Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Abhinav Kaushik

44 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of 120 Families with Sporadic Juvenile Onset Open Angle Glaucoma

Authors: Bindu I. Somarajan, Viney Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Jasbir Kaur, Sunil Kumar, Shikha Gupta, Abadh K. Chaurasia, Dinesh Gupa, Abhinav Kaushik, Aditi Mehta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma


Background: Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG), affects individuals under the age of 40 years. Studies on a few families of JOAG, that led to the discovery of the Myocilin gene, reported the disease to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, sporadic forms of JOAG been seen to be more common in some populations. Most pathological homozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene associated with JOAG have been seen among sporadic cases. Given the higher prevalence of sporadic JOAG cases in our population, we aimed to look for common mutations E229K and R368H, the two most common variants in the CYP1B1 gene associated with glaucoma. Objective: To determine the frequency and evaluate genotype phenotype correlation of CYP1B1 E229K and R368H mutations in a cohort of 120 sporadic Juvenile open angle glaucoma patients.Methods: Unrelated JOAG patients whose first degree relatives had been examined and found to be unaffected were included in the study. The patients and their parents were screened for E229K and R368H mutations. The phenotypic characteristics were compared between probands with and with out these mutations by SPSS v16. Results: Out of 120 JOAG patients included in the study, the E229K mutation was seen in 9 probands (7.5%) and R368H in 7 (5.8%). The average age of onset of the disease (p=0.3) and the highest untreated IOP (p=0.4) among those carrying mutations was not significantly different from those who did not have these mutations. The proportion of probands with angle dysgenesis among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 70% (11 out of 16) in comparison to 65% (67 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations (p=0.56). Similarly the probands with moderate to high myopia among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 20% (3 out of 16) in comparison to 18% (18 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations(p=0.59). Conclusion: The frequency of E229K and R368H mutations of the CYP1B1 gene is low even among sporadic JOAG patients. Moreover there is no clinical correlation between the presence of these mutations and disease severity

Keywords: CYP1B1, gene, IOP, JOAG, mutation

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43 Impact of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Body Composition Analysis of Women during Perimenopause: A Framework for Action

Authors: Varsha Chorsiya, Pooja Aneja, Dhananjay Kaushik, Abhinav Yadav


Intoduction: Women’s Health Initiatives (WHI) focuses on defining the risks and benefits of strategies that could potentially reduce the incidence of obesity, heart disease, breast cancer and colorectal cancer, and fractures in menopause women. The utility of the present research work determines to find the role of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in changing the different component of body composition during perimenopause period. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study included 30 subjects, aged between 40 and 50 years which were assigned into 2 groups i.e. 15 subjects in HRT (Group A) and 15 subjects in non-HRT (Group B). The subjects were taken from the hospitals and clinics of Faridabad undergoing HRT in supervision of the consultant gynecologist. The informed consents were signed before including the participants in the study. The body composition and lipid profile were evaluated for all the subjects. Result and Discussion: The BMI, body density, percent body fats and fat mass in both groups showed statistically significant differences i.e. p < 0.05. Our study did not reveal any statistically significant difference between non-HRT and HRT for lipid profile composition of HDL, LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol although these indicators (LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol) showed difference clinically with a higher mean values for non-HRT as compared to HRT group. The mean value for HDL was higher for HRT group in contrast to non-HRT group. The result clearly showed that HRT group has a good lipid profile composition. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data show that HRT has statistically significant role in determining BMI, fat percent mass and fat mass. The lipid profile including LDL, HDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol found to be clinically better in HRT group as compared to the non-HRT group. The rationale for non-significant lipid profile probably lie in the fact that hormonal changes need a particular time period and might become significant in post-menopausal period.

Keywords: body composition, hormone replacement therapy, perimenopause, women health

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42 Influence of Initial Stress and Corrugation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezomagnetic Half-Space

Authors: Abhinav Singhal, Sanjeev A. Sahu


Propagation of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an initially stressed piezomagnetic half- space with irregular boundary is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The dispersion relations have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of initial stress and corrugation have been shown graphically. It is also found that piezomagnetic material properties have an important effect on wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezomagnetic materials.

