Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: S. C. Kaushik

24 Ground State Properties of Neutron Magic Isotones

Authors: G. Saxena, M. Kaushik

Abstract:

In the present investigation, we have employed RMF+BCS (relativistic mean-field plus BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of the entire chains of even-even neutron magic nuclei represented by isotones of traditional neutron magic numbers N = 8, 20, 40, 50, 82, and 126. The main body of the results of our calculations includes the binding energy, deformation, two proton separation energies, rms radii of the proton and neutron distributions as well as the proton and neutron density profiles etc. Several of these results have been given in the form of a series of graphs for a ready reference. In addition, the possible locations of the proton and neutron drip-lines as well as the (Z,N) values for the shell closures as suggested by the detailed analyzes of the single particle spectra, and the two proton and two-neutron separation energies for the different isotonic chains are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: relativistic mean field theory, neutron magic nuclei, shell closure, separation energy, deformation

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23 Study of Fire Propagation and Soot Flow in a Pantry Car of Railway Locomotive

Authors: Juhi Kaushik, Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Fire accidents in trains bring huge disaster to human life and property. Evacuation becomes a major challenge in such incidents owing to confined spaces, large passenger density and trains moving at high speeds. The pantry car in Indian Railways trains carry inflammable materials like cooking fuel and LPG and electrical fittings. The pantry car is therefore highly susceptible to fire accidents. Numerical simulations have been done in a pantry car of Indian locomotive train using computational fluid dynamics based software. Different scenarios of a fire outbreak have been explored by varying Heat Release Rate per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the fire source, introduction of exhaust in the cooking area, and taking a case of an air conditioned pantry car. Temporal statures of flame and soot have been obtained for each scenario and differences have been studied and reported. Inputs from this study can be used to assess casualties in fire accidents in locomotive trains and development of smoke control/detection systems in Indian trains.

Keywords: fire propagation, flame contour, pantry fire, soot flow

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22 Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Potential for HVAC System in Commercial Buildings Sector in India

Authors: Rishabh Agrawal, S. C. Kaushik, T. S. Bhatti

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In order to reduce energy consumption for sustainable development, continuous energy consumption tracking of building energy systems are essential. In this paper an assessment study has been done to identify the energy consumption & energy conservation potential for commercial buildings sector in Karnataka state, India. There are a total of 326 commercial buildings in the state of Karnataka who has qualified as designated consumers (i.e., having a Contract Demand ≥ 600 KVA), was consider for the study. It has estimated that the annual electricity sale to commercial sector is 3.62 Billion Units (BU) in alone Karnataka State, India, which is an account for 9.57 % of the total electricity sold. The commercial sector constitutes Government & private establishments, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, educational institutions, malls etc. Total 326 commercial buildings in the state accounting for annual energy consumption of 1295.72 Million Units (MU) which works out to about 35% of the sectoral consumption. The annual energy savings potential for 326 commercial buildings is assessed to be 0.25 BU.

Keywords: commercial buildings, connected load, energy conservation studies, energy savings, energy efficiency, energy conservation strategy, energy efficiency, thermal energy, HVAC system

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21 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: Indian male youth, longitudinal, length dimensions, physical conditioning

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20 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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19 Investigation of Flame and Soot Propagation in Non-Air Conditioned Railway Locomotives

Authors: Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Juhi Kaushik, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Propagation of fire through a non-air conditioned railway compartment is studied by virtue of numerical simulations. Simultaneous computational fire dynamics equations, such as Navier-Stokes, lumped species continuity, overall mass and energy conservation, and heat transfer are solved using finite volume based (for radiation) and finite difference based (for all other equations) solver, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). A single coupe with an eight berth occupancy is used to establish the numerical model, followed by the selection of a three coupe system as the fundamental unit of the locomotive compartment. Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the initial fire is varied to consider a wide range of compartmental fires. Parameters, such as air inlet velocity relative to the locomotive at the windows, the level of interaction with the ambiance and closure of middle berth are studied through a wide range of numerical simulations. Almost all the loss of lives and properties due to fire breakout can be attributed to the direct or indirect exposure to flames or to the inhalation of toxic gases and resultant suffocation due to smoke and soot. Therefore, the temporal stature of fire and smoke are reported for each of the considered cases which can be used in the present or extended form to develop guidelines to be followed in case of a fire breakout.

