Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 569

Search results for: transparent electrodes

569 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jae-Min Myoung, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae


The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

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568 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Elias Stathatos, Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Evangelos Vitoratos


Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells, nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

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567 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen


This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: Graphene, Solar Cells, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction

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566 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: C. González-Buch, V. Pérez-Herranz, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre


In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Au nano particles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes

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565 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola, Rafid Al-Khaddar


In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: Water, electrodes, Iron, electrocoagulation

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564 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Yekta Ülgen, Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, Graphene Oxide, bioimpedance, electrode characterization, gold electrodes

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563 Investigation on Performance of Optical Shutter Panels for Transparent Displays

Authors: Jaehong Kim, Sunhee Park, HongSeop Shin, Kyongho Lim, Suhyun Kwon, Don-Gyou Lee, Pureum Kim, Moojong Lim, JongSang Baek


Transparent displays with OLEDs are the most commonly produced forms of see-through displays on the market or in development. In order to block the visual interruption caused by the light coming from the background, the special panel is combined with transparent displays with OLEDs. There is, however, few studies performance of optical shutter panel for transparent displays until now. This paper, therefore, describes the performance of optical shutter panels. The novel evaluation method was developed by measuring the amount of light which can form a transmitted background image. The new proposed method could tell how recognizable transmitted background images cannot be seen, and is consistent with viewer’s perception.

Keywords: transparent display, optical performance, optical shutter panel, visual interruption

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562 Investigation on Optical Performance of Operational Shutter Panels for Transparent Displays

Authors: Jaehong Kim, Sunhee Park, HongSeop Shin, Kyongho Lim, Suhyun Kwon, Don-Gyou Lee, Pureum Kim, Moojong Lim, JongSang Baek


Transparent displays with OLEDs are the most commonly produced forms of see-through displays on the market or in development. In order to block the visual interruption caused by the light coming from the background, the special panel is combined with transparent displays with OLEDs. There is, however, few studies optical performance of operational shutter panel for transparent displays until now. This paper, therefore, describes the optical performance of operational shutter panels. The novel evaluation method was developed by measuring the amount of light which can form a transmitted background image. The new proposed method could tell how recognize transmitted background images cannot be seen, and is consistent with viewer’s perception.

Keywords: transparent display, operational shutter panel, optical performance, OLEDs

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561 Depth of Penetration and Nature of Interferential Current in Cutaneous, Subcutaneous and Muscle Tissues

Authors: A. Beatti, L. Chipchase, A. Rayner, T. Souvlis


The aims of this study were to investigate the depth of interferential current (IFC) penetration through soft tissue and to investigate the area over which IFC spreads during clinical application. Premodulated IFC and ‘true’ IFC at beat frequencies of 4, 40 and 90Hz were applied via four electrodes to the distal medial thigh of 15 healthy subjects. The current was measured via three Teflon coated fine needle electrodes that were inserted into the superficial layer of skin, then into the subcutaneous tissue (≈1 cm deep) and then into muscle tissue (≈2 cm deep). The needle electrodes were placed in the middle of the four IFC electrodes, between two channels and outside the four electrodes. Readings were taken at each tissue depth from each electrode during each treatment frequency then digitized and stored for analysis. All voltages were greater at all depths and locations than baseline (p < 0.01) and voltages decreased with depth (P=0.039). Lower voltages of all currents were recorded in the middle of the four electrodes with the highest voltage being recorded outside the four electrodes in all depths (P=0.000).For each frequency of ‘true’ IFC, the voltage was higher in the superficial layer outside the electrodes (P ≤ 0.01).Premodulated had higher voltages along the line of one circuit (P ≤ 0.01). Clinically, IFC appears to pass through skin layers to depth and is more efficient than premodulated IFC when targeting muscle tissue.

