Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: Greg Leslie

49 Complexity in a Leslie-Gower Delayed Prey-Predator Model

Authors: Anuraj Singh

Abstract:

The complex dynamics is explored in a prey predator system with multiple delays. The predator dynamics is governed by Leslie-Gower scheme. The existence of periodic solutions via Hopf bifurcation with respect to delay parameters is established. To substantiate analytical findings, numerical simulations are performed. The system shows rich dynamic behavior including chaos and limit cycles.

Keywords: chaos, Hopf bifurcation, stability, time delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
48 Efficiency of Membrane Distillation to Produce Fresh Water

Authors: Sabri Mrayed, David Maccioni, Greg Leslie

Abstract:

Seawater desalination has been accepted as one of the most effective solutions to the growing problem of a diminishing clean drinking water supply. Currently, two desalination technologies dominate the market – the thermally driven multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and the membrane based reverse osmosis (RO). However, in recent years membrane distillation (MD) has emerged as a potential alternative to the established means of desalination. This research project intended to determine the viability of MD as an alternative process to MSF and RO for seawater desalination. Specifically the project involves conducting a thermodynamic analysis of the process based on the second law of thermodynamics to determine the efficiency of the MD. Data was obtained from experiments carried out on a laboratory rig. In order to determine exergy values required for the exergy analysis, two separate models were built in Engineering Equation Solver – the ’Minimum Separation Work Model’ and the ‘Stream Exergy Model’. The efficiency of MD process was found to be 17.3 %, and the energy consumption was determined to be 4.5 kWh to produce one cubic meter of fresh water. The results indicate MD has potential as a technique for seawater desalination compared to RO and MSF. However, it was shown that this was only the case if an alternate energy source such as green or waste energy was available to provide the thermal energy input to the process. If the process was required to power itself, it was shown to be highly inefficient and in no way thermodynamically viable as a commercial desalination process.

Keywords: desalination, exergy, membrane distillation, second law efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
47 Asset Liability Modelling for Pension Funds by Introducing Leslie Model for Population Dynamics

Authors: Kristina Sutiene, Lina Dapkute

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The paper investigates the current demographic trends that exert the sustainability of pension systems in most EU regions. Several drivers usually compose the demographic challenge, coming from the structure and trends of population in the country. As the case of research, three main variables of demographic risk in Lithuania have been singled out and have been used in making up the analysis. Over the last two decades, the country has presented a peculiar demographic situation characterized by pessimistic fertility trends, negative net migration rate and rising life expectancy that make the significant changes in labor-age population. This study, therefore, sets out to assess the relative impact of these risk factors both individually and in aggregate, while assuming economic trends to evolve historically. The evidence is presented using data of pension funds that operate in Lithuania and are financed by defined-contribution plans. To achieve this goal, the discrete-time pension fund’s value model is developed that reflects main operational modalities: contribution income from current participants and new entrants, pension disbursement and administrative expenses; it also fluctuates based on returns from investment activity. Age-structured Leslie population dynamics model has been integrated into the main model to describe the dynamics of fertility, migration and mortality rates upon age. Validation has concluded that Leslie model adequately fits the current population trends in Lithuania. The elasticity of pension system is examined using Loimaranta efficiency as a measure for comparison of plausible long-term developments of demographic risks. With respect to the research question, it was found that demographic risks have different levels of influence on future value of aggregated pension funds: The fertility rates have the highest importance, while mortality rates give only a minor impact. Further studies regarding the role of trying out different economic scenarios in the integrated model would be worthwhile.

Keywords: asset liability modelling, Leslie model, pension funds, population dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
46 Spatial Comparative Analysis on Travels of Mackay in Taiwan

Authors: Shao-Chi Chien, Ying-Ju Chen, Chiao-Yu Tseng, Wan-Ting Lee, Yi-Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Dr. George Leslie Mackay arrived at Takoukang (now Port of Kaohsiung) in Taiwan on December 30, 1871. When Dr. Mackay dedicated at Taiwan for 30 years, he has been an important factor in such areas as preaching, medical and engaged in education. Many researchers have thoroughly studied Dr. Mackay's travels to understand his impact on the state of education, medicine and religion in Taiwan. In the 30-year period of hard work, Dr. Mackay's made outstanding influence on the church in Taiwan. Therefore, the present study will be the mission of the establishment of hospitals, schools, churches which preaching, education, and medicine whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. According to The Diaries of George Leslie Mackay, our research uses the Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the location of Dr. Mackay's travel in Taiwan and compares it with today's local churches, hospitals, and schools whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. Therefore, our research focuses on the whole of Taiwan, divided into missionary, medical and education as the main content of the three major parts. Additionally, use of point layer, the surface layer of the property table to establish, in-depth mission of Dr. Mackay's development in Taiwan and Today's comparison. The results will be based on the classification of three different colors pictures that the distance of Mackay's contribution of preaching, medicine, and education. Our research will be compared with the current churches, hospitals, schools and the past churches, hospitals, schools. The results of the present study will provide a reference for future research.