Keywords: fire dynamics, flame propagation, locomotive fire, soot flow pattern, non-air-conditioned coaches

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18 Trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress among Breast Cancer Patients: Assessment at First Year of Diagnosis

Authors: Jyoti Srivastava, Sandhya S. Kaushik, Mallika Tewari, Hari S. Shukla

Abstract:

Little information is available about the development of psychological well being over time among women who have been undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the trajectories of depression anxiety and stress among women with early-stage breast cancer. Of the 48 Indian women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer recruited from surgical oncology unit, 39 completed an interview and were assessed for depression anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-DASS 21) before their first course of chemotherapy (baseline) and follow up interviews at 3, 6 and 9 months thereafter. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress symptoms. Logistic Regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in distinct groups. Most women showed mild to moderate level of depression and anxiety (68%) while normal to mild level of stress (71%). But one in 11 women was chronically anxious (9%) and depressed (9%). Young age, having a partner, shorter education and receiving chemotherapy but not radiotherapy might characterize women whose psychological symptoms remain strong nine months after diagnosis. By looking beyond the mean, it was found that several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose depression, anxiety and stress level remained severe even nine months after diagnosis. The results suggest that support provided to cancer patients should have a special focus on a relatively small group of patient most in need.

Keywords: psychological well being, growth mixture modeling, logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors

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17 Percentage Change in the Selected Skinfold Measurements of Male Students of University of Delhi Due to Progressive and Constant Load of Physical Training

Authors: Seema Kaushik

Abstract:

Skinfold measurements provide considerably meaningful and consistent information about subcutaneous fat and its distribution. Physical activities in the form of conditioning and/or training leads to various structural, functional and mechanical changes and numerous training programmes exist for the improvement of physical fitness, however, most of the studies are conducted on foreign soil with foreign population as sample, which may/may not be applicable to the Indian conditions. Moreover, there is not even a single training/ conditioning programme that caters to the need of male students of University of Delhi with regard to various skinfold thickness measurements. Hence, the present study aimed at studying the effect of progressive and constant load training on selected skinfold measurements of male students of University of Delhi in form of percentage change. The sample size for the study was 90 having three groups of male; 30 samples in each group (mean age = 20.04±0.49 years). The variables included triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and calf skinfolds. The experimental design adopted for the study was multi-group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times repeatedly at an interval of 6 weeks, on completion of each of the three meso-cycles. Standard landmarks and protocols were followed to measure the selected variables. Mean, standard deviation and percentage were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the skinfold thickness measurements of male students of University of Delhi.

Keywords: constant load, progressive load, physical training, skinfold measurements

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16 Design and Radio Frequency Characterization of Radial Reentrant Narrow Gap Cavity for the Inductive Output Tube

Authors: Meenu Kaushik, Ayon K. Bandhoyadhayay, Lalit M. Joshi

Abstract:

Inductive output tubes (IOTs) are widely used as microwave power amplifiers for broadcast and scientific applications. It is capable of amplifying radio frequency (RF) power with very good efficiency. Its compactness, reliability, high efficiency, high linearity and low operating cost make this device suitable for various applications. The device consists of an integrated structure of electron gun and RF cavity, collector and focusing structure. The working principle of IOT is a combination of triode and klystron. The cathode lies in the electron gun produces a stream of electrons. A control grid is placed in close proximity to the cathode. Basically, the input part of IOT is the integrated structure of gridded electron gun which acts as an input cavity thereby providing the interaction gap where the input RF signal is applied to make it interact with the produced electron beam for supporting the amplification phenomena. The paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a radial re-entrant cavity for implementing in the input structure of IOT at 350 MHz operating frequency. The model’s suitability has been discussed and a generalized mathematical relation has been introduced for getting the proper transverse magnetic (TM) resonating mode in the radial narrow gap RF cavities. The structural modeling has been carried out in CST and SUPERFISH codes. The cavity is fabricated with the Aluminum material and the RF characterization is done using vector network analyzer (VNA) and the results are presented for the resonant frequency peaks obtained in VNA.

