Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Abel Mahowe

18 Effect of Manure Treatment on Furrow Erosion: A Case Study of Sagawika Irrigation Scheme in Kasungu, Malawi

Authors: Abel Mahowe

Abstract:

Furrow erosion is the major problem menacing sustainability of irrigation in Malawi and polluting water bodies resulting in death of many aquatic animals. Many rivers in Malawi are drying due to some poor practices that are being practiced around these water bodies, furrow erosion is one of the cause of sedimentation in these rivers although it has gradual effect on deteriorating of these rivers hence neglected, but has got long term disastrous effect on water bodies. Many aquatic animals also suffer when these sediments are taken into these water bodies. An assessment of effect of manure treatment on furrow erosion was carried out in Sagawika irrigation scheme located in Kasungu District north part of Malawi. The soil on the field was clay loam and had just been tilled. The average furrow slope of 0.2% and was divided into two blocks, A and B. Each block had 20V-shaped furrow having a length of 10 m. Three different manure were used to construct these furrows by mixing it with soil which was moderately moist and 5 furrows from each block were constructed without manure. In each block 5furrow were made using a specific type of manure, and one set of five furrows in each block was made without manure treatment. The types of manure that were used were goat manure, pig manure, and manure from crop residuals. The manure application late was 5 kg/m. The furrow was constructed at a spacing of 0.6 m. Tomato was planted in the two blocks at spacing of 0.15 m between rows and 0.15 m between planting stations. Irrigation water was led from feeder canal into the irrigation furrows using siphons. The siphons discharge into each furrow was set at 1.86 L/S. The ¾ rule was used to determine the cut-off time for the irrigation cycles in order to reduce the run-off at the tail end. During each irrigation cycle, samples of the runoff water were collected at one-minute intervals and analyzed for total sediment concentration for use in estimating the total soil sediment loss. The results of the study have shown that a significant amount of soil is lost in soils without many organic matters, there was a low level of erosion in furrows that were constructed using manure treatment within the blocks. In addition, the results have shown that manure also differs in their ability to control erosion since pig manure proved to have greater abilities in binding the soil together than other manure since they were reduction in the amount of sediments at the tail end of furrows constructed by this type of manure. The results prove that manure contains organic matters which helps soil particles to bind together hence resisting the erosive force of water. The use of manure when constructing furrows in soil with less organic matter can highly reduce erosion hence reducing also pollution of water bodies and improve the conditions of aquatic animals.

Keywords: Aquatic, Soil, erosion, furrow

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17 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations using the Teacher´s Tablet PC

Authors: Enrique Barra, Aldo Gordillo, Juan Quemada, Abel Carril, Joaquín Salvachúa

Abstract:

Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced costs and size while at the same time has increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures of a course in our university called “Communications Software”. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.

Keywords: recording system, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recording

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16 Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Community: Societal Culture Considerations

Authors: Imran Khan, Shahnaz Bashir, Abel Usoro

Abstract:

Hofstede’s culture model is an important model to study culture between different societies. He collected data from world-wide and performed a comprehensive study. Hofstede’s cultural model is widely accepted and has been used to study cross cultural influences in different areas like cross-cultural psychology, cross cultural management, information technology, and intercultural communication. This study investigates the societal cultural aspects of knowledge sharing in virtual communities.

Keywords: Virtual Communities, Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, societal culture

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15 Design, Prototyping, Integration, Flight Testing of a 20 cm Span Fully Autonomous Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

Authors: Vivek Paul, Abel Nelly, Shoeb A Adeel, R. Tilak, S. Maheshwaran, S. Pulikeshi, Roshan Antony, C. S. Suraj

Abstract:

This paper presents the complete design and development cycle of a 20 cm span fixed wing micro air vehicle that was developed at CSIR-NAL, under the micro air vehicle development program. The design is a cropped delta flying wing MAV with a modified N22 airfoil of 12.3% thickness. The design was fabricated using the fused deposition method- RPT technique. COTS components were procured and integrated into this RPT prototype. A commercial autopilot that was proven in the earlier MAV designs was used for this MAV. The MAV was flown fully autonomous for 14mins at an open field. The flight data showed good performance as expected from the MAV design. The paper also describes about the process involved in the design of MAVs.