Keywords: corrugation, frequency equation, piezomagnetic, rayleigh-type wave

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41 Layersomes for Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

Authors: A. C. Rana, Abhinav Singh Rana


Layer by layer coating of biocompatible polyelectrolytes converts the liposomes into stable version i.e 'layersomes'. This system was further used to deliver the Amphotericin B through the oral route. Extensive optimization of different process variables resulted in the formation of layersomes with the particle size of 238.4±5.1, PDI of 0.24±0.16, the zeta potential of 34.6±1.3, and entrapment efficiency of 71.3±1.2. TEM analysis further confirmed the formation of spherical particles. Trehalose (10% w/w) resulted in the formation of fluffy and easy to redisperse cake in freeze dried layersomes. Controlled release up to 50 % within 24 h was observed in the case of layersomes. The layersomes were found stable in simulated biological fluids and resulted in the 3.59 fold higher bioavailability in comparison to free Amp-B. Furthermore, the developed formulation was found to be safe in comparison to Fungizone as indicated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine level.

Keywords: amphotericin B, layersomes, liposomes, toxicity

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40 Geared Turbofan with Water Alcohol Technology

Authors: Abhinav Purohit, Shruthi S. Pradeep


In today’s world, aviation industries are using turbofan engines (permutation of turboprop and turbojet) which meet the obligatory requirements to be fuel competent and to produce enough thrust to propel an aircraft. But one can imagine increasing the work output of this particular machine by reducing the input power. In striving to improve technologies, especially to augment the efficiency of the engine with some adaptations, which can be crooked to new concepts by introducing a step change in the turbofan engine development. One hopeful concept is, to de-couple the fan with the help of reduction gear box in a two spool shaft engine from the rest of the machinery to get more work output with maximum efficiency by reducing the load on the turbine shaft. By adapting this configuration we can get an additional degree of freedom to better optimize each component at different speeds. Since the components are running at different speeds we can get hold of preferable efficiency. Introducing water alcohol mixture to this concept would really help to get better results.

Keywords: emissions, fuel consumption, more power, turbofan

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39 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg


The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

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38 Bi-Criteria Objective Network Design Model for Multi Period Multi Product Green Supply Chain

Authors: Shahul Hamid Khan, S. Santhosh, Abhinav Kumar Sharma


Environmental performance along with social performance is becoming vital factors for industries to achieve global standards. With a good environmental policy global industries are differentiating them from their competitors. This paper concentrates on multi stage, multi product and multi period manufacturing network. Bi-objective mathematical models for total cost and total emission for the entire forward supply chain are considered. Here five different problems are considered by varying the number of suppliers, manufacturers, and environmental levels, for illustrating the taken mathematical model. GA, and Random search are used for finding the optimal solution. The input parameters of the optimal solution are used to find the tradeoff between the initial investment by the industry and the long term benefit of the environment.

Keywords: closed loop supply chain, genetic algorithm, random search, green supply chain

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37 Ground State Properties of Neutron Magic Isotones

Authors: G. Saxena, M. Kaushik


In the present investigation, we have employed RMF+BCS (relativistic mean-field plus BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of the entire chains of even-even neutron magic nuclei represented by isotones of traditional neutron magic numbers N = 8, 20, 40, 50, 82, and 126. The main body of the results of our calculations includes the binding energy, deformation, two proton separation energies, rms radii of the proton and neutron distributions as well as the proton and neutron density profiles etc. Several of these results have been given in the form of a series of graphs for a ready reference. In addition, the possible locations of the proton and neutron drip-lines as well as the (Z,N) values for the shell closures as suggested by the detailed analyzes of the single particle spectra, and the two proton and two-neutron separation energies for the different isotonic chains are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: relativistic mean field theory, neutron magic nuclei, shell closure, separation energy, deformation

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36 An Investigation of the Strength Deterioration of Forged Aluminum 6082 (T6) Alloy