Keywords: inductive output tubes, IOT, radial cavity, coaxial cavity, particle accelerators

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15 Numerical Simulations of Fire in Typical Air Conditioned Railway Coach

Authors: Manoj Sarda, Abhishek Agarwal, Juhi Kaushik, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Railways in India remain primary mode of transport having one of the largest networks in the world and catering to billions of transits yearly. Catastrophic economic damage and loss to life is encountered over the past few decades due to fire to locomotives. Study of fire dynamics and fire propagation plays an important role in evacuation planning and reducing losses. Simulation based study of propagation of fire and soot inside an air conditioned coach of Indian locomotive is done in this paper. Finite difference based solver, Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) version 6 has been used for analysis. A single air conditioned 3 tier coupe closed to ambient surroundings by glass windows having occupancy for 8 people is the basic unit of the domain. A system of three such coupes combined is taken to be fundamental unit for the entire study to resemble effect to an entire coach. Analysis of flame and soot contours and concentrations is done corresponding to variations in heat release rate per unit volume (HRRPUA) of fire source, variations in conditioned air velocity being circulated inside coupes by vents and an alternate fire initiation and propagation mechanism via ducts. Quantitative results of fractional area in top and front view of the three coupes under fire and smoke are obtained using MATLAB (IMT). Present simulations and its findings will be useful for organizations like Commission of Railway Safety and others in designing and implementing safety and evacuation measures.

Keywords: air conditioned coaches, fire propagation, flame contour, soot flow, train fire

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14 Biophysical Characterization of Archaeal Cyclophilin Like Chaperone Protein

Authors: Vineeta Kaushik, Manisha Goel

Abstract:

Chaperones are proteins that help other proteins fold correctly, and are found in all domains of life i.e., prokaryotes, eukaryotes and archaea. Various comparative genomic studies have suggested that the archaeal protein folding machinery appears to be highly similar to that found in eukaryotes. In case of protein folding; slow rotation of peptide prolyl-imide bond is often the rate limiting step. Formation of the prolyl-imide bond during the folding of a protein requires the assistance of other proteins, termed as peptide prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). Cyclophilins constitute the class of peptide prolyl isomerases with a wide range of biological function like protein folding, signaling and chaperoning. Most of the cyclophilins exhibit PPIase enzymatic activity and play active role in substrate protein folding which classifies them as a category of molecular chaperones. Till date, there is not very much data available in the literature on archaeal cyclophilins. We aim to compare the structural and biochemical features of the cyclophilin protein from within the three domains to elucidate the features affecting their stability and enzyme activity. In the present study, we carry out in-silico analysis of the cyclophilin proteins to predict their conserved residues, sites under positive selection and compare these proteins to their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts to predict functional divergence. We also aim to clone and express these proteins in heterologous system and study their biophysical characteristics in detail using techniques like CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Overall we aim to understand the features contributing to the folding, stability and dynamics of the archaeal cyclophilin proteins.

Keywords: biophysical characterization, x-ray crystallography, chaperone-like activity, cyclophilin, PPIase activity

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13 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: G. Kaushik, A. Gupta, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Kumar, S. Sagar

Abstract:

Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: road traffic injuries, alcohol, trauma, emergency department

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12 Variability of Covariance of Selected Skeletal Diameters of Female in a Longitudinal Physical Training Programme

Authors: Dhananjoy Shaw, Seema Sharma (Kaushik)

Abstract:

Anthropometry helps in associating the physical properties of an individual with their racial, cultural, and psychological attributes. Numerous research studies have included different skeletal diameters as a variable. However, most of the studies suggest their inclusion describing specific characteristics/traits of the body. However, there seems to be a scarcity of literature related to the effect of any kind of longitudinal physical training on human skeletal diameters. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study the variability of covariance of selected skeletal diameters of females in a longitudinal physical training programme. The sample for the study was 78 college going students of the University of Delhi, classified equally in three groups, i.e. viz. (a) Progressive load of training or conditioning group coded as PLT; (b) Constant load of training or non-conditioning group coded as CLT; and (c) No-load or control or sedentary group coded as NL. Collectively, mean age of the sample was 19.54±1.79 years. The randomly selected samples were given maximum consideration to maintain their homogeneity. The variables included biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, bitrochantaerion diameter, humeral bicondylar, femoral bicondylar, wrist diameter, ankle diameter, and foot breadth. Multi-group repeated measure design was adopted for the experimentation. Each group was measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration. The measurements were taken following the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of co-variance and its post-hoc analysis were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the selected skeletal diameters of females. It also reflected the increase due to growth also along with training.