Keywords: electrotherapy, interferential current, interferential therapy, medium frequency current

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560 Nanostructured Fluorine Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolisys Technique: Effect of Starting Solution Composition and Substrate Temperature on the Physical Characteristics

Authors: Esmeralda Chávez Vargas, M. de la L. Olvera, A. Maldonado


The doping it is believed as follows, at high concentration fluorine in ZnO: F films is incorporated to the lattice by substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions; at middle fluorine concentrations, F ions may form interstitials, whereas for low concentrations it is increased the carriers and mobility could be explained by the surface passivation effect of fluorine. ZnO:F thin films were deposited on sodocalcic glass substratesat 425 °C , 450°C, 475 during 8, 12, 15 min from a 0.2 M solution. Doping concentration in the starting solutions was varied, namely, [F]/[F+Zn] = 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 at. %; solvent composition was varied as well, 100:100; 50:50; 100:50(acetic acid: water: methanol ratios, in volume). In this work it is reported the characterization results of fluorine doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique, using zinc acetate and ammonium fluorine as Zn an F precursors, respectively. The effect of varying the fluorine concentration in the starting solutions, the solvent composition, and the ageing time of the starting solutions, on the electrical resistivity, optical transmittance, structure and surface morphology was analyzed. In order to have a quantitative evaluation of the ZnO:F thin films for its application as transparent electrodes, the Figure of Merit was estimated from the Haacke´s formula. After a thoroughly study, it can be found that optimal conditions for the deposition of transparent and conductive ZnO:F thin films on sodocalcic substrates, were as follows; substrate temperature: solution molar concentration 0.2, doping concentration in the starting solution of [F]/[Zn]= 60 at. %, (water content)/(acetic acid) in starting solution: [H2O/ CH3OH]= 50:50, substrate temperature: 450 °C. The effects of aging of the starting solution has also been analyzed thoroughly and it has been found a dramatic effect on the electric resistivity of the material, aged by 40 days, show an electrical resitivity as low as 120 Ω/□, with a transmittance around 80% in the visible range. X-ray diffraction spectra show a polycrystalline of ZnO (wurtzite structure) where the amount of fluorine doping affects to preferential orientation (002 plane). Therefore, F introduction in lattice is by the substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions. The results show that ZnO:F thin films are potentially adequate for application as transparent conductive oxide in thin film solar cells.

Keywords: Transparent Electrodes, zinc oxide, TCOs, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, ZnO:F

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559 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: reduced graphene oxide, electrophoretic deposition, all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes

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558 Electrochemical Studies of Nickel Nanoparticles Decorated the Surface of Some Conducting Polymers for Glucose Oxidation in Biofuel Cells

Authors: Z. Khalifa, K. M. Hassan, M. Abdel Azzem


Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of renewable high density energy from abundant energy stored in carbohydrates is direct conversion of glucose (GLU) to electrical power. A three novel versatile modified electrodes, synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of organic monomers on glassy carbon electrodes (GC), have been developed for biofuel cells results in stable and long-term power production. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution on conducting polymers electrodes modified by incorporation of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) onto poly(1,5-aminonaphthalene) (1,5-PDAN), poly(1,8-diaminonaphthalene) (1,8-PDAN) and poly(1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAMAQ) was investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at NiNPs-modified 1,5-PDAN/GC, 1,8-PDAN/GC and PAMAQ/GC electrodes has been studied using voltammetry technique. The PDAN electrodes show a slight activity in the potential of interest. The prepared NiNPs/PAMAQ/GC catalyst showed a very interesting catalytic activity that was nicely comparable to the NiNPs/1,5-PDAN/GC, NiNPs/1,8-PDAN/GC modified electrodes. In advance, both shows a significant more catalytic activity compared to the reported data for electrodes for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation.