Keywords: George Leslie Mackay, geographic information system, spatial distribution, color categories analysis

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45 High Frequency Sonochemistry: A New Field of Cavitation‐Free Acoustic Materials Synthesis and Manipulation

Authors: Amgad Rezk, Heba Ahmed, Leslie Yeo

Abstract:

Ultrasound presents a powerful means for material synthesis. In this talk, we showcase a new field demonstrating the possibility for harnessing sound energy sources at considerably higher frequencies (10 MHz to 1 GHz) compared to conventional ultrasound (kHz and up to ~2 MHz) for crystalising and manipulating a variety of nanoscale materials. At these frequencies, cavitation—which underpins most sonochemical processes—is largely absent, suggesting that altogether fundamentally different mechanisms are at dominant. Examples include the crystallization of highly oriented structures, quasi-2D metal-organic frameworks and nanocomposites. These fascinating examples reveal how the highly nonlinear electromechanical coupling associated with high-frequency surface vibration gives rise to molecular ordering and assembly on the nano and microscale.

Keywords: high-frequency acoustics, microfluidics, crystallisation, composite nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
44 1D Convolutional Networks to Compute Mel-Spectrogram, Chromagram, and Cochleogram for Audio Networks

Authors: Elias Nemer, Greg Vines

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Time-frequency transformation and spectral representations of audio signals are commonly used in various machine learning applications. Training networks on frequency features such as the Mel-Spectrogram or Cochleogram have been proven more effective and convenient than training on-time samples. In practical realizations, these features are created on a different processor and/or pre-computed and stored on disk, requiring additional efforts and making it difficult to experiment with different features. In this paper, we provide a PyTorch framework for creating various spectral features as well as time-frequency transformation and time-domain filter-banks using the built-in trainable conv1d() layer. This allows computing these features on the fly as part of a larger network and enabling easier experimentation with various combinations and parameters. Our work extends the work in the literature developed for that end: First, by adding more of these features and also by allowing the possibility of either starting from initialized kernels or training them from random values. The code is written as a template of classes and scripts that users may integrate into their own PyTorch classes or simply use as is and add more layers for various applications.

Keywords: neural networks Mel-Spectrogram, chromagram, cochleogram, discrete Fourrier transform, PyTorch conv1d()

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43 Tracing Back the Bot Master

Authors: Sneha Leslie

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The current situation in the cyber world is that crimes performed by Botnets are increasing and the masterminds (botmaster) are not detectable easily. The botmaster in the botnet compromises the legitimate host machines in the network and make them bots or zombies to initiate the cyber-attacks. This paper will focus on the live detection of the botmaster in the network by using the strong framework 'metasploit', when distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack is performed by the botnet. The affected victim machine will be continuously monitoring its incoming packets. Once the victim machine gets to know about the excessive count of packets from any IP, that particular IP is noted and details of the noted systems are gathered. Using the vulnerabilities present in the zombie machines (already compromised by botmaster), the victim machine will compromise them. By gaining access to the compromised systems, applications are run remotely. By analyzing the incoming packets of the zombies, the victim comes to know the address of the botmaster. This is an effective and a simple system where no specific features of communication protocol are considered.

Keywords: bonet, DDoS attack, network security, detection system, metasploit framework

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42 Validating Texture Analysis as a Tool for Determining Bioplastic (Bio)Degradation

Authors: Sally J. Price, Greg F. Walker, Weiyi Liu, Craig R. Bunt

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Plastics, due to their long lifespan, are becoming more of an environmental concern once their useful life has been completed. There are a vast array of different types of plastic and they can be found in almost every ecosystem on earth and are of particular concern in terrestrial environments where they can become incorporated into the food chain. Hence bioplastics have become more of interest to manufacturers and the public recently as they have the ability to (bio)degrade in commercial and in-home composting situations. However, tools in which to quantify how they degrade in response to environmental variables are still being developed – one such approach, texture analysis, using a TA.XT Texture Analyser, Stable Microsystems, was used to determine the force required to break or punch holes in standard ASTM D638 Type IV 3D printed bioplastic “dogbones” depending on their thickness of them. Manufacturers’ recommendations for calibrating the Texture Analyser are one such approach for standardizing results; however, an independent technique using dummy dogbones and a substitute for the bioplastic was used alongside the samples. This approach was unexpectedly more valuable than realized at the start of the trial as irregular results were later discovered with the substitute material before valuable samples collected from the field were lost due to possible machine malfunction. This work will show the value of having an independent approach to machine calibration for accurate sample analysis with a Texture Analyser when analyzing bioplastic samples.

Keywords: bioplastic, degradation, environment, texture analyzer

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
41 Deep Learning Approach to Trademark Design Code Identification

Authors: Girish J. Showkatramani, Arthi M. Krishna, Sashi Nareddi, Naresh Nula, Aaron Pepe, Glen Brown, Greg Gabel, Chris Doninger

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Trademark examination and approval is a complex process that involves analysis and review of the design components of the marks such as the visual representation as well as the textual data associated with marks such as marks' description. Currently, the process of identifying marks with similar visual representation is done manually in United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and takes a considerable amount of time. Moreover, the accuracy of these searches depends heavily on the experts determining the trademark design codes used to catalog the visual design codes in the mark. In this study, we explore several methods to automate trademark design code classification. Based on recent successes of convolutional neural networks in image classification, we have used several different convolutional neural networks such as Google’s Inception v3, Inception-ResNet-v2, and Xception net. The study also looks into other techniques to augment the results from CNNs such as using Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) to pre-process the images. This paper reports the results of the various models trained on year of annotated trademark images.