Keywords: longitudinal, physical training, skeletal diameters, step progression load

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11 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of 120 Families with Sporadic Juvenile Onset Open Angle Glaucoma

Authors: Bindu I. Somarajan, Viney Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Jasbir Kaur, Sunil Kumar, Shikha Gupta, Abadh K. Chaurasia, Dinesh Gupa, Abhinav Kaushik, Aditi Mehta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma

Abstract:

Background: Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG), affects individuals under the age of 40 years. Studies on a few families of JOAG, that led to the discovery of the Myocilin gene, reported the disease to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, sporadic forms of JOAG been seen to be more common in some populations. Most pathological homozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene associated with JOAG have been seen among sporadic cases. Given the higher prevalence of sporadic JOAG cases in our population, we aimed to look for common mutations E229K and R368H, the two most common variants in the CYP1B1 gene associated with glaucoma. Objective: To determine the frequency and evaluate genotype phenotype correlation of CYP1B1 E229K and R368H mutations in a cohort of 120 sporadic Juvenile open angle glaucoma patients.Methods: Unrelated JOAG patients whose first degree relatives had been examined and found to be unaffected were included in the study. The patients and their parents were screened for E229K and R368H mutations. The phenotypic characteristics were compared between probands with and with out these mutations by SPSS v16. Results: Out of 120 JOAG patients included in the study, the E229K mutation was seen in 9 probands (7.5%) and R368H in 7 (5.8%). The average age of onset of the disease (p=0.3) and the highest untreated IOP (p=0.4) among those carrying mutations was not significantly different from those who did not have these mutations. The proportion of probands with angle dysgenesis among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 70% (11 out of 16) in comparison to 65% (67 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations (p=0.56). Similarly the probands with moderate to high myopia among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 20% (3 out of 16) in comparison to 18% (18 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations(p=0.59). Conclusion: The frequency of E229K and R368H mutations of the CYP1B1 gene is low even among sporadic JOAG patients. Moreover there is no clinical correlation between the presence of these mutations and disease severity

Keywords: CYP1B1, gene, IOP, JOAG, mutation

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10 Interaction or Conflict: Addressing Modern Trans-Himalayan Pastoralism and Wildlife

Authors: Amit Kaushik

Abstract:

Equus kiang kiang is an indigenous large-bodied herbivore species, and in India, it is restricted to limited geographies of Ladakh. One of such areas is the Tsokar Basin. With the rise in global pashmina demand, the livestock numbers have grown significantly. Previous studies have reported conflict between a nomadic pastoral community, the Changpas, and kiang. Absentee pastoralism (in lieu of pure pastoralism) and tourism are two major economic activities among the local people. However, the social, economic, political, and ecological changes are inevitable in such a contemporary system. The study examines several factors influencing the local pastoral economy and focuses on the presence of two non-human cohabitants, kiang, and the wolf. This study used semi-structured interviews and vehicle count method in four different seasons. The results show that people perceived kiang as a threat but also reveal a level of tolerance towards them. The locals predicted high kiang numbers ranging from 200-3000 in the basin and contrastingly ranked them behind wolves, which are very few in numbers. Due to a lack of scientific pieces of evidence, the kiang population status remains obscure, and local peoples’ concerns remain unaddressed. But how this competitive dysfunctionality does take place? On one side, the rural development or the animal husbandry department aims at developing the area by providing stall-feed and tourism, whereas, on another side, the wildlife department emphasizes wildlife conservation. Therefore, the managers and planners may need to be cautious about the local socio-ecological complexities and may require inter-departmental communications. The study concludes that an interdisciplinary inquiry may be an important tool in understanding such a precarious situation and may be used in the policy-making processes.

Keywords: coexistence, human-livestock-wildlife interactions, interdisciplinary approach, kiang, policymaking, tsokar.