Keywords: Electrocatalysis, Biofuel Cells, glucose oxidation, nanoparticles and modified electrodes

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557 Developing Biocompatible Iridium Oxide Electrodes for Bone-Guided Extra-Cochlear Implant

Authors: Yung-Shan Lu, Chia-Fone Lee, Shang-Hsuan Li, Chien-Hao Liu


Recently, various bioelectronic devices have been developed for neurologic disease treatments via electro-stimulations such as cochlear implants and retinal prosthesis. Since the electric signal needs electrodes to be transmitted to an organism, electrodes play an important role of stimulations. The materials of stimulation electrodes affect the efficiency of the delivered currents. The higher the efficiency of the electrodes, the lower the threshold current can be used to stimulate the organism which minimizes the potential damages to the adjacent tissues. In this study, we proposed a biocompatible composite electrode composed of high-charge-capacity iridium oxide (IrOₓ) film for a bone-guide extra-cochlear implant. IrOₓ was exploited to decrease the threshold current due to its high capacitance and low impedance. The IrOₓ electrode was fabricated via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) photolithography and examined with in-vivo tests with guinea pigs. Based on the measured responses of brain waves to sound, the results demonstrated that IrOₓ electrodes have a lower threshold current compared with the Platinum (Pt) electrodes. The research results are expected to be beneficial for implantable and biocompatible electrodes for electrical stimulations.

Keywords: Electrode, Cochlear implants, electrical stimulation, iridium oxide

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556 Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Mohamed R. Al-Mulla, Bader Al-Bader, Firouz K. Ghaaedi, Francisco Sepulveda


Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.

Keywords: EMG, muscle fatigue, biceps brachii, array electrodes, electrode placement, isometric contractions

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555 Impact of the Oxygen Content on the Optoelectronic Properties of the Indium-Tin-Oxide Based Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Brahim Aissa


Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) used as front electrodes in solar cells must feature simultaneously high electrical conductivity, low contact resistance with the adjacent layers, and an appropriate refractive index for maximal light in-coupling into the device. However, these properties may conflict with each other, motivating thereby the search for TCOs with high performance. Additionally, due to the presence of temperature sensitive layers in many solar cell designs (for example, in thin-film silicon and silicon heterojunction (SHJ)), low-temperature deposition processes are more suitable. Several deposition techniques have been already explored to fabricate high-mobility TCOs at low temperatures, including sputter deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and atomic layer deposition. Among this variety of methods, to the best of our knowledge, magnetron sputtering deposition is the most established technique, despite the fact that it can lead to damage of underlying layers. The Sn doped In₂O₃ (ITO) is the most commonly used transparent electrode-contact in SHJ technology. In this work, we studied the properties of ITO thin films grown by RF sputtering. Using different oxygen fraction in the argon/oxygen plasma, we prepared ITO films deposited on glass substrates, on one hand, and on a-Si (p and n-types):H/intrinsic a-Si/glass substrates, on the other hand. Hall Effect measurements were systematically conducted together with total-transmittance (TT) and total-reflectance (TR) spectrometry. The electrical properties were drastically affected whereas the TT and TR were found to be slightly impacted by the oxygen variation. Furthermore, the time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) technique was used to determine the distribution of various species throughout the thickness of the ITO and at various interfaces. The depth profiling of indium, oxygen, tin, silicon, phosphorous, boron and hydrogen was investigated throughout the various thicknesses and interfaces, and obtained results are discussed accordingly. Finally, the extreme conditions were selected to fabricate rear emitter SHJ devices, and the photovoltaic performance was evaluated; the lower oxygen flow ratio was found to yield the best performance attributed to lower series resistance.

Keywords: Solar Cell, optoelectronic properties, oxygen content, silicon heterojunction

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554 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Bharat Mishra, Raj Kumar Rajak


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: Electricity, electrodes, bio-batteries, non-conventional, cow-dung

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553 Influence of Extractives Leaching from Larch Wood on Durability of Semi-Transparent Oil-Based Coating during Accelerated Weathering

Authors: O. Dvorak, M. Panek, E. Oberhofnerova, I. Sterbova


Extractives contained in larch wood (Larix decidua, Mill.) reduce the service-life of exterior coating systems, especially transparent and semi-transparent. The aim of this work was to find out whether the initial several-week leaching of extractives from untreated wood in the exterior will positively affect the selected characteristics and the overall life of the semi-transparent oil-based coating. Samples exposed to exterior leaching for 10 or 20 weeks, and the reference samples without leaching were then treated with a coating system. Testing was performed by the method of artificial accelerated weathering in the UV chamber combined with thermal cycling during 6 weeks. The changes of colour, gloss, surface wetting, microscopic analyses of surfaces, and visual damage of paint were evaluated. Only 20-week initial leaching had a positive effect. Both to increase the color stability during aging, but also to slightly increase the overall life of the tested semi-transparent coating system on larch wood.

