Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Acacia decurrens

40 Profiling, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Acacia decurrens (Willd) an Invasive South Africa Tree

Authors: Joe Modise, Bamidel Joseph Okoli, Nas Molefe, Imelda Ledwaba


The present study describes the chemical profile and antioxidant potential of the stem bark of Acacia decurrens. The methanol fraction of A. decurrens stem bark gave the highest yield (20 %), while the hexane fraction had the lowest yield (0.2 %). The GC-MS spectra of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions confirm the presence of fifty two major compounds and the ICP-OES analysis of the stem bark was found to contain Co(0.41), Zn(1.75), Mn(3.69), Ca(8.67), Ni(10.54), Mg(12.98), Cr(24.38), K(47.88), Fe(154.62) ppm; which is an indication of hyper-accumulation capacity. The UV-Visible spectra of showed four absorption maxima for hexane fraction at 665 (0.028), 410 (0.116), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm, three for chloroform fraction at 665 (0.028), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm , three for ethyl acetate fraction at 665 (0.070), 390 (0.648) and 345 (0.663) nm and three for methanol fraction at 385 (0.508), 310 (0.886) and 295 (0.899) nm respectively. Quantitative phytochemical screening indicated that the alkaloid (0.6-3.3) % and saponins (5.1-8.6) % contents of the various fractions were significantly lower than the tannin (30.9-55.8) mg TAE/g, steroid(13.92-41.2) %, phenol (40.6-65.5) mgGAE/g and flavonoids (210.2 -284.9) mg RUE/g contents. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was analysed by different methods and revealed good to moderate antioxidant potential with different IC50 values viz. (42.2-49.6) mg/mL for ABTS and (37.8-75.0) μg/ml for DPPH respectively, compared to standard antioxidants. Based on obtained results, the A.decurrens stem bark fractions can be a source of safe, sustainable natural antioxidant drug and can be exploited as a source of controlled green-heavy metal cleaner.

Keywords: Acacia decurrens, antioxidant, DPPH, ABTS, hyperaccumulation, Menstruum, ICP-OES, GC-MS, UV/visible

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39 Ganoderma Infection in Acacia mangium: Difference of Plant Hosts to Virulency of Ganoderma

Authors: Rosa Suryantini, Reine S. Wulandari, Slamet Rifanjani


Acacia (Acacia mangium) is a forest plant species which is produced to pulp and paper. The high demand for pulp and paper increase the acacia plantation forest area. However, the outbreak of Ganoderma (root rot pathogen) infection becomes obstacles for the development of acacia plantations. This is due to the extent of host range and species of Ganoderma. Ganoderma has also the ability to survive the long-term without hosts. The diversity of the host and Ganoderma species affects its virulence. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the virulence of Ganoderma from different hosts (acacia, palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)). The methods were isolation and morphology identification of Ganoderma, and inoculation of Ganoderma isolates on acacia seedlings. The results showed that the three isolates of Ganoderma from different hosts had a morphological similarity with G. Lucidum (according to Ganoderma isolated from acacia or G1), G. boninense (according to Ganoderma isolated from palm oil or G2) and G. applanatum (according to Ganoderma isolated from rubber or G3). Symptoms of infection in acacia were seen at 3 months of age. The symptoms were begun with chlorosis, necrosis and death of seedlings (such as burning). Necrosis was started from the tip of the leaf. Based on this visible symptoms, G1 was moderate virulence isolate and G2 was low virulence isolate while G3 was avirulen isolate. The symptoms were still growing in accordance with the development of plant so it affected the value of diseases severity index. Ganoderma infection decreased the dry weight of seedlings, ie. 3.82 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G1), 4.01 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G2); and 5.02 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G3) when the dry weight of seedlings control was 10,02 g. These results provide information for early control of Ganoderma diseases on acacia especially those planted near rubber and oil palm crops.

Keywords: Acacia, Ganoderma, infection, virulence

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38 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: Hajir Abdllha, Alaa Mohamed, Khansa Almoniem, Naga Adam, Wdeea Alhaadi, Ahmed Elshikh, Ahmed Ali, Ismail Makuar, Anas Elnazeer, Nagat Elrofaei, Samir Abdoelftah, Monier Hemidan


The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var. seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study gives rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var. seyal, Acacia tortilis

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37 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: Hajir, B. Abdllha, , Alaa, I. Mohamed, Khansa, A. Almoniem, Naga, I. Adam, Wdeea, Alhaadi, Ahmed, A. Elshikh, Ahmed, J. Ali, Ismail, G. Makuar, Anas, M. Elnazeer, Nagat, A. Elrofaei, Samir, F. Abdoelftah, Monier, N. Hemidan


The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var.seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) ,Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study give rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, acacia nubica, acacia seyal var.seyal, Acacia tortilis

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36 Toxicity of Acacia nilotica ( Garad) to Nubian Goats