Keywords: mav, Flight Testing, autopilot, autonomous mode, RPT

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14 The Depiction of Suburbia in US-American Independent Movies

Authors: Sven Weidner

Abstract:

In the last two decades, US-American Independent Cinema has been faced with numerous metamorphoses. With regard to style, content, film aesthetics and themes a large array is offered. And as a consequence of the increasing influence of the world wide web and absolutely new ways of production opportunities alter the indie-film scene fundamentally. While in the 90s many independent films were situated in urban spaces -for instance, films of Jim Jarmusch, Abel Ferrara or Quentin Tarantino- there is a tendency from the 2000s years on to go to rural America. Jeff Nichols, Debra Granik or Matthew Porterfield can be named. Suburbia the symbol of the American Dream and in particular of an emerging prosperity after the Second World War is an essential theme with some independent directors; among them indie icons Todd Solondz and Todd Haynes. Based on selected films of both of them the paper explores the formal and aesthetic structures (narrative, drama, montage, lighting, sound, color) of the pictures and how suburbia, its people, and its "perfect" families are shown and unmasked in all facets. Films are: "Happiness" (1998), "Life During Wartime" (2009) and "Far From Heaven" (2002).

Keywords: Film History, US-independent cinema, Suburbia, film analysis

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13 Investigating the Organizational Capacity of Communities Affecting Water Supply Resilience

Authors: Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Behrooz Balaei, Larry Abel, Philip McFarlane

Abstract:

Water supply system failure has serious direct and indirect effects on people wellbeing. Post-disaster water system serviceability depends on a variety of factors from technical characteristics to social, economic, and organizational attributes of communities. This paper tests the organizational factors affecting water supply resilience to outline how these factors contributed to previous disasters. To do so, a framework is briefly introduced in this study to provide a clear guide to identify the significant relevant organizational factors. Then the factors affecting water serviceability following a disaster are outlines. Next, these factors are measured in the case of Tropical Cyclone Pam, which hit Vanuatu in March 2015. Reviewing the existing literature has also been carried out to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the background A site visit and a series of interviews have also been undertaken following the cyclone to collect site-specific data and information. In the end, the organizational factors were ranked to enable decision makers to identify significance of each factor compared to the others.

Keywords: Water supply, Resilience, organizational capacity, Vanuatu, Tropical Cyclone Pam

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12 A Greener Approach for the Recovery of Proteins from Meat Industries

Authors: Jesus Hernandez, Zead Elzoeiry, Md. S. Islam, Abel E. Navarro

Abstract:

The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human hemoglobin (Hb) on naturally-occurring adsorbents was studied to evaluate the potential recovery of proteins from meat industry residues. Spent peppermint tea (PM), powdered purple corn cob (PC), natural clay (NC) and chemically-modified clay (MC) were investigated to elucidate the effects of pH, adsorbent dose, initial protein concentration, presence of salts and heavy metals. Equilibrium data were fitted according to isotherm models, reporting a maximum adsorption capacity at pH 8 of 318 and 344 mg BSA/g of PM and NC, respectively. Moreover, Hb displayed maximum adsorption capacity at pH 5 of 125 and 143 mg/g of PM and PC, respectively. Hofmeister salt effect was only observed for PM/Hb system. Salts tend to decrease protein adsorption, and the presence of Cu(II) ions had negligible impacts on the adsorption onto NC and PC. Desorption experiments confirmed that more than 85% of both proteins can be recovered with diluted acids and bases. SEM, EDX, and TGA analyses demonstrated that the adsorbents have favorable morphological and mechanical properties. The long-term goal of this study aims to recover soluble proteins from industrial wastewaters to produce animal food or any protein-based product.

