Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 484

Search results for: metallic nanowire

484 Nanowire by Ac Electrodeposition Into Nanoporous Alumina Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Metalic

Authors: M. Beyzaiea, S. Mohammadia

Abstract:

High aspect ratio metallic (silver, cobalt) nanowire arrays were fabricated using ac electrodeposition techniques into the nanoporous alumina template. The template with long pore dept fabricated by hard anodization (HA) and thinned for ac electrodeposition. Template preparation was done in short time by using HA technique and high speed thing process. The TEM and XRD investigation confirm the three dimensional nucleation growth mechanism of metallic nanowire inside the nanoporous alumina that fabricated by HA process.

Keywords: metallic, nanowire, nanoporous alumina, ac electrodeposition

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483 Top-Down Approach for Fabricating Hematite Nanowire Arrays

Authors: Seungmin Shin, Jin-Baek Kim

Abstract:

Hematite (α-Fe2O3) has very good semiconducting properties with a band gap of 2.1 eV and is antiferromagnetic. Due to its electrochemical stability, low toxicity, wide abundance, and low-cost, hematite, it is a particularly attractive material for photoelectrochemical cells. Additionally, hematite has also found applications in gas sensing, field emission, heterogeneous catalysis, and lithium-ion battery electrodes. Here, we discovered a new universal top-down method for the synthesis of one-dimensional hematite nanowire arrays. Various shapes and lengths of hematite nanowire have been easily fabricated over large areas by sequential processes. The obtained hematite nanowire arrays are promising candidates as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical solar cells.

Keywords: hematite, lithography, nanowire, top-down process

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
482 Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers

Authors: Emanuela Paranhos Lima, Vitaly Félix Rodríguez Esquerre

Abstract:

In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.

Keywords: directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton, superfocusing

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481 Synthesis of NiNW/ Cellulose Nano Hybrid via Liquid-Phase Reduction

Authors: Siti Rahmah Shamsuri, Eiichiro Matsubara, Shohei Shiomi

Abstract:

The 1D nanomaterial is far surpassed the 0D nanomaterial. It does not just offer most of the benefit of the 0D nanomaterial such as the large surface area, a great number of active site and an efficient interfacial charge transfer but also can assemble into free-standing and flexible electrode due to their high aspect ratio. Thus, it is essential to develop a simple and ease synthesis of this 1D nanomaterial for the practical application. Here, nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid has been successfully fabricated via a simple liquid-phase method with the assist of the magnetic field. A finer nickel nanowire was heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of the cellulose fiber, which demonstrated the effect of the hydroxyl group on the cellulose structure. The result of the nickel nanowire size was found to vary from 66-114 nm. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of the nickel nanowire/ cellulose hybrid formation is also shown in this paper.

Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, liquid-phase reduction, metal nanowire, nano hybrid material

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
480 Charge Transport of Individual Thermoelectric Bi₂Te₃ Core-Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Polystyrenesulfonate Shell Nanowires Determined Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Thongkham, K. Sinthiptharakoon, K. Tantisantisom, A. Klamchuen, P. Khanchaitit, K. Jiramitmongkon, C. Lertsatitthanakorn, M. Liangruksa

Abstract:

Due to demands of sustainable energy, thermoelectricity converting waste heat into electrical energy has become one of the intensive fields of worldwide research. However, such harvesting technology has shown low device performance in the temperature range below 150℃. In this work, a hybrid nanowire of inorganic bismuth telluride (Bi₂Te₃) and organic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) synthesized using a simple in-situ one-pot synthesis, enhancing efficiency of the nanowire-incorporated PEDOT:PSS-based thermoelectric converter is highlighted. Since the improvement is ascribed to the increased electrical conductivity of the thermoelectric host material, the individual hybrid nanowires are investigated using voltage-dependent conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and spectroscopy (CAFS) considering that the electrical transport measurement can be performed either on insulating or conducting areas of the sample. Correlated with detailed chemical information on the crystalline structure and compositional profile of the nanowire core-shell structure, an electrical transporting pathway through the nanowire and the corresponding electronic-band structure have been determined, in which the native oxide layer on the Bi₂Te₃ surface is not considered, and charge conduction on the topological surface states of Bi₂Te₃ is suggested. Analyzing the core-shell nanowire synthesized using the conventional mixing of as-prepared Bi₂Te₃ nanowire with PEDOT:PSS for comparison, the oxide-removal effect of the in-situ encapsulating polymeric layer is further supported. The finding not only provides a structural information for mechanistic determination of the thermoelectricity, but it also encourages new approach toward more appropriate encapsulation and consequently higher efficiency of the nanowire-based thermoelectric generation.

