Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 546

Search results for: recombinant E. coli

546 Production of Human BMP-7 with Recombinant E. coli and B. subtilis

Authors: Jong Il Rhee


The polypeptide representing the mature part of human BMP-7 was cloned and efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, which had a clear band for hBMP-7, a homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 15.4 kDa. Recombinant E.coli produced 111 pg hBMP-7/mg of protein hBMP-7 through IPTG induction. Recombinant B. subtilis also produced 350 pg hBMP-7/ml of culture medium. The hBMP-7 was purified in 2 steps using an FPLC system with an ion exchange column and a gel filtration column. The hBMP-7 produced in this work also stimulated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner, i.e. 2.5- and 8.9-fold at 100 and 300 ng hBMP-7/ml, respectively, and showed intact biological activity.

Keywords: B. subtilis, E. coli, fermentation, hBMP-7

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545 Production of Recombinant Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli: A Crucial Biomolecule for Biotechnological and Healthcare Applications

Authors: Ashima Sharma, Tapan K. Chaudhuri


Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is one of the most demanded therapeutic protein with immense biotechnological applications. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma. Blood is a limited and an unsafe source as it possesses the risk of contamination by various blood derived pathogens. This issue led to exploitation of various hosts with the aim to obtain an alternative source for the production of the rHSA. But, till now no host has been proven to be effective commercially for rHSA production because of their respective limitations. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived rHSA production. Of all the host systems, Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which has contributed in the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. E. coli grows rapidly and its culture reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. The fermentation batch turnaround number for E. coli culture is 300 per year, which is far greater than any of the host systems available. Therefore, E. coli derived recombinant products have more economical potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts available. Despite of all the mentioned advantages, E. coli had not been successfully adopted as a host for rHSA production. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for rHSA production was aggregation i.e. majority of the expressed recombinant protein was forming inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA form inclusion body is not preferred because it is tedious, time consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of this limitation, E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for last few decades. Considering the advantages of E. coli as a host, the present work has targeted E. coli as an alternate host for rHSA production through resolving the major issue of inclusion body formation associated with it. In the present study, we have developed a novel and innovative method for enhanced soluble and functional production of rHSA in E.coli (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction) through modulation of the cellular growth, folding and environmental parameters, thereby leading to significantly improved and enhanced -expression levels as well as the functional and soluble proportion of the total expressed rHSA in the cytosolic fraction of the host. Therefore, in the present case we have filled in the gap in the literature, by exploiting the most well studied host system Escherichia coli which is of low cost, fast growing, scalable and ‘yet neglected’, for the enhancement of functional production of HSA- one of the most crucial biomolecule for clinical and biotechnological applications.

Keywords: enhanced functional production of rHSA in E. coli, recombinant human serum albumin, recombinant protein expression, recombinant protein processing

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544 Design and Optimisation of 2-Oxoglutarate Dioxygenase Expression in Escherichia coli Strains for Production of Bioethylene from Crude Glycerol

Authors: Idan Chiyanzu, Maruping Mangena


Crude glycerol, a major by-product from the transesterification of triacylglycerides with alcohol to biodiesel, is known to have a broad range of applications. For example, its bioconversion can afford a wide range of chemicals including alcohols, organic acids, hydrogen, solvents and intermediate compounds. In bacteria, the 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (2-OGD) enzymes are widely found among the Pseudomonas syringae species and have been recognized with an emerging importance in ethylene formation. However, the use of optimized enzyme function in recombinant systems for crude glycerol conversion to ethylene is still not been reported. The present study investigated the production of ethylene from crude glycerol using engineered E. coli MG1655 and JM109 strains. Ethylene production with an optimized expression system for 2-OGD in E. coli using a codon optimized construct of the ethylene-forming gene was studied. The codon-optimization resulted in a 20-fold increase of protein production and thus an enhanced production of the ethylene gas. For a reliable bioreactor performance, the effect of temperature, fermentation time, pH, substrate concentration, the concentration of methanol, concentration of potassium hydroxide and media supplements on ethylene yield was investigated. The results demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme can be used for future studies to exploit the conversion of low-priced crude glycerol into advanced value products like light olefins, and tools including recombineering techniques for DNA, molecular biology, and bioengineering can be used to allowing unlimited the production of ethylene directly from the fermentation of crude glycerol. It can be concluded that recombinant E.coli production systems represent significantly secure, renewable and environmentally safe alternative to thermochemical approach to ethylene production.