Authors: B. Medani Amna, M. A. Elbadwi Samia, E. Amin Ahmed


Variable plants present in nature are used by simple rural and urban people, researchers and drug manufacturers for medicinal purposes. Garad is one of the most commonly used in Sudan for both treatment and prophylaxis of infections in the respiratory, urinogenital tracts and the skin. Water exctracts from Acacia nilotica bods were used in this very experiment to test for their toxicity to Nubian goats at two dose rates under proper experimental conditions. The clinical, pathological, haematological and biological changes in Nubian goats given daily oral doses of 1 and 5 g/kg body weight of Acacia nilotica to two groups of test goats. The goats of the control group were undosed with Acacia nilotica.Other than the dose co-related mortality rates, the clinical signs were observed to be salivation, staggered gait, intermittent loss of voice and low appetite. On histopathological testing, the main lesions were hepatic centrolobular necrosis and fatty changes associated with the significant changes in GGT and ALP are indicating hepatic dysfunction.Renal malfunction is indicated by haemorrhages in addition to the change in the urea concentration. The congested, haemorrhagic, emphysematous, edematous and cyanotic lungs may contribute to the development of dyspnea. Acacia nilotica poisoning may lead to an immunosuppression pointed out by the lymphocyte infiltration. On evaluation of the above results, Acacia nilotica was considered toxic to Nubian goats at the above mentioned doses. Future work for Acacia nilotica was forwarded and practical implications of the result were highlighted.

Keywords: Acaia nilotica, toxicity data, Nubian goats, Garad

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35 Blood Lipid Profile and Liver Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Rat Fed with Different Concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal

Authors: Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, A. Aminah


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood lipid profile and liver lipid peroxidation in normal rat fed with different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats each weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into two groups. Each group contains eighteen rats and were divided into three groups of 6 rats per group. The rats were fed ad libitum with commercial rat’s feed and tap water containing different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal (3% and 6%) for 4 weeks. The results at 4 weeks showed that there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) between the control group and treated groups while the results for the high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) showed a significant decrease (P≥0.05) at the 3% and 6% of gum arabic treated groups compared to control group. There was a significant increase (P≥0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) with 3% and 6% of gum Arabic (GA) groups compared to the control group. The study indicated that there was no significant (p≤0.05) effect on TC and TG but there was significant effect (P≥0.05) on HDL-C and LDL-C in blood lipid profile of normal rat. The results showed that after 4 weeks of treatment the malondialdehyde (MDA) value in rat fed with 6% of A. seyal group was significantly higher (P≥0.05) than control or other treated groups of A. seyal and A. senegal studied. Thus, the two species of gum arabic did not have beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Acacia senegal, acacia seyal, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA)

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34 The Comparison of Bird’s Population between Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest with Adjacent Secondary Indigenous Forest in Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Authors: Jephte Sompud, Emily A. Gilbert, Andy Russel Mojiol, Cynthia B. Sompud, Alim Biun


Naturally regenerated acacia forest and secondary indigenous forest forms some of the urban forests in Sabah. Naturally regenerated acacia trees are usually seen along the road that exists as forest islands. Acacia tree is not an indigenous tree species in Sabah that was introduced in the 1960’s as fire breakers that eventually became one of the preferred trees for forest plantation for paper and pulp production. Due to its adaptability to survive even in impoverished soils and poor-irrigated land, this species has rapidly spread throughout Sabah through natural regeneration. Currently, there is a lack of study to investigate the bird population in the naturally regenerated acacia forest. This study is important because it shed some light on the role of naturally regenerated acacia forest on bird’s population, as bird is known to be a good bioindicator forest health. The aim of this study was to document the bird’s population in naturally regenerated acacia forest with that adjacent secondary indigenous forest. The study site for this study was at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) Campus. Two forest types in the campus were chosen as a study site, of which were naturally regenerated Acacia Forest and adjacent secondary indigenous forest, located at the UMS Hill. A total of 21 sampling days were conducted in each of the forest types. The method used during this study was solely mist nets with three pockets. Whenever a bird is caught, it is extracted from the net to be identified and measurements were recorded in a standard data sheet. Mist netting was conducted from 6 morning until 5 evening. This study was conducted between February to August 2014. Birds that were caught were ring banded to initiate a long-term study on the understory bird’s population in the Campus The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, diversity indices, and t-test. The bird population diversity at naturally regenerated Acacia forest with those at the secondary indigenous forest was calculated using two common indices, of which were Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity index. There were 18 families with 33 species that were recorded from both sites. The number of species recorded at the naturally regenerated acacia forest was 26 species while at the secondary indigenous forest were 19 species. The Shannon diversity index for Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest and secondary indigenous forests were 2.87 and 2.46. The results show that there was very significantly higher species diversity at the Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest as opposed to the secondary indigenous forest (p<0.001). This suggests that Naturally Regenerated Acacia forest plays an important role in urban bird conservation. It is recommended that Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forests should be considered as an established urban forest conservation area as they do play a role in biodiversity conservation. More future studies in Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest should be encouraged to determine the status and value of biodiversity conservation of this ecosystem.