Keywords: electrical transport measurement, hybrid Bi₂Te₃-PEDOT:PSS nanowire, nanoencapsulation, thermoelectricity, topological insulator

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479 Fabrication of Silver Nanowire Based Low Temperature Conductive Ink

Authors: Merve Nur Güven Biçer

Abstract:

Conductive inks are used extensively in electronic devices like sensors, batteries, photovoltaic devices, antennae, and organic light-emitting diodes. These inks are typically made from silver. Wearable technology is another industry that requires inks to be flexible. The aim of this study is the fabrication of low-temperature silver paste by synthesis long silver nanowires.

Keywords: silver ink, conductive ink, low temperature conductive ink, silver nanowire

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478 Study of Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in CeFeO3

Authors: A. Abbad, W. Benstaali

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Using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory and generalize gradient approximation, we predict electronic and magnetic properties of CeFeO3 orthorhombic perovskite. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the metallic behavior CeFeO3 when we use the GGA scheme, whereas when we use the GGA+U, we see that its exhibits half-metallic character with an integer magnetic moment of 24μB per formula unit at its equilibrium volume which makes this compound promising candidate for applications in spintronics.

Keywords: CeFeO3, magnetic moment, half-metallic, electronic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
477 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim

Abstract:

In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

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476 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Copper Metallic Foam during Convective Boiling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: A.Kouidri, B.Madani

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The present work deals with the study of the heat transfer in a rectangular channel equipped with a metallic foam. The tested metallic foam sample is made from copper with 20 PPI (Pore per Inch Linear) and 93% of porosity and the working fluid used is the n-pentane. In the present work the independent variables are the velocity in the range from 0.02 to 0.06 m/s and a boiling heat flux rate varying between 30 and 70 kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient is presented versus boiling heat flux, vapor quality and superheat ΔTsat. The thermal results are compared to those found for a plain tube for the same conditions. The comparison with the plain tube shows that the insert of a metallic foam enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a factor between 1.3 and 3.

Keywords: boiling, metallic foam, heat transfer, plate heat exchanger

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475 Efficient Delivery of Biomaterials into Living Organism by Using Noble Metal Nanowire Injector

Authors: Kkochorong Park, Keun Cheon Kim, Hyoban Lee, Eun Ju Lee, Bongsoo Kim

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Introduction of biomaterials such as DNA, RNA, proteins is important for many research areas. There are many methods to introduce biomaterials into living organisms like tissue and cells. To introduce biomaterials, several indirect methods including virus‐mediated delivery, chemical reagent (i.e., lipofectamine), electrophoresis have been used. Such methods are passive delivery using an endocytosis process of cell, reducing an efficiency of delivery. Unlike the indirect delivery method, it has been reported that a direct delivery of exogenous biomolecules into nucleus have been more efficient to expression or integration of biomolecules. Nano-sized material is beneficial for detect signal from cell or deliver stimuli/materials into the cell at cellular and molecular levels, due to its similar physical scale. Especially, because 1 dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as nanotube, nanorod and nanowire with high‐aspect ratio have nanoscale geometry and excellent mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, they could play an important role in molecular and cellular biology. In this study, by using single crystalline 1D noble metal nanowire, we fabricated nano-sized 1D injector which can successfully interface with living cells and directly deliver biomolecules into several types of cell line (i.e., stem cell, mammalian embryo) without inducing detrimental damages on living cell. This nano-bio technology could be a promising and robust tool for introducing exogenous biomaterials into living organism.

