Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: CYP1B1

4 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of 120 Families with Sporadic Juvenile Onset Open Angle Glaucoma

Authors: Bindu I. Somarajan, Viney Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Jasbir Kaur, Sunil Kumar, Shikha Gupta, Abadh K. Chaurasia, Dinesh Gupa, Abhinav Kaushik, Aditi Mehta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma

Abstract:

Background: Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG), affects individuals under the age of 40 years. Studies on a few families of JOAG, that led to the discovery of the Myocilin gene, reported the disease to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, sporadic forms of JOAG been seen to be more common in some populations. Most pathological homozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene associated with JOAG have been seen among sporadic cases. Given the higher prevalence of sporadic JOAG cases in our population, we aimed to look for common mutations E229K and R368H, the two most common variants in the CYP1B1 gene associated with glaucoma. Objective: To determine the frequency and evaluate genotype phenotype correlation of CYP1B1 E229K and R368H mutations in a cohort of 120 sporadic Juvenile open angle glaucoma patients.Methods: Unrelated JOAG patients whose first degree relatives had been examined and found to be unaffected were included in the study. The patients and their parents were screened for E229K and R368H mutations. The phenotypic characteristics were compared between probands with and with out these mutations by SPSS v16. Results: Out of 120 JOAG patients included in the study, the E229K mutation was seen in 9 probands (7.5%) and R368H in 7 (5.8%). The average age of onset of the disease (p=0.3) and the highest untreated IOP (p=0.4) among those carrying mutations was not significantly different from those who did not have these mutations. The proportion of probands with angle dysgenesis among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 70% (11 out of 16) in comparison to 65% (67 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations (p=0.56). Similarly the probands with moderate to high myopia among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 20% (3 out of 16) in comparison to 18% (18 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations(p=0.59). Conclusion: The frequency of E229K and R368H mutations of the CYP1B1 gene is low even among sporadic JOAG patients. Moreover there is no clinical correlation between the presence of these mutations and disease severity

Keywords: CYP1B1, gene, IOP, JOAG, mutation

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3 Association of a Genetic Polymorphism in Cytochrome P450, Family 1 with Risk of Developing Esophagus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Soodabeh Shahid Sales, Azam Rastgar Moghadam, Mehrane Mehramiz, Malihe Entezari, Kazem Anvari, Mohammad Sadegh Khorrami, Saeideh Ahmadi Simab, Ali Moradi, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A. Ferns, Amir Avan

Abstract:

Background Esophageal cancer has been reported as the eighth most common cancer universal and the seventh cause of cancer-related death in men .recent studies have revealed that cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1, which plays a role in metabolizing xenobiotics, is associated with different cancers. Therefore in the present study, we investigated the impact of CYP1B1-rs1056836 on esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Method: 317 subjects, with and without ESCC were recruited. DNA was extracted and genotyped via Real-time PCR-Based Taq Man. Kaplan Meier curves were utilized to assess overall and progression-free survival. To evaluate the relationship between patients clinicopathological data, genotypic frequencies, disease prognosis, and patients survival, Pearson chi-square and t-test were used. Logistic regression was utilized to assess the association between the risk of ESCC and genotypes. Results: the genotypic frequency for GG, GC, and CC are respectively 58.6% , 29.8%, 11.5% in the healthy group and 51.8%, 36.14% and 12% in ESCC group. With respect to the recessive genetic inheritance model, an association between the GG genotype and stage of ESCC were found. Also, statistically significant results were not found for this variation and risk of ESCC. Patients with GG genotype had a decreased risk of nodal metastasis in comparison with patients with CC/CG genotype, although this link was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings illustrated the correlation of CYP1B1-rs1056836 as a potential biomarker for ESCC patients, supporting further studies in larger populations in different ethnic groups. Moreover, further investigations are warranted to evaluate the association of emerging marker with dietary intake and lifestyle.

Keywords: Cytochrome P450, esophagus squamous cell carcinoma, dietary intake, lifestyle

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2 Toxicological Validation during the Development of New Catalytic Systems Using Air/Liquid Interface Cell Exposure

Authors: M. Al Zallouha, Y. Landkocz, J. Brunet, R. Cousin, J. M. Halket, E. Genty, P. J. Martin, A. Verdin, D. Courcot, S. Siffert, P. Shirali, S. Billet

Abstract:

Toluene is one of the most used Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the industry. Amongst VOCs, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX) emitted into the atmosphere have a major and direct impact on human health. It is, therefore, necessary to minimize emissions directly at source. Catalytic oxidation is an industrial technique which provides remediation efficiency in the treatment of these organic compounds. However, during operation, the catalysts can release some compounds, called byproducts, more toxic than the original VOCs. The catalytic oxidation of a gas stream containing 1000ppm of toluene on Pd/α-Al2O3 can release a few ppm of benzene, according to the operating temperature of the catalyst. The development of new catalysts must, therefore, include chemical and toxicological validation phases. In this project, A549 human lung cells were exposed in air/liquid interface (Vitrocell®) to gas mixtures derived from the oxidation of toluene with a catalyst of Pd/α-Al2O3. Both exposure concentrations (i.e. 10 and 100% of catalytic emission) resulted in increased gene expression of Xenobiotics Metabolising Enzymes (XME) (CYP2E1 CYP2S1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, and NQO1). Some of these XMEs are known to be induced by polycyclic organic compounds conventionally not searched during the development of catalysts for VOCs degradation. The increase in gene expression suggests the presence of undetected compounds whose toxicity must be assessed before the adoption of new catalyst. This enhances the relevance of toxicological validation of such systems before scaling-up and marketing.

Keywords: BTEX toxicity, air/liquid interface cell exposure, Vitrocell®, catalytic oxidation

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1 Toxicological Effects of Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Metabolic Activation, Genotoxicity and Epigenetic Modifications

Authors: M. Borgie, Z. Dagher, F. Ledoux, A. Verdin, F. Cazier, H. Greige, P. Shirali, D. Courcot

Abstract:

In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as carcinogenic to humans. Despite the clearly relationship established by epidemiological studies between PM exposure and the onset of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, uncertainties remain about the physiopathological mechanisms responsible for these diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicological effects of two samples of atmospheric PM2.5 collected at urban and rural sites on human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, especially to investigate the metabolic activation of organic compounds, the alteration of epigenetic mechanisms (i.e. microRNAs genes expression), the phosphorylation of H2AX and the telomerase activity. Our results showed a significant increase in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhRR genes expression, miR-21 gene expression, H2AX phosphorylation and telomerase activity in BEAS-2B cells after their exposure to PM2.5, both in a dose and site-dependent manner. These results showed that PM2.5, especially urban PM, are able to induce the expression of metabolizing enzymes which can provide metabolic biotransformation of organic compounds into more toxic and carcinogenic metabolites, and to induce the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 which promotes cell growth and enhances tumor invasion and metastasis in lung cancer. In addition, our results have highlighted the role of PM2.5 in the activation of telomerase, which can maintain the telomeres length and subsequently preventing cell death, and have also demonstrated the ability of PM2.5 to induce DNA breaks and thus to increase the risk of mutations or chromosomal translocations that lead to genomic instability. All these factors may contribute to cell abnormalities, and thus the development of cancer.

Keywords: BEAS-2B cells, carcinogenesis, epigenetic alterations and genotoxicity, PM2.5

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