Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Abdellah Bah

25 Study of the Protection of Induction Motors

Authors: Bencheikh Abdellah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a mathematical model dedicated to the simulation breaks bars in a three-phase cage induction motor. This model is based on a mesh circuit representing the rotor cage. The tested simulation allowed us to demonstrate the effectiveness of this model to describe the behavior of the machine in a healthy state, failure.

Keywords: AC motors, squirrel cage, diagnostics, MATLAB, SIMULINK

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24 Efficient Backup Protection for Hybrid WDM/TDM GPON System

Authors: Elmahdi Mohammadine, Ahouzi Esmail, Najid Abdellah

Abstract:

This contribution aims to present a new protected hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Line Protection devices. The objective from using these technologies is to improve flexibility and enhance the protection of GPON networks.

Keywords: Wavlenght Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON), Time Division Multiplexed PON (TDM-PON), architecture, Protection, Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), Optical Line Protection (OLP)

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23 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem

Abstract:

Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

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22 Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Axial Crushing of a Composite Glass/PEHD

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine, Kaou Abdellah

Abstract:

Energy absorption is a major requirement for automotive structures. Although crashworthy structures of composite based glass fiber have exhibited energy absorption greater than similar at other composites structures, the crush process in many cases is accompanied by fracture, rather than by plastic deformation. The crash experiments show that the tubes are crushed in progressive manner start from one end of the tubes and delamination takes place between the layers. To better understand details of the crash process, ABAQUS finite element code is used.

Keywords: Energy absorption, crash, PEHD

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21 A Review of Security Attacks and Intrusion Detection Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

Authors: Maleh Yassine, Ezzati Abdellah

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are currently used in different industrial and consumer applications, such as earth monitoring, health related applications, natural disaster prevention, and many other areas. Security is one of the major aspects of wireless sensor networks due to the resource limitations of sensor nodes. However, these networks are facing several threats that affect their functioning and their life. In this paper we present security attacks in wireless sensor networks, and we focus on a review and analysis of the recent Intrusion Detection schemes in WSNs.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, security attack, denial of service, IDS, cluster-based model, signature based IDS, hybrid IDS

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20 Monitoring of Forest Cover Dynamics in the High Atlas of Morocco (Zaouit Ahansal) Using Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS

Authors: Abdelaziz Moujane, Abedelali Boulli, Abdellah Ouigmane

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the assessment of forestlandscape changes in the region of ZaouitAhansal, usingmultitemporal satellite images at high spatial resolution.Severalremotesensingmethodswereappliednamely: The supervised classification algorithm and NDVI whichwerecombined in a GIS environment to quantify the extent and change in density of forest stands (holmoak, juniper, thya, Aleppo pine, crops, and others).The resultsobtainedshowedthat the forest of ZaouitAhansal has undergonesignificantdegradationresulting in a decrease in the area of juniper, cedar, and zeenoak, as well as an increase in the area of baresoil and agricultural land. The remotesensing data providedsatisfactoryresults for identifying and quantifying changes in forestcover. In addition, thisstudycould serve as a reference for the development of management strategies and restoration programs.

Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, satellite image, NDVI, deforestation, zaouit ahansal

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19 The Impact of the Number of Neurons in the Hidden Layer on the Performance of MLP Neural Network: Application to the Fast Identification of Toxics Gases

Authors: Slimane Ouhmad, Abdellah Halimi

Abstract:

In this work, we have applied neural networks method MLP type to a database from an array of six sensors for the detection of three toxic gases. As the choice of the number of hidden layers and the weight values has a great influence on the convergence of the learning algorithm, we proposed, in this article, a mathematical formulation to determine the optimal number of hidden layers and good weight values based on the method of back propagation of errors. The results of this modeling have improved discrimination of these gases on the one hand, and optimize the computation time on the other hand, the comparison to other results achieved in this case.

