Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Avinash Shivdas

27 Exploring the Sources of Innovation in Food Processing SMEs of Kerala

Authors: Bhumika Gupta, Jeayaram Subramanian, Hardik Vachhrajani, Avinash Shivdas


Indian food processing industry is one of the largest in the world in terms of production, consumption, exports and growth opportunities. SMEs play a crucial role within this. Large manufacturing firms largely dominate innovation studies in India. Innovation sources used by SMEs are often different from that of large firms. This paper focuses on exploring various sources of innovation adopted by food processing SMEs in Kerala, South India. Outcome suggests that SMEs use various sources like suppliers, competitors, employees, government/research institutions and customers to get new ideas.

Keywords: food processing, innovation, SMEs, sources of innovation

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26 Biocompatible Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Delivery Vehicle for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Lipids to Induce Potent Cytokines and Antibody Response through Activation of γδ T-Cells in Mice

Authors: Ishani Das, Avinash Padhi, Sitabja Mukherjee, Santosh Kar, Avinash Sonawane


Activation of cell mediated and humoral immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are critical for protection. Herein, we show that mice immunized with Mtb lipid bound chitosan nanoparticles(NPs) induce secretion of prominent Th1 and Th2 cytokines in lymph node and spleen cells, and also induced significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgM in comparison to control mice measured by ELISA. Furthermore, significantly enhanced γδ-T cell activation was observed in lymph node cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan-NPs as compared to mice immunized with chitosan-NPs alone or Mtb lipid liposomes through flow cytometric analysis. Also, it was observed that in comparison to CD8+ cells, significantly higher CD4+ cells were present in both the lymph node and spleen cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan NP. In conclusion, this study represents a promising new strategy for efficient delivery of Mtb lipids using chitosan NPs to trigger enhanced cell mediated and antibody response against Mtb lipids.

Keywords: antibody response, chitosan nanoparticles, cytokines, mycobacterium tuberculosis lipids

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25 Effect of Hydroxyl Functionalization on the Mechanical and Fracture Behaviour of Monolayer Graphene

Authors: Akarsh Verma, Avinash Parashar


The aim of this article is to study the effects of hydroxyl functional group on the mechanical strength and fracture toughness of graphene. This functional group forms the backbone of intrinsic atomic structure of graphene oxide (GO). Molecular dynamics-based simulations were performed in conjunction with reactive force field (ReaxFF) parameters to capture the mode-I fracture toughness of hydroxyl functionalised graphene. Moreover, these simulations helped in concluding that spatial distribution and concentration of hydroxyl functional group significantly affects the fracture morphology of graphene nanosheet. In contrast to literature investigations, atomistic simulations predicted a transition in the failure morphology of hydroxyl functionalised graphene from brittle to ductile as a function of its spatial distribution on graphene sheet.

Keywords: graphene, graphene oxide, ReaxFF, molecular dynamics

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24 Structure of Grain Boundaries in α-Zirconium and Niobium

Authors: Divya Singh, Avinash Parashar


Due to superior mechanical, creep and nuclear cross section, zirconium and niobium (Zr-Nb) based alloys are commonly used as nuclear materials for the manufacturing of fuel cladding and pressure tubes in nuclear power plants. In this work, symmetrical tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures in α-Zr are studied for their structure and energies along two tilt axes- [0001] and [0-110] using MD based simulations. Tilt grain boundaries are obtained along [0001] tilt axis, and special twin structures are obtained along [0-110] tilt axis in α-Zr. For Nb, STGBs are constructed along [100] and [110] axis using atomistic simulations. The correlation between GB structures and their energies is subsequently examined. A close relationship is found to exist between individual GB structure and its energy in both α-Zr and Nb. It is also concluded that the energies of the more coherent twin grain boundaries are lower than the symmetrical tilt grain boundaries.

Keywords: grain boundaries, molecular dynamics, grain boundary energy, hcp crystal

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23 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru


Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

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22 Complex Decision Rules in the Form of Decision Trees

Authors: Avinash S. Jagtap, Sharad D. Gore, Rajendra G. Gurao


Decision rules become more and more complex as the number of conditions increase. As a consequence, the complexity of the decision rule also influences the time complexity of computer implementation of such a rule. Consider, for example, a decision that depends on four conditions A, B, C and D. For simplicity, suppose each of these four conditions is binary. Even then the decision rule will consist of 16 lines, where each line will be of the form: If A and B and C and D, then action 1. If A and B and C but not D, then action 2 and so on. While executing this decision rule, each of the four conditions will be checked every time until all the four conditions in a line are satisfied. The minimum number of logical comparisons is 4 whereas the maximum number is 64. This paper proposes to present a complex decision rule in the form of a decision tree. A decision tree divides the cases into branches every time a condition is checked. In the form of a decision tree, every branching eliminates half of the cases that do not satisfy the related conditions. As a result, every branch of the decision tree involves only four logical comparisons and hence is significantly simpler than the corresponding complex decision rule. The conclusion of this paper is that every complex decision rule can be represented as a decision tree and the decision tree is mathematically equivalent but computationally much simpler than the original complex decision rule