Keywords: trademark design code, convolutional neural networks, trademark image classification, trademark image search, Inception-ResNet-v2

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40 A Survey of Recognizing of Daily Living Activities in Multi-User Smart Home Environments

Authors: Kulsoom S. Bughio, Naeem K. Janjua, Gordana Dermody, Leslie F. Sikos, Shamsul Islam

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The advancement in information and communication technologies (ICT) and wireless sensor networks have played a pivotal role in the design and development of real-time healthcare solutions, mainly targeting the elderly living in health-assistive smart homes. Such smart homes are equipped with sensor technologies to detect and record activities of daily living (ADL). This survey reviews and evaluates existing approaches and techniques based on real-time sensor-based modeling and reasoning in single-user and multi-user environments. It classifies the approaches into three main categories: learning-based, knowledge-based, and hybrid, and evaluates how they handle temporal relations, granularity, and uncertainty. The survey also highlights open challenges across various disciplines (including computer and information sciences and health sciences) to encourage interdisciplinary research for the detection and recognition of ADLs and discusses future directions.

Keywords: daily living activities, smart homes, single-user environment, multi-user environment

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39 Synthesis of Iron-Modified Montmorillonite as Filler for Electrospun Nanocomposite Fibers

Authors: Khryslyn Araño, Dela Cruz, Michael Leo, Dela Pena, Eden May, Leslie Joy Diaz

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Montmorillonite (MMT) is a very abundant clay mineral and is versatile such that it can be chemically or physically altered by changing the ions between the sheets of its layered structure. This clay mineral can be prepared into functional nanoparticles that can be used as fillers in other nanomaterials such as nanofibers to achieve special properties. In this study, two types of iron-modified MMT, Iron-MMT (FeMMT) and Zero Valent Iron-MMT (ZVIMMT) were synthesized via ion exchange technique. The modified clay was incorporated in polymer nanofibers which were produced using a process called electrospinning. ICP analysis confirmed that clay modification was successful where there is an observed decrease in the concentration of Na and an increase in the concentration of Fe after ion exchange. XRD analysis also confirmed that modification took place because of the changes in the d-spacing of Na-MMT from 11.5 Å to 13.6 Å and 12.6 Å after synthesis of FeMMT and ZVIMMT, respectively. SEM images of the electrospun nanofibers revealed that the ZVIMMT-filled fibers have a smaller average diameter than the FeMMT-filled fibers because of the lower resistance of the suspensions of the former to the elongation force from the applied electric field. The resistance to the electric field was measured by getting the bulk voltage of the suspensions.

Keywords: electrospinning, nanofibers, montmorillonite, materials science

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38 A Comparison of the Adsorption Mechanism of Arsenic on Iron-Modified Nanoclays

Authors: Michael Leo L. Dela Cruz, Khryslyn G. Arano, Eden May B. Dela Pena, Leslie Joy Diaz

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Arsenic adsorbents were continuously being researched to ease the detrimental impact of arsenic to human health. A comparative study on the adsorption mechanism of arsenic on iron modified nanoclays was undertaken. Iron intercalated montmorillonite (Fe-MMT) and montmorillonite supported zero-valent iron (ZVI-MMT) were the adsorbents investigated in this study. Fe-MMT was produced through ion-exchange by replacing the sodium intercalated ions in montmorillonite with iron (III) ions. The iron (III) in Fe-MMT was later reduced to zero valent iron producing ZVI-MMT. Adsorption study was performed by batch technique. Obtained data were fitted to intra-particle diffusion, pseudo-first order, and pseudo-second-order models and the Elovich equation to determine the kinetics of adsorption. The adsorption of arsenic on Fe-MMT followed the intra-particle diffusion model with intra-particle rate constant of 0.27 mg/g-min0.5. Arsenic was found to be chemically bound on ZVI-MMT as suggested by the pseudo-second order and Elovich equation. The derived pseudo-second order rate constant was 0.0027 g/mg-min with initial adsorption rate computed from the Elovich equation was 113 mg/g-min.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, arsenic, montmorillonite, zero valent iron

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37 Simulation for Squat Exercise of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Ziraguen O. Williams, Shield B. Lin, Fouad N. Matari, Leslie J. Quiocho

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In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, feedback delay, and signal noise were added to a simulation model of an active-controlled vibration isolation system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Previous simulation work was conducted primarily via MATLAB/Simulink. Two additional simulation tools used in this study were Trick and MBDyn, NASA co-developed software simulation environments. Simulation results obtained from these three tools were very similar. All simulation results support the hypothesis that an active-controlled vibration isolation system outperforms a passive-controlled system even with the addition of feedback delay and signal noise to the active-controlled system. In this paper, squat exercise was used in creating excited force to the simulation model. The exciter force from a squat exercise was calculated from the motion capture of an exerciser. The simulation results demonstrate much greater transmitted force reduction in the active-controlled system than the passive-controlled system.