Keywords: Adsorption, Clay, hemoglobin, albumin, spent peppermint leaf

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11 Controlling Dimensions and Shape of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nanoporous Anodic Alumina under Different Conditions

Authors: Merfat Algethami, Amine Mezni, Ali Aldalbahi, Arwa Alrooqi, Abel Santos, Dusan Losic, Sarah Alharthi, Tariq Altalhi

Abstract:

In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes featuring different diameters (10-200 nm), lengths (1 to 100 µm) and periodically nanostructured shape was performed in a custom designed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) under different conditions. The morphology of the resulting CNTs/NAA composites and free-standing CNTs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results confirm that highly ordered arrays of CNTs with precise control of nanotube dimensions in the range 20-200 nm with tube length in the range < 1 µm to > 100 μm and with periodically shaped morphology can be fabricated using nanostructured NAA templates prepared by anodization. This technique allows us to obtain tubes open at one / both ends with a uniform diameter along the pore length without using any metal catalyst. Our finding suggests that this fabrication strategy for designing new CNTs membranes and structures can be significant for emerging applications as molecular separation/transport, optical biosensing, and drug delivery.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, CVD approach, composites membrane, nanoporous anodic alumina

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10 Assessing Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Westleigh Soil under Shrub Encroached Rangeland, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Phesheya E. Dlamini, Abel L. Masotla, Vusumuzi E. Mbanjwa

Abstract:

Accurate quantification of the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to land cover transformations, associated with shrub encroachment is crucial because deeper lying horizons have been shown to have greater capacity to sequester SOC. Despite this, in-depth soil carbon dynamics remain poorly understood, especially in arid and semi-arid rangelands. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) in shrub-encroached and open grassland sites. To achieve this, soil samples were collected vertically at 10 cm depth intervals under both sites. The results showed that SOC was on average 19% and 13% greater in the topsoil and subsoil respectively, under shrub-encroached grassland compared to open grassland. In both topsoil and subsoil, lower SOCs were found under shrub-encroached (4.53 kg m⁻² and 3.90 kgm⁻²) relative to open grassland (4.39 kgm⁻² and 3.67 kgm⁻²). These results demonstrate that deeper soil horizon play a critical role in the storage of SOC in savanna grassland.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, vertical distribution, shrub-encroachment, savanna grasslands

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9 Correlation and Prediction of Biodiesel Density

Authors: Nieves M. C. Talavera-Prieto, Abel G. M. Ferreira, António T. G. Portugal, Rui J. Moreira, Jaime B. Santos

Abstract:

The knowledge of biodiesel density over large ranges of temperature and pressure is important for predicting the behavior of fuel injection and combustion systems in diesel engines, and for the optimization of such systems. In this study, cottonseed oil was transesterified into biodiesel and its density was measured at temperatures between 288 K and 358 K and pressures between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa, with expanded uncertainty estimated as ±1.6 kg.m^-3. Experimental pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) cottonseed data was used along with literature data relative to other 18 biodiesels, in order to build a database used to test the correlation of density with temperarure and pressure using the Goharshadi–Morsali–Abbaspour equation of state (GMA EoS). To our knowledge, this is the first that density measurements are presented for cottonseed biodiesel under such high pressures, and the GMA EoS used to model biodiesel density. The new tested EoS allowed correlations within 0.2 kg•m-3 corresponding to average relative deviations within 0.02%. The built database was used to develop and test a new full predictive model derived from the observed linear relation between density and degree of unsaturation (DU), which depended from biodiesel FAMEs profile. The average density deviation of this method was only about 3 kg.m-3 within the temperature and pressure limits of application. These results represent appreciable improvements in the context of density prediction at high pressure when compared with other equations of state.