Keywords: strategic, tactical, operational, adaptive, innovative

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21 Influence of Chemical Processing Treatment on Handle Properties of Worsted Suiting Fabric

Authors: Priyanka Lokhande, Ram P. Sawant, Ganesh Kakad, Avinash Kolhatkar


In order to evaluate the influence of chemical processing on low-stress mechanical properties and fabric hand of worsted cloth, eight worsted suiting fabric samples of balance plain and twill weave were studied. The Kawabata KES-FB system has been used for the measurement of low-stress mechanical properties of before and after chemically processed worsted suiting fabrics. Primary hand values and Total Hand Values (THV) of before and after chemically processed worsted suiting fabrics were calculated using the KES-FB test data. Upon statistical analysis, it is observed that chemical processing has considerable influence on the low-stress mechanical properties and thereby on handle properties of worsted suiting fabrics. Improvement in the Total Hand Values (THV) after chemical processing is experienced in most of fabric samples.

Keywords: low stress mechanical properties, plain and twill weave, total hand value (THV), worsted suiting fabric

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20 Statistical Optimization of Distribution Coefficient for Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid Using Tri-n-octyl Amine in Oleyl Alcohol and n-Hexane

Authors: Avinash Thakur, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manohar Singh


The distribution coefficient, KD for the reactive extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solutions of lactic acid using 10-30% (v/v) tri-n-octyl amine (extractant) dissolved in n-hexane (inert diluent) and 20% (v/v) oleyl alcohol (modifier) was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined interactive effect of seven independent variables, viz lactic acid concentration (cl), pH, TOA concentration in organic phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), temperature (T), agitation speed (ω) and batch agitation time (τ) on distribution coefficient of lactic acid. The regression analysis recommended that the quadratic model is significant (R2 and adjusted R2 are 98.72 % and 98.69 % respectively) for analysis. A numerical optimization had resulted in maximum lactic acid distribution coefficient (KD) of 3.16 at the optimized values for test variables, cl, pH, ψ, φ, T, ω and τ as 0.15 [M], 3.0, 22.75% (v/v), 1.0 (v/v), 26°C, 145 rpm and 23 min respectively. A good agreement between the predicted and experimentally obtained values for distribution coefficient using the optimized conditions was exhibited.

Keywords: Distribution coefficient, tri-n-octylamine, lactic acid, response surface methodology

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19 Infrastructural Investment and Economic Growth in Indian States: A Panel Data Analysis

Authors: Jonardan Koner, Basabi Bhattacharya, Avinash Purandare


The study is focused to find out the impact of infrastructural investment on economic development in Indian states. The study uses panel data analysis to measure the impact of infrastructural investment on Real Gross Domestic Product in Indian States. Panel data analysis incorporates Unit Root Test, Cointegration Teat, Pooled Ordinary Least Squares, Fixed Effect Approach, Random Effect Approach, Hausman Test. The study analyzes panel data (annual in frequency) ranging from 1991 to 2012 and concludes that infrastructural investment has a desirable impact on economic development in Indian. Finally, the study reveals that the infrastructural investment significantly explains the variation of economic indicator.

Keywords: infrastructural investment, real GDP, unit root test, cointegration teat, pooled ordinary least squares, fixed effect approach, random effect approach, Hausman test

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18 Integration of Artificial Neural Network with Geoinformatics Technology to Predict Land Surface Temperature within Sun City Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Authors: Avinash Kumar Ranjan, Akash Anand


The Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an essential factor accompanying to rise urban heat and climate warming within a city in micro level. It is also playing crucial role in global change study as well as radiation budgets measuring in heat balance studies. The information of LST is very substantial to recognize the urban climatology, ecological changes, anthropological and environmental interactions etc. The Chief motivation of present study focus on time series of ANN model that taken a sequence of LST values of 2000, 2008 and 2016, realize the pattern of variation within the data set and predict the LST values for 2024 and 2032. The novelty of this study centers on evaluation of LST using series of multi-temporal MODIS (MOD 11A2) satellite data by Maximum Value Composite (MVC) techniques. The results derived from this study endorse the proficiency of Geoinformatics Technology with integration of ANN to gain knowledge, understanding and building of precise forecast from the complex physical world database. This study will also focus on influence of Land Use/ Land Cover (LU/LC) variation on Land Surface Temperature.

