Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 124

Search results for: Emanuela Paranhos Lima

124 Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers

Authors: Emanuela Paranhos Lima, Vitaly Félix Rodríguez Esquerre

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In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.

Keywords: directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton, superfocusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
123 The Effect of Fermentation and Germination on the Nutrient and Antinutrient Composition of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Flour

Authors: P. N. Okeke

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Fermentation and germination of legumes have been an ancient practice. In this study, the influence of fermentation and germination on the chemical properties of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) flour were evaluated. The flours were analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition, using the standard assay methods. The result showed that fermentation and germination increased the moisture, protein and ash content of the flours while fiber, fat and carbohydrate were decreased. The protein level of fermented and germinated lima bean increased from 21.06–26.60%. The minerals: iron, copper, zinc, and phosphorous increased due to germination and fermentation. The phytate and tannin levels were drastically reduced in both the fermented and germinated flours. The result of this study revealed that fermentation and germination makes the nutrient in lima beans more accessible as it reduces the anti-nutrients. It is therefore recommended that lima bean be process accordingly for richer and more bio-availability of the nutrients.

Keywords: nutrient, anti-nutrient, fermented, germinated, lima bean flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
122 Road Traffic Noise Mapping for Riyadh City Using GIS and Lima

Authors: Khalid A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

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The primary objective of this study is to develop the first round of road traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and software LimA 7810 predictor. The road traffic data were measured or estimated as accurate as possible in order to obtain reliable noise maps. Meanwhile, the attributes of the roads and buildings are automatically exported from GIS. The simulation results at some chosen locations are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The results show that the average error between the predicted and measured noise levels is below 3.0 dB.

Keywords: noise pollution, road traffic noise, LimA predictor, GIS

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121 Effect of Chemical Mutagen on Seeds Germination of Lima Bean

Authors: G. Ultanbekova, Zh. Suleimenova, Zh. Rakhmetova, G. Mombekova, S. Mantieva

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Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of free-living bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere, enhance plant growth of many cereals and other important agricultural crops and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth. In the present study, strain improvement of PGPR isolates were carried out by chemical mutagenesis for the improvement of growth and yield of lima bean. Induced mutagenesis is widely used for the selection of microorganisms producing biologically active substances and further improving their activities. Strain improvement is usually done by classical mutagenesis which involves exposing the microbes to chemical or physical mutagens. The strains of Pseudomonas putida 4/1, Azotobacter chroococcum Р-29 and Bacillus subtilis were subjected to mutation process for strain improvement by treatment with a chemical agent (sodium nitrite) to cause mutation and were observed for its consequent action on the seeds germination and plant growth of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Bacterial mutant strains of Pseudomonas putida M-1, Azotobacter chroococcum M-1 and Bacillus subtilis M-1, treated with sodium nitrite in the concentration of 5 mg/ml for 120 min, were found effective to enhance the germination of lima bean seeds compared to parent strains. Moreover, treatment of the lima bean seeds with a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis M-1 had a significant stimulation effect on plant growth. The length of the stems and roots of lima bean treated with Bacillus subtilis M-1 increased significantly in comparison with parent strain in 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively.

Keywords: chemical mutagenesis, germination, kidney bean, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
120 Evaluating Hourly Sulphur Dioxide and Ground Ozone Simulated with the Air Quality Model in Lima, Peru

Authors: Odón R. Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Elizabeth Ayma-Choque, Alan Llacza

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Sulphur dioxide (SO₂) and surface-ozone (O₃) concentrations are associated with diseases. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the air-quality-WRF-Chem model with a horizontal resolution of 5 km x 5 km. For this purpose, the measurements of the hourly SO₂ and O₃ concentrations available in three air quality monitoring stations in Lima, Peru were used for the purpose of validating the simulations of the SO₂ and O₃ concentrations obtained with the WRF-Chem model in February 2018. For the quantitative evaluation of the simulations of these gases, statistical techniques were implemented, such as the average of the simulations; the average of the measurements; the Mean Bias (MeB); the Mean Error (MeE); and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results of these statistical metrics indicated that the simulated SO₂ and O₃ values over-predicted the SO₂ and O₃ measurements. For the SO₂ concentration, the MeB values varied from 0.58 to 26.35 µg/m³; the MeE values varied from 8.75 to 26.5 µg/m³; the RMSE values varied from 13.3 to 31.79 µg/m³; while for O₃ concentrations the statistical values of the MeB varied from 37.52 to 56.29 µg/m³; the MeE values varied from 37.54 to 56.70 µg/m³; the RMSE values varied from 43.05 to 69.56 µg/m³.