Keywords: correlation, Equation of state, prediction, biodiesel density

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8 Histochemical Localization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Evaluation of Two Staining Techniques in a Tertiary Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria

Authors: Imeobong Joseph Inyang, Aniekan-Augusta Okon Eyo, Abel William Essien

Abstract:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the known human carcinogens. The presence of HBsAg in liver tissues indicates active viral replication. More than 85% of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) cases occur in countries with increased rates of chronic HBV infection. An evaluation study to determine the relationship between positivity for HBsAg and development of HCC and its distribution between age and gender of subjects was done. Shikata Orcein and Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining techniques were performed on liver sections. A total of 50 liver tissue specimens comprising 38 biopsy and 12 post-mortem specimens were processed. Thirty-five of the 50 specimens were positive for HBsAg with Orcein stain whereas only 16 were positive with H&E stain, and these were also positive with Orcein stain, giving an HBsAg prevalence of 70.0% (35/50). The prevalence of HCC in the study was 56.0% (28/50), of which 21 (75.0%) cases were positive for HBsAg, 18 (64.3%) were males while 10 (35.7%) were females distributed within the age range of 20-70 years. The highest number of HBsAg positive HCC cases, 7/21 (33.3%) occurred in the age group 40-49 years. There was no relationship in the pattern of distribution of HCC between age and gender using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.0474; P < 0.05). HBV infection predisposed to HCC. Orcein technique was more specific and is therefore recommended for screening of liver tissues where facilities for immunohistochemistry are inaccessible.

Keywords: Pathology, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hepatitis B. surface antigen, orcein

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7 Multimedia Technologies Utilisation as Predictors of Lecturers’ Teaching Effectiveness in Colleges of Education in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Abel Olusegun Egunjobi, Olusegun Oyeleye Adesanya

Abstract:

Teaching effectiveness of lecturers in a tertiary institution in Nigeria is one of the determinants of the lecturer’s productivity. In this study, therefore, lecturers’ teaching effectiveness was examined vis-à-vis their multimedia technologies utilisation in Colleges of Education (CoE) in South-West, Nigeria. This is for the purpose of ascertaining the relationship and contribution of multimedia technologies utilisation to lecturers’ teaching effectiveness in Nigerian colleges of education. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study, while a multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the study. A stratified sampling technique was used to select colleges of education, and a simple random sampling method was employed to select lecturers from the selected colleges of education. A total of 862 lecturers (627 males and 235 females) were selected from the colleges of education used for the study. The instrument used was lecturers’ questionnaire on multimedia technologies utilisation and teaching effectiveness with a reliability coefficient of 0.85 at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and t-test. The findings showed that the level of multimedia technologies utilisation in colleges of education was low, whereas lecturers’ teaching effectiveness was high. Findings also revealed that the lecturers used multimedia technologies purposely for personal and professional developments, so also for up to date news on economic and political matters. Also, findings indicated that laptop, Ipad, CD-ROMs, and computer instructional software were the multimedia technologies frequently utilised by the lecturers. There was also a significant difference in the teaching effectiveness between lecturers in the Federal and State COE. The government should, therefore, make adequate provision for multimedia technologies in the COE in Nigeria for lecturers’ utilisation in their instructions so as to boost their students’ learning outcomes.

Keywords: Southwest Nigeria, colleges of education, lecturers’ teaching effectiveness, multimedia technologies utilisation

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6 [Keynote Talk]: Uptake of Co(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Biopolymers and Their Hybrid

Authors: Abel E. Navarro, Kateryna Zhdanova, Evelyn Szeinbaum, Michelle Lo, Yeonjae Jo

Abstract:

Alginate hydrogel beads (AB), spent peppermint leaf (PM), and a hybrid adsorbent of these two materials (ABPM) were studied as potential biosorbents of Cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Cobalt ion is a commonly underestimated pollutant that is responsible for several health problems. Discontinuous batch experiments were conducted at room temperature to evaluate the effect of solution acidity, mass of adsorbent on the adsorption of Co(II) ions. The interfering effect of salinity, the presence of surfactants, an organic dye, and Pb(II) ions were also studied to resemble the application of these adsorbents in real wastewater. Equilibrium results indicate that Co(II) uptake is maximized at pH values higher than 5, with adsorbent doses of 200 mg, 200 mg, and 120 mg for AB, PM, and ABPM, respectively. Co(II) adsorption followed the trend AB > ABPM > PM with Adsorption percentages of 77%, 71% and 64%, respectively. Salts had a strong negative effect on the adsorption due to the increase of the ionic strength and the competition for adsorption sites. The presence of Pb(II) ions, surfactant, and dye BY57 had a slightly negative effect on the adsorption, apparently due to their interaction with different adsorption sites that do not interfere with the removal of Co(II). A polar-electrostatic adsorption mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that adsorbent has appropriate morphological and textural properties, and also that ABPM encapsulated most of the PM inside of the hydrogel beads. These experimental results revealed that AB, PM, and ABPM are promising adsorbents for the elimination of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. These biopolymers are proposed as eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal ions at lower costs than the conventional techniques.