Keywords: crude glycerol, bioethylene, recombinant E. coli, optimization

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543 Design of an Artificial Oil Body-Cyanogen Bromide Technology Platform for the Expression of Small Bioactive Peptide, Mastoparan B

Authors: Tzyy-Rong Jinn, Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Yi-Ching Chung, Feng-Chia Hsieh


In this study, we attempted to develop a recombinant oleosin-based fusion expression strategy in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coupled with the artificial oil bodies (AOB)-cyanogen bromide technology platform to produce bioactive mastoparan B (MP-B). As reported, the oleosin in AOB system plays a carrier (fusion with target protein), since oleosin possess two amphipathic regions (at the N-terminus and C-terminus), which result in the N-terminus and C-terminus of oleosin could be arranged on the surface of AOB. Thus, the target protein fused to the N-terminus or C-terminus of oleosin which also is exposed on the surface of AOB, and this process will greatly facilitate the subsequent separation and purification of target protein from AOB. In addition, oleosin, a unique structural protein of seed oil bodies, has the added advantage of helping the fused MP-B expressed in inclusion bodies, which can protect from proteolytic degradation. In this work, MP-B was fused to the C-terminus of oleosin and then was expressed in E. coli as an insoluble recombinant protein. As a consequence, we successfully developed a reliable recombinant oleosin-based fusion expression strategy in Escherichia coli and coupled with the artificial oil bodies (AOB)-cyanogen bromide technology platform to produce the small peptide, MP-B. Take together, this platform provides an insight into the production of active MP-B, which will facilitate studies and applications of this peptide in the future.

Keywords: artificial oil bodies, Escherichia coli, Oleosin-fusion protein, Mastoparan-B

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542 Production and Purification of Salmonella Typhimurium MisL Autotransporter Protein in Escherichia coli

Authors: Neslihan Taskale Karatug, Mustafa Akcelik


Some literature data show that misL protein play a role on host immune response formed against Salmonella Typhimurium. The aim of the present study is to learn the role of the protein in S. Typhimurium pathogenicity. To describe certain functions of the protein, primarily recombinant misL protein was produced and purified. PCR was performed using a primer set targeted to passenger domain of the misL gene on S. Typhimurium LT2 genome. Amplicon and pet28a vector were enzymatically cleaved with EcoRI and NheI. The digested DNA materials were purified with High Pure PCR Product Purification Kit. The ligation reaction was achieved with the pure products. After preparation of competent Escherichia coli Dh5α, ligation mix was transformed into the cell by electroporation. To confirm the existence of insert gene, recombinant plasmid DNA of Dh5α was isolated with high pure plasmid DNA kit. Proved the correctness of recombinant plasmid was electroporated to BL21. The cell was induced by IPTG. After induction, the presence of recombinant protein was checked by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant misL protein was purified using HisPur Ni-NTA spin colon. The pure protein was shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot immünoassay. The concentration of the protein was measured BCA Protein Assay kit. In the wake of ligation with digested products (2 kb misL and 5.4 kb pet28a) visualised on gel size of the band was about 7.4 kb and was named as pNT01. The pNT01 recombinant plasmid was transformed into Dh5α and colonies were chosen in selective medium. Plasmid DNA isolation from them was carried out. PCR was achieved on the pNT01 to check misL and 2 kb band was observed on the agarose gel. After electroporation of the plasmid and induction of the cell, 68 kDa misL protein was seen. Subsequent to the purification of the protein, only a band was observed on SDS-PAGE. Association of the pure protein with anti-his antibody was verified by the western blot assay. The concentration of the pure misL protein was determined as 345 μg/mL. Production of polyclonal antibody will be achieved by using the obtained pure recombinant misL protein as next step. The role of the protein will come out on the immune system together some assays.

