Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 888

Search results for: 2001 Nisqually Earthquake

888 Quantification of Site Nonlinearity Based on HHT Analysis of Seismic Recordings

Authors: Ruichong Zhang


This study proposes a recording-based approach to characterize and quantify earthquake-induced site nonlinearity, exemplified as soil nonlinearity and/or liquefaction. Alternative to Fourier spectral analysis (FSA), the paper introduces time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of so-called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the nonlinear features shown in the recordings. With the use of the 2001 Nisqually earthquake recordings, this study shows that the proposed approach is effective in characterizing site nonlinearity and quantifying the influences in seismic ground responses.

Keywords: site nonlinearity, site amplification, site damping, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), liquefaction, 2001 Nisqually Earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
887 Dynamics of Understanding Earthquake Precursors-A Review

Authors: Sarada Nivedita Bhuyan


Earthquake is the sudden, rapid movement of the earth’s crust and is the natural means of releasing stress. Tectonic plates play a major role for earthquakes as tectonic plates are the crust of the planet. The boundary lines of tectonic plates are usually known as fault lines. To understand an earthquake before its occurrence, different types of earthquake precursors are studied by different researchers. Surface temperature, strange cloud cover, earth’s electric field, geomagnetic phenomena, ground water level, active faults, ionospheric anomalies, tectonic movements are taken as parameters for earthquake study by different researchers. In this paper we tried to gather complete and helpful information of earthquake precursors which have been studied until now.

Keywords: earthquake precursors, earthquake, tectonic plates, fault

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
886 Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Line Towers

Authors: L. Srikanth, D. Neelima Satyam


The transmission line towers are one of the important life line structures in the distribution of power from the source to the various places for several purposes. The predominant external loads which act on these towers are wind and earthquake loads. In this present study tower is analyzed using Indian Standards IS: 875:1987 (Wind Load), IS: 802:1995 (Structural Steel), IS:1893:2002 (Earthquake) and dynamic analysis of tower has been performed considering ground motion of 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (India). The dynamic analysis was performed considering a tower system consisting two towers spaced 800m apart and 35m height each. This analysis has been performed using numerical time stepping finite difference method which is central difference method were employed by a developed MATLAB program to get the normalized ground motion parameters includes acceleration, frequency, velocity which are important in designing the tower. The tower is analyzed using response spectrum analysis.

Keywords: response spectra, dynamic analysis, central difference method, transmission tower

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885 A Brief Overview of Seven Churches in Van Province

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler, Mustafa Gulen


Van province which has a very rich historical heritage is located in eastern part of Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. Many civilizations prevailing in Van until today have built up many historical structures such as castles, mosques, churches, bridges, baths, etc. In 2011, a devastating earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, epicenter in Tabanlı Village, occurred in Van, where a large part of the city locates in the first-degree earthquake zone. As a result of this earthquake, 644 people were killed; a lot of reinforced, unreinforced and historical structures were badly damaged. Many historical structures damaged due to this earthquake have been restored. In this study, the damages observed in Seven churches (Yedi Kilise) after 2011 Van earthquake is evaluated with regard to architecture and civil engineering perspective.

Keywords: earthquake, historical structures, Van province, church

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
884 Attribute Index and Classification Method of Earthquake Damage Photographs of Engineering Structure

Authors: Ming Lu, Xiaojun Li, Bodi Lu, Juehui Xing


Earthquake damage phenomenon of each large earthquake gives comprehensive and profound real test to the dynamic performance and failure mechanism of different engineering structures. Cognitive engineering structure characteristics through seismic damage phenomenon are often far superior to expensive shaking table experiments. After the earthquake, people will record a variety of different types of engineering damage photos. However, a large number of earthquake damage photographs lack sufficient information and reduce their using value. To improve the research value and the use efficiency of engineering seismic damage photographs, this paper objects to explore and show seismic damage background information, which includes the earthquake magnitude, earthquake intensity, and the damaged structure characteristics. From the research requirement in earthquake engineering field, the authors use the 2008 China Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake photographs, and provide four kinds of attribute indexes and classification, which are seismic information, structure types, earthquake damage parts and disaster causation factors. The final object is to set up an engineering structural seismic damage database based on these four attribute indicators and classification, and eventually build a website providing seismic damage photographs.