Keywords: MLP Neural Network, back-propagation, number of neurons in the hidden layer, identification, computing time

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18 Power Control of DFIG in WECS Using Backstipping and Sliding Mode Controller

Authors: Abdellah Boualouch, Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Ali Boukhriss, Abdellatif Frigui

Abstract:

This paper presents a power control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) using in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) connected to the grid. The proposed control strategy employs two nonlinear controllers, Backstipping (BSC) and sliding-mode controller (SMC) scheme to directly calculate the required rotor control voltage so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of active and reactive powers. In this paper the advantages of BSC and SMC are presented, the performance and robustness of this two controller’s strategy are compared between them. First, we present a model of wind turbine and DFIG machine, then a synthesis of the controllers and their application in the DFIG power control. Simulation results on a 1.5MW grid-connected DFIG system are provided by MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: backstipping, DFIG, power control, sliding-mode, WESC

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17 Clustering Based and Centralized Routing Table Topology of Control Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mbida Mohamed, Ezzati Abdellah

Abstract:

A strong challenge in the wireless sensor networks (WSN) is to save the energy and have a long life time in the network without having a high rate of loss information. However, topology control (TC) protocols are designed in a way that the network is divided and having a standard system of exchange packets between nodes. In this article, we will propose a clustering based and centralized routing table protocol of TC (CBCRT) which delegates a leader node that will encapsulate a single routing table in every cluster nodes. Hence, if a node wants to send packets to the sink, it requests the information's routing table of the current cluster from the node leader in order to root the packet.

Keywords: mobile wireless sensor networks, routing, topology of control, protocols

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16 Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Tim Dekegel, Ann Peeters, Klara Stinders, Niek Blondeel, Sam De Winne, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi

Abstract:

Matching an embedded electronic application with a cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour due to the large number of factors influencing the output power. In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and frequency as variables.

Keywords: vibration energy harvesting, piezoelectrics, harvester parametrization, complementary balanced energy harvesting

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15 Influence of Percentage and Melting Temperature of Phase Change Material on the Thermal Behavior of a Hollow-Brick

Authors: Zakaria Aketouane, Mustapha Malha, Abdellah Bah, Omar Ansari, Mohamed Asbik

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the thermal performance of a hollow-brick filled with Phase Change Material (PCM). The main objective is to study the effect of percentage and melting temperature of the PCM on the thermal inertia and internal surface temperature of the hollow-brick. A numerical model based on the heat transfer equation and the apparent heat capacity method has been validated using experimental study from the literature. The results show that increasing the percentage of the PCM has a significant effect on time lag and decrement factor that define the thermal inertia; the internal temperature is reduced by 1.36°C to 5.39°C for a percentage from 11% to 71% in comparison to a brick without PCM. In addition, an appropriate melting temperature of 37°C has been deduced for the horizontal wall orientation in Rabat in comparison to 27°C and 47°C.

Keywords: appropriate melting temperature, decrement factor, phase change material, thermal inertia, time lag

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14 Investigation of the Mechanism, Régio and Sterioselectivity Using the 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction of Fused 1h-Pyrrole-2,3-Diones with Nitrones: Molecular Electron Density Theory Study

Authors: Ameur Soukaina, Zeroual Abdellah, Mazoir Noureddine

Abstract:

Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT) elucidates the regioselectivity of the [4+2] cycloaddition reaction between 3-aroylpyrrolo[1,2-α]quinoxaline-1,2,4(5H)-trione and butyl vinyl ether Regioselectivity and stereoselectivity. The regioselectivity mechanisms of these reactions were investigated by evaluating potential energy surfaces calculated for cycloaddition processes and DFT density-based reactivity indices. These methods have been successfully applied to predict preferred regioisomers for different method alternatives. Reactions were monitored by performing transition state optimizations, calculations of intrinsic reaction coordinates, and activation energies. The observed regioselectivity was rationalized using DFT-based reactivity descriptors such as the Parr function. Solvent effects were also investigated in 1,4-dioxane solvent using a field model for self-consistent reactions. The results were compared with experimental data to find good agreement.