Authors: Rajveer, Abhinav Saxena, Sanjeev Das


The study is focused on the strength of forged aluminum alloy (AA) 6082 (T6). Aluminum alloy 6082 belongs to Al-Mg-Si family which has a wide range of automotive applications. A decrease in the strength of AA 6082 alloy was observed after T6 treatment. The as-received (extruded), forged, and forged + heat treated samples were examined to understand the reason. These examinations were accomplished by optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It was observed that the defects had an insignificant effect on the alloy strength. The alloy samples were subjected to age hardening treatment and the time to achieve peak hardening was acquired. Standard tensile specimens were prepared from as-received (extruded), forged, forged + solutionized and forged + solutionized + age hardened. Tensile tests were conducted by Instron universal testing machine. It was observed that there was a significant drop in tensile strength in the case of solutionized sample. The detailed study of the fracture samples showed that the solutionizing after forging was not the best way to increase the strength of Al 6082 alloy.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 6082, strength, forging, age hardening

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35 An Innovative Auditory Impulsed EEG and Neural Network Based Biometric Identification System

Authors: Ritesh Kumar, Gitanjali Chhetri, Mandira Bhatia, Mohit Mishra, Abhijith Bailur, Abhinav


The prevalence of the internet and technology in our day to day lives is creating more security issues than ever. The need for protecting and providing a secure access to private and business data has led to the development of many security systems. One of the potential solutions is to employ the bio-metric authentication technique. In this paper we present an innovative biometric authentication method that utilizes a person’s EEG signal, which is acquired in response to an auditory stimulus,and transferred wirelessly to a computer that has the necessary ANN algorithm-Multi layer perceptrol neural network because of is its ability to differentiate between information which is not linearly separable.In order to determine the weights of the hidden layer we use Gaussian random weight initialization. MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called Back propagation for training the network. The complex algorithm used for EEG classification reduces the chances of intrusion into the protected public or private data.

Keywords: EEG signal, auditory evoked potential, biometrics, multilayer perceptron neural network, back propagation rule, Gaussian random weight initialization

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34 Chlorine Pretreatment Effect on Mechanical Properties of Optical Fiber Glass

Authors: Abhinav Srivastava, Hima Harode, Chandan Kumar Saha


The principal ingredient of an optical fiber is quartz glass. The quality of the optical fiber decreases if impure foreign substances are attached to its preform surface. If residual strain inside a preform is significant, it cracks with a small impact during drawing or transporting. Furthermore, damages and unevenness on the surface of an optical fiber base material break the fiber during drawing. The present work signifies that chlorine pre-treatment enhances mechanical properties of the optical fiber glass. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) results show that chlorine gas chemically modifies the structure of silica clad; chlorine is known to soften glass. Metallic impurities on the preform surface likely formed volatile metal chlorides due to chlorine pretreatment at elevated temperature. The chlorine also acts as a drying agent, and therefore the preform surface is anticipated to be water deficient and supposedly avoids particle adhesion on the glass surface. The Weibull analysis of long length tensile strength demarcates a substantial shift in its knee. The higher dynamic fatigue n-value also indicated surface crack healing.

Keywords: mechanical strength, optical fiber glass, FTIR, Weibull analysis

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33 Study of Fire Propagation and Soot Flow in a Pantry Car of Railway Locomotive

Authors: Juhi Kaushik, Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das


Fire accidents in trains bring huge disaster to human life and property. Evacuation becomes a major challenge in such incidents owing to confined spaces, large passenger density and trains moving at high speeds. The pantry car in Indian Railways trains carry inflammable materials like cooking fuel and LPG and electrical fittings. The pantry car is therefore highly susceptible to fire accidents. Numerical simulations have been done in a pantry car of Indian locomotive train using computational fluid dynamics based software. Different scenarios of a fire outbreak have been explored by varying Heat Release Rate per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the fire source, introduction of exhaust in the cooking area, and taking a case of an air conditioned pantry car. Temporal statures of flame and soot have been obtained for each scenario and differences have been studied and reported. Inputs from this study can be used to assess casualties in fire accidents in locomotive trains and development of smoke control/detection systems in Indian trains.