Keywords: naturally regenerated acacia forest, bird population diversity, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, biodiversity conservation

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33 Acacia mearnsii De Wild-A New Scourge on Cork Oak Forests of El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algeria)

Authors: Samir Chekchaki, ArifaBeddiar


Nowadays, more and more species are introduced outside their natural range. If most of them remain difficult, some may adopt a much more dynamic behavior. Indeed, we have witnessed in recent decades, the development of high forests of Acacia mearnsii in El Kala National Park. Introduced indefinitely, this leguminous intended to make money (nitrogen supply for industrial plantations of Eucalyptus), became one of the most invasive and more costly in terms of forest management. It has crossed all barriers: it has acclimatized, naturalized and then expanded through diverse landscapes; entry into competition with native species such as cork oak and altered ecosystem functioning. Therefore, it is interesting to analyze this new threat by relying on plants as bio-indicator for assessing biodiversity at different scales. We have identified the species present in several plots distributed in a range of vegetation types subjected to different degrees of disturbance by using the braun-blanquet method. Fifty-six species have been recorded. They are distributed in 48 genera and 29 families. The analysis of the relative frequency of species correlated with relative abundance clearly shows that the Acacia mearnsii feels marginalized. The ecological analysis of this biological invasion shows that disruption of either natural or anthropogenic origin (fire, prolonged drought, cut) represent the factors that exacerbate invasion by opening invasion windows. The lifting of seeds of Acacia mearnsii lasting physical dormancy (and variable) is ensured by the thermal shock in relation to its heliophilous character.

Keywords: Acacia mearnsii De Wild, El Kala National park, fire, invasive, vegetation

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32 Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete

Authors: Mbugua R. N., Salim R. W., Ndambuki J. M.


Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced properties but their processing end up making them very expensive resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages. Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9% weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3\% wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.

Keywords: compressive strength, Gum Acacia Karroo, retarding admixture, setting time, water-reducing admixture

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31 Validation of the X-Ray Densitometry Method for Radial Density Pattern Determination of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Claus Thomas Bues


Wood density is a variable influencing many of the technological and quality properties of wood. Understanding the pattern of wood density radial variation is important for its end-use. The X-ray technique, traditionally applied to softwood species to assess the wood quality properties, due to its simple and relatively uniform wood structure. On the other hand, very limited information is available about the validation of using this technique for hardwood species. The suitability of using the X-ray technique for the determination of hardwood density has a special significance in countries like Sudan, where only a few timbers are well known. This will not only save the time consumed by using the traditional methods, but it will also enhance the investigations of the great number of the lesser known species, the thing which will fill the huge cap of lake information of hardwood species growing in Sudan. The current study aimed to evaluate the validation of using the X-ray densitometry technique to determine the radial variation of wood density of Acacia seyal var. seyal. To this, a total of thirty trees were collected randomly from four states in Sudan. The wood density radial trend was determined using the basic density as well as density obtained by the X-ray densitometry method in order to assess the validation of X-ray technique in wood density radial variation determination. The results showed that the pattern of radial trend of density obtained by X-ray technique is very similar to that achieved by basic density. These results confirmed the validation of using the X-ray technique for Acacia seyal var. seyal density radial trend determination. It also promotes the suitability of using this method in other hardwood species.

Keywords: x-ray densitometry, wood density, Acacia seyal var. seyal, radial variation

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30 The Evaluation of Substitution of Acacia villosa in Ruminants Ration

Authors: Hadriana Bansi, Elizabeth Wina, Toto Toharmat


Acacia villosa is thornless shrub legume which contents high crude protein. However, the utilization of A. villosa as ruminant feed is limited by its secondary compounds. The aim of this article is to find out the maximum of substitution A. villosa in sheep ration. The nutritional evaluation consisted of in vitro two stages, in vivo, and in vitro gas production trials. The secondary compounds of A. villosa also were analyzed. Evaluating digestibility of increasing level of substitution A. villosa replacing Pennisetum purpureum was using in vitro two stages. The substitution of 30% A. villosa was compared to 100% P. purpureum by in vitro gas production technique and in vivo digestibility. The results of two stages in vitro showed that total phenol, condensed tannin, and non-protein amino acid (NPAA) were high. Substitution 15% A. villosa reached the highest digestibility for both dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) which were 67% and 86% respectively, but it was shown that DM and CP digestibility of substitution 30% of A. villosa was still high which were 61.82% and 75-67% respectively. The pattern of gas production showed that first 8 hours total gas production substitution of 30% A. villosa was higher than 100% P. purpureum and declined after 10 hours incubation. In vivo trials showed that substitution of 30% A. villosa significantly increased CP intake, CP digestibility, and nitrogen retention. It can be concluded that substitution A. villosa until 30% still gave the good impact even though it has high secondary compounds.

Keywords: Acacia villosa, digestibility, gas production, secondary compounds

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29 Plant Water Relations and Forage Quality in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and Acacia saligna (Labill.) as Affected by Salinity Stress

Authors: Maher J. Tadros


This research was conducted to study the effect of different salinity concentrations on the plant water relation and forage quality on two multipurpose forest trees species seedlings Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit and Acacia saligna (Labill.). Five different salinity concentrations mixture between sodium chloride and calcium chloride (v/v, 1:1) were applied. The control (Distilled Water), 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ppm were used to water the seedlings for 3 months. The research results presented showed a marked variation among the two species in response to salinity. The Leucaena was able to withstand the highest level of salinity compared to Acacia all over the studied parameters except in the relative water content. Although all the morphological characteristics studied for the two species showed a marked decrease under the different salinity concentrations, except the shoot/root ratio that showed a trend of increase. The water stress measure the leaf water potential was more negative with as the relative water content increase under that saline conditions compared to the control. The forage quality represented by the crude protein and nitrogen content were low at 6000 ppm compared to the 8000 ppm in L. Leucocephala that increased compared that level in A. saligna. Also the results showed that growing both Leucaena and Acacia provide a good source of forage when that grow under saline condition which will be of great benefits to the agricultural sector especially in the arid and semiarid areas were these species can provide forage with high quality forage all year around when grown under irrigation with saline. This research recommended such species to be utilized and grown for forages under saline conditions.

