Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2141

Search results for: site amplification

2141 Effect of Site Amplification on Seismic Safety Evaluation of Flyover Pier

Authors: Mohammad Raihan Mukhlis, M. Abdur Rahman Bhuiyan

Abstract:

Bangladesh is a developing country in which a lot of multi-span simply/continuous supported flyovers are being constructed in its major cities. Being situated in a seismically active region, seismic safety evaluation of flyovers is essential for seismic risk reduction. Effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of flyover piers are the main concern of this study. In this regard, failure mode, lateral strength and displacement ductility of piers of a typical multi-span simply supported flyover have been evaluated by Japan Road Association (JRA) recommended guidelines, with and without considering site amplification. Ultimate flexural strengths of piers have been computed using the pushover analysis results. Shear capacity of piers has been calculated using the guidelines of JRA. Lateral strengths have been determined depending on the failure modes of the piers. Displacement ductility of piers has been computed using yield and ultimate displacements of the piers obtained from the pushover analysis results. Selected earthquake time history is used in seismic safety evaluation of the flyover piers. Finally, the ductility design method is used to conduct the seismic safety evaluation of the piers with and without considering site amplification. From the numerical results, it has been revealed that the effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of bridge structures should be carefully taken into account.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flyover pier, lateral strength, safety evaluation, site amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2140 Quantification of Site Nonlinearity Based on HHT Analysis of Seismic Recordings

Authors: Ruichong Zhang

Abstract:

This study proposes a recording-based approach to characterize and quantify earthquake-induced site nonlinearity, exemplified as soil nonlinearity and/or liquefaction. Alternative to Fourier spectral analysis (FSA), the paper introduces time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of so-called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the nonlinear features shown in the recordings. With the use of the 2001 Nisqually earthquake recordings, this study shows that the proposed approach is effective in characterizing site nonlinearity and quantifying the influences in seismic ground responses.

Keywords: site nonlinearity, site amplification, site damping, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), liquefaction, 2001 Nisqually Earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2139 Spatial and Time Variability of Ambient Vibration H/V Frequency Peak

Authors: N. Benkaci, E. Oubaiche, J.-L. Chatelain, R. Bensalem, K. Abbes

Abstract:

The ambient vibration H/V technique is widely used nowadays in microzonation studies, because of its easy field handling and its low cost, compared to other geophysical methods. However, in presence of complex geology or lateral heterogeneity evidenced by more than one peak frequency in the H/V curve, it is difficult to interpret the results, especially when soil information is lacking. In this work, we focus on the construction site of the Baraki 40000=place stadium, located in the north-east side of the Mitidja basin (Algeria), to identify the seismic wave amplification zones. H/V curve analysis leads to the observation of spatial and time variability of the H/V frequency peaks. The spatial variability allows dividing the studied area into three main zones: (1) one with a predominant frequency around 1,5 Hz showing an important amplification level, (2) the second exhibits two peaks at 1,5 Hz and in the 4 Hz – 10 Hz range, and (3) the third zone is characterized by a plateau between 2 Hz and 3 Hz. These H/V curve categories reveal a consequent lateral heterogeneity dividing the stadium site roughly in the middle. Furthermore, a continuous ambient vibration recording during several weeks allows showing that the first peak at 1,5 Hz in the second zone, completely disappears between 2 am and 4 am, and reaching its maximum amplitude around 12 am. Consequently, the anthropogenic noise source generating these important variations could be the Algiers Rocade Sud highway, located in the maximum amplification azimuth direction of the H/V curves. This work points out that the H/V method is an important tool to perform nano-zonation studies prior to geotechnical and geophysical investigations, and that, in some cases, the H/V technique fails to reveal the resonance frequency in the absence of strong anthropogenic source.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, amplification, fundamental frequency, lateral heterogeneity, site effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
2138 Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni Irrigation Project Site Located in Assam, India

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Kasturi Bhuyan

Abstract:

In the present paper, Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni irrigation project has been thoroughly investigated. Surface level seismic hazard is mainly used by the practical Engineers for designing the important structures. Surface level seismic hazard can be obtained accounting the soil factor. Structures on soft soil will show more ground shaking than the structure located on a hard soil. The Surface level ground motion depends on the type of soil. Density and shear wave velocity is different for different types of soil. The intensity of the soil amplification depends on the density and shear wave velocity of the soil. Rukni irrigation project is located in the North Eastern region of India, near the Dauki fault (550 Km length) which has already produced earthquakes of magnitude (Mw= 8.5) in the past. There is a probability of a similar type of earthquake occuring in the future. There are several faults also located around the project site. There are 765 recorded strong ground motion time histories available for the region. These data are used to determine the soil amplification factor by incorporation of the engineering properties of soil. With this in view, three of soil bore holes have been studied at the project site up to a depth of 30 m. It has been observed that in Soil bore hole 1, the shear wave velocity vary from 99.44 m/s to 239.28 m/s. For Soil Bore Hole No 2 and 3, shear wave velocity vary from 93.24 m/s to 241.39 m/s and 93.24m/s to 243.01 m/s. In the present work, surface level seismic hazard at the project site has been calculated based on the Probabilistic seismic hazard approach accounting the soil factor.

Keywords: Ground Response Analysis, shear wave velocity, soil amplification, surface level seismic hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
2137 A Low-Power Comparator Structure with Arbitrary Pre-Amplification Delay

Authors: Ata Khorami, Mohammad Sharifkhani

Abstract:

In the dynamic comparators, the pre-amplifier amplifies the input differential voltage and when the output Vcm of the pre-amplifier becomes larger than Vth of the latch input transistors, the latch is activated and finalizes the comparison. As a result, the pre-amplification delay is fixed to a value and cannot be set at the minimum required delay, thus, significant power and delay are imposed. In this paper, a novel structure is proposed through which the pre-amplification delay can be set at any low value saving power and time. Simulations show that using the proposed structure, by setting the pre-amplification delay at the minimum required value the power and comparison delay can be reduced by 55% and 100ps respectively.

Keywords: dynamic comparator, low power comparator, analog to digital converter, pre-amplification delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2136 Comparison of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Site Response Model Performance in Kathmandu Valley

Authors: Sajana Suwal, Ganesh R. Nhemafuki

Abstract:

Evaluation of ground response under earthquake shaking is crucial in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Damage due to seismic excitation is mainly correlated to local geological and geotechnical conditions. It is evident from the past earthquakes (e.g. 1906 San Francisco, USA, 1923 Kanto, Japan) that the local geology has strong influence on amplitude and duration of ground motions. Since then significant studies has been conducted on ground motion amplification revealing the importance of influence of local geology on ground. Observations from the damaging earthquakes (e.g. Nigata and San Francisco, 1964; Irpinia, 1980; Mexico, 1985; Kobe, 1995; L’Aquila, 2009) divulged that non-uniform damage pattern, particularly in soft fluvio-lacustrine deposit is due to the local amplification of seismic ground motion. Non-uniform damage patterns are also observed in Kathmandu Valley during 1934 Bihar Nepal earthquake and recent 2015 Gorkha earthquake seemingly due to the modification of earthquake ground motion parameters. In this study, site effects resulting from amplification of soft soil in Kathmandu are presented. A large amount of subsoil data was collected and used for defining the appropriate subsoil model for the Kathamandu valley. A comparative study of one-dimensional total-stress equivalent linear and non-linear site response is performed using four strong ground motions for six sites of Kathmandu valley. In general, one-dimensional (1D) site-response analysis involves the excitation of a soil profile using the horizontal component and calculating the response at individual soil layers. In the present study, both equivalent linear and non-linear site response analyses were conducted using the computer program DEEPSOIL. The results show that there is no significant deviation between equivalent linear and non-linear site response models until the maximum strain reaches to 0.06-0.1%. Overall, it is clearly observed from the results that non-linear site response model perform better as compared to equivalent linear model. However, the significant deviation between two models is resulted from other influencing factors such as assumptions made in 1D site response, lack of accurate values of shear wave velocity and nonlinear properties of the soil deposit. The results are also presented in terms of amplification factors which are predicted to be around four times more in case of non-linear analysis as compared to equivalent linear analysis. Hence, the nonlinear behavior of soil prevails the urgent need of study of dynamic characteristics of the soft soil deposit that can specifically represent the site-specific design spectra for the Kathmandu valley for building resilient structures from future damaging earthquakes.