Keywords: LST, geoinformatics technology, ANN, MODIS satellite imagery, MVC

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17 Characterization of Filled HNBR Elastomers for Sealing Application in Cold Climate Areas

Authors: Anton G. Akulichev, Avinash Tiwari, Ben Alcock, Andreas Echtermeyer


Low temperatures are known to pose a major threat for polymers; many are prone to excessive stiffness or even brittleness. There is a technology gap between the properties of existing elastomeric sealing materials and the properties needed for service in extremely cold regions. Moreover, some aspects of low temperature behaviour of rubber are not thoroughly studied and understood. The paper presents results of laboratory testing of a conventional oilfield HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber) elastomer at low climatic temperatures above and below its glass transition point, as well as the performance of some filled HNBR formulations. Particular emphasis in the experiments is put on rubber viscoelastic characteristics studied by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and quasi-static mechanical testing results at low temperatures. As demonstrated by the stress relaxation and DMA experiments the transition region near Tg of the studied compound has the most striking features, like rapid stress relaxation, as compared to the glassy and rubbery plateau. In addition the quasi-static experiments show that molecular movement below Tg is not completely frozen, but rather evident and manifested in a certain stress decay as well. The effect of temperature and filler additions on typical mechanical and other properties of the materials is also discussed.

Keywords: characterization, filled elastomers, HNBR, low temperature

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16 An Experiential Learning of Ontology-Based Multi-document Summarization by Removal Summarization Techniques

Authors: Pranjali Avinash Yadav-Deshmukh


Remarkable development of the Internet along with the new technological innovation, such as high-speed systems and affordable large storage space have led to a tremendous increase in the amount and accessibility to digital records. For any person, studying of all these data is tremendously time intensive, so there is a great need to access effective multi-document summarization (MDS) systems, which can successfully reduce details found in several records into a short, understandable summary or conclusion. For semantic representation of textual details in ontology area, as a theoretical design, our system provides a significant structure. The stability of using the ontology in fixing multi-document summarization problems in the sector of catastrophe control is finding its recommended design. Saliency ranking is usually allocated to each phrase and phrases are rated according to the ranking, then the top rated phrases are chosen as the conclusion. With regards to the conclusion quality, wide tests on a selection of media announcements are appropriate for “Jammu Kashmir Overflow in 2014” records. Ontology centered multi-document summarization methods using “NLP centered extraction” outshine other baselines. Our participation in recommended component is to implement the details removal methods (NLP) to enhance the results.

Keywords: disaster management, extraction technique, k-means, multi-document summarization, NLP, ontology, sentence extraction

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15 Optimal Portfolio of Multi-service Provision based on Stochastic Model Predictive Control

Authors: Yifu Ding, Vijay Avinash, Malcolm McCulloch


As the proliferation of decentralized energy systems, the UK power system allows small-scale entities such as microgrids (MGs) to tender multiple energy services including energy arbitrage and frequency responses (FRs). However, its operation requires the balance between the uncertain renewable generations and loads in real-time and has to fulfill their provision requirements of contract services continuously during the time window agreed, otherwise it will be penalized for the under-delivered provision. To hedge against risks due to uncertainties and maximize the economic benefits, we propose a stochastic model predictive control (SMPC) framework to optimize its operation for the multi-service provision. Distinguished from previous works, we include a detailed economic-degradation model of the lithium-ion battery to quantify the costs of different service provisions, as well as accurately describe the changing dynamics of the battery. Considering a branch of load and generation scenarios and the battery aging, we formulate a risk-averse cost function using conditional value at risk (CVaR). It aims to achieve the maximum expected net revenue and avoids severe losses. The framework will be performed on a case study of a PV-battery grid-tied microgrid in the UK with real-life data. To highlight its performance, the framework will be compared with the case without the degradation model and the deterministic formulation.