Keywords: ground-ozone, lima, sulphur dioxide, WRF-chem

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119 Mapping of Traffic Noise in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

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The present work aims at development of traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using the software Lima. Road traffic data were estimated or measured as accurate as possible in order to obtain consistent noise maps. The predicted noise levels at some selected sites are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The maps show that noise levels remain over 50 dBA and can exceed 70 dBA at the nearside of major roads and highways.

Keywords: noise pollution, road traffic noise, LimA predictor, GPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
118 Aerosol Chemical Composition in Urban Sites: A Comparative Study of Lima and Medellin

Authors: Guilherme M. Pereira, Kimmo Teinïla, Danilo Custódio, Risto Hillamo, Célia Alves, Pérola de C. Vasconcellos

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South American large cities often present serious air pollution problems and their atmosphere composition is influenced by a variety of emissions sources. The South American Emissions Megacities, and Climate project (SAEMC) has focused on the study of emissions and its influence on climate in the South American largest cities and it also included Lima (Peru) and Medellin (Colombia), sites where few studies of the genre were done. Lima is a coastal city with more than 8 million inhabitants and the second largest city in South America. Medellin is a 2.5 million inhabitants city and second largest city in Colombia; it is situated in a valley. The samples were collected in quartz fiber filters in high volume samplers (Hi-Vol), in 24 hours of sampling. The samples were collected in intensive campaigns in both sites, in July, 2010. Several species were determined in the aerosol samples of Lima and Medellin. Organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in thermal-optical analysis; biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan - Lev, mannosan - Man and galactosan - Gal) in high-performance anion exchange ion chromatography with mass spectrometer detection; water soluble ions in ion chromatography. The average particulate matter was similar for both campaigns, the PM10 concentrations were above the recommended by World Health Organization (50 µg m⁻³ – daily limit) in 40% of the samples in Medellin, while in Lima it was above that value in 15% of the samples. The average total ions concentration was higher in Lima (17450 ng m⁻³ in Lima and 3816 ng m⁻³ in Medellin) and the average concentrations of sodium and chloride were higher in this site, these species also had better correlations (Pearson’s coefficient = 0,63); suggesting a higher influence of marine aerosol in the site due its location in the coast. Sulphate concentrations were also much higher at Lima site; which may be explained by a higher influence of marine originated sulphate. However, the OC, EC and monosaccharides average concentrations were higher at Medellin site; this may be due to the lower dispersion of pollutants due to the site’s location and a larger influence of biomass burning sources. The levoglucosan average concentration was 95 ng m⁻³ for Medellin and 16 ng m⁻³ and OC was well correlated with levoglucosan (Pearson’s coefficient = 0,86) in Medellin; suggesting a higher influence of biomass burning over the organic aerosol in this site. The Lev/Man ratio is often related to the type of biomass burned and was close to 18, similar to the observed in previous studies done at biomass burning impacted sites in the Amazon region; backward trajectories also suggested the transport of aerosol from that region. Biomass burning appears to have a larger influence on the air quality in Medellin, in addition the vehicular emissions; while Lima showed a larger influence of marine aerosol during the study period.

Keywords: aerosol transport, atmospheric particulate matter, biomass burning, SAEMC project

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117 Long Term Follow-Up, Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life after Total Arterial Revascularisation versus Conventional Coronary Surgery: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jitendra Jain, Cassandra Hidajat, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

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Graft patency underpins long-term prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The benefits of the combined use of only the left internal mammary artery and radial artery, referred to as total arterial revascularisation (TAR), on long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were differences in long term clinical outcomes between recipients of TAR compared to a cohort of mostly arterial revascularization involving the left internal mammary, at least one radial artery and at least one saphenous vein graft. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent TAR or were re-vascularized with supplementary saphenous vein graft from February 1996 to December 2004. Telephone surveys were conducted to obtain clinical outcome parameters including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and Short Form (SF-36v2) Health Survey responses. A total of 176 patients were successfully contacted to obtain postop follow up results. The mean follow-up length from time of surgery in our study was TAR 12.4±1.8 years and conventional 12.6±2.1. PCS score was TAR 45.9±8.8 vs LIMA/Rad/ SVG 44.9±9.2 (p=0.468) and MCS score was TAR 52.0±8.9 vs LIMA/Rad/SVG 52.5±9.3 (p=0.723). There were no significant differences between groups for NYHA class 3+ TAR 9.4% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 6.6%; or CCS 3+ TAR 2.35% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 0%.