Keywords: Adsorption, spent peppermint leaf, Co(II) ions, alginate hydrogel beads

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5 From Equations to Structures: Linking Abstract Algebra and High-School Algebra for Secondary School Teachers

Authors: J. Shamash

Abstract:

The high-school curriculum in algebra deals mainly with the solution of different types of equations. However, modern algebra has a completely different viewpoint and is concerned with algebraic structures and operations. A question then arises: What might be the relevance and contribution of an abstract algebra course for developing expertise and mathematical perspective in secondary school mathematics instruction? This is the focus of this paper. The course Algebra: From Equations to Structures is a carefully designed abstract algebra course for Israeli secondary school mathematics teachers. The course provides an introduction to algebraic structures and modern abstract algebra, and links abstract algebra to the high-school curriculum in algebra. It follows the historical attempts of mathematicians to solve polynomial equations of higher degrees, attempts which resulted in the development of group theory and field theory by Galois and Abel. In other words, algebraic structures grew out of a need to solve certain problems, and proved to be a much more fruitful way of viewing them. This theorems in both group theory and field theory. Along the historical ‘journey’, many other major results in algebra in the past 150 years are introduced, and recent directions that current research in algebra is taking are highlighted. This course is part of a unique master’s program – the Rothschild-Weizmann Program – offered by the Weizmann Institute of Science, especially designed for practicing Israeli secondary school teachers. A major component of the program comprises mathematical studies tailored for the students at the program. The rationale and structure of the course Algebra: From Equations to Structures are described, and its relevance to teaching school algebra is examined by analyzing three kinds of data sources. The first are position papers written by the participating teachers regarding the relevance of advanced mathematics studies to expertise in classroom instruction. The second data source are didactic materials designed by the participating teachers in which they connected the mathematics learned in the mathematics courses to the school curriculum and teaching. The third date source are final projects carried out by the teachers based on material learned in the course.

Keywords: Abstract Algebra, teacher professional development, linking abstract algebra and school mathematics, school algebra, secondary school mathematics

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4 Safety Evaluation of Post-Consumer Recycled PET Materials in Chilean Industry by Overall Migration Tests

Authors: Evelyn Ilabaca, Ximena Valenzuela, Alejandra Torres, María José Galotto, Abel Guarda

Abstract:

One of the biggest problems in food packaging industry, especially with the plastic materials, is the fact that these materials are usually obtained from non-renewable resources and also remain as waste after its use, causing environmental issues. This is an international concern and particular attention is given to reduction, reuse and recycling strategies for decreasing the waste from plastic packaging industry. In general, polyethylenes represent most plastic waste and recycling process of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PCR-PET) has been studied. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) have generated different legislative documents to control the use of PCR-PET in the production of plastic packaging intended direct food contact in order to ensure the capacity of recycling process to remove possible contaminants that can migrate into food. Consequently, it is necessary to demonstrate by challenge test that the recycling process is able to remove specific contaminants, obtaining a safe recycled plastic to human health. These documents establish that the concentration limit for substitute contaminants in PET is 220 ppb (ug/kg) and the specific migration limit is 10 ppb (ug/kg) for each contaminant, in addition to assure the sensorial characteristics of food are not affected. Moreover, under the Commission Regulation (EU) N°10/2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, it is established that overall migration limit is 10 mg of substances per 1 dm2 of surface area of the plastic material. Thus, the aim of this work is to determine the safety of PCR-PET-containing food packaging materials in Chile by measuring their overall migration, and their comparison with the established limits at international level. This information will serve as a basis to provide a regulation to control and regulate the use of recycled plastic materials in the manufacture of plastic packaging intended to be in direct contact with food. The methodology used involves a procedure according to EN-1186:2002 with some modifications. The food simulants used were ethanol 10 % (v/v) and acetic acid 3 % (v/v) as aqueous food simulants, and ethanol 95 % (v/v) and isooctane as substitutes of fatty food simulants. In this study, preliminary results showed that Chilean food packaging plastics with different PCR-PET percentages agree with the European Legislation for food aqueous character.

