Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3352

Search results for: reduced switches

3352 AC Voltage Regulators Using Single Phase Matrix Converter

Authors: Nagaraju Jarugu, B. R. Narendra


This paper focused on boost rectification by Single Phase Matrix Converter with fewer numbers of switches. The conventional matrix converter consists of 4 bidirectional switches, i.e. 8 set of IGBT/MOSFET with anti-parallel diodes. In this proposed matrix converter, only six switches are used. The switch commutation arrangements are also carried out in this work. The SPMC topology has many advantages as a minimal passive device use. It is very flexible and it can be used as a lot of converters. The gate pulses to the switches are provided by the PWM techniques. The duty ratio of the switches based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique was used to produce the output waveform of the circuit, simply by turning ON and OFF the switches. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink were provided to validate the feasibility of this proposed method.

Keywords: single phase matrix converter, reduced switches, AC voltage regulators, boost rectifier operation

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3351 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna


In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
3350 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov


Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3349 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin


The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
3348 A Study on Solutions to Connect Distribution Power Grid up to Renewable Energy Sources at KEPCO

Authors: Seung Yoon Hyun, Hyeong Seung An, Myeong Ho Choi, Sung Hwan Bae, Yu Jong Sim


In 2015, the southern part of the Korean Peninsula has 8.6 million poles, 1.25 million km power lines, and 2 million transformers, etc. It is the massive amount of distribution equipments which could cover a round-trip distance from the earth to the moon and 11 turns around the earth. These distribution equipments are spread out like capillaries and supplying power to every corner of the Korean Peninsula. In order to manage these huge power facility efficiently, KEPCO use DAS (Distribution Automation System) to operate distribution power system since 1997. DAS is integrated system that enables to remotely supervise and control breakers and switches on distribution network. Using DAS, we can reduce outage time and power loss. KEPCO has about 160,000 switches, 50%(about 80,000) of switches are automated, and 41 distribution center monitoring&control these switches 24-hour 365 days to get the best efficiency of distribution networks. However, the rapid increasing renewable energy sources become the problem in the efficient operation of distributed power system. (currently 2,400 MW, 75,000 generators operate in distribution power system). In this paper, it suggests the way to interconnect between renewable energy source and distribution power system.

Keywords: distribution, renewable, connect, DAS (Distribution Automation System)

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
3347 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah


This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3346 Digital Signal Processor Implementation of a Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Algorithm Algorithm for a Reduced Delta Inverter

Authors: Asma Ben Rhouma, Mahmoud Hamouda


The delta inverter is considered as the reduced three-phase dc/ac converter topology. It contains only three two-quadrant power switches compared to six in the conventional one. This reduced power conversion topology is widely considered in many industrial applications, such as electric traction and large photovoltaic systems. This paper is focused on a new sinusoidal pulse width modulation algorithm (SPWM) developed for the delta inverter. As an unconventional inverter’s structure, irregular modulating functions waveforms of the SPWM switching technique are generated. The performances of the proposed SPWM technique was proven through computer simulations carried out on a delta inverter feeding a three-phase RL load. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) implementation of the novel SPWM algorithm have been realized on a laboratory prototype of the delta inverter feeding an RL load and a squirrel cage induction motor. Experimental results have highlighted its high performances under the proposed SPWM method.

Keywords: delta inverter, SPWM, simulation, DSP implementation

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3345 Characteristics of GaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP Npn Heterostructural Optoelectronic Switches

Authors: Der-Feng Guo


Optoelectronic switches have attracted a considerable attention in the semiconductor research field due to their potential applications in optical computing systems and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs). With high gains and high-speed operations, npn heterostructures can be used to produce promising optoelectronic switches. It is known that the bulk barrier and heterostructure-induced potential spike act important roles in the characteristics of the npn heterostructures. To investigate the effects of bulk barrier and potential spike heights on the optoelectronic switching of the npn heterostructures, GaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP npn heterostructural optoelectronic switches (HSOSs) have been fabricated in this work. It is seen that the illumination decreases the switching voltage Vs and increases the switching current Is, and thus the OFF state is under dark and ON state under illumination in the optical switching of the GaAs/InGaP HSOS characteristics. But in the AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP HSOS characteristics, the Vs and Is present contrary trends, and the OFF state is under illumination and ON state under dark. The studied HSOSs show quite different switching variations with incident light, which are mainly attributed to the bulk barrier and potential spike heights affected by photogenerated carriers.