Keywords: CABG; MACCEs; quality of life; total arterial revascularisation

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116 Public Space Appropriation of a Public Peripheric Library in El Agustino, Lima Metropolitana: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Camila Freire Barrios, Gonzalo Rivera Talavera

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The importance of public spaces has been shown for many years, and in different disciplines, with one example being their ability for developing a sustainable social environment, especially in mega cities like Lima. The aim of this study was to explore the process of space appropriation that occurs in the Peripheral Library of the district El Agustino in Lima, Peru. Space appropriation is a process by which people develop a link with a place within a specific sociocultural context. This process has been related to positive outcomes, such as: participation and in the development of compassionate behaviors with these places. To achieve the purpose of the research, a qualitative design was selected because this will allowed exploring in deep the process in an specific context. The study interviewed six adults, all of whom were deliberately chosen to have the longest residence time in the district and also utilized the library the most. In a complementary manner, two children and one adolescent were interviewed. Likewise, two observations were made on a weekday and weekend, and public documentation information was collected. As a result, five categories linked to this process were identified. It was found that the process of space appropriation begins with the needs of the people who arrive at the library, which provides benefits to these people by fulfilling them. Next in the process, through the construction of meanings, the library is then valued as a pleasant, productive, safe and regulated place; as a result, people become identified with the library. The identification generated is subsequently reflected in the level of participation that the person has in the library, which may go in a continuum from no participating at all to a more direct involvement in the library activities, as well as voluntary and altruistic work. Finally, this process leads to the library becoming part of the neighborhood. This study allows having a better understanding of how sociospatial processes work in a Latinamerican context and in cities like Lima, where the third of the country’s population lives. Also, Lima has grown in the past 50 years in a excessively way and with lack of planification. Therefore, these results brings new research questions and highlights the importance of learning how to design public spaces in order to promote these processes to develop.

Keywords: bond with the place, place identity, public spaces, space appropriation

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115 From De Soto’s Solution to Urban Disaster: The Effects of Land Titling Policies on the Development of Cities of the Global South in the Case of Lima Peru

Authors: Jitka Molnarova

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Based on De Soto’s idea that a formal land title can provide a secure home and access to credit to poor urban families, a large number of developing countries accepted the formalization of informal settlements as the ultimate solution for their housing crises and struggles with poverty. After two decades of implementation, very little is known about the effects this policy has on the quality of the neighborhoods it produces and on the development of cities in general. Using the capital of Peru -where the solution originated- as a case study, this paper illustrates the negative outcomes this policy has on urban development arguing that land titling encourages 1) expansion of the city often to areas of high physical risk, 2) production of precarious housing on unserviced land, and 3) practices of illegal land trafficking. The evidence is based on interviews with community leaders and officials working at the Cooperation for Formalization of Informal Property (COFOPRI), comparison of satellite images documenting the expansion of Lima in the past twenty years, and a technical evaluation of dozens of houses that have been or are in the process of being granted a land title.

Keywords: COFOPRI, De Soto, housing policies, land titling, land trafficking, Lima, Peru, precarious housing, urban expansion

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114 Health Literacy and Knowledge Related to Tuberculosis among Outpatients at a Referral Hospital in Lima, Peru

Authors: Rosalina Penaloza, Joanna Navarro, Pauline Jolly, Anna Junkins, Carlos Seas, Larissa Otero