Keywords: plant water relations, growth performance, salinity stress, protein content, forage quality, multipurpose trees

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28 Effects of Acacia Honey Drink Ingestion during Rehydration after Exercise Compared to Sports Drink on Physiological Parameters and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat

Authors: Foong Kiew Ooi, Aidi Naim Mohamad Samsani, Chee Keong Chen, Mohamed Saat Ismail


Introduction: Prolonged exercise in a hot and humid environment can result in glycogen depletion and associated with loss of body fluid. Carbohydrate contained in sports beverages is beneficial for improving sports performance and preventing dehydration. Carbohydrate contained in honey is believed can be served as an alternative form of carbohydrate for enhancing sports performance. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of honey drink compared to sports drink as a recovery aid for running performance and physiological parameters in the heat. Method: Ten male recreational athletes (age: 22.2 ± 2.0 years, VO2max: 51.5 ± 3.7 participated in this randomized cross-over study. On each trial, participants were required to run for 1 hour in the glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), followed by a rehydration phase for 2 hours and subsequently a 20 minutes time trial performance (Run-2). During Run-1, subjects were required to run on the treadmill in the heat (31°C) with 70% relative humidity at 70 % of their VO2max. During rehydration phase, participants drank either honey drink or sports drink, or plain water with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in dispersed interval (60 %, 50 % and 40 %) at 0 min, 30 min and 60 min respectively. Subsequently, time trial was performed by the participants in 20 minutes and the longest distance covered was recorded. Physiological parameters were analysed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and time trial performance was analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Result showed that Acacia honey elicited a better time trial performance with significantly longer distance compared to water trial (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Acacia honey and sport drink trials (P > 0.05). Acacia honey and sports drink trials elicited 249 m (8.24 %) and 211 m (6.79 %) longer in distance compared to the water trial respectively. For physiological parameters, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and plasma free fatty acids in Acacia honey and sports drink trials were significantly higher compared to the water trial respectively during rehydration phase and time trial running performance phase. There were no significant differences in body weight changes, oxygen uptake, hematocrit, plasma volume changes and plasma cortisol in all the trials. Conclusion: Acacia honey elicited greatest beneficial effects on sports performance among the drinks, thus it has potential to be used for rehydration in athletes who train and compete in hot environment.

Keywords: honey drink, rehydration, sports performance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, plasma cortisol

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27 Antimicrobial Activity of Ethnobotanically Selected Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Phiwokuhle Mamba


Ten medicinal plants used traditionally in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were selected from an ethnobotanical database developed in Mpumalanga. The plants were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against five bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). Eight of the plants inhibited the growth of all microorganisms at a concentration range of 0.4 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml. Acacia karroo showed the most promising antimicrobial activity, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.4 mg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.8 mg/ml on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. All ten plants were further investigated for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH scavenging method. Acacia karroo and Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia showed good antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.83 mg/ml and 0.06 mg/ml, respectively. The toxicity of plants was determined using the XTT reduction method against Vero cells. None of the ten plants showed toxicity on the cells. The obtained results confirmed that Acacia karroo and possibly Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia have the potential of being used as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of STDs and UTIs. These results support and validate traditional use of medicinal plants studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexually transmitted diseases

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26 Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Acacia mangium

Authors: Samira Gharehkhani, Seyed Farid Seyed Shirazi, Abdolreza Gharehkhani, Hooman Yarmand, Ahmad Badarudin, Rushdan Ibrahim, Salim Newaz Kazi


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of bleached Acacia mangium fibers. The obtained rod-shaped nanocrystals showed a uniform size. The results showed that NCC with high crystallinity can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The effect of synthesis condition was investigated. Different reaction times were examined to produce the NCC and the results revealed that an optimum reaction time has to be used for preparing the NCC. Morphological investigation was performed using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity increased with successive treatments. The NCC suspension was homogeneous and stable and no sedimentation was observed for a long time.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, nanocrystalline cellulose, nano material, reaction time

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25 Pancreatic Lipase and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitors from Thai Medicinal Plants

Authors: Kwanchai Ratanamanee, Pattra Ahmadi Pirshahid, Yaowaluk Khamphan, Sirinan Thubthimthad


Obesity is a main global health problem. The obesity rated has continued to be higher and higher. It causes to serious systems, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Oristat is one of the best drugs worldwide used as a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. To develop the new therapeutic drugs from medicinal plant always explored. In this study, 24 medicinal plants were investigated for their pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory effects with Fluorometer assay and oristat as a positive control. It showed that the ethanolic extract of pods of Acacia concinna (Willd.) D.C., possess pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of IC50 at 2.73 and 3.77 mg/ml respectively as well as oral acute toxicity of the extract (LD50) was 6,300 mg/kg body weight. The extract of A.concinna should be further investigated in animal testing. The results of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitor of the extracts will lead us to utilize A.concinna for developing as obesity dietary supplement from a medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acacia concinna (Willd.) D. C., cholesterol esterase, obesity, pancreatic lipase

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24 Variation in Wood Anatomical Properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species Growing in Different Zones in Sudan

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Ashraf Mohamed Ahmed Abdalla