Keywords: Coating, larch wood, durability. extractives

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552 Magneto-Optical Properties in Transparent Region of Implanted Garnet Films

Authors: Lali Kalanadzde


We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.

Keywords: Thin Films, Ion implantation, ferrite-garnet films, magneto-optical

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551 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: W. A. El-Askary, K. A. Ibrahim, Ali M. Abdelsalam, I. M. Sakr


This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: Solar energy, Hydrogen production, Water electrolysis, Concentration

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550 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: Abrasive Wear, hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400

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549 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu


Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, Retinal Prosthesis, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, virtual electrode

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548 Numerical Study on the EHD Pump with a Recirculating Channel

Authors: Yong Kweon Suh, Dong Sik Cho


Numerical study has been conducted on the electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) pumping method in terms of a recirculating channel. The method relies on the principle of EHD generated by the electric-field dependent electrical conductivity (Onsager effect). Before considering the full three-dimensional simulation, we solved the two-dimensional problem of EHD flow in a circular channel like a doughnut shape. We observed that when dc voltage was applied a fast and regular flow was produced around electrodes, which is then used as a driving force for the fluid pumping. In this parametric study, the diameters of circular electrodes are varied in the range 0.3mm~3mm and the gap between the electrodes pair is varied in the range 0.3mm~2mm. We found that both the volume flow rate and the pumping efficiency are increased as the distance between the electrodes is decreased. Finally, we also performed the numerical simulation for the three-dimensional channel and found that the averaged flow velocity is in the same order of magnitude as the two-dimensional one.

Keywords: DC voltage, electro-hydrodynamic, electric-field, onsager effect

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547 In Situ Laser-Induced Synthesis of Copper Microstructures with High Catalytic Properties and Sensory Characteristics

Authors: Maxim Panov, Evgenia Khairullina, Sergey Ermakov, Oleg Gundobin, Vladimir Kochemirovsky


The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.

Keywords: Copper, laser-induced deposition, electrochemical electrodes, non-enzymatic sensors

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546 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen


We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

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545 Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Sharjeel Saeed


Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values<0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.

Keywords: Complexity Analysis, electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), Mann-Whitney test (MMT), Receiver Operator Curve (ROC)

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544 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of RuO2-TiO2 Electrodes with Improved Chlorine and Oxygen Evolutions

Authors: Tran Le Luu, Jeyong Yoon


RuO2-TiO2 electrode now becomes popular in the chlor-alkali industry because of high electrocatalytic and stability with chlorine and oxygen evolutions. Using alternative green method for preparation RuO2-TiO2 electrode is necessary to reduce the cost, time. In addition, it is needed to increase the electrocatalyst performance, stability, and environmental compatibility. In this study, the Ti/RuO2-TiO2 electrodes were synthesized using sol-gel method under microwave irradiation and investigated for the anodic chlorine and oxygen evolutions. This method produced small size and uniform distribution of RuO2-TiO2 nanoparticles with mean diameter of 8-10 nm on the big crack size surface which contributes for the increasing of the outer active surface area. The chlorine, oxygen evolution efficiency and stability comparisons show considerably higher for microwave-assisted coated electrodes than for those obtained by the conventional heating method. The microwave-assisted sol-gel route has been identified as a novel and powerful method for quick synthesis of RuO2–TiO2 electrodes with excellent chlorine and oxygen evolution performances.