Keywords: fire propagation, flame contour, pantry fire, soot flow

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32 Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Potential for HVAC System in Commercial Buildings Sector in India

Authors: Rishabh Agrawal, S. C. Kaushik, T. S. Bhatti


In order to reduce energy consumption for sustainable development, continuous energy consumption tracking of building energy systems are essential. In this paper an assessment study has been done to identify the energy consumption & energy conservation potential for commercial buildings sector in Karnataka state, India. There are a total of 326 commercial buildings in the state of Karnataka who has qualified as designated consumers (i.e., having a Contract Demand ≥ 600 KVA), was consider for the study. It has estimated that the annual electricity sale to commercial sector is 3.62 Billion Units (BU) in alone Karnataka State, India, which is an account for 9.57 % of the total electricity sold. The commercial sector constitutes Government & private establishments, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, educational institutions, malls etc. Total 326 commercial buildings in the state accounting for annual energy consumption of 1295.72 Million Units (MU) which works out to about 35% of the sectoral consumption. The annual energy savings potential for 326 commercial buildings is assessed to be 0.25 BU.

Keywords: commercial buildings, connected load, energy conservation studies, energy savings, energy efficiency, energy conservation strategy, energy efficiency, thermal energy, HVAC system

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31 Carbon Capture and Storage: Prospects in India

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg


The demand of energy is increasing at every part of the world. Thus, use of fossil fuel is efficient which results in large liberation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Tons of this CO2 raises the risk of dangerous climate changes. To minimize the risk carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be used so that the emitted carbon dioxide do not reach the atmosphere. CCS is being considered as one of the options that could have a major role to play in India.With the growing awareness towards the global warming, carbon capture and sequestration has a great importance. New technologies and theories are in use to capture CO2. This paper contains the methodology and technologies that is in use to capture carbon dioxide in India. The present scenario of CCS is also being discussed. CCS is playing a major role in enhancing recovery of oil (ERO). Both the purpose 1) minimizing percentage of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and 2) enhancing recovery of oil are fulfilled from the CCS. The CO2 is usually captured from coal based power plant and from some industrial sources and then stored in the geological formations like oil and gas reservoir and deep aquifers or in oceans. India has large reservoirs of coal which are being used for storing CO2, as coal is a good absorbent of CO2. New technologies and studies are going on for injection purposes. Government has initiated new plans for CCS as CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive. A discussion is done on new schemes that should bring up CCS plans and approaches. Stakeholders are welcomed for suitability of CCS. There is still a need to potentially capture the CO2 and avail its storage in developing country like India.

Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), enhance oil recovery, geological formations, stakeholders

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30 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw


Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: Indian male youth, longitudinal, length dimensions, physical conditioning

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29 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik


Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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28 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Sandip Shrestha, Ann M. Donoghue, Komala Arsi, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Dan J. Donoghue


Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, carvcrol, chicken skin, postharvest

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27 High-Speed Imaging and Acoustic Measurements of Dual-frequency Ultrasonic Processing of Graphite in Water

Authors: Justin Morton, Mohammad Khavari, Abhinav Priyadarshi, Nicole Grobert, Dmitry G. Eskin, Jiawei Mi, Kriakos Porfyrakis, Paul Prentice


Ultrasonic cavitation is used for various processes and applications. Recently, ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation has been implemented to produce two dimensional nanomaterials. Depending on parameters such as input transducer power and the operational frequency used to induce the cavitation, bubble dynamics can be controlled and optimised. Using ultra-high-speed imagining and acoustic pressure measurements, a dual-frequency systemand its effect on bubble dynamics was investigated. A high frequency transducer (1.174 MHz) showed that bubble fragments and satellite bubbles induced from a low frequency transducer (24 kHz) were able to extend their lifecycle. In addition, this combination of ultrasonic frequencies generated higher acoustic emissions (∼24%) than the sum of the individual transducers. The dual-frequency system also produced an increase in cavitation zone size of∼3 times compared to the low frequency sonotrode. Furthermore, the high frequency induced cavitation bubbleswere shown to rapidly oscillate, although remained stable and did not transiently collapse, even in the presence of a low pressure field. Finally, the spatial distribution of satellite and fragment bubbles from the sonotrode were shown to increase, extending the active cavitation zone. These observations elucidated the benefits of using a dual-frequency system for generating nanomaterials with the aid of ultrasound, in deionised water.