Keywords: DNA, gene delivery, nanoinjector, nanowire

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474 Half Metallic Antiferromagnetic of Doped TiO2 Rutile with Doubles Impurities (Os, Mo) from Ab Initio Calculations

Authors: M. Fakhim Lamrani, M. Ouchri, M. Belaiche, El Kenz, M. Loulidi, A. Benyoussef

Abstract:

Electronic and magnetic calculations based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation for II-VI compound semiconductor TiO2 doped with single impurity Os and Mo; these compounds are a half metallic ferromagnet in their ground state with a total magnetic moment of 2 μB for both systems. Then, TiO2 doped with double impurities Os and Mo have been performed. As result, Ti1-2xOsxMoxO2 with x=0.065 is half-metallic antiferromagnets with 100% spin polarization of the conduction electrons crossing the Fermi level, without showing a net magnetization. Moreover, Ti14OsMoO32 compound is stable energetically than Ti1-xMoxO2 and Ti1-xOsxO2. The antiferromagnetic interaction in Ti1-2xOsxMoxO2 system is attributed to the double exchange mechanism, and the latter could also be the origin of their half metallic.

Keywords: diluted magnetic semiconductor, half-metallic antiferromagnetic, augmented spherical wave method

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473 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri

Abstract:

In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

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472 Fabrication of High-Aspect Ratio Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Arrays for Brain-Machine Interfaces

Authors: Su Yin Chiam, Zhipeng Ding, Guang Yang, Danny Jian Hang Tng, Peiyi Song, Geok Ing Ng, Ken-Tye Yong, Qing Xin Zhang

Abstract:

Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is a ground rich of exploration opportunities where manipulation of neural activity are used for interconnect with myriad form of external devices. These research and intensive development were evolved into various areas from medical field, gaming and entertainment industry till safety and security field. The technology were extended for neurological disorders therapy such as obsessive compulsive disorder and Parkinson’s disease by introducing current pulses to specific region of the brain. Nonetheless, the work to develop a real-time observing, recording and altering of neural signal brain-machine interfaces system will require a significant amount of effort to overcome the obstacles in improving this system without delay in response. To date, feature size of interface devices and the density of the electrode population remain as a limitation in achieving seamless performance on BMI. Currently, the size of the BMI devices is ranging from 10 to 100 microns in terms of electrodes’ diameters. Henceforth, to accommodate the single cell level precise monitoring, smaller and denser Nano-scaled nanowire electrode arrays are vital in fabrication. In this paper, we would like to showcase the fabrication of high aspect ratio of vertical silicon nanowire electrodes arrays using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) method. Nanofabrication of the nanowire electrodes involves in deep reactive ion etching, thermal oxide thinning, electron-beam lithography patterning, sputtering of metal targets and bottom anti-reflection coating (BARC) etch. Metallization on the nanowire electrode tip is a prominent process to optimize the nanowire electrical conductivity and this step remains a challenge during fabrication. Metal electrodes were lithographically defined and yet these metal contacts outline a size scale that is larger than nanometer-scale building blocks hence further limiting potential advantages. Therefore, we present an integrated contact solution that overcomes this size constraint through self-aligned Nickel silicidation process on the tip of vertical silicon nanowire electrodes. A 4 x 4 array of vertical silicon nanowires electrodes with the diameter of 290nm and height of 3µm has been successfully fabricated.