Keywords: deep soil, equivalent linear analysis, non-linear analysis, site response

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2135 Exact Formulas of the End-To-End Green’s Functions in Non-hermitian Systems

Authors: Haoshu Li, Shaolong Wan

Abstract:

The recent focus has been on directional signal amplification of a signal input at one end of a one-dimensional chain and measured at the other end. The amplification rate is given by the end-to-end Green’s functions of the system. In this work, we derive the exact formulas for the end-to-end Green's functions of non-Hermitian single-band systems. While in the bulk region, it is found that the Green's functions are displaced from the prior established integral formula by O(e⁻ᵇᴸ). The results confirm the correspondence between the signal amplification and the non-Hermitian skin effect.

Keywords: non-Hermitian, Green's function, non-Hermitian skin effect, signal amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
2134 Site Specific Ground Response Estimations for the Vulnerability Assessment of the Buildings of the Third Biggest Mosque in the World, Algeria’s Mosque

Authors: S. Mohamadi, T. Boudina, A. Rouabeh, A. Seridi

Abstract:

Equivalent linear and non-linear ground response analyses are conducted at many representative sites at the mosque of Algeria, to compare the free field acceleration spectra with local code of practice. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) technique was adopted to measure the in-situ shear wave velocity profile at the representative sites. The seismic movement imposed on the rock is the NS component of Keddara station recorded during the earthquake in Boumerdes 21 May 2003. The site-specific elastic design spectra for each site are determined to further obtain site specific non-linear acceleration spectra. As a case study, the results of site-specific evaluations are presented for two building sites (site of minaret and site of the prayer hall) to demonstrate the influence of local geological conditions on ground response at Algerian sites. A comparison of computed response with the standard code of practice being used currently in Algeria for the seismic zone of Algiers indicated that the design spectra is not able to capture site amplification due to local geological conditions.

Keywords: equivalent linear, non-linear, ground response analysis, design response spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
2133 Isothermal Solid-Phase Amplification System for Detection of Yersinia pestis

Authors: Olena Mayboroda, Angel Gonzalez Benito, Jonathan Sabate Del Rio, Marketa Svobodova, Sandra Julich, Herbert Tomaso, Ciara K. O'Sullivan, Ioanis Katakis

Abstract:

DNA amplification is required for most molecular diagnostic applications but conventional PCR has disadvantages for field testing. Isothermal amplification techniques are being developed to respond to this problem. One of them is the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) that operates at isothermal conditions without sacrificing specificity and sensitivity in easy-to-use formats. In this work RPA was used for the optical detection of solid-phase amplification of the potential biowarfare agent Yersinia pestis. Thiolated forward primers were immobilized on the surface of maleimide-activated microtitre plates for the quantitative detection of synthetic and genomic DNA, with elongation occurring only in the presence of the specific template DNA and solution phase reverse primers. Quantitative detection was achieved via the use of biotinylated reverse primers and post-amplification addition of streptavidin-HRP conjugate. The overall time of amplification and detection was less than 1 hour at a constant temperature of 37oC. Single-stranded and double-stranded DNA sequences were detected achieving detection limits of 4.04*10-13 M and 3.14*10-16 M, respectively. The system demonstrated high specificity with negligible responses to non-specific targets.

Keywords: recombinase polymerase amplification, Yersinia pestis, solid-phase detection, ELONA

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2132 Design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Walls Considering Shear Amplification by Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior

Authors: Sunghyun Kim, Hong-Gun Park

Abstract:

In the performance-based design (PBD), by using the nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA), the actual performance of the structure is evaluated. Unlike frame structures, in the wall structures, base shear force which is resulted from the NDA, is greatly amplified than that from the elastic analysis. This shear amplifying effect causes repeated designs which make designer difficult to apply the PBD. Therefore, in this paper, factors which affect shear amplification were studied. For the 20-story wall model, the NDA was performed. From the analysis results, the base shear amplification factor was proposed.

Keywords: performance based design, shear amplification factor, nonlinear dynamic analysis, RC shear wall

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2131 Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Belloui Bouzid

Abstract:

In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.