Keywords: dual-frequency, cavitation, bubble dynamics, graphene

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26 Heritage Buildings an Inspiration for Energy Conservation under Solar Control – a Case Study of Hadoti Region of India.

Authors: Abhinav Chaturvedi, Joohi Chaturvedi, Renu Chaturvedi


With rapid urbanization and growth of population, more buildings are require to be constructed to meet the increasing demand of the shelter. 80 % of the world population is living in developing countries, but the adequate energy supplied to only 30% of it. In India situation get little more difficult as majority of the villages of India are still deprived of energy. 1/3 of the Indian household does not have energy supply. So there is big gap between energy demand and supply. Moreover India is producing around 65 % of the energy from Non – Renewable sources and 25 % of the Energy is imported in the form of oil and gas and only 10% of the total, is generated from other sources like solar power, wind power etc. Present modern structures are big energy consumers as they are consuming 40 % of the total energy in providing comfort conditions to the users, in from of heating and cooling,5 % in Building Construction, 20 % in transportation and 20 % in industrial process and 10 % in other processes. If we minimize this Heating and Cooling and lighting load of the building we can conserve huge amount of energy for the future. In history, buildings do not have artificial systems of cooling or heating. These buildings, especially in Hadoti Region which have Semi Arid Climatic conditions, are provided with Solar Passive Design Techniques that is the reason of comfort inside the buildings. So if we use some appropriate elements of these heritage structures, in our present age building design we can find some certain solution to energy crises. Present paper describes Various Solar Passive design techniques used in past, and the same could be used in present to reduce the consumption of energy.

Keywords: energy conservation, Hadoti region, solar passive design techniques , semi - arid climatic condition

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25 The Scope and Effectiveness of Interactive Voice Response Technologies in Post-Operative Care

Authors: Zanib Nafees, Amir Razaghizad, Ibtisam Mahmoud, Abhinav Sharma, Renzo Cecere


More than one million surgeries are performed each year in Canada, resulting in more than 100,000 associated serious adverse events (SAEs) per year. These are defined as unintended injuries or complications that adversely affect the well-being of patients. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of digital health interventions that have the potential to assist, monitor, and educate patients—facilitating self-care following post-operative discharge. Among digital health, interventions are interactive-voice response technologies (IVRs), which have been shown to be highly effective in certain medical settings. Although numerous IVR-based interventions have been developed, their effectiveness and utility remain unclear, notably in post-operative settings. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic or scoping reviews have evaluated this topic to date. Thus, the objective of this scoping review protocol is to systematically map and explore the literature and evidence describing and examining IVR tools, implementation, evaluation, outcome, and experience for post-operative patients. The focus will be primarily on the evaluation of baseline performance status, clinical assessment, treatment outcomes, and patient management, including self-management and self-monitoring. The objective of this scoping review is to assess the extent of the literature to direct future research efforts by identifying gaps and limitations in the literature and to highlight relevant determinants of positive outcomes in the emerging field of IVR monitoring for health outcomes in post-operative patients.

Keywords: digital healthcare technologies, post-surgery, interactive voice technology, interactive voice response

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24 Investigation of Flame and Soot Propagation in Non-Air Conditioned Railway Locomotives

Authors: Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Juhi Kaushik, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das


Propagation of fire through a non-air conditioned railway compartment is studied by virtue of numerical simulations. Simultaneous computational fire dynamics equations, such as Navier-Stokes, lumped species continuity, overall mass and energy conservation, and heat transfer are solved using finite volume based (for radiation) and finite difference based (for all other equations) solver, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). A single coupe with an eight berth occupancy is used to establish the numerical model, followed by the selection of a three coupe system as the fundamental unit of the locomotive compartment. Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the initial fire is varied to consider a wide range of compartmental fires. Parameters, such as air inlet velocity relative to the locomotive at the windows, the level of interaction with the ambiance and closure of middle berth are studied through a wide range of numerical simulations. Almost all the loss of lives and properties due to fire breakout can be attributed to the direct or indirect exposure to flames or to the inhalation of toxic gases and resultant suffocation due to smoke and soot. Therefore, the temporal stature of fire and smoke are reported for each of the considered cases which can be used in the present or extended form to develop guidelines to be followed in case of a fire breakout.