Keywords: model predictive control (MPC), battery degradation, frequency response, microgrids

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14 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio of a Black Cotton Soil Stabilized with Waste Glass and Eggshell Powder using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Biruhi Tesfaye, Avinash M. Potdar


The laboratory test process to determine the California bearing ratio (CBR) of black cotton soils is not only overpriced but also time-consuming as well. Hence advanced prediction of CBR plays a significant role as it is applicable In pavement design. The prediction of CBR of treated soil was executed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which is a Computational tool based on the properties of the biological neural system. To observe CBR values, combined eggshell and waste glass was added to soil as 4, 8, 12, and 16 % of the weights of the soil samples. Accordingly, the laboratory related tests were conducted to get the required best model. The maximum CBR value found at 5.8 at 8 % of eggshell waste glass powder addition. The model was developed using CBR as an output layer variable. CBR was considered as a function of the joint effect of liquid limit, plastic limit, and plastic index, optimum moisture content and maximum dry density. The best model that has been found was ANN with 5, 6 and 1 neurons in the input, hidden and output layer correspondingly. The performance of selected ANN has been 0.99996, 4.44E-05, 0.00353 and 0.0067 which are correlation coefficient (R), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The research presented or summarized above throws light on future scope on stabilization with waste glass combined with different percentages of eggshell that leads to the economical design of CBR acceptable to pavement sub-base or base, as desired.

Keywords: CBR, artificial neural network, liquid limit, plastic limit, maximum dry density, OMC

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13 Is More Inclusive More Effective? The 'New Style' Public Distribution System in India

Authors: Avinash Kishore, Suman Chakrabarti


In September 2013, the parliament of India enacted the National Food Security Act (NFSA) which entitles two-thirds of India’s population to five kilograms of rice, wheat or coarse cereals per person per month at one to three rupees per kilogram. Five states in India—Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and West Bengal—had already implemented somewhat similar changes in the TPDS a few years earlier using their own budgetary resources. They made rice—coincidentally, all five states are predominantly rice-eating—available in fair price shops to a majority of their population at very low prices (less than Rs.3/kg). This paper tries to account for the changes in household consumption patterns associated with the change in TPDS policy in these states using data from household consumption surveys by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). NSS data show improvement in the coverage of TPDS and average off-take of grains from fair price shops between 2004-05 and 2009-10 across all states of India. However, the increase in coverage and off-take was significantly higher in four out of these five states than in the rest of India. An average household in these states purchased three kilos more rice per month from fair price shops than its counterpart in non-treated states as a result of more generous TPDS policies backed by administrative reforms. The increase in consumption of PDS rice was the highest in Chhattisgarh, the poster state of PDS reforms. Households in Chhattisgarh used money saved on rice to spend more on pulses, edible oil, vegetables and sugar and other non-food items. We also find evidence that making TPDS more inclusive and more generous is not enough unless it is supported by administrative reforms to improve grain delivery and control diversion to open markets.

Keywords: public distribution system, social safety-net, national food security act, diet quality, Chhattisgarh

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12 Development of Broad Spectrum Nitrilase Biocatalysts and Bioprocesses for Nitrile Biotransformation

Authors: Avinash Vellore Sunder, Shikha Shah, Pramod P. Wangikar


The enzymatic conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids by nitrilases has gained significance in the green synthesis of several pharmaceutical precursors and fine chemicals. While nitrilases have been characterized from different sources, the industrial application requires the identification of nitrilases that possess higher substrate tolerance, wider specificity and better thermostability, along with the development of an efficient bioprocess for producing large amounts of nitrilase. To produce large amounts of nitrilase, we developed a fed-batch fermentation process on defined media for the high cell density cultivation of E. coli cells expressing the well-studied nitrilase from Alcaligenes fecalis. A DO-stat feeding approach was employed combined with an optimized post-induction strategy to achieve nitrilase titer of 2.5*105 U/l and 78 g/l dry cell weight. We also identified 16 novel nitrilase sequences from genome mining and analysis of substrate binding residues. The nitrilases were expressed in E. coli and their biocatalytic potential was evaluated on a panel of 22 industrially relevant nitrile substrates using high-throughput screening and HPLC analysis. Nine nitrilases were identified to exhibit high activity on structurally diverse nitriles including aliphatic and aromatic dinitriles, heterocyclic, -hydroxy and -keto nitriles. With fed-batch biotransformation, whole-cell Zobelia galactanivorans nitrilase achieved yields of 2.4 M nicotinic acid and 1.8 M isonicotinic acid from 3-cyanopyridine and 4-cyanopyridine respectively within 5 h, while Cupravidus necator nitrilase enantioselectively converted 740 mM mandelonitrile to (R)–mandelic acid. The nitrilase from Achromobacter insolitus could hydrolyze 542 mM iminodiacetonitrile in 1 h. The availability of highly active nitrilases along with bioprocesses for enzyme production expands the toolbox for industrial biocatalysis.