Keywords: attribute index, classification method, earthquake damage picture, engineering structure

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883 The Simultaneous Effect of Horizontal and Vertical Earthquake Components on the Seismic Response of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame

Authors: Mahdi Shokrollahi


Over the past years, much research has been conducted on the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes, which only horizontal components of the earthquake were considered in their seismic analysis and vertical earthquake acceleration especially in near-fault area was less considered. The investigation of the mappings shows that vertical earthquake acceleration can be significantly closer to the maximum horizontal earthquake acceleration, and even exceeds it in some cases. This study has compared the behavior of different members of three steel moment frame with a buckling-restrained brace (BRB), one time only by considering the horizontal component and again by considering simultaneously the horizontal and vertical components under the three mappings of the near-fault area and the effect of vertical acceleration on structural responses is investigated. Finally, according to the results, the vertical component of the earthquake has a greater effect on the axial force of the columns and the vertical displacement of the middle of the beams of the different classes and less on the lateral displacement of the classes.

Keywords: vertical earthquake acceleration, near-fault area, steel frame, horizontal and vertical component of earthquake, buckling-restrained brace

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
882 Effects of Near-Fault Ground Motions on Earthquake-Induced Pounding Response of RC Buildings

Authors: Mehmet Akköse


In ground motions recorded in recent major earthquakes such as 1994 Northridge earthquake in US, 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan, 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, and 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey, it is noticed that they have large velocity pulses. The ground motions with the velocity pulses recorded in the vicinity of an earthquake fault are quite different from the usual far-fault earthquake ground motions. The velocity pulse duration in the near-fault ground motions is larger than 1.0 sec. In addition, the ratio of the peak ground velocity (PGV) to the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the near-fault ground motions is larger than 0.1 sec. The ground motions having these characteristics expose the structure to high input energy in the beginning of the earthquake and cause large structural responses. Therefore, structural response to near-fault ground motions has received much attention in recent years. Interactions between neighboring, inadequately separated buildings have been repeatedly observed during earthquakes. This phenomenon often referred to as earthquake-induced structural pounding, may result in substantial damage or even total destruction of colliding structures during strong ground motions. This study focuses on effects of near-fault ground motions on earthquake-induced pounding response of RC buildings. The program SAP2000 is employed in the response calculations. The results obtained from the pounding analyses for near-fault and far-fault ground motions are compared with each other.

Keywords: near-fault ground motion, pounding analysis, RC buildings, SAP2000

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
881 A Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention - Part II

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


The safety of door has not given much attention. The main problem of doors during and after earthquake is that they are unable to be opened because deviation from its original position by the lateral load. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. Nonlinear finite element analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the structural performance and behavior of the proposed door under both monotonic and cyclic loading.

Keywords: safety-door, earthquake disaster, low yield point steel, passive energy dissipating device, FE analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
880 Lessons Learnt from Moment Magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

Authors: Narayan Gurung, Fawu Wang, Ranjan Kumar Dahal


Nepal is highly prone to earthquakes and has witnessed at least one major earthquake in 80 to 90 years interval. The Gorkha earthquake, that measured 7.8 RS in magnitude and struck Nepal on 25th April 2015, after 81 years since Mw 8.3 Nepal Bihar earthquake in 1934, was the largest earthquake after Mw 8.3 Nepal Bihar earthquake. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the lessons learnt from the MwW 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake. Several types of damage patterns in buildings were observed for reinforced concrete buildings, as well as for unreinforced masonry and adobe houses in the earthquake of 25 April 2015. Many field visits in the affected areas were conducted, and thus, associated failure and damage patterns were identified and analyzed. Damage patterns in non-engineered buildings, middle and high-rise buildings, commercial complexes, administrative buildings, schools and other critical facilities are also included from the affected districts. For most buildings, the construction and structural deficiencies have been identified as the major causes of failure; however, topography, local soil amplification, foundation settlement, liquefaction associated damages and buildings built in hazard-prone areas were also significantly observed for the failure or damages to buildings and hence are reported. Finally, the lessons learnt from Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake are presented in order to mitigate impacts of future earthquakes in Nepal.