Keywords: bulk barrier, heterostructure, optoelectronic switch, potential spike

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
3344 Efficient Backup Protection for Hybrid WDM/TDM GPON System

Authors: Elmahdi Mohammadine, Ahouzi Esmail, Najid Abdellah


This contribution aims to present a new protected hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Line Protection devices. The objective from using these technologies is to improve flexibility and enhance the protection of GPON networks.

Keywords: Wavlenght Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON), Time Division Multiplexed PON (TDM-PON), architecture, Protection, Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), Optical Line Protection (OLP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
3343 Design Ultra Fast Gate Drive Board for Silicon Carbide MOSFET Applications

Authors: Syakirin O. Yong, Nasrudin A. Rahim, Bilal M. Eid, Buray Tankut


The aim of this paper is to develop an ultra-fast gate driver for Silicon Carbide (SiC) based switching device applications such as AC/DC DC/AC converters. Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC switches are growing rapidly nowadays due to their numerous capabilities such as faster switching, higher power density and higher voltage level. Wide band-gap switches can work properly on high frequencies such 50-250 kHz which is very useful for many power electronic applications such as solar inverters. Increasing the frequency minimizes the output filter size and system complexity however, this causes huge spike between MOSFET’s drain and source leg which leads to the failure of MOSFET if the voltage rating is exceeded. This paper investigates and concludes the optimum design for a gate drive board for SiC MOSFET switches without causing spikes and noises.

Keywords: PV system, lithium-ion, charger, constant current, constant voltage, renewable energy

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3342 A New Converter Topology for Wind Energy Conversion System

Authors: Mahmoud Khamaira, Ahmed Abu-Siada, Yasser Alharbi


Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) are currently extensively used in variable speed wind power plants due to their superior advantages that include reduced converter rating, low cost, reduced losses, easy implementation of power factor correction schemes, variable speed operation and four quadrants active and reactive power control capabilities. On the other hand, DFIG sensitivity to grid disturbances, especially for voltage sags represents the main disadvantage of the equipment. In this paper, a coil is proposed to be integrated within the DFIG converters to improve the overall performance of a DFIG-based wind energy conversion system (WECS). The charging and discharging of the coil are controlled by controlling the duty cycle of the switches of the dc-dc chopper. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed topology in improving the overall performance of the WECS system under study.

Keywords: doubly fed induction generator, coil, wind energy conversion system, converter topology

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
3341 0.13-μm CMOS Vector Modulator for Wireless Backhaul System

Authors: J. S. Kim, N. P. Hong


In this paper, a CMOS vector modulator designed for wireless backhaul system based on 802.11ac is presented. A poly phase filter and sign select switches yield two orthogonal signal paths. Two variable gain amplifiers with strongly reduced phase shift of only ±5 ° are used to weight these paths. It has a phase control range of 360 ° and a gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB. The current drawn from a 1.2 V supply amounts 20.4 mA. Using a 0.13 mm technology, the chip die area amounts 1.47x0.75 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, phase shifter, backhaul, 802.11ac

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
3340 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon


A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

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3339 Dual Reconfigurable Antenna Using Capacitive Coupling Slot and Parasitic Square Ring

Authors: M. Abou Al-alaa, H. A. Elsadek, E. A. Abdallah, E. A. Hashish


A square patch antenna with both frequency and polarization reconfigurability is presented. The antenna consists of a square patch with coplanar feed on the ground plane. On the patch side, there is a parasitic square ring that is responsible for changing the antenna polarization. On the ground plane, there is a rectangular slot. By changing of length of this slot, the antenna resonance frequency can be changed. The antenna operates at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz that used in GPS and Bluetooth applications, respectively. The length of the slot in the proposed antenna is 40 mm, and the antenna operates at the lower frequency (1.57 GHz). By using switches in the ground plane the slot length can be adjust to 24 mm, so the antenna operates at upper frequency (2.45 GHz). Two switches are mounted on the parasitic ring at optimized positions. By switching between the different states of these two switches, the proposed antenna operates with linear polarization (LP) and circular polarization (CP) at each operating frequency. The antenna gain at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz are 5.9 and 7.64 dBi, respectively. The antenna is analyzed using the CST Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna was fabricated and measured. Results comparison shows good agreement. The antenna has applications in several wireless communication systems.