Keywords: erbium doped fiber amplifier, erbium doped fiber laser, optical amplification, fiber laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2130 Effect of Scarp Topography on Seismic Ground Motion

Authors: Haiping Ding, Rongchu Zhu, Zhenxia Song

Abstract:

Local irregular topography has a great impact on earthquake ground motion. For scarp topography, using numerical simulation method, the influence extent and scope of the scarp terrain on scarp's upside and downside ground motion are discussed in case of different vertical incident SV waves. The results show that: (1) The amplification factor of scarp's upside region is greater than that of the free surface, while the amplification factor of scarp's downside part is less than that of the free surface; (2) When the slope angle increases, for x component, amplification factors of the scarp upside also increase, while the downside part decrease with it. For z component, both of the upside and downside amplification factors will increase; (3) When the slope angle changes, the influence scope of scarp's downside part is almost unchanged, but for the upside part, it slightly becomes greater with the increase of slope angle; (4) Due to the existence of the scarp, the z component ground motion appears at the surface. Its amplification factor increases for larger slope angle, and the peaks of the surface responses are related with incident waves. However, the input wave has little effects on the x component amplification factors.

Keywords: scarp topography, ground motion, amplification factor, vertical incident wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2129 A Microfluidic Biosensor for Detection of EGFR 19 Deletion Mutation Targeting Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Ji Su Kim, Bo Ram Choi, Ju Yeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

Abstract:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 deletion mutation gene is over-expressed in carcinoma patient. EGFR 19 deletion mutation is known as typical biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which one section in the coding exon 19 of EGFR is deleted. Therefore, there have been many attempts over the years to detect EGFR 19 deletion mutation for replacing conventional diagnostic method such as PCR and tissue biopsy. We developed a simple and facile detection platform based on Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), which provides highly amplified products in isothermal amplification of the ligated DNA template. Limit of detection (~50 nM) and a faster detection time (~30 min) could be achieved by introducing RCA.

Keywords: EGFR19, cancer, diagnosis, rolling circle amplification (RCA), hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2128 Site Effect Observations after 2016 Amatrice Earthquake, Central Italy

Authors: Giovanni Forte, Melania De Falco, Antonio Santo

Abstract:

On 24th August 2016, central Italy was affected by a Mw 6.0 earthquake, representing the main shock of a long seismic sequence, which had a second shock Mw 6.6 on 26th October and lasts still nowadays. After the event, several field survey were carried out in the affected areas, which is made of historical masonry buildings. The post event reconnaissance missions were aimed at collecting information on the damage states of the buildings, the triggering of the landslides and the relationships with site effects. In this paper, the data collected after the event are analyzed considering the role of the geological and geomorphological setting and the ground motion scenario. The buildings displayed an uneven damage distribution, which was affected by both topographic and stratigraphic amplification. As pertains the landslides, which were the most recurrent among the ground failures, consisted mainly of rock falls and subordinately of translational slides. Finally, the collected knowledge showed a strong contribution of the local geological and geomorphological site condition on the resulting damage.

Keywords: Amatrice earthquake, damage states, landslides, site effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2127 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis

Abstract:

The paper presents a study of dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 pre-stressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicles passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge deck in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2126 An Analytical Formulation of Pure Shear Boundary Condition for Assessing the Response of Some Typical Sites in Mumbai

Authors: Raj Banerjee, Aniruddha Sengupta

Abstract:

An earthquake event, associated with a typical fault rupture, initiates at the source, propagates through a rock or soil medium and finally daylights at a surface which might be a populous city. The detrimental effects of an earthquake are often quantified in terms of the responses of superstructures resting on the soil. Hence, there is a need for the estimation of amplification of the bedrock motions due to the influence of local site conditions. In the present study, field borehole log data of Mangalwadi and Walkeswar sites in Mumbai city are considered. The data consists of variation of SPT N-value with the depth of soil. A correlation between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and SPT N value for various soil profiles of Mumbai city has been developed using various existing correlations which is used further for site response analysis. MATLAB program is developed for studying the ground response analysis by performing two dimensional linear and equivalent linear analysis for some of the typical Mumbai soil sites using pure shear (Multi Point Constraint) boundary condition. The model is validated in linear elastic and equivalent linear domain using the popular commercial program, DEEPSOIL. Three actual earthquake motions are selected based on their frequency contents and durations and scaled to a PGA of 0.16g for the present ground response analyses. The results are presented in terms of peak acceleration time history with depth, peak shear strain time history with depth, Fourier amplitude versus frequency, response spectrum at the surface etc. The peak ground acceleration amplification factors are found to be about 2.374, 3.239 and 2.4245 for Mangalwadi site and 3.42, 3.39, 3.83 for Walkeswar site using 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake, 1989 Loma Gilroy Earthquake and 1987 Whitter Narrows Earthquake, respectively. In the absence of any site-specific response spectrum for the chosen sites in Mumbai, the generated spectrum at the surface may be utilized for the design of any superstructure at these locations.