Keywords: biocatalysis, isonicotinic acid, iminodiacetic acid, mandelic acid, nitrilase

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11 Numerical Study on Jatropha Oil Pool Fire Behavior in a Compartment

Authors: Avinash Chaudhary, Akhilesh Gupta, Surendra Kumar, Ravi Kumar


This paper presents the numerical study on Jatropha oil pool fire in a compartment. A fire experiment with jatropha oil was conducted in a compartment of size 4 m x 4 m x m to study the fire development and temperature distribution. Fuel is burned in the center of the compartment in a pool diameter of 0.5 m with an initial fuel depth of 0.045 m. Corner temperature in the compartment, doorway temperature and hot gas layer temperature at various locations are measured. Numerical simulations were carried out using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software at grid size of 0.05 m, 0.12 m and for performing simulation heat release rate of jatropha oil measured using mass loss method were inputted into FDS. Experimental results shows that like other fuel fires, the whole combustion process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, growth stage, steady profile or developed phase and decay stage. The fire behavior shows two zone profile where upper zone consists of mainly hot gases while lower zone is relatively at colder side. In this study, predicted temperatures from simulation are in good agreement in upper zone of compartment. Near the interface of hot and cold zone, deviations were reported between the simulated and experimental results which is probably due to the difference between the predictions of smoke layer height by FDS. Also, changing the grid size from 0.12 m to 0.05 m does not show any effect in temperatures at upper zone while in lower zone, grid size of 0.05 m showed satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Numerical results showed that calculated temperatures at various locations matched well with the experimental results. On the whole, an effective method is provided with reasonable results to study the burning characteristics of jatropha oil with numerical simulations.

Keywords: jatropha oil, compartment fire, heat release rate, FDS (fire dynamics simulator), numerical simulation

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10 Optimal Perturbation in an Impulsively Blocked Channel Flow

Authors: Avinash Nayak, Debopam Das


The current work implements the variational principle to find the optimum initial perturbation that provides maximum growth in an impulsively blocked channel flow. The conventional method for studying temporal stability has always been through modal analysis. In most of the transient flows, this modal analysis is still followed with the quasi-steady assumption, i.e. change in base flow is much slower compared to perturbation growth rate. There are other studies where transient analysis on time dependent flows is done by formulating the growth of perturbation as an initial value problem. But the perturbation growth is sensitive to the initial condition. This study intends to find the initial perturbation that provides the maximum growth at a later time. Here, the expression of base flow for blocked channel is derived and the formulation is based on the two dimensional perturbation with stream function representing the perturbation quantity. Hence, the governing equation becomes the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In the current context, the cost functional is defined as the ratio of disturbance energy at a terminal time 'T' to the initial energy, i.e. G(T) = ||q(T)||2/||q(0)||2 where q is the perturbation and ||.|| defines the norm chosen. The above cost functional needs to be maximized against the initial perturbation distribution. It is achieved with the constraint that perturbation follows the basic governing equation, i.e. Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The corresponding adjoint equation is derived and is solved along with the basic governing equation in an iterative manner to provide the initial spatial shape of the perturbation that provides the maximum growth G (T). The growth rate is plotted against time showing the development of perturbation which achieves an asymptotic shape. The effects of various parameters, e.g. Reynolds number, are studied in the process. Thus, the study emphasizes on the usage of optimal perturbation and its growth to understand the stability characteristics of time dependent flows. The assumption of quasi-steady analysis can be verified against these results for the transient flows like impulsive blocked channel flow.

Keywords: blocked channel flow, calculus of variation, hydrodynamic stability, optimal perturbation

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9 Zero Energy Buildings in Hot-Humid Tropical Climates: Boundaries of the Energy Optimization Grey Zone

Authors: Nakul V. Naphade, Sandra G. L. Persiani, Yew Wah Wong, Pramod S. Kamath, Avinash H. Anantharam, Hui Ling Aw, Yann Grynberg


Achieving zero-energy targets in existing buildings is known to be a difficult task requiring important cuts in the building energy consumption, which in many cases clash with the functional necessities of the building wherever the on-site energy generation is unable to match the overall energy consumption. Between the building’s consumption optimization limit and the energy, target stretches a case-specific optimization grey zone, which requires tailored intervention and enhanced user’s commitment. In the view of the future adoption of more stringent energy-efficiency targets in the context of hot-humid tropical climates, this study aims to define the energy optimization grey zone by assessing the energy-efficiency limit in the state-of-the-art typical mid- and high-rise full AC office buildings, through the integration of currently available technologies. Energy models of two code-compliant generic office-building typologies were developed as a baseline, a 20-storey ‘high-rise’ and a 7-storey ‘mid-rise’. Design iterations carried out on the energy models with advanced market ready technologies in lighting, envelope, plug load management and ACMV systems and controls, lead to a representative energy model of the current maximum technical potential. The simulations showed that ZEB targets could be achieved in fully AC buildings under an average of seven floors only by compromising on energy-intense facilities (as full AC, unlimited power-supply, standard user behaviour, etc.). This paper argues that drastic changes must be made in tropical buildings to span the energy optimization grey zone and achieve zero energy. Fully air-conditioned areas must be rethought, while smart technologies must be integrated with an aggressive involvement and motivation of the users to synchronize with the new system’s energy savings goal.