Keywords: cycloaddition, DFT, ELF, MEDT, parr, stereoselectivité

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13 Numerical Method of Heat Transfer in Fin Profiles

Authors: Beghdadi Lotfi, Belkacem Abdellah

Abstract:

In this work, a numerical method is proposed in order to solve the thermal performance problems of heat transfer of fins surfaces. The bidimensional temperature distribution on the longitudinal section of the fin is calculated by restoring to the finite volumes method. The heat flux dissipated by a generic profile fin is compared with the heat flux removed by the rectangular profile fin with the same length and volume. In this study, it is shown that a finite volume method for quadrilaterals unstructured mesh is developed to predict the two dimensional steady-state solutions of conduction equation, in order to determine the sinusoidal parameter values which optimize the fin effectiveness. In this scheme, based on the integration around the polygonal control volume, the derivatives of conduction equation must be converted into closed line integrals using same formulation of the Stokes theorem. The numerical results show good agreement with analytical results. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, the absolute and root-mean square errors versus the grid size are examined quantitatively.

Keywords: Stokes theorem, unstructured grid, heat transfer, complex geometry

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12 Assessing Distance Education Practices: Teachers Experience and Perceptions

Authors: Mohammed Amraouy, Mostafa Bellafkih, Abdellah Bennane, Aziza Benomar

Abstract:

Distance education has become popular due to their ability to provide learning from almost anywhere and anytime. COVID-19 forced educational institutions to urgently introduce distance education to ensure pedagogical continuity, so all stakeholders were invited to adapt to this new paradigm. In order to identify strengths and weaknesses, the research focuses on the need to create an effective mechanism for evaluating distance education. The aims of this research were to explore and evaluate the use of digital media in general and official platforms in particular in distance education practices. To this end, we have developed and validated a questionnaire before administering it to a sample of 431 teachers in Morocco. Teachers reported lower knowledge and skills in the didactic use of ICT in the distance education process. In addition, although age and educative experience of the teachers continue to modulate the level of instrumental skills. Therefore, resources (digital resources and infrastructure) and the teachers’ ICT training present serious limitations, which require a training more focused on the distance educational paradigm and educational environments that allow teachers to create educational activities able to promote and facilitate the distance learning process.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, teachers’ perceptions, assessment

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11 Quaternary Ammonium Salts Based Algerian Petroleum Products: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Houria Hamitouche, Abdellah Khelifa

Abstract:

Quaternary ammonium salts (QACs) are the most common cationic surfactants of natural or synthetic origin usually. They possess one or more hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains and hydrophilic cationic group. In fact, the hydrophobic groups are derived from three main sources: petrochemicals, vegetable oils, and animal fats. These QACs have attracted the attention of chemists for a long time, due to their general simple synthesis and their broad application in several fields. They are important as ingredients of cosmetic products and are also used as corrosion inhibitors, in emulsion polymerization and textile processing. Within biological applications, QACs show a good antimicrobial activity and can be used as medicines, gene delivery agents or in DNA extraction methods. The 2004 worldwide annual consumption of QACs was reported as 500,000 tons. The petroleum product is considered a true reservoir of a variety of chemical species, which can be used in the synthesis of quaternary ammonium salts. The purpose of the present contribution is to synthesize the quaternary ammonium salts by Menschutkin reaction, via chloromethylation/quaternization sequences, from Algerian petroleum products namely: reformate, light naphtha and kerosene and characterize.

Keywords: quaternary ammonium salts, reformate, light naphtha, kerosene

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10 Risk Management and Security Practice in Customs Supply Chain: Application of Cross ABC Method to the Moroccan Customs

Authors: Lamia Hammadi, Abdellah Ait Ouhman, Aomar Ibourk

Abstract:

It is widely assumed that the case of Customs Supply Chain is classified as a complex system, due to not only the variety and large number of actors, but also their complex structural links, and the interactions between these actors, that’s why this system is subject to various types of Risks. The economic, political and social impacts of those risks are highly detrimental to countries, businesses and the public, for this reason, Risk management in the customs supply chain is becoming a crucial issue to ensure the sustainability, security and safety. The main characteristic of customs risk management approach is determining which goods and means of transport should be examined? To what extend? And where future compliance resources should be directed? The purposes of this article are, firstly to deal with the concept of customs supply chain, secondly present our risk management approach based on Cross Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method as an interactive tool to support decision making in customs risk management. Finally, analysis of case study of Moroccan customs to putting theory into practice and will thus draw together the various elements of a structured and efficient risk management approach.