Sudan is endowed by a great diversity of tree species; nevertheless, the utilization of wood resources has traditionally concentrated on a few number of species. With the great variation in the climatic zones of Sudan, great variations are expected in the anatomical properties between and within species. This variation needs to be fully explored in order to suggest the best uses for the species. Modern research on wood has substantiated that the climatic condition where the species grow has significant effect on wood properties. Understanding the extent of variability of wood is important because the uses for each kind of wood are related to its characteristics; furthermore, the suitability or quality of wood for a particular purpose is determined by the variability of one or more of these characteristics. The present study demonstrates the effect of rainfall zones in some anatomical properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal growing in Sudan. For this purpose, twenty healthy trees were collected randomly from two zones (ten trees per zone). One zone with relatively low rainfall (273mm annually) which represented by North Kordofan state and White Nile state and the second with relatively high rainfall (701 mm annually) represented by Blue Nile state and South Kordofan state. From each sampled tree, a stem disc (3 cm thick) was cut at 10% from stem height. One radius was obtained in central stem dices. Two representative samples were taken from each disc, one at 10% distance from pith to bark, the second at 90% in order to represent the juvenile and mature wood. The investigated anatomical properties were fibers length, fibers and vessels diameter, lumen diameter, and wall thickness as well as cell proportions. The result of the current study reveals significant differences between zones in mature wood vessels diameter and wall thickness, as well as juvenile wood vessels, wall thickness. The higher values were detected in the drier zone. Significant differences were also observed in juvenile wood fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness. Contrary to vessels diameter and wall thickness, the fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness were decreased in the drier zone. No significant differences have been detected in cell proportions of juvenile and mature wood. The significant differences in some fiber and vessels dimension lead to expect significant differences in wood density. From these results, Acacia seyal var. seyal seems to be well adapted with the change in rainfall and may survive in any rainfall zone.

Keywords: Acacia seyal var. seyal, anatomical properties, rainfall zones, variation

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23 Evaluation of Natural Gums: Gum Tragacanth, Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum and Gum Acacia as Potential Hemostatic Agents

Authors: Himanshu Kushwah, Nidhi Sandal, Meenakshi K. Chauhan, Gaurav Mittal


Excessive bleeding is the primary factor of avoidable death in both civilian trauma centers as well as the military battlefield. Hundreds of Indian troops die every year due to blood loss caused by combat-related injuries. These deaths are avoidable and can be prevented to a large extent by making available a suitable hemostatic dressing in an emergency medical kit. In this study, natural gums were evaluated as potential hemostatic agents in combination with calcium gluconate. The study compares the hemostatic activity of Gum Tragacanth (GT), Guar Gum (GG), Xanthan Gum (XG) and Gum Acacia (GA) by carrying out different in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In-vitro studies were performed using the Lee-White method and Eustrek method, which includes the visual and microscopic analysis of blood clotting. MTT assay was also performed using human lymphocytes to check the cytotoxicity of the gums. The in-vivo studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats using tail bleeding assay to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the gums and compared with a commercially available hemostatic sponge, Surgispon. Erythrocyte agglutination test was also performed to check the interaction between blood cells and the natural gums. Other parameters like blood loss, adherence strength of the developed hemostatic dressing material incorporating these gums, re-bleeding, and survival of the animals were also studied. The data obtained from the MTT assay showed that Guar gum, Gum Tragacanth, and Gum Acacia were not significantly cytotoxic, but substantial cytotoxicity was observed in Xanthan gum samples at high concentrations. Also, Xanthan gum took the least time with its minimum concentration to achieve hemostasis, (approximately 50 seconds at 3mg concentration). Gum Tragacanth also showed efficient hemostasis at a concentration of 35mg at the same time, but the other two gums tested were not able to clot the blood in significantly less time. A sponge dressing made of Tragacanth gum was found to be more efficient in achieving hemostasis and showed better practical applicability among all the gums studied and also when compared to the commercially available product, Surgispon, thus making it a potentially better alternative.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, hemostasis, natural gums, sponge

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22 Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Cherry

Authors: Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana S. Ćetković, Jelena J. Vulić, Sonja M. Djilas, Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac, Sladjana M. Stajčić


Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, different inflammatory processes, and also prevent deteriorative oxidation reactions in foods such as enzymatic browning of fruit and vegetables. Honey is a natural saturated sugar solution, but it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. It is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits. The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried cherry on phenols (TPh) and flavonoids (Fl) contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral (PH), linden (LH) and acacia (AH) honey and also in their mixtures with dried cherry, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40, AH40), were determined. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 2.25 times for LH40, 2.16 times for AH40 and 1.45 times for PH40, while Fl increased 2.81-fold for PH40, 1.21-fold for LH40 and 1.44-fold for AH40. Antioxidant activity was investigated with two assays, DPPH test and reducing power (RP), and expressed as EC50DPPH and RP0.5 values. The EC50DPPH values were: EC50PH40 = 1.16 mg/ml; EC50LH40= 1.42 mg/ml and EC50AH40= 1.69 mg/ml, while RP0.5 were: RP0.5PH40 = 15.05 mg/ml; RP0.5LH40 = 16.09 mg/ml and P0.5AH40 = 17.60 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral, linden and acacia honey with 40% dried cherry improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, dried cherry, honey, phenolics

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21 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Leaves and Pods of Leucaena Leucocephala, Prosopis Laevigata and Acacia Farnesiana in a Xerophyllous Shrubland