Keywords: cloning, Escherichia coli, recombinant protein purification, Salmonella Typhimurium

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541 Enhanced Functional Production of a Crucial Biomolecule Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli

Authors: Ashima Sharma


Human Serum Albumin (HSA)- one of the most demanded therapeutic proteins with immense biotechnological applications- is a large multidomain protein containing 17 disulfide bonds. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma which is a limited and unsafe source. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived recombinant HSA (rHSA) production. Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which had contributed to the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. It grows rapidly and reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. E. coli derived recombinant products have more economic potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for a disulfide-rich multidomain protein is the formation of aggregates of overexpressed protein. The majority of the expressed HSA forms inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA from inclusion bodies is not preferred because it is difficult to obtain a large multidomain disulfide bond rich protein like rHSA in its functional native form. Purification is tedious, time-consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of such limitations, the E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for the past few decades despite its numerous advantages. In the present work, we have exploited the capabilities of E. coli as a host for the enhanced functional production of rHSA (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction). Parameters like intracellular environment, temperature, induction type, duration of induction, cell lysis conditions etc. which play an important role in enhancing the level of production of the desired protein in its native form in vivo have been optimized. We have studied the effect of assistance of different types of exogenously employed chaperone systems on the functional expression of rHSA in the E. coli host system. Different aspects of cell growth parameters during the production of rHSA in presence and absence of molecular chaperones in E. coli have also been studied. Upon overcoming the difficulties to produce functional rHSA in E. coli, it has been possible to produce significant levels of functional protein through engineering the biological system of protein folding in the cell, the E. coli-derived rHSA has been purified to homogeneity. Its detailed physicochemical characterization has been performed by monitoring its conformational properties, secondary and tertiary structure elements, surface properties, ligand binding properties, stability issues etc. These parameters of the recombinant protein have been compared with the naturally occurring protein from the human source. The outcome of the comparison reveals that the recombinant protein resembles exactly the same as the natural one. Hence, we propose that the E. coli-derived rHSA is an ideal biosimilar for human blood plasma-derived serum albumin. Therefore, in the present study, we have introduced and promoted the E. coli- derived rHSA as an alternative to the preparation from a human source, pHSA.

Keywords: recombinant human serum albumin, Escherichia coli, biosimilar, chaperone assisted protein folding

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540 Development and Investigation of Efficient Substrate Feeding and Dissolved Oxygen Control Algorithms for Scale-Up of Recombinant E. coli Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Rimvydas Simutis, Donatas Levisauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Renaldas Urniezius


The paper deals with model-based development and implementation of efficient control strategies for recombinant protein synthesis in fed-batch E.coli cultivation processes. Based on experimental data, a kinetic dynamic model for cultivation process was developed. This model was used to determine substrate feeding strategies during the cultivation. The proposed feeding strategy consists of two phases – biomass growth phase and recombinant protein production phase. In the first process phase, substrate-limited process is recommended when the specific growth rate of biomass is about 90-95% of its maximum value. This ensures reduction of glucose concentration in the medium, improves process repeatability, reduces the development of secondary metabolites and other unwanted by-products. The substrate limitation can be enhanced to satisfy restriction on maximum oxygen transfer rate in the bioreactor and to guarantee necessary dissolved carbon dioxide concentration in culture media. In the recombinant protein production phase, the level of substrate limitation and specific growth rate are selected within the range to enable optimal target protein synthesis rate. To account for complex process dynamics, to efficiently exploit the oxygen transfer capability of the bioreactor, and to maintain the required dissolved oxygen concentration, adaptive control algorithms for dissolved oxygen control have been proposed. The developed model-based control strategies are useful in scale-up of cultivation processes and accelerate implementation of innovative biotechnological processes for industrial applications.

Keywords: adaptive algorithms, model-based control, recombinant E. coli, scale-up of bioprocesses

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539 Production of Recombinant VP2 Protein of Canine Parvovirus 2a Using Baculovirus Expression System

Authors: Soo Dong Cho, In-Ohk Ouh, Byeong Sul Kang, Seyeon Park, In-Soo Cho, Jae Young Song


An VP2 gene from the current prevalent CPV (Canine Parvovirus) strain (new CPV-2a) in the Republic of Korea was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolate strain CPV-2a. The recombinant baculovirus, containing the coding sequences of VP2 with the histidine tag at the N-terminus, were generated by using the Bac-to-Bac system. For production of the recombinant VP2 proteins, SF9 cells were transfection into 6 wells. Propagation of recombinant baculoviruses and expression of the VP2 protein were performed in the Sf9 cell line maintained. The proteins were detected to Western blot anlaysis. CPV-2a VP2 was detected by Western blotting the monoclonal antibodies recognized 6x His and the band had a molecular weight of 65 KDa. We demonstrated that recombinant CPV-2a VP2 expression in baculovirus. The recombinant CPV-2a VP2 may able to development of specific diagnostic test and vaccination of against CPV2. This study provides a foundation for application of CPV2 on the development of new CPV2 subunit vaccine.