Keywords: brain-machine interfaces, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), nanowire, nickel silicide

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471 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi

Abstract:

Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: metal oxide, nanostructure, hydrothermal, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
470 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi

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Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

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469 Ultra-Sensitive and Real Time Detection of ZnO NW Using QCM

Authors: Juneseok You, Kuewhan Jang, Chanho Park, Jaeyeong Choi, Hyunjun Park, Sehyun Shin, Changsoo Han, Sungsoo Na

Abstract:

Nanomaterials occur toxic effects to human being or ecological systems. Some sensors have been developed to detect toxic materials and the standard for toxic materials has been established. Zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) is known for toxic material. By ionizing in cell body, ionized Zn ions are overexposed to cell components, which cause critical damage or death. In this paper, we detected ZnO NW in water using QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) and ssDNA (single strand DNA). We achieved 30 minutes of response time for real time detection and 100 pg/mL of limit of detection (LOD).

Keywords: zinc oxide nanowire, QCM, ssDNA, toxic material, biosensor

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468 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah

Abstract:

Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

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467 Fabrication of Cylindrical Silicon Nanowire-Embedded Field Effect Transistor Using Al2O3 Transfer Layer

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Tae Il Lee, Su Jeong Lee, Jae Min Myoung

Abstract:

In order to manufacture short gap single Si nanowire (NW) field effect transistor (FET) by imprinting and transferring method, we introduce the method using Al2O3 sacrificial layer. The diameters of cylindrical Si NW addressed between Au electrodes by dielectrophoretic (DEP) alignment method are controlled to 106, 128, and 148 nm. After imprinting and transfer process, cylindrical Si NW is embedded in PVP adhesive and dielectric layer. By curing transferred cylindrical Si NW and Au electrodes on PVP-coated p++ Si substrate with 200nm-thick SiO2, 3μm gap Si NW FET fabrication was completed. As the diameter of embedded Si NW increases, the mobility of FET increases from 80.51 to 121.24 cm2/V•s and the threshold voltage moves from –7.17 to –2.44 V because the ratio of surface to volume gets reduced.

Keywords: Al2O3 sacrificial transfer layer, cylindrical silicon nanowires, dielectrophorestic alignment, field effect transistor

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466 Critical Investigation on Performance of Polymeric Materials in Rehabilitation of Metallic Components

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

Failure and leakage of metallic components because of corrosion in infrastructure structures is a considerably problematic and expensive issue and the traditional solution of replacing the component is costly and time-consuming. Rehabilitation techniques by using advanced polymeric materials are an alternative solution towards this problem. This paper provides a summary of analyses on relined rehabilitated metallic samples after exposure in practice and real condition to study the composite material performance when it is exposed to water, heat and chemicals in real condition. The study was carried out by using different test methods such as microscopy, thermal and chemical as well as mechanical analyses.

Keywords: composite, material, rehabilitation, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
465 BI- And Tri-Metallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Iodide Decomposition

Authors: Sony, Ashok N. Bhaskarwar

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Production of hydrogen from a renewable raw material without any co-synthesis of harmful greenhouse gases is the current need for sustainable energy solutions. The sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, using intermediate chemicals, is an efficient process for producing hydrogen at a much lower temperature than that required for the direct splitting of water. No net byproduct forms in the cycle. Hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition is a crucial reaction in this cycle, as the product, hydrogen, forms only in this step. It is an endothermic, reversible, and equilibrium-limited reaction. The theoretical equilibrium conversion at 550°C is just a meagre of 24%. There is a growing interest, therefore, in enhancing the HI conversion to near-equilibrium values at lower reaction temperatures and by possibly improving the rate. The reaction is relatively slow without a catalyst, and hence catalytic decomposition of HI has gained much significance. Bi-metallic Ni-Co, Ni-Mn, Co-Mn, and tri-metallic Ni-Co-Mn catalysts over zirconia support were tested for HI decomposition reaction. The catalysts were synthesized via a sol-gel process wherein Ni was 3wt% in all the samples, and Co and Mn had equal weight ratios in the Co-Mn catalyst. Powdered X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area characterizations indicated the polycrystalline nature and well-developed mesoporous structure of all the samples. The experiments were performed in a vertical laboratory-scale packed bed reactor made of quartz, and HI (55 wt%) was fed along with nitrogen at a WHSV of 12.9 hr⁻¹. Blank experiments at 500°C for HI decomposition suggested conversion of less than 5%. The activities of all the different catalysts were checked at 550°C, and the highest conversion of 23.9% was obtained with the tri-metallic 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ catalyst. The decreasing order of the performance of catalysts could be expressed as: 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Co-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Mn-ZrO₂ > 2.5Co-2.5Mn-ZrO₂. The tri-metallic catalyst remained active till 360 mins at 550°C without any observable drop in its activity/stability. Among the explored catalyst compositions, the tri-metallic catalyst certainly has a better performance for HI conversion when compared to the bi-metallic ones. Owing to their low costs and ease of preparation, these trimetallic catalysts could be used for large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: sulfur-iodine cycle, hydrogen production, hydrogen iodide decomposition, bi-, and tri-metallic catalysts