Keywords: Gorkha earthquake, reinforced concrete structure, Nepal, lesson learnt

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
879 Development of Quasi Real-Time Comprehensive System for Earthquake Disaster

Authors: Zhi Liu, Hui Jiang, Jin Li, Kunhao Chen, Langfang Zhang


Fast acquisition of the seismic information and accurate assessment of the earthquake disaster is the key problem for emergency rescue after a destructive earthquake. In order to meet the requirements of the earthquake emergency response and rescue for the cities and counties, a quasi real-time comprehensive evaluation system for earthquake disaster is developed. Based on monitoring data of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) strong motion network, structure database of a county area and the real-time disaster information by the mobile terminal after an earthquake, fragility analysis method and dynamic correction algorithm are synthetically obtained in the developed system. Real-time evaluation of the seismic disaster in the county region is finally realized to provide scientific basis for seismic emergency command, rescue and assistant decision.

Keywords: quasi real-time, earthquake disaster data collection, MEMS accelerometer, dynamic correction, comprehensive evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
878 High School Students’ Seismic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Shavar, Dhaka

Authors: Mohammad Lutfur Rahman


School students of Dhaka are in extreme risk of natural disasters. However, the study on assessment of the real scenario of high school students about perceptions of earthquake is very little. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the seismic risk perception and preparedness levels about earthquake among high school students in Shavar, Dhaka. A questionnaire was developed, and data collection was done about a group of high school students in seven classrooms. The author uses a method of surveying high school students to identify and describe the factors that influence their knowledge and perceptions about earthquake. This study examines gender and grade differences in perceived risk and communication behavior in response to the earthquake. Female students’ preparation, participation, and communication with family are more frequent than that of male students. Female students have been found to be more likely to learn about a disaster than male students. Higher grade students have more awareness but less preparedness about earthquake than that of the younger one. This research concludes that irrespective of grades, high school students are vulnerable to earthquake due to the lack of a seismic education program.

Keywords: awareness, earthquake, risk perception, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
877 Estimation of Maximum Earthquake for Gujarat Region, India

Authors: Ashutosh Saxena, Kumar Pallav, Ramji Dwivedi


The present study estimates the seismicity parameter 'b' and maximum possible magnitude of an earthquake (Mmax) for Gujarat region with three well-established methods viz. Kijiko parametric model (KP), Kijiko-Sellevol-Bayern (KSB) and Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR), as a combined seismic source regime. The earthquake catalogue is prepared for a period of 1330 to 2013 in the region Latitudes 20o N to 250 N and Longitudinally extending from 680 to 750 E for earthquake moment magnitude (Mw) ≥4.0. The ’a’ and 'b' value estimated for the region as 4.68 and 0.58. Further, Mmax estimated as 8.54 (± 0.29), 8.69 (± 0.48), and 8.12 with KP, KSB, and TGR, respectively.

Keywords: Mmax, seismicity parameter, Gujarat, Tapered Gutenberg-Richter

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876 Reinforced Concrete Design Construction Issues and Earthquake Failure-Damage Responses

Authors: Hasan Husnu Korkmaz, Serra Zerrin Korkmaz


Earthquakes are the natural disasters that threat several countries. Turkey is situated on a very active earthquake zone. During the recent earthquakes, thousands of people died due to failure of reinforced concrete structures. Although Turkey has a very sufficient earthquake code, the design and construction mistakes were repeated for old structures. Lack of the control mechanism during the construction process may be the most important reason of failure. The quality of the concrete and poor detailing of steel or reinforcement is the most important headings. In this paper, the reasons of failure of reinforced concrete structures were summarized with relevant photos. The paper is beneficial for civil engineers as well as architect who are in the process of construction and design of structures in earthquake zones.

