Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Angola

13 Proposal for a Model of Economic Integration for the Development of Industry in Cabinda, Angola

Authors: T. H. Bitebe, T. M. Lima, F. Charrua-Santos, C. J. Matias Oliveira

Abstract:

This study aims to present a proposal for an economic integration model for the development of the manufacturing industry in Cabinda, Angola. It seeks to analyze the degree of economic integration of Cabinda and the dynamics of the manufacturing industry. Therefore, in the same way, to gather information to support the decision-making for public financing programs that will aim at the disengagement of the manufacturing industry in Angola and Cabinda in particular. The Cabinda Province is the 18th of Angola, the enclave is located in a privileged area of the African and arable land.

Keywords: economic integration, industrial development, Cabinda industry, Angola

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12 Challenges to Tuberculosis Control in Angola: The Narrative of Medical Professionals

Authors: Domingos Vita, Patrick Brady

Abstract:

Background: There is a tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in Angola that has been getting worse for more than a decade despite the active implementation of the DOTS strategy. The aim of this study was to directly interrogate healthcare workers involved in TB control on what they consider to be the drivers of the TB epidemic in Angola. Methods: Twenty four in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with medical staff working in this field in the provinces of Luanda and Benguela. Results: The healthcare professionals see the migrant working poor as a particular problem for the control of TB. These migrants are constructed as ‘Rural People’ and are seen as non-compliant and late-presenting. This is a stigmatized and marginal group contending with the additional stigma associated with TB infection. The healthcare professionals interviewed also see the interruption of treatment and self medication generally as a better explanation for the TB epidemic than urbanization or lack of medication. Conclusions: The local narrative is in contrast to previous explanations used elsewhere in the developing world. To be effective policy must recognize the local issues of the migrant workforce, interruption of treatment and the stigma associated with TB in Angola.

Keywords: Africa, Angola, migrants, qualitative, research, tuberculosis

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11 Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction among Health Professionals of a Maternity Ward in Lubango, Angola

Authors: Maria Vueba, Tchilissila A. Simoes

Abstract:

Angola has a deficient health system characterized by reduced human and material resources. Nurses are the main actors combating different types of diseases simultaneously dealing with a lack of essentials tools and means. In this study, we aimed to assess the organizational commitment and job satisfaction of 51 health professionals from a maternity ward in Lubango, Angola. Participants completed the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and the Job Satisfaction Scale and demonstrated a strong commitment towards the maternal facility, despite the majority of them were not satisfied with their work. Moreover, the gender and years of service seemed to not influence the level of commitment and satisfaction among the professionals. These results show the need for organizational restructuration (i.e., wages, career progression, supervision) to increase job satisfaction in this institution.

Keywords: Africa, health professionals, organizational commitment, work satisfaction

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10 Occupational Stress in Nurses of a Maternity Ward in Lubango, Angola

Authors: Lídia Chienda, Tchilissila A. Simoes

Abstract:

Angola is known for the low quality of maternal health services, registering one of the highest maternal and child mortality of Africa. Working in these health facilities may be of great challenge for health professionals. In this study, we aimed to identify the presence of occupational stress in 76 nurses working in a maternity ward in Lubango, Southern Angola. The participants completed the Health Professional Stress Questionnaire and reported a moderate and high level of stress. To these individuals, 'receiving a low salary,' 'inadequate/insufficient salary,' 'overwork or very demanding work' and 'working long hours in a row' seemed to be the main indicators of occupational stress. Moreover, there was an influence of the work overload, the remuneration earned, the career, and family conflicts in the occupational stress index. These results contributed to a better understanding of the difficulties Angolan nurses are facing and the need to implement policies that envisage the wellbeing of this population.

Keywords: Africa, maternity wards, nursing, occupational stress

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9 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem of Adolescents in Lubango, Angola: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Miguel Maria, Tchilissila A. Simoes

Abstract:

The end of a long period of civil wars in Angola (1975-2002) paved the way for growing scientific research in the field of psychology, allowing us to broaden our knowledge on the Angolan population throughout their individual and family development. In this study, we aimed to assess the index of self-concept and self-esteem of adolescents from private and public secondary schools in Lubango, Angola. One hundred adolescents, between 16 and 18 years old (M = 17.2 years, SD = 0.81), completed the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2 (Piers, 1984) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC; Harter, 1985). Our results pointed out lower values of self-esteem and self-concept compared to international samples. Moreover, the level of education and the type of school attended did not seem to influence the level of participants' self-concept and self-esteem. These results contributed to enrich the literature on Angolan adolescents and propels intervention programs to enhance the self-concept and self-esteem of these individuals.

