Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Neisseria gonorrhoeae

11 Antimicrobial Activity of Ethnobotanically Selected Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Phiwokuhle Mamba


Ten medicinal plants used traditionally in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were selected from an ethnobotanical database developed in Mpumalanga. The plants were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against five bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). Eight of the plants inhibited the growth of all microorganisms at a concentration range of 0.4 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml. Acacia karroo showed the most promising antimicrobial activity, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.4 mg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.8 mg/ml on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. All ten plants were further investigated for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH scavenging method. Acacia karroo and Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia showed good antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.83 mg/ml and 0.06 mg/ml, respectively. The toxicity of plants was determined using the XTT reduction method against Vero cells. None of the ten plants showed toxicity on the cells. The obtained results confirmed that Acacia karroo and possibly Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia have the potential of being used as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of STDs and UTIs. These results support and validate traditional use of medicinal plants studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexually transmitted diseases

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10 Ethnobotany and Antimicrobial Effects of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Lesotho

Authors: Sandy Van Vuuren, Lerato Kose, Annah Moteetee


Lesotho, a country surrounded by South Africa has one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI’s) in the world. In fact, the country ranks third highest with respect to infections related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite the high prevalence of STI’s, treatment has been a challenge due to limited accessibility to health facilities. An estimated 77% of the population lives in rural areas and more than 60% of the country is mountainous. Therefore, many villages remain accessible only by foot or horse-back. Thus, the Basotho (indigenous people from Lesotho) have a rich cultural heritage of plant use. The aim of this study was to determine what plant species are used for the treatment of STI’s and which of these have in vitro efficacy against pathogens such as Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Oligella ureolytica, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A total of 34 medicinal plants were reported by traditional practitioners for the treatment of STI’s. Sixty extracts, both aqueous and organic (mixture of methanol and dichloromethane), from 24 of the recorded plant species were assessed for antimicrobial activity using the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) micro-titre plate dilution assay. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 19424) was found to be the most susceptible among the test pathogens, with the majority of the extracts (21) displaying noteworthy activity (MIC values ≤ 1 mg/ml). Helichrysum caespititium was found to be the most antimicrobially active species (MIC value of 0.01 mg/ml). The results of this study support, to some extent, the traditional medicinal uses of the evaluated plants for the treatment of STI’s, particularly infections related to gonorrhoea.

Keywords: Africa, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Oligella urealytica

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9 Impact of Locally Synthesized Carbon Nanotubes against Some Local Clinical Bacterial Isolates

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muazzama Akhtar, Shahid Nisar, Saddaf Mazzar, Umer Rashid


Antibiotic resistance is an increasing concern worldwide now a day. Neisseria gonorrhea and Staphylococcus aureus are known to cause major human sexually transmitted and respiratory diseases respectively. Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline and its application in various fields especially in medical sciences is gigantic. In the present study, we synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using acid oxidation method and solubilized MWNTs were with length predominantly >500 nm and diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The locally synthesized MWNTs were used against gram positive and negative bacteria to determine their impact on bacterial growth. Clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhea (isolate: 4C-11) and Staphylococcus aureus (isolate: 38541) were obtained from local hospital and normally cultured in LB broth at 37°C. Both clinical strains can be obtained on request from University of Gujarat. Spectophometric assay was performed to determine the impact of MWNTs on bacterial growth in vitro. To determine the effect of MWTNs on test organisms, various concentration of MWNTs were used and recorded observation on various time intervals to understand the growth inhibition pattern. Our results demonstrated that MWNTs exhibited toxic effects to Staphylococcus aureus while showed very limited growth inhibition to Neisseria gonorrhea, which suggests the resistant potential of Neisseria against nanoparticles. Our results clearly demonstrate the gradual decrease in bacterial numbers with passage of time when compared with control. Maximum bacterial inhibition was observed at maximum concentration (50 µg/ml). Our future work will include further characterization and mode of action of our locally synthesized MWNTs. In conclusion, we investigated and reported for the first time the inhibitory potential of locally synthesized MWNTs on local clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhea.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, multi walled carbon nanotubes, Neisseria gonorrhea, spectrophotometer assay, Staphylococcus aureus

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8 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhea Crude Protein Injections with Intravenous, Intracutaneous, and Subcutaneous