Keywords: microstrip patch antenna, reconfigurable antenna, frequency reconfigurability, polarization reconfigurability, parasitic square ring, linear polarization, circular polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
3338 Model Based Fault Diagnostic Approach for Limit Switches

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Surayya Naz, Nazir Shah Khattak


The degree of freedom relates to our capability to observe or model the energy paths within the system. Higher the number of energy paths being modeled leaves to us a higher degree of freedom, but increasing the time and modeling complexity rendering it useless for today’s world’s need for minimum time to market. Since the number of residuals that can be uniquely isolated are dependent on the number of independent outputs of the system, increasing the number of sensors required. The examples of discrete position sensors that may be used to form an array include limit switches, Hall effect sensors, optical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc. Their mechanical design can usually be tailored to fit in the transitional path of an STME in a variety of mechanical configurations. The case studies into multi-sensor system were carried out and actual data from sensors is used to test this generic framework. It is being investigated, how the proper modeling of limit switches as timing sensors, could lead to unified and neutral residual space while keeping the implementation cost reasonably low.

Keywords: low-cost limit sensors, fault diagnostics, Single Throw Mechanical Equipment (STME), parameter estimation, parity-space

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3337 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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3336 Horizontal-Vertical and Enhanced-Unicast Interconnect Testing Techniques for Network-on-Chip

Authors: Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry, Razali Ismail, F. Fotovati


One of the most important and challenging tasks in testing network-on-chip based system-on-chips (NoC based SoCs) is to verify the communication entity. It is important because of its usage for transferring both data packets and test patterns for intellectual properties (IPs) during normal and test mode. Hence, ensuring of NoC reliability is required for reliable IPs functionality and testing. On the other hand, it is challenging due to the required time to test it and the way of transferring test patterns from the tester to the NoC components. In this paper, two testing techniques for mesh-based NoC interconnections are proposed. The first one is based on one-by-one testing and the second one divides NoC interconnects into three parts, horizontal links of switches in even columns, horizontal links of switches in odd columns and all vertical. A design for testability (DFT) architecture is represented to send test patterns directly to each switch under test and also support the proposed testing techniques by providing a loopback path in each switch. The simulation results shows the second proposed testing mechanism outperforms in terms of test time because this method test all the interconnects in only three phases, independent to the number of existed interconnects in the network, while test time of other methods are highly dependent to the number of switches and interconnects in the NoC.

Keywords: on chip, interconnection testing, horizontal-vertical testing, enhanced unicast

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3335 Analysis and Design of Single Switch Mosfet Dimmer for AC Driven Lamp

Authors: S.Pandeeswari, Raju Padma


In this paper a new solution to implement and control single-stage electronic ballast based on the integration of a buck-boost power factor correction stage and a half bridge resonant inverter is presented. The control signals are obtained using the inverter resonant current by means of a saturable transformer. Core saturation is used to control the required dead time between the control pulses on both switches. The turn-on time of one of the inverter switches is controlled to provide proper cathode preheating during the lamp ignition process. No special integrated circuits are required to control the ballast and the total number of components is minimized. Analysis and basic design of phase cut dimmer.

Keywords: MOSFET dimmer, PIC 16F877A, voltage regulator, bridge rectifier

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3334 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

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3333 Application of ECQFD for Enabling Environmentally Conscious Design

Authors: Gopinath Rathod, Vinod Puranik


Growing business recognizes environmental consciousness as an important concept for survival in the competitive scenario. Environmental consciousness is a critical intersection between manufacturing and product design processes with environmental issues and concerns. This article presents a project in which quality function deployment (QFD) for environment (ECQFD) has been applied to rotary switches for enabling environmentally conscious design in the early stage of product development. ECQFD is capable of handling simultaneously the environmental and traditional product quality requirements. ECQFD consists of four phases. ECQFD phases I and II are concerned with the identification of parts that are important in enhancing environmental consciousness. ECQFD phases III and IV are concerned with the evaluation of effect of design improvement on environmental quality requirements. The case study has been practically validated which indicated the receptivity of applying ECQFD in industrial scenario.