Keywords: African adolescents, post-war societies, self-esteem, self-concept

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8 The Challenge of Characterising Drought Risk in Data Scarce Regions: The Case of the South of Angola

Authors: Natalia Limones, Javier Marzo, Marcus Wijnen, Aleix Serrat-Capdevila

Abstract:

In this research we developed a structured approach for the detection of areas under the highest levels of drought risk that is suitable for data-scarce environments. The methodology is based on recent scientific outcomes and methods and can be easily adapted to different contexts in successive exercises. The research reviews the history of drought in the south of Angola and characterizes the experienced hazard in the episode from 2012, focusing on the meteorological and the hydrological drought types. Only global open data information coming from modeling or remote sensing was used for the description of the hydroclimatological variables since there is almost no ground data in this part of the country. Also, the study intends to portray the socioeconomic vulnerabilities and the exposure to the phenomenon in the region to fully understand the risk. As a result, a map of the areas under the highest risk in the south of the country is produced, which is one of the main outputs of this work. It was also possible to confirm that the set of indicators used revealed different drought vulnerability profiles in the South of Angola and, as a result, several varieties of priority areas prone to distinctive impacts were recognized. The results demonstrated that most of the region experienced a severe multi-year meteorological drought that triggered an unprecedent exhaustion of the surface water resources, and that the majority of their socioeconomic impacts started soon after the identified onset of these processes.

Keywords: drought risk, exposure, hazard, vulnerability

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7 The First Import of Yellow Fever Cases in China and Its Revealing Suggestions for the Control and Prevention of Imported Emerging Diseases

Authors: Chao Li, Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Dan Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li

Abstract:

Background: In 2016, yellow fever had been first ever discovered in China, soon after the yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola. After the discovery, China had promptly made the national protocol of control and prevention and strengthened the surveillance on passenger and vector. In this study, a descriptive analysis was conducted to summarize China’s experiences of response towards this import epidemic, in the hope of providing experiences on prevention and control of yellow fever and other similar imported infectious diseases in the future. Methods: The imported cases were discovered and reported by General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and several hospitals. Each clinically diagnosed yellow fever case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). The data of the imported yellow fever cases were collected by local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through field investigations soon after they received the reports. Results: A total of 11 imported cases from Angola were reported in China, during Angola’s yellow fever outbreak. Six cases were discovered by the AQSIQ, among which two with mild symptom were initiative declarations at the time of entry. Except for one death, the remaining 10 cases all had recovered after timely and proper treatment. All cases are Chinese, and lived in Luanda, the capital of Angola. 73% were retailers (8/11) from Fuqing city in Fujian province, and the other three were labors send by companies. 10 cases had experiences of medical treatment in Luanda after onset, among which 8 cases visited the same local Chinese medicine hospital (China Railway four Bureau Hospital). Among the 11 cases, only one case had an effective vaccination. The result of emergency surveillance for mosquito density showed that only 14 containers of water were found positive around places of three cases, and the Breteau Index is 15. Conclusions: Effective response was taken to control and prevent the outbreak of yellow fever in China after discovering the imported cases. However, though the similar origin of Chinese in Angola has provided an easy access for disease detection, information sharing, health education and vaccination on yellow fever; these conveniences were overlooked during previous disease prevention methods. Besides, only one case having effective vaccination revealed the inadequate capacity of immunization service in China. These findings will provide suggestions to improve China’s capacity to deal with not only yellow fever but also other similar imported diseases in China.