Authors: Annisa Amalina, Lintang Sekar Sari, Khairunnisa Salsabila, Astya Gema Ramadhan, M. Fatkhi, Andani Eka Putra


Gonorrhea is one of the sexually transmitted diseases by genito-genital, oro-genital and anogenital. Gonorrhea disease will cause complications if not treated properly. The diagnostic tool that has been used nowadays is microscopic. Thus a rapid diagnostic tool for gonorrhea is required, using polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of injections of intravenous, subcutaneous and intracutaneous crude protein gonorrhea. The research method used in this research is experimental explorative. This research was conducted in Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University for 3 months from April to June 2017. This study used 3 groups of rabbit with intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous injections. Each group was treated on days 1, 7, 21, and 28 with crude protein injection. After that, the examination of antibody levels held by using ELISA, followed by the antibody comparative tests contained in all three groups. The results examined by One Way ANOVA test on SPSS 21 and showed that there is no significant difference between intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous use p=0.69 (p < 0.05). However, there is an increased level (0.047 to 1.171) in antibodies from day 1 to day 14. In addition, subcutaneous use is preferred because it has minimal side effects compared to intravenous and intracutaneous use.

Keywords: crude protein, Neisseria gonorrhea, polyclonal antibodies, subcutaneous

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7 Peculiarities of Microflora of Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes in the Central Kazakhstan Region

Authors: Aliya Tokbergenova, Maida Tusupbekova, Daulet Dzhangaliyev, Alena Lavrinenko


Background: Odontogenic phlegmons are ranked the first among pyoinflammatory processes in the frequency of hospitalization in maxillofacial surgery in the post-Soviet countries. The main role in etiology is played by obligate anaerobes and aerobes. According to numerous data, the structure of aerobic pathogens is dominated by staphylococci and gram-negative bacteria. Aim: The research aim is to study the microflora of the purulent discharge odontogenic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: A total of 220 patients have been examined, of which 120 patients aged 25-59 years have been included in the research who did not have comorbidity hospitalized in the maxillofacial hospital in Karaganda (Kazakhstan) from January 2016 to July 2017. The bacteriological research has been carried out on the basis of the multiaccess laboratory of the KSMU, through the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) apparatus. The material sample was pus from the inflammation focus, taken during the operating period. Results: According to the research among 120 patients (100%), 15 patients (12.5%) have had microorganisms not grown. From 105 (87.5%) bacteriological results, it has been revealed the following 1) Streptococcus: 51 (42.5%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 17 (14.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 12 (10%), Streptococcus anginosus: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus oralis: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus constellatus: 6 (5.0%); 2) Staphylococci: 27 (22.5%): Staphylococci aureus: 14 (11.7%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 13 (10.8%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 12 (10%); 4) Neisseria: 11 (9.1%): Neisseria mucosa: 5 (4.1%) and Neisseria macacae: 6 (5.0%); 5) Klebsiella pneumoniae: 2 (1.7%); 6) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: 2 (1.7%). 15 patients (12.5%) experienced complications in the form of 1) The dissemination of the process in 10 patients (8.4%). 2) Osteomyelitis in 3 (2.5%). 3) Mediastinitis in 1 (0.8%). 4) Sinusitis in 1 (0.8%). 15 patients (100%) were carried out repeated bacteriological examination, the following was revealed: 1) Streptococcus: 10 (66.7%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 4 (26.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus аnginosus: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus oralis: 1 (6.7%), Streptococcus constellatus: 1 (6.7%); 2) Staphylococci: 4 (26.7%): Staphylococci aureus: 3 (20%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 1 (6.7%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 1 (6.7%). Conclusions: Thus, according to our research data, streptococci predominate in the odontogenic processes microflora in aerobic flora in the central Kazakhstan region, which refutes the leading role of staphylococci in the development of odontogenic inflammatory processes, thus creating prerequisites for studying new treatment approaches.