Authors: Miguel Mellado, Cecilia Zapata


Goats can be exploited in harsh environments due to their capacity to adjust to limited quantity and quality forage sources. In these environments, leguminous trees can be used as supplementary feeds as foliage and fruits of these trees can contribute to maintain or improve production efficiency in ruminants. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value of three leguminous trees heavily selected by goats in a xerophyllous shrubland. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of leaves and pods from leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana) is presented. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 17.3% for leaves of huisache to 21.9% for leucaena. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content ranged from 39.0 to 40.3 with no difference among fodder threes. Across tree species, mean IVDMD was 61.6% for pods and 52.2% for leaves. IVDMD for leaves was highest (P < 0.01) for leucaena (54.9%) and lowest for huisache (47.3%). Condensed tannins in an acetonic extract were highest for leaves of huisache (45.3 mg CE/g DM) and lowest for mesquite (25.9 mg CE/g DM). Pods and leaves of huisache presented the highest number of secondary metabolites, mainly related to hydrobenzoic acid and flavonols; leucaena and mesquite presented mainly flavonols and anthocyanins. It was concluded that leaves and pods of leucaena, mesquite and huisache constitute valuable forages for ruminant livestock due to its low fiber, high CP levels, moderate in vitro fermentation characteristics and high mineral content. Keywords: Fodder tree; ruminants; secondary metabolites; minerals; tannins

Keywords: fodder tree, ruminants, secondary metabolites, minerals, tannins

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20 Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol and Pigments Content of Seaweeds Collected from, Rameshwaram, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India

Authors: Suparna Roy, P. Anantharaman


The aim of this work is to estimate some in-vitro antioxidant activities and total phenols of various extracts such as aqueous, acetone, ethanol, methanol extract of seaweeds and pigments content by Spectrophotometric method. The seaweeds were collected during 2016 from Rameshwaram, southeast coast of India. Among four different extracts, aqueous extracts from all seaweeds had minimum activity than acetone, methanol and ethanol. The Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta had high antioxidant activity in comparing to Chlorophyta. The highest total antioxidant activity was found in acetone extract fromTurbinaria decurrens (98.97±0.00%), followed by its methanol extract (98.81±0.60%) and ethanol extract (98.58±0.53%). The highest reducing power and H2O2 scavenging activity were found in acetone extract of Caulerpa racemosa (383.25±1.04%), and methanol extract from Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (24.91±0.49%). The methanol extract from Caulerpa scalpelliformis contained the highest total phenol (85.23±0.12%). The Chloro-a and Chloro-b contents were the highest in Gracilaria foliifera (13.69±0.38% mg/gm dry wt.) and Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (9.12 ±0.12% mg/gm dry wt.) likewise carotenoid was also the highest in Gracilaria foliifera (0.054±0.0003% mg/gm dry wt.) and Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (0.04 ±0.002% mg/gm dry wt.). It can be concluded from this study that some seaweed extract can be used for natural antioxidant production, after further characterization to negotiate the side effect of synthetic, market available antioxidants.

Keywords: seaweeds, antioxidant, total phenol, pigment, Olaikuda, Vadakkadu, Rameshwaram

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19 Analytical Study and Conservation Processes of Scribe Box from Old Kingdom

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa, Medhat Abdallah, Ramy Magdy, Ahmed Abdrabou, Mohamed Badr


The scribe box under study dates back to the old kingdom. It was excavated by the Italian expedition in Qena (1935-1937). The box consists of 2pieces, the lid and the body. The inner side of the lid is decorated with ancient Egyptian inscriptions written with a black pigment. The box was made using several panels assembled together by wooden dowels and secured with plant ropes. The entire box is covered with a red pigment. This study aims to use analytical techniques in order to identify and have deep understanding for the box components. Moreover, the authors were significantly interested in using infrared reflectance transmission imaging (RTI-IR) to improve the hidden inscriptions on the lid. The identification of wood species included in this study. The visual observation and assessment were done to understand the condition of this box. 3Ddimensions and 2D programs were used to illustrate wood joints techniques. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence portable (XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study in order to identify wood species, remains of insects bodies, red pigment, fibers plant and previous conservation adhesives, also RTI-IR technique was very effective to improve hidden inscriptions. The analysis results proved that wooden panels and dowels were identified as Acacia nilotica, wooden rail was Salix sp. the insects were identified as Lasioderma serricorne and Gibbium psylloids, the red pigment was Hematite, while the fiber plants were linen, previous adhesive was identified as cellulose nitrates. The historical study for the inscriptions proved that it’s a Hieratic writings of a funerary Text. After its transportation from the Egyptian museum storage to the wood conservation laboratory of the Grand Egyptian museum –conservation center (GEM-CC), conservation techniques were applied with high accuracy in order to restore the object including cleaning , consolidating of friable pigments and writings, removal of previous adhesive and reassembly, finally the conservation process that were applied were extremely effective for this box which became ready for display or storage in the grand Egyptian museum.