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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in Peru relies on passive case finding. This strategy relies on the assumption that the community is aware that a persistent cough is a possible symptom of TB and that formal health care needs to be sought. Despite its importance, health knowledge specific to TB is underexplored in Peru. This study aimed to assess health literacy and level of TB knowledge among outpatients attending a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. The goal was to ascertain knowledge gaps in key areas relating to TB, to identify and prioritize subgroups for intervention, and to provide insight for policy and community interventions considering health literacy. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey to measure sociodemographic factors, tuberculosis knowledge, and health literacy. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the associations between variables and to account for potential confounders. The study was conducted at Hospital Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru from June – August 2017. Results: 272 participants were included in the analysis. 57.7% knew someone who had had TB before, 9% had had TB in the past. Two weeks a cough was correctly identified as a symptom that could be TB by 69.1%. High TB knowledge was found among 149 (54.8%) participants. High health literacy was found among 193 (71.0%) participants. Health literacy and TB knowledge were not significantly associated (OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.5-1.5)). After controlling for sex, age, district, education, health insurance, frequency of hospital visits and previous TB diagnosis: High TB knowledge was associated with knowing someone with TB (aOR 2.7 (95%CI 1.6-4.7)) and being a public transport driver, (aOR 0.2 (95%CI 0.05-0.9)). Not being poor was the single factor associated with high health literacy (aOR 3.8 (95%CI 1.6-8.9)). Conclusions: TB knowledge was fair, though 30% did not know the most important symptom of TB. Tailoring educational strategies to risk groups may enhance passive case detection especially amongst transport workers in Lima, Peru.

Keywords: health literacy, Peru, tuberculosis, tuberculosis knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
113 Use of Residues from Water Treatment and Porcelain Coatings Industry for Producing Eco-Bricks

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Fabiolla Lima, Julio Lima, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque, Heitor Reis

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One of the great environmental problems in the management of water treatment (WTP) is on the disposal of waste generated during the treatment process. The same occurs with the waste generated during rectification of porcelain tiles. Despite environmental laws in Brazil the residues does not have an ecologically balanced destination. Thus, with the purpose to identify an environmentally sustainable disposal, residues were used to replace part of the soil, for production soil-cement bricks. It was used the residues from WTP and coatings industry Cecrisa (Brazil). Consequently, a greater amount of fine aggregate in the two samples of residues was found. The residue affects the quality of bricks produced, compared to the sample without residues. However, the results of compression and water absorption tests were obtained values that meet the standards, respectively 2.0 MPa and 20% absorption.

Keywords: water treatment residue, porcelain tile residue, WTP, brick

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
112 Preliminary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Operation and Maintenance Aspects

Authors: Priscila M. Lima, Corine A. P. de Almeida, Muriele R. de Lima, Fernando J. C. Magalhães Filho

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This work characterized the preliminary treatment in WWTPs in the state of Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil) and analyzed aspects of operation and maintenance of solid waste retained, and was evaluated the interference of this step in treatment efficiency beyond the relationship between solid waste generation with rainfall and seasonality in the region of each WTPs. The results shown that the standard setting in the preliminary treatment consists of grid along with Sand Trap, followed by Parshall that is used in 94.12% of WWTPs analyzed, and in 5.88% of WWTPs it was added the air-lift to the Sand Trap. Was concluded that the influence of rainfall, flow and seasonality associated with the rate of waste generation in the preliminary treatment, had little relation to the operation and maintenance of the primary treatment. But in some cases, precipitation data showed increased rainfall converging with increased flow and solid waste generation.

Keywords: pretreatment, sewage, solid waste, wastewater

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111 Total Arterial Coronary Revascularization with Aorto-Bifemoral Bipopliteal Bypass: A Case Report

Authors: Nuruddin Mohammod Zahangir, Syed Tanvir Ahmady, Firoz Ahmed, Mainul Kabir, Tamjid Mohammad Najmus Sakib Khan, Nazmul Hossain, Niaz Ahmed, Madhava Janardhan Naik