Keywords: deepsoil, ground response analysis, multi point constraint, response spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2125 Seismic Microzonation Analysis for Damage Mapping of the 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake, Indonesia

Authors: Fathul Mubin, Budi E. Nurcahya

Abstract:

In 2006, a large earthquake ever occurred in the province of Yogyakarta, which caused considerable damage. This is the basis need to investigate the seismic vulnerability index in around of the earthquake zone. This research is called microzonation of earthquake hazard. This research has been conducted at the site and surrounding of Prambanan Temple, includes homes and civil buildings. The reason this research needs to be done because in the event of an earthquake in 2006, there was damage to the temples at Prambanan temple complex and its surroundings. In this research, data collection carried out for 60 minutes using three component seismograph measurements at 165 points with spacing of 1000 meters. The data recorded in time function were analyzed using the spectral ratio method, known as the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR). Results from this analysis are dominant frequency (Fg) and maximum amplification factor (Ag) are used to obtain seismic vulnerability index. The results of research showed the dominant frequency range from 0.5 to 30 Hz and the amplification is in interval from 0.5 to 9. Interval value for seismic vulnerability index is 0.1 to 50. Based on distribution maps of seismic vulnerability index and impact of buildings damage seemed for suitability. For further research, it needs to survey to the east (klaten) and south (Bantul, DIY) to determine a full distribution maps of seismic vulnerability index.

Keywords: amplification factor, dominant frequency, microzonation analysis, seismic vulnerability index

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2124 On-Site Management from Reactive to Proactive

Authors: Yu-Tzu Chen, Luh-Maan Chang

Abstract:

Construction is an inherently risky industry. The projects have been dominated by reactive actions owing to non-routine in nature. The on-site activities are especially crucial for successful project control. In order to alter actions from reactive to proactive, this paper presents an on-site data collection system utilizing advanced technology RFID and GPS in assisting on-site management with near real time progress monitoring.

Keywords: On-Site management, progress monitoring, RFID, GPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
2123 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang

Abstract:

Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2122 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

Abstract:

Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
2121 The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices

Authors: Kotbi Lakhdar, Hachi Mostefa

Abstract:

We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.

Keywords: ising model, phase transitions, critical temperature, critical exponent, spectral power amplification

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2120 South African Breast Cancer Mutation Spectrum: Pitfalls to Copy Number Variation Detection Using Internationally Designed Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Next Generation Sequencing Panels

Authors: Jaco Oosthuizen, Nerina C. Van Der Merwe

Abstract:

The National Health Laboratory Services in Bloemfontien has been the diagnostic testing facility for 1830 patients for familial breast cancer since 1997. From the cohort, 540 were comprehensively screened using High-Resolution Melting Analysis or Next Generation Sequencing for the presence of point mutations and/or indels. Approximately 90% of these patients stil remain undiagnosed as they are BRCA1/2 negative. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was initially added to screen for copy number variation detection, but with the introduction of next generation sequencing in 2017, was substituted and is currently used as a confirmation assay. The aim was to investigate the viability of utilizing internationally designed copy number variation detection assays based on mostly European/Caucasian genomic data for use within a South African context. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique is based on the hybridization and subsequent ligation of multiple probes to a targeted exon. The ligated probes are amplified using conventional polymerase chain reaction, followed by fragment analysis by means of capillary electrophoresis. The experimental design of the assay was performed according to the guidelines of MRC-Holland. For BRCA1 (P002-D1) and BRCA2 (P045-B3), both multiplex assays were validated, and results were confirmed using a secondary probe set for each gene. The next generation sequencing technique is based on target amplification via multiplex polymerase chain reaction, where after the amplicons are sequenced parallel on a semiconductor chip. Amplified read counts are visualized as relative copy numbers to determine the median of the absolute values of all pairwise differences. Various experimental parameters such as DNA quality, quantity, and signal intensity or read depth were verified using positive and negative patients previously tested internationally. DNA quality and quantity proved to be the critical factors during the verification of both assays. The quantity influenced the relative copy number frequency directly whereas the quality of the DNA and its salt concentration influenced denaturation consistency in both assays. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification produced false positives due to ligation failure when ligation was inhibited due to a variant present within the ligation site. Next generation sequencing produced false positives due to read dropout when primer sequences did not meet optimal multiplex binding kinetics due to population variants in the primer binding site. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for the South African population have been proven. Verification resulted in repeatable reactions with regards to the detection of relative copy number differences. Both multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and next generation sequencing multiplex panels need to be optimized to accommodate South African polymorphisms present within the genetically diverse ethnic groups to reduce the false copy number variation positive rate and increase performance efficiency.

Keywords: familial breast cancer, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, next generation sequencing, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
2119 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin

Abstract:

In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

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2118 Duplex Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Beef and Pork

Authors: Mi-Ju Kim, Hae-Yeong Kim

Abstract:

Product mislabeling and adulteration have been increasing the concerns in processed meat products. Relatively inexpensive pork meat compared to meat such as beef was adulterated for economic benefit. These food fraud incidents related to pork were concerned due to economic, religious and health reasons. In this study, a rapid on-site detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed for the simultaneous identification of beef and pork. Each specific LAMP primer for beef and pork was designed targeting on mitochondrial D-loop region. The LAMP assay reaction was performed at 65 ℃ for 40 min. The specificity of each primer for beef and pork was evaluated using DNAs extracted from 13 animal species including beef and pork. The sensitivity of duplex LAMP assay was examined by serial dilution of beef and pork DNAs, and reference binary mixtures. This assay was applied to processed meat products including beef and pork meat for monitoring. Each set of primers amplified only the targeted species with no cross-reactivity with animal species. The limit of detection of duplex real-time LAMP was 1 pg for each DNA of beef and pork and 1% pork in a beef-meat mixture. Commercial meat products that declared the presence of beef and/or pork meat on the label showed positive results for those species. This method was successfully applied to detect simultaneous beef and pork meats in processed meat products. The optimized duplex LAMP assay can identify simultaneously beef and pork meat within less than 40 min. A portable real-time fluorescence device used in this study is applicable for on-site detection of beef and pork in processed meat products. Thus, this developed assay was considered to be an efficient tool for monitoring meat products.

Keywords: beef, duplex real-time LAMP, meat identification, pork

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
2117 Spectral Assessing of Topographic Effects on Seismic Behavior of Trapezoidal Hill

Authors: M. Amelsakhi, A. Sohrabi-Bidar, A. Shareghi

Abstract:

One of the most important issues about the structural damages caused by earthquake is the evaluating of the spectral response of the site on which the construction is built. This fact has demonstrated during many earlier earthquakes and many researchers’ reports have concerned with it. According to these reports, features of the site materials and geometry of the ground surface are considered the main factors. This study concentrates on the specific form of topographies like hills. Assessing of spectral responses of different points on the hills and beside demonstrates considerable differences between 1D and 2D methods of geotechnical analyses. A general trend of amplifications on the top of the hills and de-amplifications near the toe of the hills has been appeared within the acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectrums of horizontal motion. Evaluating of spectral responses of different sizes of the hills revealed that as much as the hill-size enlarges differences between spectral responses of 1D and 2D analyses transfers to longer range of periods and becomes wider.