Keywords: baculovirus, canine parvovirus 2a, Dog, Korea

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538 Prediction and Identification of a Permissive Epitope Insertion Site for St Toxoid in cfaB from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Authors: N. Zeinalzadeh, Mahdi Sadeghi


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of non-inflammatory diarrhea in the developing countries, resulting in approximately 20% of all diarrheal episodes in children in these areas. ST is one of the most important virulence factors and CFA/I is one of the frequent colonization factors that help to process of ETEC infection. ST and CfaB (CFA/I subunit) are among vaccine candidates against ETEC. So, ST because of its small size is not a good immunogenic in the natural form. However to increase its immunogenic potential, here we explored candidate positions for ST insertion in CfaB sequence. After bioinformatics analysis, one of the candidate positions was selected and the chimeric gene (cfaB*st) sequence was synthesized and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The chimeric recombinant protein was purified with Ni-NTA columns and characterized with western blot analysis. The residue 74-75 of CfaB sequence could be a good candidate position for ST and other epitopes insertion.

Keywords: bioinformatics, CFA/I, enterotoxigenic E. coli, ST toxoid

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537 Design of a Recombinant Expression System for Bacterial Cellulose Production

Authors: Gizem Buldum, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris


Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth and it is currently being utilised in a multitude of industrial applications. Over the last 30 years, attention has been paid to the bacterial cellulose (BC), since BC exhibits unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties when compared to plant-based cellulose, including high purity and biocompatibility. Although Acetobacter xylinum is the most efficient producer of BC, it’s long doubling time results in insufficient yields of the cellulose production. This limits widespread and continued use of BC. In this study, E. coli BL21 (DE3) or E. coli HMS cells are selected as host organisms for the expression of bacterial cellulose synthase operon (bcs) of A.xylinum. The expression system is created based on pET-Duet1 and pCDF plasmid vectors, which carry bcs operon. The results showed that all bcs genes were successfully transferred and expressed in E.coli strains. The expressions of bcs proteins were shown by SDS and Native page analyses. The functionality of the bcs operon was proved by congo red binding assay. The effect of culturing temperature and the inducer concentration (IPTG) on cell growth and plasmid stability were monitored. The percentage of plasmid harboring cells induced with 0.025 mM IPTG was obtained as 85% at 22˚C in the end of 10-hr culturing period. It was confirmed that the high output cellulose production machinery of A.xylinum can be transferred into other organisms.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, biopolymer, recombinant expression system, production

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536 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh


The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcuslactis, recombinant, phytase, poultry

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535 Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Clostridium botulinum Types B Vaccine Candidate

Authors: Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Kichan Lee, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung


Botulism is a paralytic disease of human beings and animals caused by neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxins are genetically distinguished into 8 types, A to H. Ingestion of performed toxin, usually types B, C, and D, have been shown to produce diseases in most cases of cattle botulism. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent cattle botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. We produced recombinant protein using gene of heavy chain domain of botulinum toxin B of which binds to cellular receptor of neuron cells and used as immunogen. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of botulism vaccine composed of recombinant types B. Safety test was done by National Regulation for Veterinary Biologicals. For efficacy test, female ICR mice (5 weeks old) were subcutaneously injected, intraperitoneally challenged, and examined the survival rates compared with vaccination and non-vaccination group. Mouse survival rate of recombinant types B vaccine was above 80%, while one of non-vaccination group was 0%. A vaccine composed of recombinant types B was safe and efficacious in mouse. Our results suggest that recombinant heavy chain receptor binding domain can be used as an effective vaccine candidate for type B botulism.