Keywords: energy simulation, office building, tropical climate, zero energy buildings

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8 Agrarian Transitions and Rural Social Relations in Jharkhand, India

Authors: Avinash


Rural Jharkhand has attracted lesser attention in the field of agrarian studies in India, despite more than eighty percent of its rural population being directly dependent on agriculture as their primary source of livelihood. The limited studies on agrarian issues in Jharkhand have focused predominantly on the subsistence nature of agriculture and low crop productivity. There has also not been much research on agrarian social relations between ‘tribe’ and ‘non-tribe’ communities in the region. This paper is an attempt to understand changing agrarian social relations between tribal and non-tribal communities relating them to different kinds of agrarian transitions taking place in two districts of Jharkhand - Palamu and Khunti. In the Palamu region, agrarian relations are dominated by the presence and significant population size of Hindu high caste land owners, whereas in the Khunti region, agrarian relations are characterized by the population size and dominance of tribes and lower caste land owner cum cultivators. The agrarian relations between ‘upper castes’ and ‘tribes’ in these regions are primarily related to agricultural daily wage labour. However, the agrarian social relations between Dalits and tribal people take the form of ‘communal system of labour exchange’ and ‘household-based labour’. In addition, the ethnographic study of the region depicts steady agrarian transitions (especially shift from indigenous to ‘High Yielding Variety’ (HYV) paddy seeds and growing vegetable cultivation) where ‘Non-Governmental Organizations’ (NGOs) and agricultural input manufacturers and suppliers are playing a critical role in agrarian transitions as intermediaries. While agricultural productivity still remains low, both the regions are witnessing slow but gradual agrarian transitions. Rural-urban linkages in the form of seasonal labour migration are creating capital and technical inflows that are transforming agricultural activities. This study describes and interprets the above changes through the lens of ‘regional rurality’.

Keywords: agrarian transitions, rural Jharkhand, regional rurality, tribe and non-tribe

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7 An Approach to Autonomous Drones Using Deep Reinforcement Learning and Object Detection

Authors: K. R. Roopesh Bharatwaj, Avinash Maharana, Favour Tobi Aborisade, Roger Young


Presently, there are few cases of complete automation of drones and its allied intelligence capabilities. In essence, the potential of the drone has not yet been fully utilized. This paper presents feasible methods to build an intelligent drone with smart capabilities such as self-driving, and obstacle avoidance. It does this through advanced Reinforcement Learning Techniques and performs object detection using latest advanced algorithms, which are capable of processing light weight models with fast training in real time instances. For the scope of this paper, after researching on the various algorithms and comparing them, we finally implemented the Deep-Q-Networks (DQN) algorithm in the AirSim Simulator. In future works, we plan to implement further advanced self-driving and object detection algorithms, we also plan to implement voice-based speech recognition for the entire drone operation which would provide an option of speech communication between users (People) and the drone in the time of unavoidable circumstances. Thus, making drones an interactive intelligent Robotic Voice Enabled Service Assistant. This proposed drone has a wide scope of usability and is applicable in scenarios such as Disaster management, Air Transport of essentials, Agriculture, Manufacturing, Monitoring people movements in public area, and Defense. Also discussed, is the entire drone communication based on the satellite broadband Internet technology for faster computation and seamless communication service for uninterrupted network during disasters and remote location operations. This paper will explain the feasible algorithms required to go about achieving this goal and is more of a reference paper for future researchers going down this path.

Keywords: convolution neural network, natural language processing, obstacle avoidance, satellite broadband technology, self-driving

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6 Cybernetic Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Process for High Cell Density Cultivation of E. Coli In Shake Flasks

Authors: Snehal D. Ganjave, Hardik Dodia, Avinash V. Sunder, Swati Madhu, Pramod P. Wangikar