Keywords: yellow fever, first import, China, suggestion

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6 Translating History in a Brazilian Graphic Novel: A Translation Project for Angola Janga by Marcelo D'Salete

Authors: Carolina Rezende, Julio Cesar Neves Monteiro

Abstract:

Traditionally, History and fiction are considered to be opposing fields of study. While one is linked to the study of facts, things that have happened within the limits of ‘reality’, the other explores a made-up world, originated from imagination and fantasy. However, despite their apparent discrepancies, there is a fundamental trait that brings them closer. Historical narratives, similarly to fiction ones, are produced based on multiple interpretations of an event, which are transmitted in a rather subjective way by language. It is within this perspective of history and fiction intertwined that this paper aims to discuss the translation of historical facts in the graphic novel Angola Janga, by Marcelo D’Salete, as well as presenting it as a historical document. The novel, which is divided into 11 short stories, narrates the rebellions that took place in Serra da Barriga, between the 16th and 17th centuries, that resulted in the Guerra dos Palmares. The graphic novel in question is a result of the author’s 11-year historical and bibliographical research, which combines history and fiction in order to shed a light of the confrontation that history seems to overlook. Also, the book includes a foreword, glossary, chronological line of Guerra dos Palmares, as well as maps and references used by the author during his research. For that, a few segments from the book will be selected and translated in order to show such connection between history and fiction, and the discussion resulted from it will be based on the works of Southgate (2009), Pym (2001) and D’hulst (2001).

Keywords: graphic novel, history, fiction, Palmares

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5 Overcrowding and Adequate Housing: The Potential of Adaptability

Authors: Inês Ramalhete, Hugo Farias, Rui da Silva Pinto

Abstract:

Adequate housing has been a widely discussed theme in academic circles related to low-cost housing, whereas its physical features are easy to deal with, overcrowding (related to social, cultural and economic aspects) is still ambiguous, particularly regarding the set of indicators that can accurately reflect and measure it. This paper develops research on low-cost housing models for developing countries and what is the best method to embed overcrowding as an important parameter for adaptability. A critical review of international overcrowding indicators and their application in two developing countries, Cape Verde and Angola, is presented. The several rationales and the constraints for an accurate assessment of overcrowding are considered, namely baseline data (statistics), which can induce misjudgments, as well as social and cultural factors (such as personal choices of residents). This paper proposes a way to tackle overcrowding through housing adaptability, considering factors such as physical flexibility, functional ambiguity, and incremental expansion schemes. Moreover, a case-study is presented to establish a framework for the theoretical application of the proposed approach.

Keywords: adaptive housing, low cost housing, overcrowding, housing model

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4 Child Mortality in Portuguese Speaking Africa Countries: Levels and Trends, 1975-2021

Authors: Alcino Panguana

Abstract:

All Portuguese-speaking African countries are in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region that has high infant mortality rates, being responsible for 49.6% of deaths in Portuguese-speaking African countries, Angola has levels of infant mortality among children, where 2017, 156 children who died before reaching 1 year of life in 1000 live births. Although there is an increase in studies that document trends and specific causes of infant mortality in each country, historical-comparative studies of infant mortality among these countries remain rare. Understanding the trend of this indicator is important for policymakers and planners in order to improve access to successful child survival operations. Lusophone Africa continues with high infant mortality rates in the order of 64 deaths per thousand births. Assuming heterogeneities that can characterize these countries, raise an analysis investigated indicator at the country level to understand the pattern and historical trend of infant mortality within Lusophone Africa from the year 2021. The result is to understand the levels and evolution of infant mortality in Portuguese-speaking African countries.

Keywords: child mortality, levels, trends, lusophone African countries

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3 Child Soldier in Africa: A Big Challenge to Human Right

Authors: Adegboyega Adeolapo Ola, Gerelene Jagganath

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges of human right in the world, especially African states is the use of child soldiers in armed conflict, constituting a major source of destruction of lives and properties. Mostly, they are in developing countries with the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, the abduction and employment of children as soldiers is a form of exploitative labour that is tantamount to slavery. Since the end of cold war, Child soldier has increased in Africa countries like Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Uganda. This study examines the main cause of the recruitment and use of child soldiers and its challenges to human right. It further assesses the role of international regional bodies and various governments in curbing child soldiers with a view to proffer suggestions on how to address some of the resultant threat of human right. The study posits that the control of small arms and light weapons is essential in curtailing the spread of child soldier and abuse of human right. This hopefully should result in the sustainability of human/child right in African continent. It is a recommendation of this study that, in order to sustain human right in the region, all Africa leaders, government and regional bodies; such as African Union, Economic Community of West African States, South African Development Community among others, should cooperate and work together to address the issue of illicit small arms, which could eventually lead to child soldier.