Keywords: scribe box, hieratic, 3D program, Acacia nilotica, XRD, cellulose nitrate, conservation

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18 Effects of Adding Condensed Tannin from Shrub and Tree Leaves in Concentrate on Sheep Production Fed on Elephant Grass as a Basal Diet

Authors: Kusmartono, Siti Chuzaemi, Hartutik dan Mashudi


Two studies were conducted involving an in vitro (Expt 1) and in vivo (Expt 2) measurements. Expt 1. aimed to evaluate effects of adding CT extracts on gas production and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS), Expt 2 aimed to evaluate effects of supplementing shrub/tree leaves as CT source on feed consumption, digestibility, N retention, body weight gain and dressing percentage of growing sheep fed on elephant grass (EG) as a basal diet.Ten shrub and tree leaves used as CT sources were wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), mulberry (Morus macroura), cassava (Manihot utilissima), avicienna (Avicennia marina), calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora), acacia (acacia vilosa), glyricidia (Glyricidia sepium), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), moringa (Moringa oleifera). The treatments applied in Expt 1 were: T1=Elephant grass (60%)+concentrate (40%); T2 = T1 + CT (3% DM); T3= T2 + PEG; T4 = T1 + CT (3.5% DM); T5 = T4 + PEG; T6 = T1 + CT (4% DM) and T7 = T6 + PEG. Data obtained were analysed using Randomized Block Design. Statistical analyses showed that treatments significanty affected (P<0.05) total gas production and EMPS. The lowest values of total gas production (45.9 ml/500 mg DM) and highest value of EMPS (64.6 g/kg BOTR) were observed in the treatment T4 (3.5% CT from cassava leave extract). Based on this result it was concluded that this treatment was the best and was chosen for further investigation using in vivo method. The treatmets applied for in vivo trial were: T1 = EG (60%) + concentrate (40%); T2 = T1 + dried cassava leave (equivalent to 3.5% CT); T3 = T2 + PEG. 18 growing sheep aging of 8-9 months and weighing of 23.67kg ± 1.23 were used in Expt 2. Results of in vivo study showed that treatments significanty affected (P<0.05) nutrients intake and digestibility (DM, OM and CP). N retention for sheep receiving treatment T2 were significantly higher (P<0.05; 15.6 g/d) than T1 (9.1 g/d) and T3 (8.53 g/d). Similar results were obtained for daily weight gain where T2 were the highest (62.79 g/d), followed by T1 (51.9 g/d) and T3 (52.85 g/d). Dressing percentage of T2 was the highest (51.54%) followed by T1 (49.61%) and T3 (49.32%). It can be concluded that adding adding dried cassava leaves did not reduce palatability due to CT, but rather increased OM digestibility and hence feed consumption was improved. N retention was increased due to the action of CT in the cassava leaves and this may have explained a higher input of N into duodenum which was further led to higer daily weight gain and dressing percentage.

Keywords: in vitro gas production, sheep, shrub and tree leaves, condensed tannin

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17 Determination of the Botanical Origin of Honey by the Artificial Neural Network Processing of PARAFAC Scores of Fluorescence Data

Authors: Lea Lenhardt, Ivana Zeković, Tatjana Dramićanin, Miroslav D. Dramićanin


Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. Fluorescence spectra were described with a six-component PARAFAC model, and PARAFAC scores were further processed with two types of ANN’s (feed-forward network and self-organizing maps) to obtain algorithms for classification of honey on the basis of their botanical origin. Both ANN’s detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: honey, fluorescence, PARAFAC, artificial neural networks

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16 Influence of Natural Gum on Curcumin Supersaturationin Gastrointestinal Fluids

Authors: Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee


Supersaturation of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract is one approach to increase the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The stabilization of a supersaturated state was achieved by adding precipitation inhibitors that may act through a variety of mechanisms.In this study, the effect of the natural gums, acacia, gelatin, pectin and tragacanth on curcumin supersaturation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.2), fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) (pH 1.6), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (pH 6.8)was investigated. The results indicated that all natural gums significantly increased the curcum insolubility (about 1.2-6-fold)when compared to the absence of gum, and assisted in maintaining the supersaturated drug solution. Among the tested gums, pectin at 3% w/w was the best precipitation inhibitor with a significant increase in the degree of supersaturation about 3-fold in SGF, 2.4-fold in FaSSGF and 2-fold in SIF.

Keywords: curcumin, solubility, supersaturation, precipitation inhibitor

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15 Soil Reinforcement by Fibers Using Triaxial Compression Test

Authors: Negadi Kheira, Arab Ahmed, Kamal Elbokl Mohamed, Setti Fatima


In order to evaluate influences of roots on soil shear strength, monotonic drained and undrained triaxial laboratory tests were carried out on reconstituted specimens at various confining pressure (σc’=50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kPa) and a constant relative density (Dr = 50%). Reinforcement of soil by fibrous roots is crucial for preventing soil erosion and degradation. Therefore, we investigated soil reinforcement by roots of acacia planted in the area of Chlef where shallow landslides and slope instability are frequent. These roots were distributed in soil in two forms: vertically and horizontally. The monotonic test results showed that roots have more impacts on the soil shear strength than the friction angle, and the presence of roots in soil substantially increased the soil shear strength. Also, the results showed that the contribution of roots on the shear strength mobilized increases with increase in the confining pressure.