Keywords: maxillofacial surgery, microflora, odontogenic phlegmons, pyo-inflammatory

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6 Prenatal Can Reduce the Burden of Preterm Birth and Low Birthweight from Maternal Sexually Transmitted Infections: US National Data

Authors: Anthony J. Kondracki, Bonzo I. Reddick, Jennifer L. Barkin


We sought to examine the association of maternal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and treponema pallidum (TP) (syphilis) infections with preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 grams) and prenatal care (PNC) attendance. This cross-sectional study was based on data drawn from the 2020 United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Natality File. We estimated the prevalence of all births, early/late PTBs, moderately/very LBW, and the distribution of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) according to maternal characteristics in the sample. In multivariable logistic regression models, we examined adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PTB and LBW subcategories in the association with maternal/infant characteristics, PNC status, and maternal CT, NG, and TP infections. In separate logistic regression models, we assessed the risk of these newborn outcomes stratified by PNC status. Adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, age, education, marital status, health insurance, liveborn parity, previous preterm birth, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, PNC status, smoking, and infant sex. Additionally, in a sensitivity analysis, we assessed the association with early, full, and late term births and the potential impact of unmeasured confounding using the E-value. CT (1.8%) was most prevalent STI in pregnancy, followed by NG (0.3%), and TP (0.1%). Non-Hispanic Black women, 20-24 years old, with a high school education, and on Medicaid had the highest rate of STIs. Around 96.6% of women reported receiving PNC and about 60.0% initiated PNC early in pregnancy. PTB and LBW were strongly associated with NG infection (12.2% and 12.1%, respectively) and late initiation/no PNC (8.5% and 7.6%, respectively), and ≤10 prenatal visits received (13.1% and 10.3%, respectively). The odds of PTB and LBW were 2.5- to 3-foldhigher for each STI among women who received ≤10 prenatal visits than >10 visits. Adequate prenatal care utilization and timely screening and treatment of maternal STIs can substantially reduce the burden of adverse newborn outcomes.

Keywords: low birthweight, prenatal care, preterm birth, sexually transmitted infections

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5 Risk Factors Associated with Outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis in Kano State- Nigeria, March-May 2017

Authors: Visa I. Tyakaray, M. Abdulaziz, O. Badmus, N. Karaye, M. Dalhat, A. Shehu, I. Bello, T. Hussaini, S. Akar, G. Effah, P. Nguku


Introduction: Nigeria has recorded outbreaks of meningitis in the past, being in the meningitis belt. A multi-state outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) from Neisseria meningitides occurred in 2017 involving 24 states, and Kano State reported its first two confirmed CSM cases on 22nd March, 2017. We conducted the outbreak investigation to characterize the outbreak, determine its associated risk factors and institute appropriate control measures. Method: We conducted an unmatched Case-control study with ratio 1:2. A case was defined as any person with sudden onset of fever (>38.5˚C rectal or 38.0˚C axillary) and one of the following: neck stiffness, altered consciousness or bulging fontanelle in toddlers while a control was defined as any person who resides around the case such as family members, caregivers, neighbors, and healthcare personnel. We reviewed and validated line list and conducted active case search in health facilities and neighboring communities. Descriptive, bivariate, stratified and multivariate analysis were performed. Laboratory confirmation was by Latex agglutination and/or Culture. Results: We recruited 48 cases with median age of 11 years (1 month – 65 years), attack rate was 2.4/100,000 population with case fatality rate of 8%; 34 of 44 local government areas were affected.On stratification, age was found to be a confounder. Independent factors associated with the outbreak were age (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR =6.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =2.85-15.180, history of Vaccination (AOR=0.37; 95% CI=0.13-0.99) and history of travel (AOR=10.16; (1.99-51.85). Laboratory results showed 22 positive cases for Neisseria meningitides types C and A/Y. Conclusion: Major risk factors associated with this outbreak were age (>14years), not being vaccinated and history of travel. We sensitized communities and strengthened case management. We recommended immediate reactive vaccination and enhanced surveillance in bordering communities.

Keywords: cerebrospinal, factors, Kano-Nigeria, meningitis, risk

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4 Absolute Quantification of the Bexsero Vaccine Component Factor H Binding Protein (fHbp) by Selected Reaction Monitoring: The Contribution of Mass Spectrometry in Vaccinology

Authors: Massimiliano Biagini, Marco Spinsanti, Gabriella De Angelis, Sara Tomei, Ilaria Ferlenghi, Maria Scarselli, Alessia Biolchi, Alessandro Muzzi, Brunella Brunelli, Silvana Savino, Marzia M. Giuliani, Isabel Delany, Paolo Costantino, Rino Rappuoli, Vega Masignani, Nathalie Norais


The gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) is an exclusively human pathogen representing the major cause of meningitides and severe sepsis in infants and children but also in young adults. This pathogen is usually present in the 30% of healthy population that act as a reservoir, spreading it through saliva and respiratory fluids during coughing, sneezing, kissing. Among surface-exposed protein components of this diplococcus, factor H binding protein is a lipoprotein proved to be a protective antigen used as a component of the recently licensed Bexsero vaccine. fHbp is a highly variable meningococcal protein: to reflect its remarkable sequence variability, it has been classified in three variants (or two subfamilies), and with poor cross-protection among the different variants. Furthermore, the level of fHbp expression varies significantly among strains, and this has also been considered an important factor for predicting MenB strain susceptibility to anti-fHbp antisera. Different methods have been used to assess fHbp expression on meningococcal strains, however, all these methods use anti-fHbp antibodies, and for this reason, the results are affected by the different affinity that antibodies can have to different antigenic variants. To overcome the limitations of an antibody-based quantification, we developed a quantitative Mass Spectrometry (MS) approach. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) recently emerged as a powerful MS tool for detecting and quantifying proteins in complex mixtures. SRM is based on the targeted detection of ProteoTypicPeptides (PTPs), which are unique signatures of a protein that can be easily detected and quantified by MS. This approach, proven to be highly sensitive, quantitatively accurate and highly reproducible, was used to quantify the absolute amount of fHbp antigen in total extracts derived from 105 clinical isolates, evenly distributed among the three main variant groups and selected to be representative of the fHbp circulating subvariants around the world. We extended the study at the genetic level investigating the correlation between the differential level of expression and polymorphisms present within the genes and their promoter sequences. The implications of fHbp expression on the susceptibility of the strain to killing by anti-fHbp antisera are also presented. To date this is the first comprehensive fHbp expression profiling in a large panel of Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates driven by an antibody-independent MS-based methodology, opening the door to new applications in vaccine coverage prediction and reinforcing the molecular understanding of released vaccines.

Keywords: quantitative mass spectrometry, Neisseria meningitidis, vaccines, bexsero, molecular epidemiology

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3 Genome-Wide Mining of Potential Guide RNAs for Streptococcus pyogenes and Neisseria meningitides CRISPR-Cas Systems for Genome Engineering

Authors: Farahnaz Sadat Golestan Hashemi, Mohd Razi Ismail, Mohd Y. Rafii


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system can facilitate targeted genome editing in organisms. Dual or single guide RNA (gRNA) can program the Cas9 nuclease to cut target DNA in particular areas; thus, introducing concise mutations either via error-prone non-homologous end-joining repairing or via incorporating foreign DNAs by homologous recombination between donor DNA and target area. In spite of high demand of such promising technology, developing a well-organized procedure in order for reliable mining of potential target sites for gRNAs in large genomic data is still challenging. Hence, we aimed to perform high-throughput detection of target sites by specific PAMs for not only common Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) but also for Neisseria meningitides (NmCas9) CRISPR-Cas systems. Previous research confirmed the successful application of such RNA-guided Cas9 orthologs for effective gene targeting and subsequently genome manipulation. However, Cas9 orthologs need their particular PAM sequence for DNA cleavage activity. Activity levels are based on the sequence of the protospacer and specific combinations of favorable PAM bases. Therefore, based on the specific length and sequence of PAM followed by a constant length of the target site for the two orthogonals of Cas9 protein, we created a reliable procedure to explore possible gRNA sequences. To mine CRISPR target sites, four different searching modes of sgRNA binding to target DNA strand were applied. These searching modes are as follows i) coding strand searching, ii) anti-coding strand searching, iii) both strand searching, and iv) paired-gRNA searching. Finally, a complete list of all potential gRNAs along with their locations, strands, and PAMs sequence orientation can be provided for both SpCas9 as well as another potential Cas9 ortholog (NmCas9). The artificial design of potential gRNAs in a genome of interest can accelerate functional genomic studies. Consequently, the application of such novel genome editing tool (CRISPR/Cas technology) will enhance by presenting increased versatility and efficiency.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, gRNA mining, SpCas9, NmCas9

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2 Prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as Causative Agents of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis in Men and Determination of Anti-Bacterial Resistance Rates