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The management of combined Coronary Artery Disease and Peripheral Vascular Disease is a challenge and brings with it numerous clinical dilemmas.The 56 year old gentleman presented to our department with significant triple vessel disease with occluded lower end of aorta just before bifurcation and bilateral superficial femoral arteries. Operation was done on 11.03.14. The The Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA) and the Right Internal Mammary Artery (RIMA) were harvested in skeletonized manner. The free RIMA was then anastomosed with LIMA to make LIMA-RIMA Y. Cardio Pulmonary Bypass was then established and coronary artery bypass grafts performed. LIMA was anastomosed to the Left Anterior Descending artery. RIMA was anastomosed to Posterior Descending Artery, 1st and 2nd Obtuse Marginal arteries in a sequential manner. Abdomen was opened by midline incision. The infrarenal aorta exposed and was found to be severely diseased. A Vascular Clamp was applied infrarenally, aortotomy done and limited endarterectomy performed. An end-to-side anastomosis was done with upper end of PTFE synthetic Y-graft (14/7 mm) to the infarenal Aorta and the Clamp released. Good flow noted in both limbs of the graft. Patient was then slowly weaned off from Cardio Pulmonary Bypass without difficulty. The distal two limbs of the Y graft were passed to the groin through retroperitoneal tunnels and anastomosed end-to-side with the common femoral arteries. Saphenous vein was interposed between common femoral and popliteal arteries bilaterally through subfascial tunnels in both thigh. On 12th postoperative day he was discharged from hospital in good general condition. Follow up after 3 months of operation the patient is doing good and free of chest pain and claudication pain.

Keywords: total arterial, coronary revascularization, aorto-bifemoral bypass, bifemoro-bipopliteal bypass

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110 Institutional Capacity and Corruption: Evidence from Brazil

Authors: Dalson Figueiredo, Enivaldo Rocha, Ranulfo Paranhos, José Alexandre

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This paper analyzes the effects of institutional capacity on corruption. Methodologically, the research design combines both descriptive and multivariate statistics to examine two original datasets based on secondary data. In particular, we employ a principal component model to estimate an indicator of institutional capacity for both state audit institutions and subnational judiciary courts. Then, we estimate the effect of institutional capacity on two dependent variables: (1) incidence of administrative irregularities and (2) time elapsed to judge corruption cases. The preliminary results using ordinary least squares, negative binomial and Tobit models suggest the same conclusions: higher the institutional audit capacity, higher is the probability of detecting a corruption case. On the other hand, higher the institutional capacity of state judiciary, the lower is the time to judge corruption cases.

Keywords: institutional capacity, corruption, state level institutions, evidence from Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
109 Non–Geometric Sensitivities Using the Adjoint Method

Authors: Marcelo Hayashi, João Lima, Bruno Chieregatti, Ernani Volpe

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The adjoint method has been used as a successful tool to obtain sensitivity gradients in aerodynamic design and optimisation for many years. This work presents an alternative approach to the continuous adjoint formulation that enables one to compute gradients of a given measure of merit with respect to control parameters other than those pertaining to geometry. The procedure is then applied to the steady 2–D compressible Euler and incompressible Navier–Stokes flow equations. Finally, the results are compared with sensitivities obtained by finite differences and theoretical values for validation.

Keywords: adjoint method, aerodynamics, sensitivity theory, non-geometric sensitivities

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108 Extraction of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Soy Pods

Authors: Maycon dos Santos, Marivane Turim Koschevic, Karina Sayuri Ueda, Marcello Lima Bertuci, Farayde Matta Fackhouri, Silvia Maria Martelli

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The use of cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing agents in polymer nanocomposites is promising. In this study, we tested four different methods of mercerization were divided into two stages. The sample was treated in 5% NaOH solution for 30 minutes at 50 ° C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2 for 2 hours at 50 ° C in the second step, which showed better results. For the extraction of the sample obtained nanocrystals positive result was that the solution was treated with H2SO4 60% (w / w) for 1 hour at 50 ° C. The results were positive and showed that it is possible to extract CNC at low temperatures.

Keywords: soy pods, cellulose nanocrystals, temperature, acid concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
107 Proposal for a Model of Economic Integration for the Development of Industry in Cabinda, Angola

Authors: T. H. Bitebe, T. M. Lima, F. Charrua-Santos, C. J. Matias Oliveira

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This study aims to present a proposal for an economic integration model for the development of the manufacturing industry in Cabinda, Angola. It seeks to analyze the degree of economic integration of Cabinda and the dynamics of the manufacturing industry. Therefore, in the same way, to gather information to support the decision-making for public financing programs that will aim at the disengagement of the manufacturing industry in Angola and Cabinda in particular. The Cabinda Province is the 18th of Angola, the enclave is located in a privileged area of the African and arable land.