Keywords: Microwave, Chlorine, Oxygen Evolution, sol-gel, electro-catalyst, RuO2

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543 An Ab Initio Study of Delafossite Transparent Conductive Oxides Cu(In, Ga)O2 and Absorbers Films Cu(In, Ga)S2 in Solar-Cell

Authors: Mokdad Sakhri, Youcef Bouhadda


Thin film chalcopyrite technology is thus nowadays a solid candidate for photovoltaic cells. The currently used window layer for the solar cell Cu(In,Ga)S2 is our interest point in this work. For this purpose, we have performed a first-principles study of structural, electronic and optical properties for both delafossite transparent conductive oxides Cu (In, Ga)O2 and absorbers films Cu(In,Ga)S2. The calculations have been carried out within the local density functional (LDA) and generalized gradient approximations (GGA) combined with the hubbard potential using norm-conserving pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis with ABINIT code. We have found the energy gap is :1.6, 2.53, 3.6, 3.8 eV for CuInS2, CuGaS2, CuInO2 and CuGaO2 respectively. The results are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: Electronic and optical properties, dft, ABINIT code, solar-cell absorbers, delafossite transparent conductive oxides

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542 Modeling Thermo-Photo-Voltaic Selective Emitter Based on a Semi-Transparent Emitter with Integrated Narrow Band-Pass Pre-Filter

Authors: F. Stake


This work is a parametric study combining simple and well known optical theories. These simple theories are arranged to form part of one answer to the question: “Can a semi-transparent Thermo-Photo-Voltaic (TPV) emitter have an optical extinction spectrum so much greater than its optical absorption spectrum that it becomes its own band-pass pre-filter, and if so, how well might it be expected to suppress light of undesired wavelengths?” In the report, hypothetical materials and operating temperatures will be used for comparative analyses only. Thermal emission properties of these hypothetical materials were created using two openly available FORTRAN programs. Results indicate that if using highly transparent materials it may be possible to create a thermal emitter that is its own band-pass pre-filter.

Keywords: Scattering, Christensen effect, DISORT, index of refraction

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541 Investigating Concentration of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Electrochemical Sensors

Authors: Mohsen Adabi, Mahdi Adabi, Reza Saber


The recent advancements in nanomaterials have provided a platform to develop efficient transduction matrices for sensors. Modified electrodes allow to electrochemists to enhance the property of electrode surface and provide desired properties such as improved sensing capabilities, higher electron transfer rate and prevention of undesirable reactions competing kinetically with desired electrode process. Nanostructured electrodes including arrays of carbon nanotubes have demonstrated great potential for the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The aim of this work is to evaluate the concentration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the conductivity of gold electrode. For this work, raw MWCNTs was functionalized and shortened. Raw and shorten MWCNTs were characterized using transfer electron microscopy (TEM). Next, 0.5, 2 and 3.5 mg of Shortened and functionalized MWCNTs were dispersed in 2 mL Dimethyl formamide (DMF) and cysteamine modified gold electrodes were incubated in the different concentrations of MWCNTs for 8 hours. Then, the immobilization of MWCNTs on cysteamine modified gold electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the effect of MWCNT concentrations on electron transfer of modified electrodes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results demonstrated that CV response of ferricyanide redox at modified gold electrodes increased as concentration of MWCNTs enhanced from 0.5 to 2 mg in 2 mL DMF. This increase can be attributed to the number of MWCNTs which enhance on the surface of cysteamine modified gold electrode as the MWCNTs concentration increased whereas CV response of ferricyanide redox at modified gold electrodes did not changed significantly as the MWCNTs concentration increased from 2 to 3.5 mg in 2 mL DMF. The reason may be that amine groups of cysteamine modified gold electrodes are limited to a given number which can interact with the given number of carboxylic groups of MWCNTs and CV response of ferricyanide redox at modified gold do not enhance after amine groups of cysteamine are saturated with carboxylic groups of MWCNTs.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, electrochemical sensor, gold electrode, cysteamine

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540 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya


In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, Electroencephalography, eeg, Brain-Computer Interface, Artificial Neural Network, wernicke area

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