Keywords: botulism, livestock, vaccine, recombinant protein, toxin

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534 Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 L1 Virus-Like Particles in Methylotropic Yeast, Pichia Pastoris

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Samaneh Niko


Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 are closely associated with the development of human cervical carcinoma, which is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. At present, HPV type 18 accounts for about 34 % of all HPV infections in Iran and the most promising vaccine against HPV infection is based on the L1 major capsid protein. The L1 protein of HPV18 has the capacity to self-assemble into capsomers or virus-like particles (VLPs) that are non-infectious, highly immunogenic and allowing their use in vaccine production. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an efficient and inexpensive expression system used to produce high levels of heterologous proteins. In this study we expressed HPV18 L1 VLPs in P. pastoris. The gene encoding the major capsid protein L1 of the high-risk HPV type 18 was isolated from Iranian patient by PCR and inserted into pTG19-T vector to obtain the recombinant expression vector pTG19-HPV18-L1. Then, the pTG19-HPV18-L1 was transformed into E. coli strain DH5α and the recombinant protein HPV18 L1 was expressed under IPTG induction in soluble form. The HPV18 L1 gene was excised from recombinant plasmid with XhoI and EcoRI enzymes and ligated into the yeast expression vector pPICZα linearized with the same enzymes, and transformed into P. pastoris. Induction and expression of HPV18 L1 protein was demonstrated by BMGY/BMMY and RT PCR. The parameters for induced cultivation for strain in P. pastoris KM71 with HPV16L1 were investigated in shaking flask cultures. After induced cultivation BMMY (pH 7.0) medium supplemented with methanol to a final concentration of 1.0% every 24 h at 37 degrees C for 96 h, the recombinant produced 78.6 mg/L of L1 protein. This work offers the possibility for the production of prophylactic vaccine for cervical carcinoma by P. pastoris for HPV-18 L1 gene. The VLP-based HPV vaccines can prevent persistent HPV18 infections and cervical cancer in Iran. The HPV-18 L1 gene was expressed successfully in E.coli, which provides necessary basis for preparing HPV-18 L1 vaccine in human. Also, HPV type 6 L1 proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris will facilitate the HPV vaccine development and structure-function study.

Keywords: Pichia pastoris, L1 virus-like particles, human papillomavirus type 18, biotechnology

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533 Characterization of Crustin from Litopenaeus vannamei

Authors: Suchao Donpudsa, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit


A crustin gene, LV-SWD1, previously found in the hemocyte cDNA library of Litopenaeus vannamei, contains the open reading frames of 288 bp encoding a putative protein of 96 amino acid residues. The putative signal peptides of the LV-SWD1 were identified using the online SignalP 3.0 with predicted cleavage sites between Ala24-Val25, resulting in 72 residue mature protein with calculated molecular mass of 7.4 kDa and predicted pI of 8.5. This crustin contains a Arg-Pro rich region at the amino-terminus and a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the carboxyl-terminus. In order to characterize their properties and biological activities, the recombinant crustin protein was produced in the Escherichia coli expression system. Antimicrobial assays showed that the growth of Bacillus subtilis was inhibited by this recombinant crustin with MIC of about 25-50 µM.

Keywords: crustin, single whey acidic protein, Litopenaeus vannamei, antimicrobial activity

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532 Production of Recombinant VP2 Protein of Canine Parvovirus Type 2c Using Baculovirus Expression System

Authors: Jae Young Song, In-Ohk Ouh, Seyeon Park, Byeong Sul Kang, Soo Dong Cho, In-Soo Cho


Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a major pathogen of diarrhea disease in dogs. CPV type 2 has three of antigenic variants such as 2a, 2b, and 2c. CPV constructs a small non-enveloped, icosahedral capsid that contains single-stranded DNA. It has capsids that two largely overlapping virion proteins (VP), VP1 (82 kDa), and VP2 (65 kDa). Baculoviruses are insect pathogens that regulate insect populations in nature and are being successfully used to control insect pests. The proteins produced in the baculovirus-expression system are used for instance for functional studies, vaccine preparations, or diagnostics. The vaccines produced by baculovirus-expression system showed elicitation of antibodies. The recombinant baculovirus infected SF9 cells showed broken shape. The recombinant VP2 proteins from cell pellet or supernatant were confirmed by western blotting. The result showed that the recombinant VP2 protein bands were appeared at 65 kDa molecular weight in both cell pellet and supernatant of infected SF9 cell. These results indicated that the recombinant baculovirus infected SF9 cell express the recombinant VP2 protein successfully. In addition, the expressed recombinant VP2 protein is secreted from cell to supernatant. The baculovirus expression system can be used to produce the VP2 protein of CPV 2c. In addition, the secretion property of the expression of VP2 protein may decrease the cost of production, because it can be skipped the cell breaking step. The produced VP2 protein could be used for vaccine and the agent of diagnostic tests. This study provides the foundation of the production of CPV 2c vaccine and the diagnostic agent.