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9 Safety Profile of Three Commonly Prescribed Interleukin Inhibitors for Psoriasis Treatment: Analysis of Drug Safety Database -Vigibase

Authors: Akanksha Marwah, Kajal Kaushik, Amit Kamboj, Tarni Prakash Shrivastava

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Monoclonal antibodies are known as biological agents targeting specific Interleukins, i.e., IL-17A, IL-17RA, IL-23, AND IL-12/23 associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other chronic inflammatory disorders were comparatively analyzed using WHO VigiFlow ADR reporting database for safety evaluation globally. Spontaneous reports associated with three commonly prescribed interleukin inhibitors, namely; Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab available in VigiLyze, were analyzed concerning patient demography, the profession of reporter, system organ class (SOC) affected, causality assessment, the seriousness of the adverse event and year-wise analysis of reported ADRs. According to WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology for causality assessment, only 'certain', 'probable,' or 'possible' ADRs were included. Association between drugs and any ADR was assessed by using the case/non-case methodology. The reported ICSRs are higher in numbers for Secukinumab (72926) as compared to Ustekinumab (41480) and Brodalumab (1419). A higher prevalence of ADRs was seen in females for Secukinumab (54.8%) and Ustekinumab (51.5%), while Brodalumab associated ADRs were more in males (55.5%). Out of all three drugs, Ustekinumab has caused more serious ADRs (45.0%) in patients. System organ class mostly reported for ADRs associated with all the three drugs included general disorders and administration site conditions (Avg. 35.53%), and the most reported preferred term was drug ineffective (12.0%) for all the three drugs. This study has identified the potential of the three most prescribed Interleukin inhibitors for causing specific ADRs in patients using these drugs. All these three drugs mostly cause the reaction associated with the involvement of administration sites and general disorders. surprisingly, the preferred term which was most reported for all these drugs was the drug ineffective, which indicates a failure of the drug to cause a therapeutic effect. More focused PV studies in clinical settings are needed to witness the safety profile of Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab in the treatment of Psoriasis.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, interleukins, case-non case study, poriasis

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8 Curative Role of Bromoenol Lactone, an Inhibitor of Phospholipase A2 Enzyme, during Cigarette Smoke Condensate Induced Anomalies in Lung Epithelium

Authors: Subodh Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Gaurav Kaushik, Pramod Avti, Phulen Sarma, Bikash Medhi, Krishan Lal Khanduja

Abstract:

Background: It is well known that cigarette smoke is one of the causative factors in various lung diseases especially cancer. Carcinogens and oxidant molecules present in cigarette smoke not only damage the cellular constituents (lipids, proteins, DNA) but may also regulate the molecular pathways involved in inflammation and cancer. Continuous oxidative stress caused by the constituents of cigarette smoke leads to higher PhospholipaseA₂ (PLA₂) activity, resulting in elevated levels of secondary metabolites whose role is well defined in cancer. To reduce the burden of chronic inflammation as well as oxidative stress, and higher levels of secondary metabolites, we checked the curative potential of PLA₂ inhibitor Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) during continuous exposure of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Aim: To check the therapeutic potential of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of PhospholipaseA₂s, in pathways of CSC-induced changes in type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells. Methods: Effect of BEL on CSC-induced PLA2 activity were checked using colorimetric assay, cellular toxicity using cell viability assay, membrane integrity using fluorescein di-acetate (FDA) uptake assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis markers through flow cytometry, and cellular regulation using MAPKinases levels, in lung epithelium. Results: BEL significantly mimicked CSC-induced PLA₂ activity, ROS levels, apoptosis, and kinases level whereas improved cellular viability and membrane integrity. Conclusions: Current observations revealed that BEL may be a potential therapeutic agent during Cigarette smoke-induced anomalies in lung epithelium.

Keywords: cigarette smoke condensate, phospholipase A₂, oxidative stress, alveolar epithelium, bromoenol lactone

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7 Impact of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Body Composition Analysis of Women during Perimenopause: A Framework for Action