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

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36 [Keynote Talk]: The Emotional Life of Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

Authors: Leslie Beale

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Being a patient with a chronic disease is both a physical and emotional experience. The ability to recognize a patient’s emotional health is an important part of a health care provider’s skills. For the purposes of this paper, emotional health is viewed as the way that we feel, and the way that our feelings affect us. Understanding the patient’s emotional health leads to improved provider-patient relationships and health outcomes. For example, when a patient first hears his or her diagnosis from a provider, they might find it difficult to cope with their emotions. Struggling to cope with emotions interferes with the patient’s ability to read, understand, and act on health information and services. As a result, the patient becomes more frustrated and confused, creating barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers are challenging for both the patient and their healthcare providers. There are five basic emotions that are part of who we are and are always with us: fear, anger, sadness, joy, and compassion. Living with a chronic disease however can cause a patient to experience and express these emotions in new and unique ways. Within the provider-patient relationship, there needs to be an understanding that each patient experiences these five emotions and, experiences them at different times. In response to this need, the paper highlights a health promotion framework for patients with chronic disease. This framework emphasizes the emotional health of patients.

Keywords: health promotion, emotional health, patients with chronic disease, patient-centered care

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
35 [Keynote Talk]: The Challenges and Solutions for Developing Mobile Apps in a Small University

Authors: Greg Turner, Bin Lu, Cheer-Sun Yang

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As computing technology advances, smartphone applications can assist in student learning in a pervasive way. For example, the idea of using a mobile apps for the PA Common Trees, Pests, Pathogens, in the field as a reference tool allows middle school students to learn about trees and associated pests/pathogens without bringing a textbook. In the past, some researches study the mobile software Mobile Application Software Development Life Cycle (MADLC) including traditional models such as the waterfall model, or more recent Agile Methods. Others study the issues related to the software development process. Very little research is on the development of three heterogenous mobile systems simultaneously in a small university where the availability of developers is an issue. In this paper, we propose to use a hybride model of Waterfall Model and the Agile Model, known as the Relay Race Methodology (RRM) in practice, to reflect the concept of racing and relaying for scheduling. Based on the development project, we observe that the modeling of the transition between any two phases is manifested naturally. Thus, we claim that the RRM model can provide a de fecto rather than a de jure basis for the core concept in the MADLC. In this paper, the background of the project is introduced first. Then, the challenges are pointed out followed by our solutions. Finally, the experiences learned and the future work are presented.

Keywords: agile methods, mobile apps, software process model, waterfall model

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34 Nature of a Supercritical Mesophase

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Leslie V. Woodcock

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It has been reported that at temperatures above the critical there is no “continuity of liquid and gas”, as originally hypothesized by van der Waals. Rather, both gas and liquid phases, with characteristic properties as such, extend to supercritical temperatures. Each phase is bounded by the locus of a percolation transition, i.e. a higher-order thermodynamic phase change associated with percolation of gas clusters in a large void, or liquid interstitial vacancies in a large cluster. Between these two-phase bounds, it is reported there exists a mesophase that resembles an otherwise homogeneous dispersion of gas micro-bubbles in liquid (foam) and a dispersion of liquid micro-droplets in gas (mist). Such a colloidal-like state of a pure one-component fluid represents a hitherto unchartered equilibrium state of matter besides pure solid, liquid or gas. Here we provide compelling evidence, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, for the existence of this supercritical mesophase and its colloidal nature. We report preliminary results of computer simulations for a model fluid using a simplistic representation of atoms or molecules, i.e. a hard-core repulsion with an attraction so short that the atoms are referred to as “adhesive spheres”. Molecular clusters, and hence percolation transitions, are unambiguously defined. Graphics of color-coded clusters show colloidal characteristics of the supercritical mesophase.

Keywords: critical phenomena, mesophase, supercritical, square-well, critical parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
33 Practices of Entomophagy and Entomotherapy in Baranggay Alambijud, Argao and Baranggay Lusaran, Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Jake Joshua C. Garces, Zandra O. Jarito, Leslie Ann T. Barriga, Froilen C. Domicelo, Nimfa R. Pansit

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The study was conducted in order to discover the medicinal and edible potentialities of different insect species in Baranggay Alambijud, Argao and Baranggay Lusaran, Cebu City, Cebu. In order to identify these entomological practices, a survey was carried out by the researchers in these key sites. Fourteen key informants were obtained and these were identified with the aide of two sampling methods- snowball technique and purposive sampling. Open-ended questionnaires were employed in order to obtain authentic and significant information from the key informants. Results portrayed that in the practice of entomotherapy, two insects were used as medicine namely: migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manillensis) and honey bee (Apis dorsata); and two insect by-products were utilized namely: feces of cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) and honey. White grub (Cotinis nitida) and bee eggs were also documented to manifest edible capability and were thus utilized in the entomophagic practices. After applying thematic analysis, it was determined that the causative factors of their entomological practices include their limited educational attainment, their inability to access urban societies and the influence brought about by their family and community.

Keywords: entomophagy, entomotherapy, entomology, key informants

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
32 Multivariate Output-Associative RVM for Multi-Dimensional Affect Predictions

Authors: Achut Manandhar, Kenneth D. Morton, Peter A. Torrione, Leslie M. Collins

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The current trends in affect recognition research are to consider continuous observations from spontaneous natural interactions in people using multiple feature modalities, and to represent affect in terms of continuous dimensions, incorporate spatio-temporal correlation among affect dimensions, and provide fast affect predictions. These research efforts have been propelled by a growing effort to develop affect recognition system that can be implemented to enable seamless real-time human-computer interaction in a wide variety of applications. Motivated by these desired attributes of an affect recognition system, in this work a multi-dimensional affect prediction approach is proposed by integrating multivariate Relevance Vector Machine (MVRVM) with a recently developed Output-associative Relevance Vector Machine (OARVM) approach. The resulting approach can provide fast continuous affect predictions by jointly modeling the multiple affect dimensions and their correlations. Experiments on the RECOLA database show that the proposed approach performs competitively with the OARVM while providing faster predictions during testing.