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464 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Metallic Hydroxyds

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated mud, the Lagunage as biological processes and coagulation-floculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and an treatment efficiency which decreases along with the increase of the initial pollutants’ concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of a process by adsorption as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to exploit the characteristics of two metallic hydroxides Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: Metallic Hydroxydes, industrial dyes, purification, lagunage

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463 Analysis of Scaling Effects on Analog/RF Performance of Nanowire Gate-All-Around MOSFET

Authors: Dheeraj Sharma, Santosh Kumar Vishvakarma

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We present a detailed analysis of analog and radiofrequency (RF) performance with different gate lengths for nanowire cylindrical gate (CylG) gate-all-around (GAA) MOSFET. CylG GAA MOSFET not only suppresses the short channel effects (SCEs), it is also a good candidate for analog/RF device due to its high transconductance (gm) and high cutoff frequency (fT ). The presented work would be beneficial for a new generation of RF circuits and systems in a broad range of applications and operating frequency covering the RF spectrum. For this purpose, the analog/RF figures of merit for CylG GAA MOSFET is analyzed in terms of gate to source capacitance (Cgs), gate to drain capacitance (Cgd), transconductance generation factor gm = Id (where Id represents drain current), intrinsic gain, output resistance, fT, maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) and gain bandwidth (GBW) product.

Keywords: Gate-All-Around MOSFET, GAA, output resistance, transconductance generation factor, intrinsic gain, cutoff frequency, fT

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462 Dipole and Quadrupole Scattering of Ultra Short Pulses on Metal Nanospheres

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko

Abstract:

The presentation is devoted to the theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) scattering on metallic nanospheres in a dielectric medium in the vicinity of surface plasmon resonance due to excitation of dipole and quadrupole surface plasmons.

Keywords: surface plasmon, scattering, metallic nanosphere

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461 Coordination Polymer Hydrogels Based on Coinage Metals and Nucleobase Derivatives

Authors: Lamia L. G. Al-Mahamad, Benjamin R. Horrocks, Andrew Houlton

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Hydrogels based on metal coordination polymers of nucleosides and a range of metal ions (Au, Ag, Cu) have been prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. AFM images of the xerogels revealed the formation of extremely long polymer molecules (> 10 micrometers, the maximum scan range). This result is also consistent with TEM images which show a fibrous morphology. Oxidative doping of the Au-nucleoside fibres produces an electrically conductive nanowire. No sharp Bragg peaks were found at the at the X-ray diffraction pattern for metal ions hydrogels indicating that the samples were amorphous, but instead the data showed broad peaks in the range 20 < Q < 40 and correspond to distances d=2μ/Q. The data was analysed using a simplified Rietveld method by fitting a regression model to obtain the distance between atoms.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions, nanowire, nucleoside

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460 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala

Abstract:

Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy

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459 High Frequency Nanomechanical Oscillators Based on Synthetic Nanowires