Keywords: earthquake, reinforced concrete structure, failure, material

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
875 Analysis of Ionosphere Anomaly Before Great Earthquake in Java on 2009 Using GPS Tec Data

Authors: Aldilla Damayanti Purnama Ratri, Hendri Subakti, Buldan Muslim


Ionosphere’s anomalies as an effect of earthquake activity is a phenomenon that is now being studied in seismo-ionospheric coupling. Generally, variation in the ionosphere caused by earthquake activity is weaker than the interference generated by different source, such as geomagnetic storms. However, disturbances of geomagnetic storms show a more global behavior, while the seismo-ionospheric anomalies occur only locally in the area which is largely determined by magnitude of the earthquake. It show that the earthquake activity is unique and because of its uniqueness it has been much research done thus expected to give clues as early warning before earthquake. One of the research that has been developed at this time is the approach of seismo-ionospheric-coupling. This study related the state in the lithosphere-atmosphere and ionosphere before and when earthquake occur. This paper choose the total electron content in a vertical (VTEC) in the ionosphere as a parameter. Total Electron Content (TEC) is defined as the amount of electron in vertical column (cylinder) with cross-section of 1m2 along GPS signal trajectory in ionosphere at around 350 km of height. Based on the analysis of data obtained from the LAPAN agency to identify abnormal signals by statistical methods, obtained that there are an anomaly in the ionosphere is characterized by decreasing of electron content of the ionosphere at 1 TECU before the earthquake occurred. Decreasing of VTEC is not associated with magnetic storm that is indicated as an earthquake precursor. This is supported by the Dst index showed no magnetic interference.

Keywords: earthquake, DST Index, ionosphere, seismoionospheric coupling, VTEC

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874 Earthquake Identification to Predict Tsunami in Andalas Island, Indonesia Using Back Propagation Method and Fuzzy TOPSIS Decision Seconder

Authors: Muhamad Aris Burhanudin, Angga Firmansyas, Bagus Jaya Santosa


Earthquakes are natural hazard that can trigger the most dangerous hazard, tsunami. 26 December 2004, a giant earthquake occurred in north-west Andalas Island. It made giant tsunami which crushed Sumatra, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore. More than twenty thousand people dead. The occurrence of earthquake and tsunami can not be avoided. But this hazard can be mitigated by earthquake forecasting. Early preparation is the key factor to reduce its damages and consequences. We aim to investigate quantitatively on pattern of earthquake. Then, we can know the trend. We study about earthquake which has happened in Andalas island, Indonesia one last decade. Andalas is island which has high seismicity, more than a thousand event occur in a year. It is because Andalas island is in tectonic subduction zone of Hindia sea plate and Eurasia plate. A tsunami forecasting is needed to mitigation action. Thus, a Tsunami Forecasting Method is presented in this work. Neutral Network has used widely in many research to estimate earthquake and it is convinced that by using Backpropagation Method, earthquake can be predicted. At first, ANN is trained to predict Tsunami 26 December 2004 by using earthquake data before it. Then after we get trained ANN, we apply to predict the next earthquake. Not all earthquake will trigger Tsunami, there are some characteristics of earthquake that can cause Tsunami. Wrong decision can cause other problem in the society. Then, we need a method to reduce possibility of wrong decision. Fuzzy TOPSIS is a statistical method that is widely used to be decision seconder referring to given parameters. Fuzzy TOPSIS method can make the best decision whether it cause Tsunami or not. This work combines earthquake prediction using neural network method and using Fuzzy TOPSIS to determine the decision that the earthquake triggers Tsunami wave or not. Neural Network model is capable to capture non-linear relationship and Fuzzy TOPSIS is capable to determine the best decision better than other statistical method in tsunami prediction.

Keywords: earthquake, fuzzy TOPSIS, neural network, tsunami

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873 Simulation of the Evacuation of Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods from Tsunami

Authors: Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga


The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 on Friday, March 11, 2011. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 40.5 meters in height. We focus on the ship’s evacuation from tsunami. Then we analyze about ships evacuation from tsunami using multi-agent simulation and we want to prepare for a coming earthquake. We developed a simulation model of ships that set sail from the port in order to evacuate from the tsunami considering the ship carrying dangerous goods.