Keywords: dimensional affect prediction, output-associative RVM, multivariate regression, fast testing

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31 Communication and Management of Incidental Pathology in a Cohort of 1,214 Consecutive Appendicectomies

Authors: Matheesha Herath, Ned Kinnear, Bridget Heijkoop, Eliza Bramwell, Alannah Frazetto, Amy Noll, Prajay Patel, Derek Hennessey, Greg Otto, Christopher Dobbins, Tarik Sammour, James Moore

Abstract:

Background: Important incidental pathology requiring further action is commonly found during appendicectomy, macro- and microscopically. It is unknown whether the acute surgical unit (ASU) model affects the management and disclosure of these findings. Methods: An ASU model was introduced at our institution on 01/08/2012. In this retrospective cohort study, all patients undergoing appendicectomy 2.5 years before (traditional group) or after (ASU group) this date were compared. The primary outcomes were rates of appropriate management of the incidental findings and communication of the findings to the patient and to their general practitioner (GP). Results: 1,214 patients underwent emergency appendicectomy; 465 in the traditional group and 749 in the ASU group. 80 (6.6%) patients (25 and 55 in each respective period) had important incidental findings. There were 24 patients with benign polyps, 15 with neuro-endocrine tumour, 11 with endometriosis, 8 with pelvic inflammatory disease, 8 Enterobius vermicularis infection, 7 with low grade mucinous cystadenoma, 3 with inflammatory bowel disease, 2 with diverticulitis, 2 with tubo-ovarian mass, 1 with secondary appendiceal malignancy and none with primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. One patient had dual pathologies. There was no difference between the traditional and ASU group with regards to communication of the findings to the patient (p=0.44) and their GP (p=0.27), and there was no difference in the rates of appropriate management (p=0.21). Conclusions: The introduction of an ASU model did not change rates of surgeon-to-patient and surgeon-to-GP communication nor affect rates of appropriate management of important incidental pathology during an appendectomy.

Keywords: acute care surgery, appendicitis, appendicectomy, incidental

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30 A Modelling Study to Compare the Storm Surge along Oman Coast Due to Ashobaa and Nanauk Cyclones

Authors: R. V. Suresh Reddi, Vishnu S. Das, Mathew Leslie

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The weather systems within the Arabian Sea is very dynamic in terms of monsoon and cyclone events. The storms generated in the Arabian Sea are more likely to progress in the north-west or west direction towards Oman. From the database of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the number of cyclones that hit the Oman coast or pass within close vicinity is noteworthy and therefore they must be considered when looking at coastal/port engineering design and development projects. This paper provides a case study of two cyclones, i.e., Nanauk (2014) and Ashobaa (2015) to assess the impact on storm surge off the Oman coast. These two cyclones have been selected since they are comparable in terms of maximum wind, cyclone duration, central pressure and month of occurrence. They are of similar strength but differ in track, allowing the impact of proximity to the coast to be considered. Of the two selected cyclones, Ashobaa is the 'extreme' case with close proximity while Nanauk remains further offshore and is considered as a more typical case. The available 'best-track' data from JTWC is obtained for the 2 selected cyclones, and the cyclone winds are generated using a 'Cyclone Wind Generation Tool' from MIKE (modelling software) from DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). Using MIKE 21 Hydrodynamic model powered by DHI the storm surge is estimated at selected offshore locations along the Oman coast.

Keywords: costal engineering, cyclone, storm surge, modelling

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29 Need for a National Newborn Screening Programme in India: Pilot Study Data

Authors: Sudheer Moorkoth, Leslie Edward Lewis, Pragna Rao

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Newborn screening (NBS) is a part of routine newborn care in many countries worldwide to detect early any rare treatable conditions and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). India has not started this program yet. In an attempt to understand the challenges in implementing a national newborn screening program in India, we initiated a pilot newborn screening project funded by the Government of Canada. Along with initiating the newborn screening at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal in South India, for screening six disorders (Congenital Hypothyroidism(CH), Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), Galactosemia, Biotinidase deficiency, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) and Phenylketonurea), we also studied the awareness of various stakeholders on the newborn screening. In a period of nine months from August 2017 to March 2018 we could screen 1915 newborns (999 male and 916 female). The result showed that there were seven babies screened positive. This interim result points to an incidence rate of 1 in 270 children for these rare disorders collectively. This includes three confirmed cases of CH, two cases of G-6PD deficiency, and one case each for Galctosemia and CAH. A questionnaire based study to understand the awareness among various stakeholders revealed that there is little awareness among parents, adolescents and anganwadi workers (public health worker). The interim data points to the need for a national newborn screening programme in India. There is also an immediate need to undertake large-scale awareness programme to create knowledge on NBS among the various stakeholders.