Keywords: economic integration, industrial development, Cabinda industry, Angola

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
106 Computational Tool for Surface Electromyography Analysis; an Easy Way for Non-Engineers

Authors: Fabiano Araujo Soares, Sauro Emerick Salomoni, Joao Paulo Lima da Silva, Igor Luiz Moura, Adson Ferreira da Rocha

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This paper presents a tool developed in the Matlab platform. It was developed to simplify the analysis of surface electromyography signals (S-EMG) in a way accessible to users that are not familiarized with signal processing procedures. The tool receives data by commands in window fields and generates results as graphics and excel tables. The underlying math of each S-EMG estimator is presented. Setup window and result graphics are presented. The tool was presented to four non-engineer users and all of them managed to appropriately use it after a 5 minutes instruction period.

Keywords: S-EMG estimators, electromyography, surface electromyography, ARV, RMS, MDF, MNF, CV

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105 Analysis of Brake System for Vehicle Off-Road

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

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In elapsing of the years it elaborates automobile it is developing automobiles more and more modern that, every year, the vehicles recently of the assembly lines, practically they push for the past produced models there is very little time. Those innovations didn't also pass unperceived in 0respect the safety of the vehicles. It is in this development apprenticeship the brakes systems equipped more and more with resources sophisticated. In that way, before of that context, this research tried to project a brake system for a vehicle off-road and to analyze your acting as the brakes efficiency: distances traveled and time, concluding with possible improvements in the system.

Keywords: brakes system, off-road, vehicle acting, automotive and mechanical engineering

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104 Determination of Cr Content in Canned Fish Marketed in Iran

Authors: Soheil Sobhanardakani, Seyed Vali Hosseini, Lima Tayebi

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The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Samples of four popular brands of canned fish in the Iranian market (yellowfin tuna, common Kilka, Kawakawa, and longtail tuna) were analyzed for level of Cr after wet digestion with acids using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations for Cr in the different brands were: 2.57, 3.24, 3.16, and 1.65 μg/g for brands A, B, C, and D respectively. Significant differences were observed in the Cr levels between all of the different brands of canned fish evaluated in this study. The Cr concentrations for the varieties of canned fishes were generally within the FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, and U.S. EPA recommended limits for fish.

Keywords: heavy metals, essential metals, canned fish, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
103 Proposal Evaluation of Critical Success Factors (CSF) in Lean Manufacturing Projects

Authors: Guilherme Gorgulho, Carlos Roberto Camello Lima

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Critical success factors (CSF) are used to design the practice of project management that can lead directly or indirectly to the success of the project. This management includes many elements that have to be synchronized in order to ensure the project on-time delivery, quality and the lowest possible cost. The objective of this work is to develop a proposal for evaluation of the FCS in lean manufacturing projects, and apply the evaluation in a pilot project. The results show that the use of continuous improvement programs in organizations brings benefits as the process cost reduction and improve productivity.

Keywords: continuous improvement, critical success factors (csf), lean thinking, project management

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102 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros

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Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Babassu activated carbon showed higher efficiency due to its acidity and higher microporosity. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation. Lower solution pH provided better removal efficiency as the carbonil groups may be attracted by the positively charged carbon surface.

Keywords: adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende

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101 The Residual Efficacy of Etofenprox WP on Different Surfaces for Malaria Control in the Brazilian Legal Amazon

Authors: Ana Paula S. A. Correa, Allan K. R. Galardo, Luana A. Lima, Talita F. Sobral, Josiane N. Muller, Jessica F. S. Barroso, Nercy V. R. Furtado, Ednaldo C. Rêgo., Jose B. P. Lima