Keywords: cross ABC method, customs supply chain, risk, risk management

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9 Integrating of Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Spatial Data Warehouse in Geographic Information System

Authors: Zohra Mekranfar, Ahmed Saidi, Abdellah Mebrek

Abstract:

This work aims to develop multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) and spatial data warehouse (SDW) methods, which will be integrated into a GIS according to a ‘GIS dominant’ approach. The GIS operating tools will be operational to operate the SDW. The MCDM methods can provide many solutions to a set of problems with various and multiple criteria. When the problem is so complex, integrating spatial dimension, it makes sense to combine the MCDM process with other approaches like data mining, ascending analyses, we present in this paper an experiment showing a geo-decisional methodology of SWD construction, On-line analytical processing (OLAP) technology which combines both basic multidimensional analysis and the concepts of data mining provides powerful tools to highlight inductions and information not obvious by traditional tools. However, these OLAP tools become more complex in the presence of the spatial dimension. The integration of OLAP with a GIS is the future geographic and spatial information solution. GIS offers advanced functions for the acquisition, storage, analysis, and display of geographic information. However, their effectiveness for complex spatial analysis is questionable due to their determinism and their decisional rigor. A prerequisite for the implementation of any analysis or exploration of spatial data requires the construction and structuring of a spatial data warehouse (SDW). This SDW must be easily usable by the GIS and by the tools offered by an OLAP system.

Keywords: data warehouse, GIS, MCDM, SOLAP

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8 Analysis of Thermoelectric Coolers as Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Applications

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Sam De Winne, Niek Blondeel, Ann Peeters, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi

Abstract:

The growing popularity of solid state thermoelectric devices in cooling applications has sparked an increasing diversity of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) on the market, commonly known as “Peltier modules”. They can also be used as generators, converting a temperature difference into electric power, and opportunities are plentiful to make use of these devices as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply energy to low power, autonomous embedded electronic applications. Their adoption as energy harvesters in this new domain of usage is obstructed by the complex thermoelectric models commonly associated with TEGs. Low cost TECs for the consumer market lack the required parameters to use the models because they are not intended for this mode of operation, thereby urging an alternative method to obtain electric power estimations in specific operating conditions. The design of the test setup implemented in this paper is specifically targeted at benchmarking commercial, off-the-shelf TECs for use as energy harvesters in domestic environments: applications with limited temperature differences and space available. The usefulness is demonstrated by testing and comparing single and multi stage TECs with different sizes. The effect of a boost converter stage on the thermoelectric end-to-end efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: thermoelectric cooler, TEC, complementary balanced energy harvesting, step-up converter, DC/DC converter, energy harvesting, thermal harvesting

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7 Application of Active Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Spirulina Extract as a Potential Food Packaging Material for Enhancing Quality and Shelf Life of Shrimp

Authors: Rafik Balti, Nourhene Zayoud, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Abdellah Arhaliass, Anthony Masse

Abstract:

Application of edible films and coatings with natural active compounds for enhancing storage stability of food products is a promising active packaging approach. Shrimp are generally known as valuable seafood products around the world because of their delicacy and good nutritional. However, shrimp is highly vulnerable to quality deterioration associated with biochemical, microbiological or physical changes during postmortem storage, which results in the limited shelf life of the product. Chitosan is considered as a functional packaging component for maintaining the quality and increasing the shelf life of perishable foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate edible coating of crab chitosan containing variable levels of ethanolic extract of Spirulina on microbiological (mesophilic aerobic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteriacea), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, PV, TBARS) and sensory (odor, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptance) properties of shrimp during refrigerated storage. Also, textural and color characteristics of coated shrimp were performed. According to the obtained results, crab chitosan in combination with Spirulina extract was very effective in order to extend the shelf life of shrimp during storage in refrigerated condition.