Keywords: Ship’s evacuation, multi-agent simulation, tsunami

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
872 Designing a Learning Table and Game Cards for Preschoolers for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) on Earthquake

Authors: Mehrnoosh Mirzaei


Children are among the most vulnerable at the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Most of the management and measures which are considered for both before and during an earthquake are neither suitable nor efficient for this age group and cannot be applied. On the other hand, due to their age, it is hard to educate and train children to learn and understand the concept of earthquake risk mitigation as matters like earthquake prevention and safe places during an earthquake are not easily perceived. To our knowledge, children’s awareness of such concepts via their own world with the help of games is the best training method in this case. In this article, the researcher has tried to consider the child an active element before and during the earthquake. With training, provided by adults before the incidence of an earthquake, the child has the ability to learn disaster risk reduction (DRR). The focus of this research is on learning risk reduction behavior and regarding children as an individual element. The information of this article has been gathered from library resources, observations and the drawings of 10 children aged 5 whose subject was their conceptual definition of an earthquake who were asked to illustrate their conceptual definition of an earthquake; the results of 20 questionnaires filled in by preschoolers along with information gathered by interviewing them. The design of the suitable educational game, appropriate for the needs of this age group, has been made based on the theory of design with help of the user and the priority of children’s learning needs. The final result is a package of a game which is comprised of a learning table and matching cards showing sign marks for safe and unsafe places which introduce the safe behaviors and safe locations before and during the earthquake. These educational games can be used both in group contexts in kindergartens and on an individual basis at home, and they help in earthquake risk reduction.

Keywords: disaster education, earthquake sign marks, learning table, matching card, risk reduction behavior

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871 Exploring the Physical Environment and Building Features in Earthquake Disaster Areas

Authors: Chang Hsueh-Sheng, Chen Tzu-Ling


Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience. Conventional ways to mitigate earthquake disaster are to enhance building codes and advance structural engineering measures. However, earthquake-induced ground damage such as liquefaction, land subsidence, landslide happen on places nearby earthquake prone or poor soil condition areas. Therefore, this study uses spatial statistical analysis to explore the spatial pattern of damaged buildings. Afterwards, principle components analysis (PCA) is applied to categorize the similar features in different kinds of clustered patterns. The results show that serious landslide prone area, close to fault, vegetated ground surface and mudslide prone area are common in those highly damaged buildings. In addition, the oldest building might not be directly referred to the most vulnerable one. In fact, it seems that buildings built between 1974 and 1989 become more fragile during the earthquake. The incorporation of both spatial statistical analyses and PCA can provide more accurate information to subsidize retrofit programs to enhance earthquake resistance in particular areas.

Keywords: earthquake disaster, spatial statistic analysis, principle components analysis (pca), clustered patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
870 Android-Based Edugame Application for Earthquakes Disaster Mitigation Education

Authors: Endina P. Purwandari, Yolanda Hervianti, Feri Noperman, Endang W. Winarni


The earthquakes disaster is an event that can threaten at any moment and cause damage and loss of life. Game earthquake disaster mitigation is a useful educational game to enhance children insight, knowledge, and understanding in the response to the impact of the earthquake. This study aims to build an educational games application on the Android platform as a learning media for earthquake mitigation education and to determine the effect of the application toward children understanding of the earthquake disaster mitigation. The methods were research and development. The development was to develop edugame application for earthquakes mitigation education. The research involved elementary students as a research sample to test the developed application. The research results were valid android-based edugame application, and its the effect of application toward children understanding. The application contains an earthquake simulation video, an earthquake mitigation video, and a game consisting three stages, namely before the earthquake, when the earthquake occur, and after the earthquake. The results of the feasibility test application showed that this application was included in the category of 'Excellent' which the average percentage of the operation of applications by 76%, view application by 67% and contents of application by 74%. The test results of students' responses were 80% that showed that a positive their responses toward the application. The student understanding test results show that the average score of children understanding pretest was 71,33, and post-test was 97,00. T-test result showed that t value by 8,02 more than table t by 2,001. This indicated that the earthquakes disaster mitigation edugame application based on Android platform affects the children understanding about disaster earthquake mitigation.

