator composed of an integrated resonant switched oscillator (SWO) and a pulse-radiating antenna has been designed and fabricated in this research. The fundamental of Switched Oscillators was introduced by C.E.Baum. A Switched Oscillator consists of a low impedance transmission line charged by a DC source, through large impedance at desired frequencies and terminated to a high impedance antenna at one end and a fast closing switch at the other end. Once the line is charged, the switch will close and short-circuit the transmission line. Therefore, a fast transient wave will be generated and travels along the transmission line. Because of the mismatch between the antenna and the transmission line, only a part of fast transient wave will be radiated, and a portion of the fast-transient wave will reflect back. At the other end of the transmission line, there is a closed switch. Consequently, a second reflection with a reversed sign will propagate towards the antenna and the wave continues back and forth. hence, at the terminal of the antenna, there will be a series of positive and negative pulses with descending amplitude. In this research a single ended quarter wavelength Switched Oscillator has been designed and simulated at 800MHz. The simulation results show that the designed Switched Oscillator generates pulses with decreasing amplitude at the frequency of 800MHz with the maximum amplitude of 10V and bandwidth of about 10MHz at the antenna end. The switched oscillator has been fabricated using a 6cm long coaxial cable transmission line which is charged by a DC source and an 8cm monopole antenna as the pulse radiating antenna. A 90V gas discharge switch has been employed as the fast closing switch. The Switched oscillator sends a series of pulses with decreasing amplitude at the frequency of 790MHz with the maximum amplitude of 0.3V in the distance of 30 cm.

Keywords: electric field measurement, impulse radiating antenna, switched oscillator, wireless impulse generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
174 A Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Transmit/Receive Switch Subsystem for Communication Systems

Authors: Donghyun Lee, Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Multi-band systems offer a great deal of benefit in modern communication and radar systems. In particular, multi-band antenna-array radar systems with their extended frequency diversity provide numerous advantages in detection, identification, locating and tracking a wide range of targets, including enhanced detection coverage, accurate target location, reduced survey time and cost, increased resolution, improved reliability and target information. An accurate calibration is a critical issue in antenna array systems. The amplitude and phase errors in multi-band and multi-polarization antenna array transceivers result in inaccurate target detection, deteriorated resolution and reduced reliability. Furthermore, the digital beam former without the RF domain phase-shifting is less immune to unfiltered interference signals, which can lead to receiver saturation in array systems. Therefore, implementing integrated front-end architecture, which can support calibration function with low insertion and filtering function from the farthest end of an array transceiver is of great interest. We report a dual K/Ka-band T/R/Calibration switch module with quasi-elliptic dual-bandpass filtering function implementing a Q-enhanced metamaterial transmission line. A unique dual-band frequency response is incorporated in the reception and calibration path of the proposed switch module utilizing the composite right/left-handed meta material transmission line coupled with a Colpitts-style negative generation circuit. The fabricated fully integrated T/R/Calibration switch module in 0.18-μm BiCMOS technology exhibits insertion loss of 4.9-12.3 dB and isolation of more than 45 dB in the reception, transmission and calibration mode of operation. In the reception and calibration mode, the dual-band frequency response centered at 24.5 and 35 GHz exhibits out-of-band rejection of more than 30 dB compared to the pass bands below 10.5 GHz and above 59.5 GHz. The rejection between the pass bands reaches more than 50 dB. In all modes of operation, the IP1-dB is between 4 and 11 dBm. Acknowledgement: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: microwaves, millimeter waves, T/R switch, wireless communications, wireless communications

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173 Weibull Cumulative Distribution Function Analysis with Life Expectancy Endurance Test Result of Power Window Switch

Authors: Miky Lee, K. Kim, D. Lim, D. Cho

Abstract:

This paper presents the planning, rationale for test specification derivation, sampling requirements, test facilities, and result analysis used to conduct lifetime expectancy endurance tests on power window switches (PWS) considering thermally induced mechanical stress under diurnal cyclic temperatures during normal operation (power cycling). The detail process of analysis and test results on the selected PWS set were discussed in this paper. A statistical approach to ‘life time expectancy’ was given to the measurement standards dealing with PWS lifetime determination through endurance tests. The approach choice, within the framework of the task, was explained. The present task was dedicated to voltage drop measurement to derive lifetime expectancy while others mostly consider contact or surface resistance. The measurements to perform and the main instruments to measure were fully described accordingly. The failure data from tests were analyzed to conclude lifetime expectancy through statistical method using Weibull cumulative distribution function. The first goal of this task is to develop realistic worst case lifetime endurance test specification because existing large number of switch test standards cannot induce degradation mechanism which makes the switches less reliable. 2nd goal is to assess quantitative reliability status of PWS currently manufactured based on test specification newly developed thru this project. The last and most important goal is to satisfy customer’ requirement regarding product reliability.

Keywords: power window switch, endurance test, Weibull function, reliability, degradation mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
172 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 316