Authors: Varsha Chorsiya, Pooja Aneja, Dhananjay Kaushik, Abhinav Yadav

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Intoduction: Women’s Health Initiatives (WHI) focuses on defining the risks and benefits of strategies that could potentially reduce the incidence of obesity, heart disease, breast cancer and colorectal cancer, and fractures in menopause women. The utility of the present research work determines to find the role of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in changing the different component of body composition during perimenopause period. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study included 30 subjects, aged between 40 and 50 years which were assigned into 2 groups i.e. 15 subjects in HRT (Group A) and 15 subjects in non-HRT (Group B). The subjects were taken from the hospitals and clinics of Faridabad undergoing HRT in supervision of the consultant gynecologist. The informed consents were signed before including the participants in the study. The body composition and lipid profile were evaluated for all the subjects. Result and Discussion: The BMI, body density, percent body fats and fat mass in both groups showed statistically significant differences i.e. p < 0.05. Our study did not reveal any statistically significant difference between non-HRT and HRT for lipid profile composition of HDL, LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol although these indicators (LDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol) showed difference clinically with a higher mean values for non-HRT as compared to HRT group. The mean value for HDL was higher for HRT group in contrast to non-HRT group. The result clearly showed that HRT group has a good lipid profile composition. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data show that HRT has statistically significant role in determining BMI, fat percent mass and fat mass. The lipid profile including LDL, HDL, VLDL, ratio, triglycerides and total cholesterol found to be clinically better in HRT group as compared to the non-HRT group. The rationale for non-significant lipid profile probably lie in the fact that hormonal changes need a particular time period and might become significant in post-menopausal period.

Keywords: body composition, hormone replacement therapy, perimenopause, women health

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6 Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes

Authors: Anubha Kaushik, Raman Preet

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Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, hydrogen, microbial consortium, organic pollution, sludge

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5 Hydraulic Characteristics of Mine Tailings by Metaheuristics Approach

Authors: Akhila Vasudev, Himanshu Kaushik, Tadikonda Venkata Bharat

Abstract:

A large number of mine tailings are produced every year as part of the extraction process of phosphates, gold, copper, and other materials. Mine tailings are high in water content and have very slow dewatering behavior. The efficient design of tailings dam and economical disposal of these slurries requires the knowledge of tailings consolidation behavior. The large-strain consolidation theory closely predicts the self-weight consolidation of these slurries as the theory considers the conservation of mass and momentum conservation and considers the hydraulic conductivity as a function of void ratio. Classical laboratory techniques, such as settling column test, seepage consolidation test, etc., are expensive and time-consuming for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity variation with void ratio. Inverse estimation of the constitutive relationships from the measured settlement versus time curves is explored. In this work, inverse analysis based on metaheuristics techniques will be explored for predicting the hydraulic conductivity parameters for mine tailings from the base excess pore water pressure dissipation curve and the initial conditions of the mine tailings. The proposed inverse model uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is based on the social behavior of animals searching for food sources. The finite-difference numerical solution of the forward analytical model is integrated with the PSO algorithm to solve the inverse problem. The method is tested on synthetic data of base excess pore pressure dissipation curves generated using the finite difference method. The effectiveness of the method is verified using base excess pore pressure dissipation curve obtained from a settling column experiment and further ensured through comparison with available predicted hydraulic conductivity parameters.

Keywords: base excess pore pressure, hydraulic conductivity, large strain consolidation, mine tailings

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4 Comparative Coverage Analysis of Football and Other Sports by the Leading English Newspapers of India during FIFA World Cup 2014

Authors: Rajender Lal, Seema Kaushik

Abstract:

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. Its 20th edition took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014, which was won by Germany. The World Cup is the most widely viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding even the Olympic Games; the cumulative audience of all matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup was estimated to be 26.29 billion with an estimated 715.1 million people watching the final match, a ninth of the entire population of the planet. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news. The news includes political events and personalities, business and finance, crime, severe weather, and natural disasters; health and medicine, science, and technology; sports; and entertainment, society, food and cooking, clothing and home fashion, and the arts. It became curiosity to investigate that how much coverage is given to this most widely viewed international event as compared to other sports in India. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim of examining the comparative coverage of FIFA World Cup 2014 and other sports in the four leading Newspapers of India including Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Times of India, and The Tribune. Specific objectives were to measure the source of news, type of news items and the placement of news related to FIFA World Cup and other sports. Representative sample of ten editions each of the four English dailies was chosen for the purpose of the study. The analysis was based on the actual scanning of data from the representative sample of the dailies for the period of the competition. It can be concluded from the analysis that this event was given maximum coverage by the Hindustan Times while other sports were equally covered by The Hindu.