Keywords: android, edugame, mitigation, earthquakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
869 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

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868 Implementation of Iterative Algorithm for Earthquake Location

Authors: Hussain K. Chaiel


The development in the field of the digital signal processing (DSP) and the microelectronics technology reduces the complexity of the iterative algorithms that need large number of arithmetic operations. Virtex-Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are programmable silicon foundations which offer an important solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP designer. In this work, Virtex-7 FPGA technology is used to implement an iterative algorithm to estimate the earthquake location. Simulation results show that an implementation based on block RAMB36E1 and DSP48E1 slices of Virtex-7 type reduces the number of cycles of the clock frequency. This enables the algorithm to be used for earthquake prediction.

Keywords: DSP, earthquake, FPGA, iterative algorithm

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867 Variation of Base Width of a Typical Concrete Gravity Dam under Different Seismic Conditions Using Static Seismic Loading

Authors: Prasanna Kumar Khaund, Sukanya Talukdar


A concrete gravity dam is a major hydraulic structure and it is very essential to consider the earthquake forces, to get a proper design base width, so that the entire weight of the dam resists the overturning moment due to earthquake and other forces. The main objective of this study is to obtain the design base width of a dam for different seismic conditions by varying the earthquake coefficients in both vertical and horizontal directions. This shall be done by equating the factor of safety against overturning, factor of safety against sliding and factor of safety against shear friction factor for a dam with their limiting values, under both tail water and no tail water condition. The shape of the Mettur dam in India is considered for the study. The study has been done taking a constant head of water at the reservoir, which is the maximum reservoir water level and a constant height of tail water. Using linear approximation method of Newton Raphson, the obtained equations against different factors of safety under different earthquake conditions are solved using a programme in C++ to get different values of base width of dam for varying earthquake conditions.

Keywords: design base width, horizontal earthquake coefficient, tail water, vertical earthquake coefficient

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866 A Study on the Failure Modes of Steel Moment Frame in Post-Earthquake Fire Using Coupled Mechanical-Thermal Analysis

Authors: Ehsan Asgari, Meisam Afazeli, Nezhla Attarchian


Post-earthquake fire is considered as a major threat in seismic areas. After an earthquake, fire is possible in structures. In this research, the effect of post-earthquake fire on steel moment frames with and without fireproofing coating is investigated. For this purpose, finite element method is employed. For the verification of finite element results, the results of an experimental study carried out by previous researchers are used, and the predicted FE results are compared with the test results, and good agreement is observed. After ensuring the accuracy of the predictions of finite element models, the effect of post-earthquake fire on the frames is investigated taking into account the parameters including the presence or absence of fire protection, frame design assumptions, earthquake type and different fire scenario. Ordinary fire and post-earthquake fire effect on the frames is also studied. The plastic hinges induced by earthquake in the structure are determined in the beam to the column connection and in panel zone. These areas should be accurately considered when providing fireproofing coatings. The results of the study show that the occurrence of fire beside corner columns is the most damaging scenario that results in progressive collapse of structure. It was also concluded that the behavior of structure in fire after a strong ground motion is significantly different from that in a normal fire.