Batch cultivation of recombinant bacteria in shake flasks results in low cell density due to nutrient depletion. Previous protocols on high cell density cultivation in shake flasks have relied mainly on controlled release mechanisms and extended cultivation protocols. In the present work, we report an optimized fed-batch process for high cell density cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) for protein production. A cybernetic model-based, multi-objective optimization strategy was implemented to obtain the optimum operating variables to achieve maximum biomass and minimized substrate feed rate. A syringe pump was used to feed a mixture of glycerol and yeast extract into the shake flask. Preliminary experiments were conducted with online monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) and offline measurements of biomass and glycerol to estimate the model parameters. Multi-objective optimization was performed to obtain the pareto front surface. The selected optimized recipe was tested for a range of proteins that show different extent soluble expression in E. coli. These included eYFP and LkADH, which are largely expressed in soluble fractions, CbFDH and GcanADH , which are partially soluble, and human PDGF, which forms inclusion bodies. The biomass concentrations achieved in 24 h were in the range 19.9-21.5 g/L, while the model predicted value was 19.44 g/L. The process was successfully reproduced in a standard laboratory shake flask without online monitoring of DO and pH. The optimized fed-batch process showed significant improvement in both the biomass and protein production of the tested recombinant proteins compared to batch cultivation. The proposed process will have significant implications in the routine cultivation of E. coli for various applications.

Keywords: cybernetic model, E. coli, high cell density cultivation, multi-objective optimization

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5 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash


Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: brain, hemodynamic responses, yoga, meditation, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), walking, heart rate variability (HRV)

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4 Feasibility of Two Positive-Energy Schools in a Hot-Humid Tropical Climate: A Methodological Approach

Authors: Shashwat, Sandra G. L. Persiani, Yew Wah Wong, Pramod S. Kamath, Avinash H. Anantharam, Hui Ling Aw, Yann Grynberg


Achieving zero-energy targets in existing buildings is known to be a difficult task, hence targets are addressed at new buildings almost exclusively. Although these ultra-efficient case-studies remain essential to develop future technologies and drive the concepts of Zero-energy, the immediate need to cut the consumption of the existing building stock remains unaddressed. This work aims to present a reliable and straightforward methodology for assessing the potential of energy-efficient upgrading in existing buildings. Public Singaporean school buildings, characterized by low energy use intensity and large roof areas, were identified as potential objects for conversion to highly-efficient buildings with a positive energy balance. A first study phase included the development of a detailed energy model for two case studies (a primary and a secondary school), based on the architectural drawings provided, site-visits and calibrated using measured end-use power consumption of different spaces. The energy model was used to demonstrate compliances or predict energy consumption of proposed changes in the two buildings. As complete energy monitoring is difficult and substantially time-consuming, short-term energy data was collected in the schools by taking spot measurements of power, voltage, and current for all the blocks of school. The figures revealed that the bulk of the consumption is attributed in decreasing order of magnitude to air-conditioning, plug loads, and lighting. In a second study-phase, a number of energy-efficient technologies and strategies were evaluated through energy-modeling to identify the alternatives giving the highest energy saving potential, achieving a reduction in energy use intensity down to 19.71 kWh/m²/y and 28.46 kWh/m²/y for the primary and the secondary schools respectively. This exercise of field evaluation and computer simulation of energy saving potential aims at a preliminary assessment of the positive-energy feasibility enabling future implementation of the technologies on the buildings studied, in anticipation of a broader and more widespread adoption in Singaporean schools.

Keywords: energy simulation, school building, tropical climate, zero energy buildings, positive energy

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3 Nanoparticles-Protein Hybrid-Based Magnetic Liposome

Authors: Amlan Kumar Das, Avinash Marwal, Vikram Pareek


Liposome plays an important role in medical and pharmaceutical science as e.g. nano scale drug carriers. Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment. Magnet-driven liposome used for the targeted delivery of drugs to organs and tissues1. These liposome preparations contain encapsulated drug components and finely dispersed magnetic particles. Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment that are generated in vitro. These are useful in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity, and can control biodistribution by changing the size, lipid composition, and physical characteristics2. Furthermore, liposomes can entrap both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are able to continuously release the entrapped substrate, thus being useful drug carriers. Magnetic liposomes (MLs) are phospholipid vesicles that encapsulate magneticor paramagnetic nanoparticles. They are applied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)3. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology4. Green-synthesized magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been produced by treating Iron (III)/Iron(II) chloride with the leaf extract of Dhatura Inoxia. The phytochemicals present in the leaf extracts act as a reducing as well stabilizing agents preventing agglomeration, which include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides, proteins and sugars. The magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been trapped inside the aqueous core of the liposome prepared by reversed phase evaporation (REV) method using oleic and linoleic acid which has been shown to be driven under magnetic field confirming the formation magnetic liposome (ML). Chemical characterization of stealth magnetic liposome has been performed by breaking the liposome and release of magnetic nanoparticles. The presence iron has been confirmed by colour complex formation with KSCN and UV-Vis study using spectrophotometer Cary 60, Agilent. This magnet driven liposome using nanoparticles-protein hybrid can be a smart vesicles for the targeted drug delivery.