Keywords: coverage analysis, FIFA World Cup 2014, Hindustan Times, the Hindu, The Times of India, The Tribune

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3 Combining Nitrocarburisation and Dry Lubrication for Improving Component Lifetime

Authors: Kaushik Vaideeswaran, Jean Gobet, Patrick Margraf, Olha Sereda

Abstract:

Nitrocarburisation is a surface hardening technique often applied to improve the wear resistance of steel surfaces. It is considered to be a promising solution in comparison with other processes such as flame spraying, owing to the formation of a diffusion layer which provides mechanical integrity, as well as its cost-effectiveness. To improve other tribological properties of the surface such as the coefficient of friction (COF), dry lubricants are utilized. Currently, the lifetime of steel components in many applications using either of these techniques individually are faced with the limitations of the two: high COF for nitrocarburized surfaces and low wear resistance of dry lubricant coatings. To this end, the current study involves the creation of a hybrid surface using the impregnation of a dry lubricant on to a nitrocarburized surface. The mechanical strength and hardness of Gerster SA’s nitrocarburized surfaces accompanied by the impregnation of the porous outermost layer with a solid lubricant will create a hybrid surface possessing both outstanding wear resistance and a low friction coefficient and with high adherence to the substrate. Gerster SA has the state-of-the-art technology for the surface hardening of various steels. Through their expertise in the field, the nitrocarburizing process parameters (atmosphere, temperature, dwelling time) were optimized to obtain samples that have a distinct porous structure (in terms of size, shape, and density) as observed by metallographic and microscopic analyses. The porosity thus obtained is suitable for the impregnation of a dry lubricant. A commercially available dry lubricant with a thermoplastic matrix was employed for the impregnation process, which was optimized to obtain a void-free interface with the surface of the nitrocarburized layer (henceforth called hybrid surface). In parallel, metallic samples without nitrocarburisation were also impregnated with the same dry lubricant as a reference (henceforth called reference surface). The reference and the nitrocarburized surfaces, with and without the dry lubricant were tested for their tribological behavior by sliding against a quenched steel ball using a nanotribometer. Without any lubricant, the nitrocarburized surface showed a wear rate 5x lower than the reference metal. In the presence of a thin film of dry lubricant ( < 2 micrometers) and under the application of high loads (500 mN or ~800 MPa), while the COF for the reference surface increased from ~0.1 to > 0.3 within 120 m, the hybrid surface retained a COF < 0.2 for over 400m of sliding. In addition, while the steel ball sliding against the reference surface showed heavy wear, the corresponding ball sliding against the hybrid surface showed very limited wear. Observations of the sliding tracks in the hybrid surface using Electron Microscopy show the presence of the nitrocarburized nodules as well as the lubricant, whereas no traces of the lubricant were found in the sliding track on the reference surface. In this manner, the clear advantage of combining nitrocarburisation with the impregnation of a dry lubricant towards forming a hybrid surface has been demonstrated.

Keywords: dry lubrication, hybrid surfaces, improved wear resistance, nitrocarburisation, steels

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2 Multifunctional Janus Microbots for Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Agents

Authors: Shilpee Jain, Sachin Latiyan, Kaushik Suneet

Abstract:

Unlike traditional robots, medical microbots are not only smaller in size, but they also possess various unique properties, for example, biocompatibility, stability in the biological fluids, navigation opposite to the bloodstream, wireless control over locomotion, etc. The idea behind their usage in the medical field was to build a minimally invasive method for addressing the post-operative complications, including longer recovery time, infection eruption and pain. Herein, the present study demonstrates the fabrication of dual nature magneto-conducting Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and SU8 derived carbon-based Janus microbots for the efficient intracellular delivery of biomolecules. The low aspect ratio with feature size 2-5 μm microbots were fabricated by using a photolithography technique. These microbots were pyrolyzed at 900°C, which converts SU8 into amorphous carbon. The pyrolyzed microbots have dual properties, i.e., the half part is magneto-conducting and another half is only conducting for sufficing the therapeutic payloads efficiently with the application of external electric/magnetic field stimulations. For the efficient intracellular delivery of the microbots, the size and aspect ratio plays a significant role. However, on a smaller scale, the proper control over movement is difficult to achieve. The dual nature of Janus microbots allowed to control its maneuverability in the complex fluids using external electric as well as the magnetic field. Interestingly, Janus microbots move faster with the application of an external electric field (44 µm/s) as compared to the magnetic field (18 µm/s) application. Furthermore, these Janus microbots exhibit auto-fluorescence behavior that will help to track their pathway during navigation. Typically, the use of MNPs in the microdevices enhances the tendency to agglomerate. However, the incorporation of Fe₃O₄ MNPs in the pyrolyzed carbon reduces the chances of agglomeration of the microbots. The biocompatibility of the medical microbots, which is the essential property of any biosystems, was determined in vitro using HeLa cells. The microbots were found to compatible with HeLa cells. Additionally, the intracellular uptake of microbots was higher in the presence of an external electric field as compared to without electric field stimulation. In summary, the cytocompatible Janus microbots were fabricated successfully. They are stable in the biological fluids, wireless controllable navigation with the help of a few Guess external magnetic fields, their movement can be tracked because of autofluorescence behavior, they are less susceptible to agglomeration and higher cellular uptake could be achieved with the application of the external electric field. Thus, these carriers could offer a versatile platform to suffice the therapeutic payloads under wireless actuation.