Keywords: post earthquake fire, moment frame, finite element simulation, coupled temperature-displacement analysis, fire scenario

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865 Overview and Post Damage Analysis of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Vipin Kumar Singhal, Rohit Kumar Mittal, Pavitra Ranjan Maiti


Damage analysis is one of the preliminary activities to be done after an earthquake so as to enhance the seismic building design technologies and prevent similar type of failure in future during earthquakes. This research article investigates the damage pattern and most probable reason of failure by observing photographs of seven major buildings collapsed/damaged which were evenly spread over the region during Mw7.8, Nepal earthquake 2015 followed by more than 400 aftershocks of Mw4 with one aftershock reaching a magnitude of Mw7.3. Over 250,000 buildings got damaged, and more than 9000 people got injured in this earthquake. Photographs of these buildings were collected after the earthquake and the cause of failure was estimated along with the severity of damage and comment on the reparability of structure has been made. Based on observations, it was concluded that the damage in reinforced concrete buildings was less compared to masonry structures. The number of buildings damaged was high near Kathmandu region due to high building density in that region. This type of damage analysis can be used as a cost effective and quick method for damage assessment during earthquakes.

Keywords: Nepal earthquake, damage analysis, damage assessment, damage scales

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864 Challenges for Reconstruction: A Case Study from 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

Authors: Hari K. Adhikari, Keshab Sharma, K. C. Apil


The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 hit the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015; with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley. This paper aims to explore challenges of reconstruction in the rural earthquake-stricken areas of Nepal. The Gorkha earthquake on April 25, 2015, has significantly affected the livelihood of people and overall economy in Nepal, causing severe damage and destruction in central Nepal including nation’s capital. A larger part of the earthquake affected area is difficult to access with rugged terrain and scattered settlements, which posed unique challenges and efforts on a massive scale reconstruction and rehabilitation. 800 thousand buildings were affected leaving 8 million people homeless. Challenge of reconstruction of optimum 800 thousand houses is arduous for Nepal in the background of its turmoil political scenario and weak governance. With significant actors involved in the reconstruction process, no appreciable relief has reached to the ground, which is reflected over the frustration of affected people. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake is one of most devastating disasters in the modern history of Nepal. Best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on reconstruction after disasters in modern Nepal, which integrates the necessary information to deal with challenges and opportunities of reconstructions. The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Thirty engineers and ten social mobilizes working for reconstruction and more than hundreds local social workers, local party leaders, and earthquake victims were selected arbitrarily. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions, focus group discussions, and field notes, with no previous assumption. Author also reviewed literature and document reviews covering academic and practitioner studies on challenges of reconstruction after earthquake in developing countries such as 2001 Gujarat earthquake, 2005 Kashmir earthquake, 2003 Bam earthquake and 2010 Haiti earthquake; which have very similar building typologies, economic, political, geographical, and geological conditions with Nepal. Secondary data was collected from reports, action plans, and reflection papers of governmental entities, non-governmental organizations, private sector businesses, and the online news. This study concludes that inaccessibility, absence of local government, weak governance, weak infrastructures, lack of preparedness, knowledge gap and manpower shortage, etc. are the key challenges of the reconstruction after 2015 earthquake in Nepal. After scrutinizing different challenges and issues, study counsels that good governance, integrated information, addressing technical issues, public participation along with short term and long term strategies to tackle with technical issues are some crucial factors for timely and quality reconstruction in context of Nepal. Sample collected for this study is relatively small sample size and may not be fully representative of the stakeholders involved in reconstruction. However, the key findings of this study are ones that need to be recognized by academics, governments, and implementation agencies, and considered in the implementation of post-disaster reconstruction program in developing countries.

Keywords: Gorkha earthquake, reconstruction, challenges, policy

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863 Further Development in Predicting Post-Earthquake Fire Ignition Hazard

Authors: Pegah Farshadmanesh, Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares


In nearly all earthquakes of the past century that resulted in moderate to significant damage, the occurrence of postearthquake fire ignition (PEFI) has imposed a serious hazard and caused severe damage, especially in urban areas. In order to reduce the loss of life and property caused by post-earthquake fires, there is a crucial need for predictive models to estimate the PEFI risk. The parameters affecting PEFI risk can be categorized as: 1) factors influencing fire ignition in normal (non-earthquake) condition, including floor area, building category, ignitability, type of appliance, and prevention devices, and 2) earthquake related factors contributing to the PEFI risk, including building vulnerability and earthquake characteristics such as intensity, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. State-of-the-art statistical PEFI risk models are solely based on limited available earthquake data, and therefore they cannot predict the PEFI risk for areas with insufficient earthquake records since such records are needed in estimating the PEFI model parameters. In this paper, the correlation between normal condition ignition risk, peak ground acceleration, and PEFI risk is examined in an effort to offer a means for predicting post-earthquake ignition events. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate how such correlation can be employed in a seismic area to predict PEFI hazard.