Authors: Recep Keşli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as the causative agents in men with non-gonococcal urethtritis, and anti-bacterial resistance rates. Methods: The Study was carried out in the two Medical Microbiology Laboratories belonging to: Konya Education and Research Hospital and ANS Practice and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, between January 2012 and December 2015. Urethral samples were obtained from patients by using a swab. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected by using Mycoplasma IST-2 kit (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France). Neisseria gonorrhoea was excluded by Gram staining and culture methods. Results: Of all the one hundred and eighty-eight male patients with urethritis, forty M. hominis and forty two U. urealyticum were detected. Resistance rates of M. hominis strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 5 %, 65 %, 25 %, 5 %, 80 %, 20 %, 20 %, 20 %, 5 %, respectively. Resistance rates of U. urealyticum strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 4.7 %, 66.6 %, 23.8 %, 4.75 %, 81 %, 19 %, 19 %, 4.7 % respectively. No resistance was detected against to josamycin, for both the strains. Conclusions: It was concluded that; ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin had the weakest; josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline had the strongest in vitro anti-bacterial activity, for treatment of the NGU. So josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline should be preferred as the first choice of anti-bacterial agents, for treatment of the patients with non-gonococcal male urethritis.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Mycoplasma hominis, non-gonococcal urethritis, Ureaplasma urealyticum

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1 Bacterial Exposure and Microbial Activity in Dental Clinics during Cleaning Procedures

Authors: Atin Adhikari, Sushma Kurella, Pratik Banerjee, Nabanita Mukherjee, Yamini M. Chandana Gollapudi, Bushra Shah


Different sharp instruments, drilling machines, and high speed rotary instruments are routinely used in dental clinics during dental cleaning. Therefore, these cleaning procedures release a lot of oral microorganisms including bacteria in clinic air and may cause significant occupational bioaerosol exposure risks for dentists, dental hygienists, patients, and dental clinic employees. Two major goals of this study were to quantify volumetric airborne concentrations of bacteria and to assess overall microbial activity in this type of occupational environment. The study was conducted in several dental clinics of southern Georgia and 15 dental cleaning procedures were targeted for sampling of airborne bacteria and testing of overall microbial activity in settled dusts over clinic floors. For air sampling, a Biostage viable cascade impactor was utilized, which comprises an inlet cone, precision-drilled 400-hole impactor stage, and a base that holds an agar plate (Tryptic soy agar). A high-flow Quick-Take-30 pump connected to this impactor pulls microorganisms in air at 28.3 L/min flow rate through the holes (jets) where they are collected on the agar surface for approx. five minutes. After sampling, agar plates containing the samples were placed in an ice chest with blue ice and plates were incubated at 30±2°C for 24 to 72 h. Colonies were counted and converted to airborne concentrations (CFU/m3) followed by positive hole corrections. Most abundant bacterial colonies (selected by visual screening) were identified by PCR amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. For understanding overall microbial activity in clinic floors and estimating a general cleanliness of the clinic surfaces during or after dental cleaning procedures, ATP levels were determined in swabbed dust samples collected from 10 cm2 floor surfaces. Concentration of ATP may indicate both the cell viability and the metabolic status of settled microorganisms in this situation. An ATP measuring kit was used, which utilized standard luciferin-luciferase fluorescence reaction and a luminometer, which quantified ATP levels as relative light units (RLU). Three air and dust samples were collected during each cleaning procedure (at the beginning, during cleaning, and immediately after the procedure was completed (n = 45). Concentrations at the beginning, during, and after dental cleaning procedures were 671±525, 917±1203, and 899±823 CFU/m3, respectively for airborne bacteria and 91±101, 243±129, and 139±77 RLU/sample, respectively for ATP levels. The concentrations of bacteria were significantly higher than typical indoor residential environments. Although an increasing trend for airborne bacteria was observed during cleaning, the data collected at three different time points were not significantly different (ANOVA: p = 0.38) probably due to high standard deviations of data. The ATP levels, however, demonstrated a significant difference (ANOVA: p <0.05) in this scenario indicating significant change in microbial activity on floor surfaces during dental cleaning. The most common bacterial genera identified were: Neisseria sp., Streptococcus sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Paenisporosarcina sp., and Vibrio sp. in terms of frequencies of occurrences, respectively. The study concluded that bacterial exposure in dental clinics could be a notable occupational biohazard, and appropriate respiratory protections for the employees are urgently needed.

Keywords: bioaerosols, hospital hygiene, indoor air quality, occupational biohazards

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