Keywords: quality function deployment, environment, product design, design for environment, rotary switches

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3332 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev


Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: molecular switches, NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes, quantum chemical calculations

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3331 A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data

Authors: Bernardo Cedano, Ahmed H. Eltom, Bob Hay, Jim Glass, Raga Ahmed


The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.

Keywords: disturbance automation, electric power grid, smart grid, smart switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
3330 Neural Nets Based Approach for 2-Cells Power Converter Control

Authors: Kamel Laidi, Khelifa Benmansour, Ouahid Bouchhida


Neural networks-based approach for 2-cells serial converter has been developed and implemented. The approach is based on a behavioural description of the different operating modes of the converter. Each operating mode represents a well-defined configuration, and for which is matched an operating zone satisfying given invariance conditions, depending on the capacitors' voltages and the load current of the converter. For each mode, a control vector whose components are the control signals to be applied to the converter switches has been associated. Therefore, the problem is reduced to a classification task of the different operating modes of the converter. The artificial neural nets-based approach, which constitutes a powerful tool for this kind of task, has been adopted and implemented. The application to a 2-cells chopper has allowed ensuring efficient and robust control of the load current and a high capacitors voltages balancing.

Keywords: neural nets, control, multicellular converters, 2-cells chopper

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3329 Using Jumping Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Operation of Pump in Water Distribution Networks

Authors: R. Rajabpour, N. Talebbeydokhti, M. H. Ahmadi


Carefully scheduling the operations of pumps can be resulted to significant energy savings. Schedules can be defined either implicit, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank levels, or explicit by specifying the time during which each pump is on/off. In this study, two new explicit representations based on time-controlled triggers were analyzed, where the maximum number of pump switches was established beforehand, and the schedule may contain fewer switches than the maximum. The optimal operation of pumping stations was determined using a Jumping Particle Swarm Optimization (JPSO) algorithm to achieve the minimum energy cost. The model integrates JPSO optimizer and EPANET hydraulic network solver. The optimal pump operation schedule of VanZyl water distribution system was determined using the proposed model and compared with those from Genetic and Ant Colony algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed model utilizing the JPSP algorithm outperformed the others and is a versatile management model for the operation of real-world water distribution system.

Keywords: JPSO, operation, optimization, water distribution system

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3328 Reduced Differential Transform Methods for Solving the Fractional Diffusion Equations

Authors: Yildiray Keskin, Omer Acan, Murat Akkus


In this paper, the solution of fractional diffusion equations is presented by means of the reduced differential transform method. Fractional partial differential equations have special importance in engineering and sciences. Application of reduced differential transform method to this problem shows the rapid convergence of the sequence constructed by this method to the exact solution. The numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to fractional diffusion equations. The method introduces a promising tool for solving many fractional partial differential equations.

Keywords: fractional diffusion equations, Caputo fractional derivative, reduced differential transform method, partial

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3327 Effect on Occupational Health Safety and Environment at Work from Metal Handicraft Using Rattanakosin Local Wisdom

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum, Waleerak Sittisom


This research investigated the effect on occupational health safety and environment at work from metal handicraft using Rattanakosin local wisdom focusing on pollution, accidents, and injuries from work. The sample group in this study included 48 metal handicraft workers in 5 communities by using questionnaires and interview to collect data. The evaluation form TISI 18001 was used to analyze job safety analysis (JSA). The results showed that risk at work reduced after applying the developed model. Banbu Community produces alloy bowl rubbed with stone. The high risk process is melting and hitting process. Before the application, the work risk was 82.71%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 50.61%. Banbart Community produces monk’s food bowl. The high risk process is blow pipe welding. Before the application, the work risk was 93.59%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 48.14%. Bannoen Community produces circle gong. The high risk process is milling process. Before the application, the work risk was 85.18%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 46.91%. Teethong Community produces gold leaf. The high risk process is hitting and spreading process. Before the application, the work risk was 86.42%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 64.19%. Ban Changthong Community produces gold ornament. The high risk process is gold melting process. Before the application, the work risk was 67.90%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 37.03%. It can be concluded that with the application of the developed model, the work risk of 5 communities was reduced in the 3 main groups: (1) Work illness reduced by 16.77%; (2) Pollution from work reduced by 10.31%; (3) Accidents and injuries from work reduced by 15.62%.