Keywords: topography effect, amplification ratio, response spectrum, earth resources engineering

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2116 A Comprehensive Comparative Study on Seasonal Variation of Parameters Involved in Site Characterization and Site Response Analysis by Using Microtremor Data

Authors: Yehya Rasool, Mohit Agrawal

Abstract:

The site characterization and site response analysis are the crucial steps for reliable seismic microzonation of an area. So, the basic parameters involved in these fundamental steps are required to be chosen properly in order to efficiently characterize the vulnerable sites of the study region. In this study, efforts are made to delineate the variations in the physical parameter of the soil for the summer and monsoon seasons of the year (2021) by using Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratios (HVSRs) recorded at five sites of the Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. The data recording at each site was done in such a way that less amount of anthropogenic noise was recorded at each site. The analysis has been done for five seismic parameters like predominant frequency, H/V ratio, the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves, shear wave velocity (Vs), compressional wave velocity (Vp), and Poisson’s ratio for both the seasons of the year. From the results, it is observed that these parameters majorly vary drastically for the upper layers of soil, which in turn may affect the amplification ratios and probability of exceedance obtained from seismic hazard studies. The HVSR peak comes out to be higher in monsoon, with a shift in predominant frequency as compared to the summer season of the year 2021. Also, the drastic reduction in shear wave velocity (up to ~10 m) of approximately 7%-15% is also perceived during the monsoon period with a slight decrease in compressional wave velocity. Generally, the increase in the Poisson ratios is found to have higher values during monsoon in comparison to the summer period. Our study may be very beneficial to various agricultural and geotechnical engineering projects.

Keywords: HVSR, shear wave velocity profile, Poisson ratio, microtremor data

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2115 Uptake of Off-Site Construction: Benefit and Future Application

Authors: Faisal Alazzaz, Andrew Whyte

Abstract:

Off-site construction methods have played an important role in the construction sector in the past few decades. It is increasingly becoming a major alternative technique and strategic direction compared to traditional in-situ method. It produces a significant amount of value for the construction industry and the economy more generally. To date, an impressive number of studies have been lunched on the perceived perception of off-site construction. However, it seems that a quantifying benefit on the offsite construction area is lacking. Therefore, this paper examines the recent research literature on the benefits of off- site construction and provides future direction. In the beginning, this paper provides a brief history and current value of the off-site construction followed by a detailed discussion on the benefit of off-site construction. These benefits include but not limited to time saving, quality improvement, relieving skills shortages, cost reduction and productivity improvement. Toward this end, off-site construction should learn from other productive industry similar to services or manufacturing industry by applying operational management tools and techniques with extensive focus on employee empowerment will shed the light on future uptake of Off-site construction. This study is of value in providing scholars have a clear picture of perceived benefit of off-site construction research and give an opportunities for future uptake of off-site method.

Keywords: building projects, employer empowerment, off-site construction benefits, productivity

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2114 Dynamic Construction Site Layout Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Yassir AbdelRazig

Abstract:

Evolutionary optimization methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. More recently, ant colony optimization algorithms, which are evolutionary methods based on the foraging behavior of ants, have been successfully applied to benchmark combinatorial optimization problems. This paper proposes a formulation of the site layout problem in terms of a sequencing problem that is suitable for solution using an ant colony optimization algorithm. In the construction industry, site layout is a very important planning problem. The objective of site layout is to position temporary facilities both geographically and at the correct time such that the construction work can be performed satisfactorily with minimal costs and improved safety and working environment. During the last decade, evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. This paper proposes an ant colony optimization model for construction site layout. A simple case study for a highway project is utilized to illustrate the application of the model.

Keywords: ant colony, construction site layout, optimization, genetic algorithms

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2113 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf

Abstract:

The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: halal food, baby infant formula, chocolate based products, PCR, Jordan

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2112 Quantification of Effects of Shape of Basement Topography below the Circular Basin on the Ground Motion Characteristics and Engineering Implications

Authors: Kamal, Dinesh Kumar, J. P. Narayan, Komal Rani

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of shape of basement topography on the characteristics of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and associated average spectral amplification (ASA) in the 3D basins having circular surface area. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of 3D viscoelastic wave equations. An increase of amplitude amplification and ASA towards the centre of different considered basins was obtained. Further, it may be concluded that ASA in basin very much depends on the impedance contrast, exposure area of basement to the incident wave front, edge-slope, focusing of the BGS-waves and sediment-damping. There is an urgent need of incorporation of a map of differential ground motion (DGM) caused by the BGS-waves as one of the output maps of the seismic microzonation.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, maximum displacement, average spectral amplification

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