Keywords: soil, monotonic, triaxial test, root fiber, undrained

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14 Dimensionless Binding Values in the Evaluation of Paracetamol Tablet Formulation

Authors: Abayomi T. Ogunjimi, Gbenga Alebiowu


Mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets containing Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum were compared with standard Acacia gum BP as binder. Two dimensionless binding quantities BEN and BEC were used in assessing the influence of binder type on two mechanical properties, Tensile Strength (TS) and Brittle Fracture Index (BFI). The two quantities were also used to assess the influence of relative density and binder concentration on TS and BFI as well as compare Binding Efficiencies (BE). The result shows that TS is dependent on relative density, binder type and binder concentration while BFI is dependent on the binder type and binder concentration; and that although, the inclusion of NMG in a paracetamol tablet formulation may not enhance the TS of the tablets produced, however it will decrease the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate. This work concludes that BEN may be useful in quantitative assessment while BEC may be appropriate for qualitative assessment.

Keywords: binding efficiency, brittle fracture index, dimensionless binding, tensile strength

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13 Performance of Heifer Camels (Camelus dromedarius) on Native Range Supplemented with Different Energy Levels

Authors: Shehu, B., Muhammad, B. F., Madigawa, I. L., H. A. Alkali


The study was conducted to assess heifer camel behavior and live weight changes on native range supplemented with different energy levels. A total of nine camels aged between 2 and 3 years were randomly allotted into three groups and supplemented with 3400, 3600 and 3800 Kcal and designated A, B and C, respectively. The data obtained was analyzed for variance in a Completely Randomized Design. The heifers utilized average of 371.70 min/day (64% of daylight time) browsing on native pasture and 2.30 min/day (6%) sand bathing. A significantly higher mean time was spent by heifers on browsing Leptadenia hastata (P<0.001), Dichrostachys cinerea (P<0.01), Acacia nilotica (P<0.001) and Ziziphus spina-christi (P<0.05) in early dry season (January). No significant difference was recorded on browsing time on Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Piliostigma reticulatum, Parkia biglobosaand Azadirachta indica. No significant (P<0.05) liveweight change was recorded on she-camels due to the three energy levels. It was concluded that nutritive browse species in the study area could meet camel nutrient requirements including energy. Further research on effect of period on camel nutrients requirement in different physiological conditions is recommended.

Keywords: heifer, camel, grazing, pasture

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12 Sandy Soil Properties under Different Plant Cover Types in Drylands, Sudan

Authors: Rayan Elsiddig Eltaib, Yamanaka Norikazu, Mubarak Abdelrahman Abdalla


This study investigated the effects of Acacia Senegal, Calotropis procera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Ziziphus spina Christi, Balanites aegyptiaca, Indigofera oblongigolia, Arachis hypogea and Sesimum indicum grown in the western region of White Nile State on soil properties of the 0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depths. Soil properties were: pH(paste), electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe), total N (TN), organic carbon (OC), soluble K, available P, aggregate stability and water holding capacity. Triplicate Soil samples were collected after the end of the rainy season using 5 cm diameter auger. Results indicated that pH, ECe and TN were not significantly different among plant cover types. In the top 10-30 cm depth, OC under all types was significantly higher than the control (4.1 to 7.7 fold). The highest (0.085%) OC was found under the Z. spina Christi and A. Senegal whereas the lowest (0.045%) was reported under the A. hypogea. In the 10-30 cm depth, with the exception of A. hypogea, Z. spina christi and S. indicum, P content was almost similar but significantly higher than the control by 72 to 129%. In the 10-30 cm depth, K content under the S. indicum (0.46 meq/L) was exceptionally high followed by Z. spina christi (0.102 meq/L) as compared to the control (0.029 meq/L). Water holding capacity and aggregate stability of the top 0-10 cm depth were not significantly different among plant cover types. Based on the fact that accumulation of organic matter in the soil profile of any ecosystem is an important indicator of soil quality, results of this study may conclude that (1) cultivation of A.senegal, B.aegyptiaca and Z. spina Christi improved soil quality whereas (2) cultivation of A. hypogea or soil that is solely invaded with C. procera and L.pyrotechnica may induce soil degradation.

Keywords: canopy, crops, shrubs, soil properties, trees

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11 Evaluating the Hepato-Protective Activities of Combination of Aqueous Extract of Roots of Tinospora cordifolia and Rhizomes of Curcuma longa against Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

Authors: Amberkar Mohanbabu Vittalrao, Avin, Meena Kumari Kamalkishore, Padmanabha Udupa, Vinaykumar Bavimane, Honnegouda


Objective: To evaluate the hepato-protective activity of Tinospora cordiofolia (Tc) against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods: The plant stem (test drug) was procured locally, shade dried, powdered and extracted with water. Silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective drugs and 2% gum acacia as a control (vehicle) against paracetamol (PCT) induced hepatotoxicity. Results and Discussion: The hepato-protective activity of aqueous stem extract was assessed by paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity preventive model in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested in both paracetamol treated and untreated groups. Paracetamol (3g/kg) had enhanced the AST, ALT, ALP and the lipid peroxides in the serum. Treatment of silymarin and aqueous stem extract of Tc (200 and 400mg/kg) extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity by altering biochemical marker levels to the near normal. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. Aqueous Tc extract showed presence of phenolic compound and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that Tc extract possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: Tc was found to possess significant hepatoprotective property when treated with PCT. This was evident by decreasing the liver enzymes significantly when treated with PCT as compared to PCT only treated group (P < 0.05). Hence Tinospora cardiofolia could be a good, promising, preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Tinospora cardiofolia, hepatoprotection, paracetamol, silymarin

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