Keywords: nanoparticles-protein hybrid, magnetic liposome, medical, pharmaceutical science

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2 Structural and Binding Studies of Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Provide a Platform for the Structure Based Inhibitor Design against Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase

Authors: Sujata Sharma, Avinash Singh, Lovely Gautam, Pradeep Sharma, Mau Sinha, Asha Bhushan, Punit Kaur, Tej P. Singh


Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) Pth is an essential bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the release of free tRNA and peptide moeities from peptidyl tRNAs during stalling of protein synthesis. In order to design inhibitors of Pth from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaPth), we have determined the structures of PaPth in its native state and in the bound states with two compounds, amino acylate-tRNA analogue (AAtA) and 5-azacytidine (AZAC). The peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was amplified by Phusion High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase using forward and reverse primers, respectively. The E. coliBL21 (λDE3) strain was used for expression of the recombinant peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The protein was purified using a Ni-NTA superflow column. The crystallization experiments were carried out using hanging drop vapour diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.50 Å resolution. The data were processed using HKL-2000. The polypeptide chain of PaPth consists of 194 amino acid residues from Met1 to Ala194. The centrally located β-structure is surrounded by α-helices from all sides except the side that has entrance to the substrate binding site. The structures of the complexes of PaPth with AAtA and AZAC showed the ligands bound to PaPth in the substrate binding cleft and interacted with protein atoms extensively. The residues that formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the atoms of AAtA included Asn12, His22, Asn70, Gly113, Asn116, Ser148, and Glu161 of the symmetry related molecule. The amino acids that were involved in hydrogen bonded interactions in case of AZAC included, His22, Gly113, Asn116, and Ser148. As indicated by fittings of two ligands and the number of interactions made by them with protein atoms, AAtA appears to be a more compatible with the structure of the substrate binding cleft. However, there is a further scope to achieve a better stacking than that of O-tyrosyl moiety because it is not still ideally stacked. These observations about the interactions between the protein and ligands have provided the information about the mode of binding of ligands, nature and number of interactions. This information may be useful for the design of tight inhibitors of Pth enzymes.

Keywords: peptidyl tRNA hydrolase, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pth enzymes, O-tyrosyl

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1 A Comparative Study on South-East Asian Leading Container Ports: Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Chennai, Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports

Authors: Jonardan Koner, Avinash Purandare


In today’s globalized world international business is a very key area for the country's growth. Some of the strategic areas for holding up a country’s international business to grow are in the areas of connecting Ports, Road Network, and Rail Network. India’s International Business is booming both in Exports as well as Imports. Ports play a very central part in the growth of international trade and ensuring competitive ports is of critical importance. India has a long coastline which is a big asset for the country as it has given the opportunity for development of a large number of major and minor ports which will contribute to the maritime trades’ development. The National Economic Development of India requires a well-functioning seaport system. To know the comparative strength of Indian ports over South-east Asian similar ports, the study is considering the objectives of (I) to identify the key parameters of an international mega container port, (II) to compare the five selected container ports (JNPT, Chennai, Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports) according to user of the ports and iii) to measure the growth of selected five container ports’ throughput over time and their comparison. The study is based on both primary and secondary databases. The linear time trend analysis is done to show the trend in quantum of exports, imports and total goods/services handled by individual ports over the years. The comparative trend analysis is done for the selected five ports of cargo traffic handled in terms of Tonnage (weight) and number of containers (TEU’s). The comparative trend analysis is done between containerized and non-containerized cargo traffic in the five selected five ports. The primary data analysis is done comprising of comparative analysis of factor ratings through bar diagrams, statistical inference of factor ratings for the selected five ports, consolidated comparative line charts of factor rating for the selected five ports, consolidated comparative bar charts of factor ratings of the selected five ports and the distribution of ratings (frequency terms). The linear regression model is used to forecast the container capacities required for JNPT Port and Chennai Port by the year 2030. Multiple regression analysis is carried out to measure the impact of selected 34 explanatory variables on the ‘Overall Performance of the Port’ for each of the selected five ports. The research outcome is of high significance to the stakeholders of Indian container handling ports. Indian container port of JNPT and Chennai are benchmarked against international ports such as Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports which are the competing ports in the neighbouring region. The study has analysed the feedback ratings for the selected 35 factors regarding physical infrastructure and services rendered to the port users. This feedback would provide valuable data for carrying out improvements in the facilities provided to the port users. These installations would help the ports’ users to carry out their work in more efficient manner.

Keywords: throughput, twenty equivalent units, TEUs, cargo traffic, shipping lines, freight forwarders

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