Keywords: awareness, inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), newborn screening, rare disease

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28 Overview on Sustainable Coastal Protection Structures

Authors: Suresh Reddi, Mathew Leslie, Vishnu S. Das

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Sustainable design is a prominent concept across all sectors of engineering and its importance is widely recognized within the Arabian Gulf region. Despite that sustainable or soft engineering options are not widely deployed in coastal engineering projects and a preference for utilizing ‘hard engineering’ solutions remain. The concept of soft engineering lies in “working together” with the nature to manage the coastline. This approach allows hard engineering options, such as breakwaters or sea walls, to be minimized or even eliminated altogether. Hard structures provide a firm barrier to wave energy or flooding, but in doing so they often have a significant impact on the natural processes of the coastline. This may affect the area locally or impact on neighboring zones. In addition, they often have a negative environmental impact and may create a sense of disconnect between the marine environment and local users. Soft engineering options, seek to protect the coastline by working in harmony with the natural process of sediment transport/budget. They often consider new habitat creation and creating usable spaces that will increase the sense of connection with nature. Often soft engineering options, where appropriately deployed can provide a low-maintenance, aesthetically valued, natural line of coastal protection. This paper deals with an overview of the following: The widely accepted soft engineering practices across the world; How this approach has been considered by Ramboll in some recent projects in Middle East and Asia; Challenges and barriers to use in using soft engineering options in the region; Way forward towards more widespread adoption.

Keywords: coastline, hard engineering, low maintenance, soft engineering options

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27 Amino Acid Responses of Wheat Cultivars under Glasshouse Drought Accurately Predict Yield-Based Drought Tolerance in the Field

Authors: Arun K. Yadav, Adam J. Carroll, Gonzalo M. Estavillo, Greg J. Rebetzke, Barry J. Pogson

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Water limits crop productivity, so selecting for minimal yield-gap in drier environments is critical to mitigate against climate change and land-use pressures. To date, no markers measured in glasshouses have been reported to predict field-based drought tolerance. In the field, the best measure of drought tolerance is yield-gap; but this requires multisite trials that are an order of magnitude more resource intensive and can be impacted by weather variation. We investigated the responses of relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content and metabolites in flag leaves of commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to three drought treatments in the glasshouse and field environments. We observed strong genetic associations between glasshouse-based RWC, metabolites and Yield gap-based Drought Tolerance (YDT): the ratio of yield in water-limited versus well-watered conditions across 24 field environments spanning sites and seasons. Critically, RWC response to glasshouse drought was strongly associated with both YDT (r2 = 0.85, p < 8E-6) and RWC under field drought (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses revealed that 98% of genetic YDT variance was explained by drought responses of four metabolites: serine, asparagine, methionine and lysine (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.01). Fitted coefficients suggested that, for given levels of serine and asparagine, stronger methionine and lysine accumulation was associated with higher YDT. Collectively, our results demonstrate that high-throughput, targeted metabolic phenotyping of glasshouse-grown plants may be an effective tool for the selection of wheat cultivars with high YDT in the field.

Keywords: drought stress, grain yield, metabolomics, stomatal conductance, wheat

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26 Assessment of HIV/Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection among Patients Living with HIV in Northern and Southern Region of Nigeria

Authors: Folajinmi Oluwasina, Greg Abiaziem, Moses Luke, Mobolaji Kolawole, Nancy Yibowei, Anne Taiwo

Abstract:

Background: Occurrence of HIV infection has an adverse effect on the natural causes of Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) infection, faster progression of hepatic fibrosis demonstrated in patients with co-infection. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients, and to retrospectively evaluate laboratory characteristics of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patient files for all HIV-infected cases followed-up and treated at 52 health facilities. Among HIV-infected cases, those with HBsAg positivity and HIV/Hepatitis B co-infection were determined. Socio demographic, alcohol or substance use, ART, CD4, Viral Load levels and treatment durations were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 125 HIV-infected patients evaluated retrospectively, 17 (13.6%) had HBsAg positivity. Of these 17 cases were 11(64.7%) male and 6 (35.3%) female, with a mean age of 48.7 years. No patients had a history of alcohol or substance use. The mean duration of follow up was 28 months. 9 (52.9%) patients had negative HBV DNA at presentation while 8(47%) had positive HBV DNA, with normal ALT levels in all subjects. Among the 9 cases with negative HBV DNA who had no indication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In five cases, treatment was commenced since HBV DNA was elevated in conjunction with low CD4. One patient in whom treatment was not indicated based on HBV DNA and CD4 levels in conjunction with the absence of AIDS defining clinical picture was currently being followed-up without treatment. Of the patients receiving HAART therapy, the average CD4 count at presentation was 278 cells/mm3 vs. 466 cells/mm3 at the end of 12 months. In three subjects with positive HBV DNA, a decrease in HBV DNA was noted after initiation of treatment. In four patients with negative DNA who received treatment, the HBV DNA negative status was found to remain, while one patient who did not receive treatment had elevated HBV DNA and decreased CD4 levels. Conclusion: It was shown that this group of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection, HAART was found to be associated with a decrease in HBV DNA in HBV DNA positive cases, absence of transition to positivity among those with negative HBV DNA, and with increased CD4 in all subjects.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, DNA, anti retroviral therapy, co-infection

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25 Open Innovation for Crowdsourced Product Development: The Case Study of Quirky.com

Authors: Ana Bilandzic, Marcus Foth, Greg Hearn

Abstract:

In a narrow sense, innovation is the invention and commercialisation of a new product or service in the marketplace. The literature suggests places that support knowledge exchange and social interaction, e.g. coffee shops, to nurture innovative ideas. With the widespread success of Internet, interpersonal communication and interaction changed. Online platforms complement physical places for idea exchange and innovation – the rise of hybrid, ‘net localities.’ Further, since its introduction in 2003 by Chesbrough, the concept of open innovation received increased attention as a topic in academic research as well as an innovation strategy applied by companies. Open innovation allows companies to seek and release intellectual property and new ideas from outside of their own company. As a consequence, the innovation process is no longer only managed within the company, but it is pursued in a co-creation process with customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. Quirky.com (Quirky), a company founded by Ben Kaufman in 2009, recognised the opportunity given by the Internet for knowledge exchange and open innovation. Quirky developed an online platform that makes innovation available to everyone. This paper reports on a study that analysed Quirky’s business process in an extended event-driven process chain (eEPC). The aim was to determine how the platform enabled crowdsourced innovation for physical products on the Internet. The analysis reveals that key elements of the business model are based on open innovation. Quirky is an example of how open innovation can support crowdsourced and crowdfunded product ideation, development and selling. The company opened up various stages in the innovation process to its members to contribute in the product development, e.g. product ideation, design, and market research. Throughout the process, members earn influence through participating in the product development. Based on the influence they receive, shares on the product’s turnover. The outcomes of the study’s analysis highlighted certain benefits of open innovation for product development. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research to look into opportunities of open innovation approaches to be adopted by tertiary institutions as a novel way to commercialise research intellectual property.

Keywords: business process, crowdsourced innovation, open innovation, Quirky

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24 Control of Lymphatic Remodelling by miR-132

Authors: Valeria Arcucci, Musarat Ishaq, Steven A. Stacker, Greg J. Goodall, Marc G. Achen

Abstract:

Metastasis is the lethal aspect of cancer for most patients. Remodelling of lymphatic vessels associated with a tumour is a key initial step in metastasis because it facilitates the entry of cancer cells into the lymphatic vasculature and their spread to lymph nodes and distant organs. Although it is clear that vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), such as VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are key drivers of lymphatic remodelling, the means by which many signaling pathways in endothelial cells are coordinately regulated to drive growth and remodelling of lymphatics in cancer is not understood. We seek to understand the broader molecular mechanisms that control cancer metastasis, and are focusing on microRNAs, which coordinately regulate signaling pathways involved in complex biological responses in health and disease. Here, using small RNA sequencing, we found that a specific microRNA, miR-132, is upregulated in expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to the lymphangiogenic growth factors. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-132 in LECs in vitro stimulated proliferation and tube formation of these cells. Moreover, miR-132 is expressed in lymphatic vessels of a subset of human breast tumours which were previously found to express high levels of VEGF-D by immunohistochemical analysis on tumour tissue microarrays. In order to dissect the complexity of regulation by miR-132 in lymphatic biology, we performed Argonaute HITS-CLIP, which led us to identify the miR-132-mRNA interactome in LECs. We found that this microRNA in LECs is involved in the control of many different pathways mainly involved in cell proliferation and regulation of the extracellular matrix and cell-cell junctions. We are now exploring the functional significance of miR-132 targets in the biology of LECs using biochemical techniques, functional in vitro cell assays and in vivo lymphangiogenesis assays. This project will ultimately define the molecular regulation of lymphatic remodelling by miR-132, and thereby identify potential therapeutic targets for drugs designed to restrict the growth and remodelling of tumour lymphatics resulting in metastatic spread.

Keywords: argonaute HITS-CLIP, cancer, lymphatic remodelling, miR-132, VEGF

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23 Promising Anti-Displacement Practices for High Cost Cities

Authors: Leslie M. Mullins

Abstract:

In the face of dramatically shifting demographic trends and macroeconomic pressures on affordable housing in high-cost cities, municipalities and developers have been forced to develop new models of sustainable development that integrates elements of substantial rehabilitation and new construction while controlling for relocation and mass displacement. Community development partners in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California are starting to prioritize anti-displacement strategies when rehabilitating severely neglected public housing developments. This study explored the community-driven efforts to transform four dilapidated public housing sites (N=2,600 households) into thriving mixed-income housing communities. Eight interviews were conducted with frontline workers (property managers and service providers), who directly worked with residents throughout critical stages of the relocation and leasing process. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by a systematic procedure for qualitative analysis to identify key themes on the topics of interest. Also, an extensive literature analysis was conducted to determine promising practices throughout the industry. This study highlighted that resident’s emotional attachment to their homes (regardless of the deteriorating conditions of their unit) could both a) impede the relocation process and substantially impact the budget and timeline, while b) simultaneously providing a basis for an enhanced sense of belonging and community cohesion. This phenomenon often includes the welcoming of new residents and cultures. Resident centered workshops, healing centered rituals, and extensive 'hands-on' guidance was highlighted as promising practices that resulted in residential retention rates that were two to three times the national average and positively impacted the overall project’s budget and timeline.