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Malaria is a public health problem in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Among the integrated approaches for anopheline control, the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) remains one of the main tools in the basic strategy applied in the Amazonian States, where the National Malaria Control Program currently uses one of the insecticides from the pyrethroid class, the Etofenprox WP. Understanding the residual efficacy of insecticides on different surfaces is essential to determine the spray cycles, in order to maintain a rational use and to avoid product waste. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual efficacy of Etofenprox - VECTRON ® 20 WP on surfaces of Unplastered Cement (UC) and Unpainted Wood (UW) on panels, in field, and in semi-field evaluation of Brazil’s Amapa State. The evaluation criteria used was the cone bioassay test, following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended method, using plastic cones and female mosquitos of Anopheles sp. The tests were carried out in laboratory panels, semi-field evaluation in a “test house” built in the Macapa municipality, and in the field in 20 houses, being ten houses per surface type (UC and UW), in an endemic malaria area in Mazagão’s municipality. The residual efficacy was measured from March to September 2017, starting one day after the spraying, repeated monthly for a period of six months. The UW surface presented higher residual efficacy than the UC. In fact, the UW presented a residual efficacy of the insecticide throughout the period of this study with a mortality rate above 80% in the panels (= 95%), in the "test house" (= 86%) and in field houses ( = 87%). On the UC surface it was observed a mortality decreased in all the tests performed, with a mortality rate of 45, 47 and 29% on panels, semi-field and in field, respectively; however, the residual efficacy ≥ 80% only occurred in the first evaluation after the 24-hour spraying bioassay in the "test house". Thus, only the UW surface meets the specifications of the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) regarding the duration of effective action (three to six months). To sum up, the insecticide residual efficacy presented variability on the different surfaces where it was sprayed. Although the IRS with Etofenprox WP was efficient on UW surfaces, and it can be used in spraying cycles at 4-month intervals, it is important to consider the diversity of houses in the Brazilian Legal Amazon, in order to implement alternatives for vector control, including the evaluation of new products or different formulations types for insecticides.

Keywords: Anopheles, vector control, insecticide, bioassay

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
100 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: piezoelectric, micro-generator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam

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99 Passive Solar Distiller with Low Cost of Implementation, Operation and Maintenance

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Rudson de Sousa Lima

Abstract:

Around the planet Earth, access to clean water is a problem whose importance has increased due to population growth and its misuse. Thus, projects that seek to transform water sources improper (salty and brackish) in drinking water sources are current issues. However, this transformation generally requires a high cost of implementation, operation and maintenance. In this context, the aim of this work is the development of a passive solar distiller for brackish water, made from recycled and durable materials such as aluminum, cement, glass and PVC basins. The results reveal factors that influence the performance and viability of the expansion project.

Keywords: solar distiller, passive distiller, distiller with pyramidal roof, ecologically correct

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98 Analysis Thermal of Composite Material in Cold Systems

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation of discarded industrial residues, The scrape of tires have been seen as a salutary alternative for addictive in concrete, asphalt production and of other composites materials. In this work, grew a composite the base of scrape of tire as reinforcement and latex as matrix, to be used as insulating thermal in "cold" systems (0º). Analyzed the acting of the material was what plays the thermal conservation when submitted the flow of heat. Verified the temperature profiles in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. As a consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: cold system, latex, flow of heat, asphalt production

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97 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

Abstract:

From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP

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96 Pretreatment of Cattail (Typha domingensis) Fibers to Obtain Cellulose Nanocrystals

Authors: Marivane Turim Koschevic, Maycon dos Santos, Marcello Lima Bertuci, Farayde Matta Fakhouri, Silvia Maria Martelli

Abstract:

Natural fibers are rich raw materials in cellulose and abundant in the world, its use for the cellulose nanocrystals extraction is promising as an example cited is the cattail, macrophyte native weed in South America. This study deals with the pre-treatment cattail of crushed fibers, at six different methods of mercerization, followed by the use of bleaching. As a result, have found The positive effects of treating fibers by means of optical microscopy and spectroscopy, Fourier transform (FTIR). The sample selected for future testing of cellulose nanocrystals extraction was treated in 2.5% NaOH for 2 h, 60 °C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2, NaOH 5% in the proportion 30/70% (v/v) for 1 hour 60 °C, followed by treatment at 50/50% (v/v) 15 minutes, 50°C, with the same constituents of the solution.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, chemical treatment, mercerization, natural fibers

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95 Protein Tertiary Structure Prediction by a Multiobjective Optimization and Neural Network Approach

Authors: Alexandre Barbosa de Almeida, Telma Woerle de Lima Soares

Abstract:

Protein structure prediction is a challenging task in the bioinformatics field. The biological function of all proteins majorly relies on the shape of their three-dimensional conformational structure, but less than 1% of all known proteins in the world have their structure solved. This work proposes a deep learning model to address this problem, attempting to predict some aspects of the protein conformations. Throughout a process of multiobjective dominance, a recurrent neural network was trained to abstract the particular bias of each individual multiobjective algorithm, generating a heuristic that could be useful to predict some of the relevant aspects of the three-dimensional conformation process formation, known as protein folding.

Keywords: Ab initio heuristic modeling, multiobjective optimization, protein structure prediction, recurrent neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 122