Keywords: fire dynamics, flame propagation, locomotive fire, soot flow pattern, non-air-conditioned coaches

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23 Evaluation of Efficiency of Naturally Available Disinfectants and Filter Media in Conventional Gravity Filters

Authors: Abhinav Mane, Kedar Karvande, Shubham Patel, Abhayraj Lodha


Gravity filters are one of the most commonly used, economically viable and moderately efficient water purification systems. Their efficiency is mainly based on the type of filter media installed and its location within the filter mass. Several researchers provide valuable input in decision of the type of filter media. However, the choice is mainly restricted to the chemical combinations of different substances. This makes it very much dependent on the factory made filter media, and no cheap alternatives could be found and used. This paper presents the use of disinfectants and filter medias either available naturally or could be prepared using natural resources in conventional mechanism of gravity filter. A small scale laboratory investigation was made with variation in filter media thickness and its location from the top surface of the filter. A rigid steel frame based custom fabricated test setup was used to facilitate placement of filter media at different height within the filter mass. Finely grinded sun dried Neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts and porous burnt clay pads were used as two distinct filter media and placed in isolation as well as in combination with each other. Ground water available in Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India which mainly consists of harmful materials like Arsenic, Chlorides, Iron, Magnesium and Manganese, etc. was treated in the filters fabricated in the present study. The evaluation was made mainly in terms of the input/output water quality assessment through laboratory tests. The present paper should give a cheap and eco-friendly solution to prepare gravity filter at the merit of household skills and availability.

Keywords: fliter media, gravity filters, natural disinfectants, porous clay pads

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22 Trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress among Breast Cancer Patients: Assessment at First Year of Diagnosis

Authors: Jyoti Srivastava, Sandhya S. Kaushik, Mallika Tewari, Hari S. Shukla


Little information is available about the development of psychological well being over time among women who have been undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the trajectories of depression anxiety and stress among women with early-stage breast cancer. Of the 48 Indian women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer recruited from surgical oncology unit, 39 completed an interview and were assessed for depression anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-DASS 21) before their first course of chemotherapy (baseline) and follow up interviews at 3, 6 and 9 months thereafter. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress symptoms. Logistic Regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in distinct groups. Most women showed mild to moderate level of depression and anxiety (68%) while normal to mild level of stress (71%). But one in 11 women was chronically anxious (9%) and depressed (9%). Young age, having a partner, shorter education and receiving chemotherapy but not radiotherapy might characterize women whose psychological symptoms remain strong nine months after diagnosis. By looking beyond the mean, it was found that several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose depression, anxiety and stress level remained severe even nine months after diagnosis. The results suggest that support provided to cancer patients should have a special focus on a relatively small group of patient most in need.

Keywords: psychological well being, growth mixture modeling, logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors

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21 Percentage Change in the Selected Skinfold Measurements of Male Students of University of Delhi Due to Progressive and Constant Load of Physical Training

Authors: Seema Kaushik


Skinfold measurements provide considerably meaningful and consistent information about subcutaneous fat and its distribution. Physical activities in the form of conditioning and/or training leads to various structural, functional and mechanical changes and numerous training programmes exist for the improvement of physical fitness, however, most of the studies are conducted on foreign soil with foreign population as sample, which may/may not be applicable to the Indian conditions. Moreover, there is not even a single training/ conditioning programme that caters to the need of male students of University of Delhi with regard to various skinfold thickness measurements. Hence, the present study aimed at studying the effect of progressive and constant load training on selected skinfold measurements of male students of University of Delhi in form of percentage change. The sample size for the study was 90 having three groups of male; 30 samples in each group (mean age = 20.04±0.49 years). The variables included triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and calf skinfolds. The experimental design adopted for the study was multi-group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times repeatedly at an interval of 6 weeks, on completion of each of the three meso-cycles. Standard landmarks and protocols were followed to measure the selected variables. Mean, standard deviation and percentage were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the skinfold thickness measurements of male students of University of Delhi.