Keywords: baculovirus, canine parvovirus 2c, dog, Korea

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531 Cloning, Expression and N-Terminal Pegylation of Human Interferon Alpha-2b Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Evaluation against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Abdul Qadir


In the current research, three recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins (two modified and one normal form) were produced and Pegylated with an aim to produce more effective drugs against viral infections and cancers. The modified recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were produced by site-directed modifications of interferon alpha 2b gene, targeting the amino acids at positions ‘R23’ and ‘H34’. The resulting chemically modified and unmodified forms of human interferon alpha 2b were conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol propanealdehyde (400 KDa) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (400 KDa). Pegylation of normal and modified forms of Interferon alpha-2b prolong their release time and enhance their efficacy. The conjugation of PEG with modified and unmodified human interferon alpha 2b protein drugs was also characterized with 1H-NMR, HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. Antiproliferative assays of modified and unmodified forms of drugs were performed in cell based bioassays using MDBK cell lines. The results indicated that experimentally produced recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were biologically active and resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth.

Keywords: protein refolding, antiproliferative activities, biomedical applications, human interferon alpha-2b, pegylation, mPEG-propionaldehyde, site directed mutagenesis, E. coli expression

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530 Molecular Characterisation and Expression of Glutathione S-Transferase of Fasciola Gigantica

Authors: J. Adeppa, S. Samanta, O. K. Raina


Fasciolosis is a widespread economically important parasitic infection throughout the world caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. In order to identify novel immunogen conferring significant protection against fasciolosis, currently, research has been focused on the defined antigens viz. glutathione S-transferase, fatty acid binding protein, cathepsin-L, fluke hemoglobin, paramyosin, myosin and F. hepatica- Kunitz Type Molecule. Among various antigens, GST which plays a crucial role in detoxification processes, i.e. phase II defense mechanism of this parasite, has a unique position as a novel vaccine candidate and a drug target in the control of this disease. For producing the antigens in large quantities and their purification to complete homogeneity, the recombinant DNA technology has become an important tool to achieve this milestone. RT- PCR was carried out using F. gigantica total RNA as template, and an amplicon of 657 bp GST gene was obtained. TA cloning vector was used for cloning of this gene, and the presence of insert was confirmed by blue-white selection for recombinant colonies. Sequence analysis of the present isolate showed 99.1% sequence homology with the published sequence of the F. gigantica GST gene of cattle origin (accession no. AF112657), with six nucleotide changes at 72, 74, 423, 513, 549 and 627th bp found in the present isolate, causing an overall change of 4 amino acids. The 657 bp GST gene was cloned at BamH1 and HindIII restriction sites of the prokaryotic expression vector pPROEXHTb in frame with six histidine residues and expressed in E. coli DH5α. Recombinant protein was purified from the bacterial lysate under non-denaturing conditions by the process of sonication after lysozyme treatment and subjecting the soluble fraction of the bacterial lysate to Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Western blotting with rabbit hyper-immune serum showed immuno-reactivity with 25 kDa recombinant GST. Recombinant protein detected F. gigantica experimental as well as field infection in buffaloes by dot-ELISA. However, cross-reactivity studies on Fasciola gigantica GST antigen are needed to evaluate the utility of this protein in the serodiagnosis of fasciolosis.

Keywords: fasciola gigantic, fasciola hepatica, GST, RT- PCR

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529 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee


Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

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528 Sheep Pox Virus Recombinant Proteins To Develop Subunit Vaccines

Authors: Olga V. Chervyakova, Elmira T. Tailakova, Vitaliy M. Strochkov, Kulyaisan T. Sultankulova, Nurlan T. Sandybayev, Lev G. Nemchinov, Rosemarie W. Hammond