Keywords: anti-displacement strategies, community based practices, community cohesion, cultural preservation, healing-centered, public housing, relocation, trauma-informed

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22 Assessment of Hypersaline Outfalls via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations: A Case Study of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser

Authors: Mitchell J. Baum, Badin Gibbes, Greg Collecutt

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This study details a three-dimensional field-scale numerical investigation conducted for the Gold Coast Desalination Plant (GCDP) offshore multiport brine diffuser. Quantitative assessment of diffuser performance with regard to trajectory, dilution and mapping of seafloor concentration distributions was conducted for 100% plant operation. The quasi-steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence closure scheme. The study compliments a field investigation, which measured brine plume characteristics under similar conditions. CFD models used an iterative mesh in a domain with dimensions 400 m long, 200 m wide and an average depth of 24.2 m. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements conducted in the companion field study exhibited considerable variability over the water column. The effect of this vertical variability on simulated discharge outcomes was examined. Seafloor slope was also accommodated into the model. Ambient currents varied predominantly in the longshore direction – perpendicular to the diffuser structure. Under these conditions, the alternating port orientation of the GCDP diffuser resulted in simultaneous subjection to co-propagating and counter-propagating ambient regimes. Results from quiescent ambient simulations suggest broad agreement with empirical scaling arguments traditionally employed in design and regulatory assessments. Simulated dynamic ambient regimes showed the influence of ambient crossflow upon jet trajectory, dilution and seafloor concentration is significant. The effect of ambient flow structure and the subsequent influence on jet dynamics is discussed, along with the implications for using these different simulation approaches to inform regulatory decisions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, desalination, field-scale simulation, multiport brine diffuser, negatively buoyant jet

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21 Using Rainfall Simulators to Design and Assess the Post-Mining Erosional Stability

Authors: Ashraf M. Khalifa, Hwat Bing So, Greg Maddocks

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Changes to the mining environmental approvals process in Queensland have been rolled out under the MERFP Act (2018). This includes requirements for a Progressive Rehabilitation and Closure Plan (PRC Plan). Key considerations of the landform design report within the PRC Plan must include: (i) identification of materials available for landform rehabilitation, including their ability to achieve the required landform design outcomes, (ii) erosion assessments to determine landform heights, gradients, profiles, and material placement, (iii) slope profile design considering the interactions between soil erodibility, rainfall erosivity, landform height, gradient, and vegetation cover to identify acceptable erosion rates over a long-term average, (iv) an analysis of future stability based on the factors described above e.g., erosion and /or landform evolution modelling. ACARP funded an extensive and thorough erosion assessment program using rainfall simulators from 1998 to 2010. The ACARP program included laboratory assessment of 35 soil and spoil samples from 16 coal mines and samples from a gold mine in Queensland using 3 x 0.8 m laboratory rainfall simulator. The reliability of the laboratory rainfall simulator was verified through field measurements using larger flumes 20 x 5 meters and catchment scale measurements at three sites (3 different catchments, average area of 2.5 ha each). Soil cover systems are a primary component of a constructed mine landform. The primary functions of a soil cover system are to sustain vegetation and limit the infiltration of water and oxygen into underlying reactive mine waste. If the external surface of the landform erodes, the functions of the cover system cannot be maintained, and the cover system will most likely fail. Assessing a constructed landform’s potential ‘long-term’ erosion stability requires defensible erosion rate thresholds below which rehabilitation landform designs are considered acceptably erosion-resistant or ‘stable’. The process used to quantify erosion rates using rainfall simulators (flumes) to measure rill and inter-rill erosion on bulk samples under laboratory conditions or on in-situ material under field conditions will be explained.

Keywords: open-cut, mining, erosion, rainfall simulator

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20 Critical Parameters of a Square-Well Fluid

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Leslie V. Woodcock

Abstract:

We report extensive molecular dynamics (MD) computational investigations into the thermodynamic description of supercritical properties for a model fluid that is the simplest realistic representation of atoms or molecules. The pair potential is a hard-sphere repulsion of diameter σ with a very short attraction of length λσ. When λ = 1.005 the range is so short that the model atoms are referred to as “adhesive spheres”. Molecular dimers, trimers …etc. up to large clusters, or droplets, of many adhesive-sphere atoms are unambiguously defined. This then defines percolation transitions at the molecular level that bound the existence of gas and liquid phases at supercritical temperatures, and which define the existence of a supercritical mesophase. Both liquid and gas phases are seen to terminate at the loci of percolation transitions, and below a second characteristic temperature (Tc2) are separated by the supercritical mesophase. An analysis of the distribution of clusters in gas, meso- and liquid phases confirms the colloidal nature of this mesophase. The general phase behaviour is compared with both experimental properties of the water-steam supercritical region and also with formally exact cluster theory of Mayer and Mayer. Both are found to be consistent with the present findings that in this system the supercritical mesophase narrows in density with increasing T > Tc and terminates at a higher Tc2 at a confluence of the primary percolation loci. The expended plot of the MD data points in the mesophase of 7 critical and supercritical isotherms in highlight this narrowing in density of the linear-slope region of the mesophase as temperature is increased above the critical. This linearity in the mesophase implies the existence of a linear combination rule between gas and liquid which is an extension of the Lever rule in the subcritical region, and can be used to obtain critical parameters without resorting to experimental data in the two-phase region. Using this combination rule, the calculated critical parameters Tc = 0.2007 and Pc = 0.0278 are found be agree with the values found by of Largo and coworkers. The properties of this supercritical mesophase are shown to be consistent with an alternative description of the phenomenon of critical opalescence seen in the supercritical region of both molecular and colloidal-protein supercritical fluids.

Keywords: critical opalescence, supercritical, square-well, percolation transition, critical parameters.

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