Keywords: constant load, progressive load, physical training, skinfold measurements

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20 Design and Radio Frequency Characterization of Radial Reentrant Narrow Gap Cavity for the Inductive Output Tube

Authors: Meenu Kaushik, Ayon K. Bandhoyadhayay, Lalit M. Joshi


Inductive output tubes (IOTs) are widely used as microwave power amplifiers for broadcast and scientific applications. It is capable of amplifying radio frequency (RF) power with very good efficiency. Its compactness, reliability, high efficiency, high linearity and low operating cost make this device suitable for various applications. The device consists of an integrated structure of electron gun and RF cavity, collector and focusing structure. The working principle of IOT is a combination of triode and klystron. The cathode lies in the electron gun produces a stream of electrons. A control grid is placed in close proximity to the cathode. Basically, the input part of IOT is the integrated structure of gridded electron gun which acts as an input cavity thereby providing the interaction gap where the input RF signal is applied to make it interact with the produced electron beam for supporting the amplification phenomena. The paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a radial re-entrant cavity for implementing in the input structure of IOT at 350 MHz operating frequency. The model’s suitability has been discussed and a generalized mathematical relation has been introduced for getting the proper transverse magnetic (TM) resonating mode in the radial narrow gap RF cavities. The structural modeling has been carried out in CST and SUPERFISH codes. The cavity is fabricated with the Aluminum material and the RF characterization is done using vector network analyzer (VNA) and the results are presented for the resonant frequency peaks obtained in VNA.

Keywords: inductive output tubes, IOT, radial cavity, coaxial cavity, particle accelerators

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19 Numerical Simulations of Fire in Typical Air Conditioned Railway Coach

Authors: Manoj Sarda, Abhishek Agarwal, Juhi Kaushik, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das


Railways in India remain primary mode of transport having one of the largest networks in the world and catering to billions of transits yearly. Catastrophic economic damage and loss to life is encountered over the past few decades due to fire to locomotives. Study of fire dynamics and fire propagation plays an important role in evacuation planning and reducing losses. Simulation based study of propagation of fire and soot inside an air conditioned coach of Indian locomotive is done in this paper. Finite difference based solver, Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) version 6 has been used for analysis. A single air conditioned 3 tier coupe closed to ambient surroundings by glass windows having occupancy for 8 people is the basic unit of the domain. A system of three such coupes combined is taken to be fundamental unit for the entire study to resemble effect to an entire coach. Analysis of flame and soot contours and concentrations is done corresponding to variations in heat release rate per unit volume (HRRPUA) of fire source, variations in conditioned air velocity being circulated inside coupes by vents and an alternate fire initiation and propagation mechanism via ducts. Quantitative results of fractional area in top and front view of the three coupes under fire and smoke are obtained using MATLAB (IMT). Present simulations and its findings will be useful for organizations like Commission of Railway Safety and others in designing and implementing safety and evacuation measures.

Keywords: air conditioned coaches, fire propagation, flame contour, soot flow, train fire

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18 Effect of Retention Time on Kitchen Wastewater Treatment Using Mixed Algal-Bacterial Consortia

Authors: Keerthi Katam, Abhinav B. Tirunaghari, Vinod Vadithya, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Soda, Debraj Bhattacharyya