Keywords: occupational health, safety, local wisdom, Rattanakosin

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3326 On Direct Matrix Factored Inversion via Broyden's Updates

Authors: Adel Mohsen


A direct method based on the good Broyden's updates for evaluating the inverse of a nonsingular square matrix of full rank and solving related system of linear algebraic equations is studied. For a matrix A of order n whose LU-decomposition is A = LU, the multiplication count is O (n3). This includes the evaluation of the LU-decompositions of the inverse, the lower triangular decomposition of A as well as a “reduced matrix inverse”. If an explicit value of the inverse is not needed the order reduces to O (n3/2) to compute to compute inv(U) and the reduced inverse. For a symmetric matrix only O (n3/3) operations are required to compute inv(L) and the reduced inverse. An example is presented to demonstrate the capability of using the reduced matrix inverse in treating ill-conditioned systems. Besides the simplicity of Broyden's update, the method provides a mean to exploit the possible sparsity in the matrix and to derive a suitable preconditioner.

Keywords: Broyden's updates, matrix inverse, inverse factorization, solution of linear algebraic equations, ill-conditioned matrices, preconditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3325 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran


This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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3324 Designing Floor Planning in 2D and 3D with an Efficient Topological Structure

Authors: V. Nagammai


Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. Development of technology increases the complexity in IC manufacturing which may vary the power consumption, increase the size and latency period. Topology defines a number of connections between network. In this project, NoC topology is generated using atlas tool which will increase performance in turn determination of constraints are effective. The routing is performed by XY routing algorithm and wormhole flow control. In NoC topology generation, the value of power, area and latency are predetermined. In previous work, placement, routing and shortest path evaluation is performed using an algorithm called floor planning with cluster reconstruction and path allocation algorithm (FCRPA) with the account of 4 3x3 switch, 6 4x4 switch, and 2 5x5 switches. The usage of the 4x4 and 5x5 switch will increase the power consumption and area of the block. In order to avoid the problem, this paper has used one 8x8 switch and 4 3x3 switches. This paper uses IPRCA which of 3 steps they are placement, clustering, and shortest path evaluation. The placement is performed using min – cut placement and clustering are performed using an algorithm called cluster generation. The shortest path is evaluated using an algorithm called Dijkstra's algorithm. The power consumption of each block is determined. The experimental result shows that the area, power, and wire length improved simultaneously.

Keywords: application specific noc, b* tree representation, floor planning, t tree representation

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3323 Modeling the Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Axons by Order Reduction

Authors: Ruxandra Barbulescu, Daniel Ioan, Gabriela Ciuprina


The saltatory conduction is the way the action potential is transmitted along a myelinated axon. The potential diffuses along the myelinated compartments and it is regenerated in the Ranvier nodes due to the ion channels allowing the flow across the membrane. For an efficient simulation of populations of neurons, it is important to use reduced order models both for myelinated compartments and for Ranvier nodes and to have control over their accuracy and inner parameters. The paper presents a reduced order model of this neural system which allows an efficient simulation method for the saltatory conduction in myelinated axons. This model is obtained by concatenating reduced order linear models of 1D myelinated compartments and nonlinear 0D models of Ranvier nodes. The models for the myelinated compartments are selected from a series of spatially distributed models developed and hierarchized according to their modeling errors. The extracted model described by a nonlinear PDE of hyperbolic type is able to reproduce the saltatory conduction with acceptable accuracy and takes into account the finite propagation speed of potential. Finally, this model is again reduced in order to make it suitable for the inclusion in large-scale neural circuits.

Keywords: action potential, myelinated segments, nonlinear models, Ranvier nodes, reduced order models, saltatory conduction

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