Keywords: fire risk, post-earthquake fire ignition (PEFI), risk management, seismicity

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862 Translational and Rotational Effect of Earthquake Ground Motion on a Bridge Substructure

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Gitartha Kalita


In this study a four span box girder bridge is considered and effect of the rotational and translational earthquake ground motion have been thoroughly investigated. This study is motivated by the fact that in many countries the translational and rotational components of earthquake ground motion, especially rocking, is not adequately considered in analysing the overall response of the structures subjected to earthquake ground excitations. Much consideration is given to only the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion during the response analysis of structures. In the present research work, P waves, SV waves and Rayleigh wave excitations are considered for different angle of incidence. In the present paper, the four span bridge is model considering the effects of vertical and rocking components of P, SV and Rayleigh wave excitations. Ground responses namely displacement, velocity and acceleration of the substructures of the bridge have been considered for rotational and translational effects in addition to the horizontal ground motion due to earthquake and wind.

Keywords: ground motion, response, rotational effects, translational effects

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861 Better Knowledge and Understanding of the Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: A. R. Mirzaee, M. Khajehpour


Due to Simple Design, reasonable cost and easy implementation most people are reluctant to build buildings with masonry construction. Masonry Structures performance at earthquake are so limited. Of most earthquakes occurred in Iran and other countries, we can easily see that most of the damages are for masonry constructions and this is the evidence that we lack proper understanding of the performance of masonry buildings in earthquake. In this paper, according to field studies, conducted in past earthquakes. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses points of the masonry constructions and also provide a solution to prevent such damage should be presented, and also program Examples of the correct bearing wall and tie-column design with the valid regulations (MSJC-08 (ASD)) will be explained.

Keywords: Masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

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860 Strategies to Promote Safety and Reduce the Vulnerability of Urban Worn-out Textures to the Potential Risk of Earthquake

Authors: Bahareh Montakhabi


Earthquake is known as one of the deadliest natural disasters, with a high potential for damage to life and property. Some of Iran's cities were completely destroyed after major earthquakes, and the people of the region suffered a lot of mental, financial and psychological damage. Tehran is one of the cities located on the fault line. According to experts, the only city that could be severely damaged by a moderate earthquake in Earthquake Engineering Intensity Scale (EEIS) (70% destruction) is Tehran because Tehran is built precisely on the fault. Seismic risk assessment (SRA) of cities in the scale of urban areas and neighborhoods is the first phase of the earthquake crisis management process, which can provide the information required to make optimal use of available resources and facilities in order to reduce the destructive effects and consequences of an earthquake. This study has investigated strategies to promote safety and reduce the vulnerability of worn-out urban textures in the District 12 of Tehran to the potential risk of earthquake aimed at prioritizing the factors affecting the vulnerability of worn-out urban textures to earthquake crises and how to reduce them, using the analytical-exploratory method, analytical hierarchy process (AHP), Expert choice and SWOT technique. The results of SWAT and AHP analysis of the vulnerability of the worn-out textures of District 12 to internal threats (1.70) and external threats (2.40) indicate weak safety of the textures of District 12 regarding internal and external factors and a high possibility of damage.

Keywords: risk management, vulnerability, worn-out textures, earthquake

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859 A New Type Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention: Part I

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


From the past earthquake events, many people get hurt at the exit while they are trying to go out of the buildings because of the exit doors are unable to be opened. The door is not opened because it deviates from its the original position. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a new type safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. The proposed door is composed of three components: outer frame joined to the wall, inner frame (door frame) and circular hollow section connected to the inner and outer frame which is used as seismic energy dissipating device.

Keywords: safety-door, earthquake disaster, low yield point steel, passive energy dissipating device, FE analysis

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