Keywords: Contaminants, Recycling, polyethylene terephthalate, plastic food packaging

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3 Exploring the Potential of Bio-Inspired Lattice Structures for Dynamic Applications in Design

Authors: Axel Thallemer, Aleksandar Kostadinov, Abel Fam, Alex Teo

Abstract:

For centuries, the forming processes in nature served as a source of inspiration for both architects and designers. It seems as most human artifacts are based on ideas which stem from the observation of the biological world and its principles of growth. As a fact, in the cultural history of Homo faber, materials have been mostly used in their solid state: From hand axe to computer mouse, the principle of employing matter has not changed ever since the first creation. In the scope of history only recently and by the help of additive-generative fabrication processes through Computer Aided Design (CAD), designers were enabled to deconstruct solid artifacts into an outer skin and an internal lattice structure. The intention behind this approach is to create a new topology which reduces resources and integrates functions into an additively manufactured component. However, looking at the currently employed lattice structures, it is very clear that those lattice structure geometries have not been thoroughly designed, but rather taken out of basic-geometry libraries which are usually provided by the CAD. In the here presented study, a group of 20 industrial design students created new and unique lattice structures using natural paragons as their models. The selected natural models comprise both the animate and inanimate world, with examples ranging from the spiraling of narwhal tusks, off-shooting of mangrove roots, minimal surfaces of soap bubbles, up to the rhythmical arrangement of molecular geometry, like in the case of SiOC (Carbon-Rich Silicon Oxicarbide). This ideation process leads to a design of a geometric cell, which served as a basic module for the lattice structure, whereby the cell was created in visual analogy to its respective natural model. The spatial lattices were fabricated additively in mostly [X]3 by [Y]3 by [Z]3 units’ volumes using selective powder bed melting in polyamide with (z-axis) 50 mm and 100 µm resolution and subdued to mechanical testing of their elastic zone in a biomedical laboratory. The results demonstrate that additively manufactured lattice structures can acquire different properties when they are designed in analogy to natural models. Several of the lattices displayed the ability to store and return kinetic energy, while others revealed a structural failure which can be exploited for purposes where a controlled collapse of a structure is required. This discovery allows for various new applications of functional lattice structures within industrially created objects.

Keywords: Bio-inspired, Biomimetic, Additive manufacturing, lattice structures

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2 Ethical Framework in Organ Transplantation and the Priority Line between Law and Life

Authors: Abel Sichinava

Abstract:

The need for organ transplantation is vigorously increasing worldwide. The numbers on the waiting lists grow, but the number of donors is not keeping up with the demand even though there is a legal possibility of decreasing the gap between the demand and supply. Most countries around the globe are facing an organ donation problem (living or deceased); however, the extent of the problem differs based on how well developed a country is. The determining issues seem to be centered on how aware the society is about the concept of organ donation, as well as cultural and religious factors. Even if people are aware of the benefits of organ donation, they may still have fears that keep them from being in complete agreement with the idea. Some believe that in the case of deceased organ donation: “the brain dead human body may recover from its injuries” or “the sick might get less appropriate treatment if doctors know they are potential donors.” In the case of living organ donations, people sometimes fear that after the donation, “it might reduce work efficiency, cause health deterioration or even death.” Another major obstacle in the organ shortage is a lack of a well developed ethical framework. In reality, there are truly an immense number of people on the waiting list, and they have only two options in order to receive a suitable organ. First is the legal way, which is to wait until their turn. Sadly, numerous patients die while on the waiting list before an appropriate organ becomes available for transplant. The second option is an illegal way: seeking an organ in a country where they can possibly get. To tell the truth, in people’s desire to live, they may choose the second option if their resources are sufficient. This process automatically involves “organ brokers.” These are people who get organs from vulnerable poor people by force or betrayal. As mentioned earlier, the high demand and low supply leads to human trafficking. The subject of the study was the large number of society from different backgrounds of their belief, culture, nationality, level of education, socio-economic status. The great majority of them interviewed online used “Google Drive Survey” and others in person. All statistics and information gathered from trusted sources annotated in the reference list and above mentioned considerable testimonies shared by the respondents are the fundamental evidence of a lack of the well developed ethical framework. In conclusion, the continuously increasing number of people on the waiting list and an irrelevant ethical framework, lead people to commit to atrocious, dehumanizing crimes. Therefore, world society should be equally obligated to think carefully and make vital decisions together for the advancement of an organ donations and its ethical framework.

Keywords: Organ, donation, transplant, ethical framwork

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1 Evaluating the Impact of Early Maternal Incarceration on Male Delinquent Behavior during Emerging Adulthood through the Mediating Mechanism of Mastery

Authors: Richard Abel

Abstract:

In the United States, increased incarceration rates have caused many adolescents to feel the strain of parental absence. This absence is then manifest through adolescent feelings of parental rejection. Additionally, upon reentry maternal incarceration may be related to adolescents experienced perceived excessive disciple. It is possible parents engage in this manner of discipline attempting to prevent the child from taking the same path to incarceration as the parent. According to General Strain Theory, adolescents encountering strain are likely to experience negative emotions. The emotion that is most likely to lead to delinquency is anger through reduced inhibitions and motivation to act. Additionally, males are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, regardless of experiencing strain. This is not the case for every male who experiences maternal incarceration, parental rejection, excessive discipline, or anger. There are protective factors that enable agency within individuals. One such protective factor is mastery, or the perception that one is in control of his or her own future. The model proposed in this research suggests maternal incarceration is associated with increased parental rejection and excessive discipline in males. Males experiencing parental rejection and excessive discipline are likely to experience increased anger, which is then associated with increases in delinquent behavior. This model explores whether agency, in the form of mastery, mediates the relationship between strains and negative emotions, or between negative emotions and delinquent behavior. The Kaplan Longitudinal and Multigenerational Study (KLAMS) dataset is uniquely situated to analyze this model providing longitudinal data collected from both parents and their offspring. Maternal incarceration is constructed using parental responses such that the mother was incarcerated after the child’s birth, and any incarceration that happened prior to birth is excluded. The remaining variables of the study are all constructed from varying waves of the adolescent survey. Parental rejection, along with control variables for age, race, parental socioeconomic status, neighborhood effects, delinquent peers, and prior delinquent behavior are all constructed using Wave I data. To increase causal inference, the negative emotion of anger and the mediating variable of mastery are measured during Wave II. Lastly, delinquent behavior is measured at Wave III. Results of the analysis show expected relationships such that adolescent males encountering maternal incarceration show increased perception of parental rejection and excessive discipline. Additionally, there is a positive relationship between parental rejection and excessive discipline at Wave I and feelings of anger at Wave II for males. For males experiencing either of these strains in Wave I, feelings of anger in Wave II are found to be associated with increased delinquent behavior in Wave III. Mastery was found to mediate the relationship between both parental rejection and excessive discipline and anger, but no such mediation occurs in the relationship between anger and delinquency, regardless of the strain being experienced. These findings suggest adolescent males who feel they are in control of their own lives are less likely to experience negative emotions produced by the occurrence of strain, thereby decreasing male engagement in delinquent behavior later in life.

Keywords: Delinquency, strain, mastery, maternal incarceration

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