Keywords: food packaging, chitosan, spirulina extract, white shrimp, shelf life

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6 Chemical Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Zizyphus lotus Leaves

Authors: Zakaria Boual, Abdellah Kemassi, Toufik Chouana, Philippe Michaud, Mohammed Didi Ould El Hadj

Abstract:

In order to investigate the prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides prepared by chemical hydrolysis of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from Zizyphus lotus leaves, the effect of oligosaccharides on bacterial growth was studied. The chemical composition of WSP was evaluated by colorimetric assays revealed the average values: 7.05±0.73% proteins and 86.21±0.74% carbohydrates, among them 64.81±0.42% are neutral sugar and the rest 16.25±1.62% are uronic acids. The characterization of monosaccharides was determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was found to be composed of galactose (23.95%), glucose (21.30%), rhamnose (20.28%), arabinose (9.55%), and glucuronic acid (22.95%). The effects of oligosaccharides on the growth of lactic acid bacteria were compared with those of fructo-oligosaccharide (RP95). The oligosaccharides concentration was 1g/L of man rogosa sharpe broth. Bacterial growth was assessed during 2, 4.5, 6.5, 9, 12, 16 and 24 h by measuring the optical density of the cultures at 600 nm (OD600) and pH values. During fermentation, pH in broth cultures decreased from 6.7 to 5.87±0.15. The enumeration of lactic acid bacteria indicated that oligosaccharides led to a significant increase in bacteria (P≤0.05) compared to the control. The fermentative metabolism appeared to be faster on RP95 than on oligosaccharides from Zizyphus lotus leaves. Both RP95 and oligosaccharides showed clear prebiotic effects, but had differences in fermentation kinetics because of to the different degree of polymerization. This study shows the prebiotic effectiveness of oligosaccharides, and provides proof for the selection of leaves of Zizyphus lotus for use as functional food ingredients.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, polysaccharides, characterization, prebiotic effects

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5 Experimental and Numerical Performance Analysis for Steam Jet Ejectors

Authors: Abdellah Hanafi, G. M. Mostafa, Mohamed Mortada, Ahmed Hamed

Abstract:

The steam ejectors are the heart of most of the desalination systems that employ vacuum. The systems that employ low grade thermal energy sources like solar energy and geothermal energy use the ejector to drive the system instead of high grade electric energy. The jet-ejector is used to create vacuum employing the flow of steam or air and using the severe pressure drop at the outlet of the main nozzle. The present work involves developing a one dimensional mathematical model for designing jet-ejectors and transform it into computer code using Engineering Equation solver (EES) software. The model receives the required operating conditions at the inlets and outlet of the ejector as inputs and produces the corresponding dimensions required to reach these conditions. The one-dimensional model has been validated using an existed model working on Abu-Qir power station. A prototype has been designed according to the one-dimensional model and attached to a special test bench to be tested before using it in the solar desalination pilot plant. The tested ejector will be responsible for the startup evacuation of the system and adjusting the vacuum of the evaporating effects. The tested prototype has shown a good agreement with the results of the code. In addition a numerical analysis has been applied on one of the designed geometry to give an image of the pressure and velocity distribution inside the ejector from a side, and from other side, to show the difference in results between the two-dimensional ideal gas model and real prototype. The commercial edition of ANSYS Fluent v.14 software is used to solve the two-dimensional axisymmetric case.