Researchers worldwide are increasingly focusing on the removal of carbon and nutrient from wastewater using algal-bacterial hybrid systems. Algae produce oxygen during photosynthesis, which is taken up by heterotrophic bacteria for mineralizing organic carbon to carbon dioxide. This phenomenon reduces the net mechanical aeration requirement of aerobic biological wastewater treatment processes. Consequently, the treatment cost is also reduced. Microalgae also participate in the treatment process by taking up nutrient (N, P) from wastewater. Algal biomass, if harvested, can generate value-added by-products. The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of two systems - System A (mixed microalgae and bacteria) and System B (diatoms and bacteria) in treating kitchen wastewater (KWW). The test reactors were operated at five different solid retention times (SRTs) -2, 4, 6, 8, and 10-days in draw-and-fill mode. The KWW was collected daily from the dining hall-kitchen area of the Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad. The influent and effluent samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) using TOC-L analyzer. A colorimetric method was used to analyze anionic surfactant. Phosphorus (P) and chlorophyll were measured by following standard methods. The TOC, TN, and P of KWW were in the range of 113.5 to 740 mg/L, 2 to 22.8 mg/L, and 1 to 4.5 mg/L, respectively. Both the systems gave similar results with 85% of TOC removal and 60% of TN removal at 10-d SRT. However, the anionic surfactant removal in System A was 99% and 60% in System B. The chlorophyll concentration increased with an increase in SRT in both the systems. At 2-d SRT, no chlorophyll was observed in System B, whereas 0.5 mg/L was observed in System A. At 10-d SRT, the chlorophyll concentration in System A was 7.5 mg/L, whereas it was 4.5 mg/L in System B. Although both the systems showed similar performance in treatment, the increase in chlorophyll concentration suggests that System A demonstrated a better algal-bacterial symbiotic relationship in treating KWW than System B.

Keywords: diatoms, microalgae, retention time, wastewater treatment

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17 Biophysical Characterization of Archaeal Cyclophilin Like Chaperone Protein

Authors: Vineeta Kaushik, Manisha Goel


Chaperones are proteins that help other proteins fold correctly, and are found in all domains of life i.e., prokaryotes, eukaryotes and archaea. Various comparative genomic studies have suggested that the archaeal protein folding machinery appears to be highly similar to that found in eukaryotes. In case of protein folding; slow rotation of peptide prolyl-imide bond is often the rate limiting step. Formation of the prolyl-imide bond during the folding of a protein requires the assistance of other proteins, termed as peptide prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). Cyclophilins constitute the class of peptide prolyl isomerases with a wide range of biological function like protein folding, signaling and chaperoning. Most of the cyclophilins exhibit PPIase enzymatic activity and play active role in substrate protein folding which classifies them as a category of molecular chaperones. Till date, there is not very much data available in the literature on archaeal cyclophilins. We aim to compare the structural and biochemical features of the cyclophilin protein from within the three domains to elucidate the features affecting their stability and enzyme activity. In the present study, we carry out in-silico analysis of the cyclophilin proteins to predict their conserved residues, sites under positive selection and compare these proteins to their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts to predict functional divergence. We also aim to clone and express these proteins in heterologous system and study their biophysical characteristics in detail using techniques like CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Overall we aim to understand the features contributing to the folding, stability and dynamics of the archaeal cyclophilin proteins.

Keywords: biophysical characterization, x-ray crystallography, chaperone-like activity, cyclophilin, PPIase activity

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16 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: G. Kaushik, A. Gupta, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Kumar, S. Sagar


Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: road traffic injuries, alcohol, trauma, emergency department

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15 Variability of Covariance of Selected Skeletal Diameters of Female in a Longitudinal Physical Training Programme

Authors: Dhananjoy Shaw, Seema Sharma (Kaushik)


Anthropometry helps in associating the physical properties of an individual with their racial, cultural, and psychological attributes. Numerous research studies have included different skeletal diameters as a variable. However, most of the studies suggest their inclusion describing specific characteristics/traits of the body. However, there seems to be a scarcity of literature related to the effect of any kind of longitudinal physical training on human skeletal diameters. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study the variability of covariance of selected skeletal diameters of females in a longitudinal physical training programme. The sample for the study was 78 college going students of the University of Delhi, classified equally in three groups, i.e. viz. (a) Progressive load of training or conditioning group coded as PLT; (b) Constant load of training or non-conditioning group coded as CLT; and (c) No-load or control or sedentary group coded as NL. Collectively, mean age of the sample was 19.54±1.79 years. The randomly selected samples were given maximum consideration to maintain their homogeneity. The variables included biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, bitrochantaerion diameter, humeral bicondylar, femoral bicondylar, wrist diameter, ankle diameter, and foot breadth. Multi-group repeated measure design was adopted for the experimentation. Each group was measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration. The measurements were taken following the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of co-variance and its post-hoc analysis were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the selected skeletal diameters of females. It also reflected the increase due to growth also along with training.

Keywords: longitudinal, physical training, skeletal diameters, step progression load

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