Authors: Minjin Kim, Jihwan Kim, Bongsoo Kim, Junho Suh

Abstract:

We demonstrate nanomechanical resonators constructed with synthetic nanowires (NWs) and study their electro-mechanical properties at millikelvin temperatures. Nanomechanical resonators are fabricated using single-crystalline Au NWs and InAs NWs. The mechanical resonance signals are acquired by either magnetomotive or capacitive detection methods. The Au NWs are synthesized by chemical vapor transport method at 1100 °C, and they exhibit clean surface and single-crystallinity with little defects. Due to pristine surface quality, these Au NW mechanical resonators could provide an ideal model system for studying surface-related effects on the mechanical systems. The InAs NWs are synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy or metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. The InAs NWs show electronic conductance modulation resembling Coulomb blockade, which also manifests in the mechanical resonance signals in the form of damping and resonance frequency shift. Our result provides an evidence of strong electro-mechanical coupling in synthetic NW nanomechanical resonators.

Keywords: Au nanowire, InAs nanowire, nanomechanical resonator, synthetic nanowires

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458 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo

Abstract:

The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: maize, storage, silo, physical characteristics

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457 Infrared Photodetectors Based on Nanowire Arrays: Towards Far Infrared Region

Authors: Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Lars Samuelson, Magnus Borgstrom, Hakan Pettersson

Abstract:

Nanowire semiconductors are promising candidates for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and lasers due to their quasi-1D geometry and large surface to volume ratio. The functional wavelength range of NW-based detectors is typically limited to the visible/near-infrared region. In this work, we present electrical and optical properties of IR photodetectors based on large square millimeter ensembles (>1million) of vertically processed semiconductor heterostructure nanowires (NWs) grown on InP substrates which operate in longer wavelengths. InP NWs comprising single or multiple (20) InAs/InAsP QDics axially embedded in an n-i-n geometry, have been grown on InP substrates using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The NWs are contacted in vertical direction by atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposition of 50 nm SiO2 as an insulating layer followed by sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) and evaporation of Ti and Au as top contact layer. In order to extend the sensitivity range to the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength regions, the intersubband transition within conduction band of InAsP QDisc is suggested. We present first experimental indications of intersubband photocurrent in NW geometry and discuss important design parameters for realization of intersubband detectors. Key advantages with the proposed design include large degree of freedom in choice of materials compositions, possible enhanced optical resonance effects due to periodically ordered NW arrays and the compatibility with silicon substrates. We believe that the proposed detector design offers the route towards monolithic integration of compact and sensitive III-V NW long wavelength detectors with Si technology.

Keywords: intersubband photodetector, infrared, nanowire, quantum disc

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456 Synthesis of a Serie of Metallic Complexes Derived from bis(4-Amino-5-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)butane with First Raw Transition Metals

Authors: I. Belbachir, T. Benabdallah, N. Belhadj

Abstract:

The present research work describes the synthesis, through a multi-step strategy, as well as the structural characterization of a polydentate organic ligand, namely the bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)butane (BAMT). The bis-triazolic ligand was characterized by different spectroscopic studies, in order to enlighten its coordination mode, in the neutral and deprotonated forms, towards cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) sulfates, in both solution and solid state. The stoichiometry of the complexes [neutral BAMT-metal] and [deprotonated BAMT-metal] was first established in a solution of DMF with each of the three metallic cations and their complexation constants calculated, allowing us to compare the stability of the various prepared complexes. The various complexes were finally isolated in the solid state and the coordination mode of neutral and deprotonated BAMT explored towards each of the three metallic sulfates. The establishment of some ligand field parameters (Dq, B, β…) by electronic spectroscopy finally allowed to compare the coordination modes of BAMT towards each of the three metals and to highlight the influence of the deprotonation on the complexing properties of the bis-triazolic ligand.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazol, bis-1, 2, 4-triazol, metallic complexes, coordination in solution and solid state

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455 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov

Abstract:

We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

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