Keywords: solar energy, jet ejector, vacuum, evaporating effects

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4 Active Exopolysaccharides Based Edible Coating Enriched with Red Seaweed (Gracilaria gracilis) Extract for Improved Preservation of Shrimp Quality during Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Rafik Balti, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Abdellah Arhaliass, Anthony Masse

Abstract:

Unfortunately, shrimps are highly perishable and they start deteriorating immediately after death owing to their high water content and nutritional components. Currently, there has been an increasing interest in bioactive edible films and coatings to preserve the freshness and quality of foods. In this study, active edible coatings from microalgal exopolysaccharides (EPS) enriched with different concentrations of Red Seaweed Extract (RSE) (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % (w/v)) were developed and their effects on the quality changes of white shrimp during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C) were examined over a period of 8 days. The control and the coated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, and enterobacteriaceae counts), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, PV, TBARS), textural and sensory characteristics. The results indicated that the coating with a mixture of EPS and RSE could significantly decrease the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.05). With storage, EPS coatings containing RSE at both levels (1 and 1.5 %) were more effective in inhibiting the microbial species studied, specially psychrotrophic bacteria. Also, EPS + RSE coated samples had lower polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and lipid oxidation (p < 0.05) toward the end of storage. Textural and color properties of coated shrimp were generally more acceptable. Sensory scores indicated no significant changes in all samples during storage. The obtained results indicate that the edible EPS coating solutions enriched with RSE have noticeable effects on the quality and shelf life of shrimps when compared to control group. Finally, the present work demonstrates the effectiveness of EPS enriched coatings, offering a promising alternative to preserve more better the quality characteristics and to extend the shelf life of shrimp during the refrigerated storage

Keywords: active coating, exopolysaccharides, red seaweed, refrigerated storage, white shrimp

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3 Ability of Bentonite-lactobacillus Rhamnosus GAF06 Mixture to Mitigate Aflatoxin M1 Damages in Balb/C Mice

Authors: Amina Aloui, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Abdellah Zinedine, Amar Riba, Noel Durand, Catherine Brabet, Didier Montet, Samir Abbès

Abstract:

Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed-isa globaconcern, both economically and for public health. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It is frequently found in milk and other dairy products. It is responsible for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and immunotoxic in humans and animals. The reduction of its bioavailabilitybecomesa great demand in order to protect human and animal health. The use of probiotic bacteria and clay are demonstrated to be able to bind AFM1 in vitro. This study aimed to investigate, in vivo, the activity of two-component mixture: L. rhamnosusGAF06 (LR) and bentonite for reducing the oxidative stress and the histological alterationsinduced by AFM1 in the liver andkidneys. For the experiment, male mice were divided into 7 groups (6 mice/group) and treated, orally, by AFM1, alone or in combination with LR and/or bentonite, for 10 days as follows: group 1 control, group 2 treated with LR alone (2.108 CFU/ml), group 3 treated with bentonite alone (1g/kg), group 4 treated with AFM1 alone (100μg/kg), group 5 co-treated with LR+AFM1, group 6 co-treated with bentonite+AFM1, group 7 co-treated with bentonite+LR+AFM1. At the end of the treatment, the mice were sacrificed, and the livers and kidneys were collected for histological assays. Intracellular antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation were also studied. The results showed that AFM1causeddamage in liver and kidney tissues, being evidence of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity marked by necrotic cells. It increased the MDA level and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD) in both organs. In contrast, the co-treatment with AFM1 plus LR and/or bentonitesignificantly improved the hepatic and renal tissues, regulated kidney, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities. This improvement was more remarkable with the administration of LR-bentonite mixture with AFM1.LR and bentonite alone showed to be safe during the treatment. This mixture can be a promising candidate for future applications in biotechnological processes that aimed to detoxify AFM1in food and feed.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, bentonite, L. rhamnosus GAF06, oxidative stress, prevention

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2 Climatic Variations and Risk of Mycotoxins in the Wheat Sector in Morocco: Two Years of Investigation

Authors: Aicha El Jai, Abdellah Zinedine, Didier Montet, Catherine Brabet, Noel Durand

Abstract:

Morocco, a Mediterranean and North African country, is recognized with its climate with annual variations in recorded temperature and precipitations. Morocco's climate is very diverse, varying with the season and region. On the coasts, the climate is Mediterranean, considered humid temperate at higher elevations, while hot and dry in the Southwestern part. The aim of the study was to investigate the multi-occurrence of Mycotoxinsin wheat Samplesharvestedfrom two different climatic areasof, Morocco during 2020 and 2021. Analytical results showed that out of 60 total wheat grain samples sampled during 2019 and 2020 seasons from two different areas in Morocco,19 (31.6%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin and that several mycotoxins co-occurred in the analyzed samples. On the other hand, wheat samples collected from the littoral area were found to be more contaminated.In this area, five mycotoxins occurred: ENB (100%), ENB1 (73.3%), FB1 (40%), ENA1 (13%), OTA (6.6%). The highest mycotoxin level was found for ENB (4940 ng/g) in a sample from the littoral area. While in the continental area, only three mycotoxins (ENB (75%), DON (25%), ENB1 (25%)) were found. One contaminated sample with OTA beyond the thirty samples harvested from the littoral area exceeded the Regulatory limits set by Moroccan and European legislations with 12ng/g. On the other hand, 100 total wheat grain samples were sampled during 2020, and 2021 seasons from two different areas in Morocco, ENB showed the highest incidence (100%) followed by ENB1 (73.3%) and FB1 with (40%), 80% of the positive samples were pre-storage samples. Concerning the continental area, ENB was mainly present with an incidence of (75%) followed by ENB1 and DON with the same incidence (25%), while (ENB + ENB1) was the only co-occurrent mycotoxin (5% of positive samples) in both areas. The highest mycotoxin level was found for ENB (493 ng/g) in a sample from the continental area, even though enniatins are emerging Fusarium mycotoxins and there are currently no regulatory limits. Results showed as well a co-presence of mycotoxins This is the first study assessing the impact of climate variations on multi-occurrence of mycotoxinsin wheat samplesharvestedfrom two different climatic areasof morocco during two years of investigation. Therefore, a polyphasic identification of toxigenic fungi is essential to seek the fungi origin of the contaminations.

Keywords: mycotoxins, climatic variations, morocco, wheat sector

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1 Transient Performance Evaluation and Control Measures for Oum Azza Pumping Station Case Study

Authors: Itissam Abuiziah

Abstract:

This work presents a case study of water-hammer analysis and control for the Oum Azza pumping station project in the coastal area of Rabat to Casablanca from the dam Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah (SMBA). This is a typical pumping system with a long penstock and is currently at design and executions stages. Since there is no ideal location for construction of protection devices, the protection devices were provisionally designed to protect the whole conveying pipeline. The simulation results for the transient conditions caused by a sudden pumping stopping without including any protection devices, show that there is a negative beyond 1300m to the station 5725m near the arrival of the reservoir, therefore; there is a need for the protection devices to protect the conveying pipeline. To achieve the goal behind the transient flow analysis which is to protect the conveying pipeline system, four scenarios had been investigated in this case study with two types of protecting devices (pressure relief valve and desurging tank with automatic air control). The four scenarios are conceders as with pressure relief valve, with pressure relief valve and a desurging tank with automatic air control, with pressure relief valve and tow desurging tanks with automatic air control and with pressure relief valve and three desurging tanks with automatic air control. The simulation result for the first scenario shows that overpressure corresponding to an instant pumping stopping is reduced from 263m to 240m, and the minimum hydraulic grad line for the length approximately from station 1300m to station 5725m is still below the pipeline profile which means that the pipe must be equipped with another a protective devices for smoothing depressions. The simulation results for the second scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases especially in the depression phase but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study. The minimum pressure increased from -77.7m for the previous scenario to -65.9m for the current scenario. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station2575.84m. The simulation results for the third scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study since the depression is still exist and varies from -0.6m to– 12m. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station 5670.32 m. Examination of the envelope curves of the minimum pressuresresults for the fourth scenario, we noticed that the piezometric pressure along the pipe remains positive over the entire length of the pipe. We can, therefore, conclude that such scenario can provide effective protection for the pipeline.

Keywords: analysis methods, protection devices, transient flow, water hammer

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