Keywords: amorphous carbon, electric/magnetic stimulations, Janus microbots, magnetic nanoparticles, minimally invasive procedures

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1 Moths of Indian Himalayas: Data Digging for Climate Change Monitoring

Authors: Angshuman Raha, Abesh Kumar Sanyal, Uttaran Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik Mallick, Kamalika Bhattacharyya, Subrata Gayen, Gaurab Nandi Das, Mohd. Ali, Kailash Chandra

Abstract:

Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), due to its sheer latitudinal and altitudinal expanse, acts as a mixing ground for different zoogeographic faunal elements. The innumerable unique and distributional restricted rare species of IHR are constantly being threatened with extinction by the ongoing climate change scenario. Many of which might have faced extinction without even being noticed or discovered. Monitoring the community dynamics of a suitable taxon is indispensable to assess the effect of this global perturbation at micro-habitat level. Lepidoptera, particularly moths are suitable for this purpose due to their huge diversity and strict herbivorous nature. The present study aimed to collate scattered historical records of moths from IHR and spatially disseminate the same in Geographic Information System (GIS) domain. The study also intended to identify moth species with significant altitudinal shifts which could be prioritised for monitoring programme to assess the effect of climate change on biodiversity. A robust database on moths recorded from IHR was prepared from voluminous secondary literature and museum collections. Historical sampling points were transformed into richness grids which were spatially overlaid on altitude, annual precipitation and vegetation layers separately to show moth richness patterns along major environmental gradients. Primary samplings were done by setting standard light traps at 11 Protected Areas representing five Indian Himalayan biogeographic provinces. To identify significant altitudinal shifts, past and present altitudinal records of the identified species from primary samplings were compared. A consolidated list of 4107 species belonging to 1726 genera of 62 families of moths was prepared from a total of 10,685 historical records from IHR. Family-wise assemblage revealed Erebidae to be the most speciose family with 913 species under 348 genera, followed by Geometridae with 879 species under 309 genera and Noctuidae with 525 species under 207 genera. Among biogeographic provinces, Central Himalaya represented maximum records with 2248 species, followed by Western and North-western Himalaya with 1799 and 877 species, respectively. Spatial analysis revealed species richness was more or less uniform (up to 150 species record per cell) across IHR. Throughout IHR, the middle elevation zones between 1000-2000m encompassed high species richness. Temperate coniferous forest associated with 1500-2000mm rainfall zone showed maximum species richness. Total 752 species of moths were identified representing 23 families from the present sampling. 13 genera were identified which were restricted to specialized habitats of alpine meadows over 3500m. Five historical localities with high richness of >150 species were selected which could be considered for repeat sampling to assess climate change influence on moth assemblage. Of the 7 species exhibiting significant altitudinal ascend of >2000m, Trachea auriplena, Diphtherocome fasciata (Noctuidae) and Actias winbrechlini (Saturniidae) showed maximum range shift of >2500m, indicating intensive monitoring of these species. Great Himalayan National Park harbours most diverse assemblage of high-altitude restricted species and should be a priority site for habitat conservation. Among the 13 range restricted genera, Arichanna, Opisthograptis, Photoscotosia (Geometridae), Phlogophora, Anaplectoides and Paraxestia (Noctuidae) were dominant and require rigorous monitoring, as they are most susceptible to climatic perturbations.

Keywords: altitudinal shifts, climate change, historical records, Indian Himalayan region, Lepidoptera

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