Keywords: arms control, child soldier, human right, small arms

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2 On Panel Data Analysis of Factors on Economic Advances in Some African Countries

Authors: Ayoola Femi J., Kayode Balogun

Abstract:

In some African Countries, increase in Gross Domestic Products (GDP) has not translated to real development as expected by common-man in his household. For decades, a lot of contests on economic growth and development has been a nagging issues. The focus of this study is to analysing the effects of economic determinants/factors on economic advances in some African Countries by employing panel data analysis. The yearly (1990-2013) data were obtained from the world economic outlook database of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for probing the effects of these variables on growth rate in some selected African countries which include: Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cape-Verde, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic Of Congo, Cote di’ Voire, Egypt, Equatorial-Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, and Uganda. The effects of 6 macroeconomic variables on GDP were critically examined. We used 37 Countries GDP as our dependent variable and 6 independent variables used in this study include: Total Investment (totinv), Inflation (inf), Population (popl), current account balance (cab), volume of imports of goods and services (vimgs), and volume of exports of goods and services (vexgs). The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of this study would be useful for individual African governments for developing a suitable and appropriate economic policies and strategies. It will also help investors to understand the economic nature and viability of Africa as a continent as well as its individual countries.

Keywords: African countries, economic growth and development, gross domestic products, static panel data models

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1 Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Malaysian Palm Oil Board-Senegal Oil Palm Germplasm Using Multivariate Tools

Authors: Khin Aye Myint, Mohd Rafii Yusop, Mohd Yusoff Abd Samad, Shairul Izan Ramlee, Mohd Din Amiruddin, Zulkifli Yaakub

Abstract:

The narrow base of genetic is the main obstacle of breeding and genetic improvement in oil palm industry. In order to broaden the genetic bases, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board has been extensively collected wild germplasm from its original area of 11 African countries which are Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Madagascar, and Tanzania. The germplasm collections were established and maintained as a field gene bank in Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia to conserve a wide range of oil palm genetic resources for genetic improvement of Malaysian oil palm industry. Therefore, assessing the performance and genetic diversity of the wild materials is very important for understanding the genetic structure of natural oil palm population and to explore genetic resources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis are very efficient multivariate tools in the evaluation of genetic variation of germplasm and have been applied in many crops. In this study, eight populations of MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm were studied to explore the genetic variation pattern using PCA and cluster analysis. A total of 20 yield and yield component traits were used to analyze PCA and Ward’s clustering using SAS 9.4 version software. The first four principal components which have eigenvalue >1 accounted for 93% of total variation with the value of 44%, 19%, 18% and 12% respectively for each principal component. PC1 showed highest positive correlation with fresh fruit bunch (0.315), bunch number (0.321), oil yield (0.317), kernel yield (0.326), total economic product (0.324), and total oil (0.324) while PC 2 has the largest positive association with oil to wet mesocarp (0.397) and oil to fruit (0.458). The oil palm population were grouped into four distinct clusters based on 20 evaluated traits, this imply that high genetic variation existed in among the germplasm. Cluster 1 contains two populations which are SEN 12 and SEN 10, while cluster 2 has only one population of SEN 3. Cluster 3 consists of three populations which are SEN 4, SEN 6, and SEN 7 while SEN 2 and SEN 5 were grouped in cluster 4. Cluster 4 showed the highest mean value of fresh fruit bunch, bunch number, oil yield, kernel yield, total economic product, and total oil and Cluster 1 was characterized by high oil to wet mesocarp, and oil to fruit. The desired traits that have the largest positive correlation on extracted PCs could be utilized for the improvement of oil palm breeding program. The populations from different clusters with the highest cluster means could be used for hybridization. The information from this study can be utilized for effective conservation and selection of the MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm for the future breeding program.

Keywords: cluster analysis, genetic variability, germplasm, oil palm, principal component analysis

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