Sheep pox is a highly contagious infection that OIE regards to be one of the most dangerous animal diseases. It causes enormous economic losses because of death and slaughter of infected animals, lower productivity, cost of veterinary and sanitary as well as quarantine measures. To control spread of sheep pox infection the attenuated vaccines are widely used in the Republic of Kazakhstan and other Former Soviet Union countries. In spite of high efficiency of live vaccines, the possible presence of the residual virulence, potential genetic instability restricts their use in disease-free areas that leads to necessity to exploit new approaches in vaccine development involving recombinant DNA technology. Vaccines on the basis of recombinant proteins are the newest generation of prophylactic preparations. The main advantage of these vaccines is their low reactogenicity and this fact makes them widely used in medical and veterinary practice for vaccination of humans and farm animals. The objective of the study is to produce recombinant immunogenic proteins for development of the high-performance means for sheep pox prophylaxis. The SPV proteins were chosen for their homology with the known immunogenic vaccinia virus proteins. Assay of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the target SPV protein genes. It has been shown that four proteins SPPV060 (ortholog L1), SPPV074 (ortholog H3), SPPV122 (ortholog A33) and SPPV141 (ortholog B5) possess transmembrane domains at N- or C-terminus while in amino acid sequences of SPPV095 (ortholog А 4) and SPPV117 (ortholog А 27) proteins these domains were absent. On the basis of these findings the primers were constructed. Target genes were amplified and subsequently cloned into the expression vector рЕТ26b(+) or рЕТ28b(+). Six constructions (pSPPV060ΔТМ, pSPPV074ΔТМ, pSPPV095, pSPPV117, pSPPV122ΔТМ and pSPPV141ΔТМ) were obtained for expression of the SPV genes under control of T7 promoter in Escherichia coli. To purify and detect recombinant proteins the amino acid sequences were modified by adding six histidine molecules at C-terminus. Induction of gene expression by IPTG was resulted in production of the proteins with molecular weights corresponding to the estimated values for SPPV060, SPPV074, SPPV095, SPPV117, SPPV122 and SPPV141, i.e. 22, 30, 20, 19, 17 and 22 kDa respectively. Optimal protocol of expression for each gene that ensures high yield of the recombinant protein was identified. Assay of cellular lysates by western blotting confirmed expression of the target proteins. Recombinant proteins bind specifically with antibodies to polyhistidine. Moreover all produced proteins are specifically recognized by the serum from experimentally SPV-infected sheep. The recombinant proteins SPPV060, SPPV074, SPPV117, SPPV122 and SPPV141 were also shown to induce formation of antibodies with virus-neutralizing activity. The results of the research will help to develop a new-generation high-performance means for specific sheep pox prophylaxis that is one of key moments in animal health protection. The research was conducted under the International project ISTC # K-1704 “Development of methods to construct recombinant prophylactic means for sheep pox with use of transgenic plants” and under the Grant Project RK MES G.2015/0115RK01983 "Recombinant vaccine for sheep pox prophylaxis".

Keywords: prophylactic preparation, recombinant protein, sheep pox virus, subunit vaccine

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527 Expression of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase in Escherichia coli

Authors: Waranya Imprasittichai, Patsarawadee Paojinda, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai


Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. In this study, we constructed gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT (1,836 bp) in pTrcHisA vector and expressed as an 6xHis-tag bifunctional protein in three Escherichia coli strains (BL21, Rosetta, TOP10) at 18 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. The recombinant bifunctional protein was partially purified by Ni-Nitrilotriacetic acid-affinity chromatography. Specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in the bifunctional enzyme expressed in E. coli TOP10 cells were approximately 3-4-fold higher than those in BL21 cells. There were no enzymatic activities when the construct vector expressed in Rosetta cells. Maximal expression of the fused gene was observed at 18 °C and the bifunctional enzyme had specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in a ratio of 1:2. These results provide greater yields and better catalytic activities of the bifunctional OMPDC-OPRT enzyme for further purification and kinetic study.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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526 Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai


This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.

Keywords: Escherichia coli SCC1, fermentation process, green fluorescent protein, red fluorescence

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525 Optimising Light Conditions for Recombinant Protein Production in the Microalgal Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplast

Authors: Saskya E. Carrera P., Ben Hankamer, Melanie Oey


The green alga C. reinhardtii provides a platform for the cheap, scalable, and safe production of complex proteins. Despite gene expression in photosynthetic organisms being tightly regulated by light, most expression studies have analysed chloroplast recombinant protein production under constant light. Here the influence of illumination time and intensity on GFP and a GFP-PlyGBS (bacterial-lysin) fusion protein expression was investigated. The expression of both proteins was strongly influenced by the light regime (6-24 hr illumination per day), the light intensity (0-450 E m⁻²s⁻¹) and growth condition (photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic). Heterotrophic conditions resulted in relatively low recombinant protein yields per unit volume, despite high protein yields per cell, due to low growth rates. Mixotrophic conditions exhibited the highest yields at 6 hrs illumination at 200µE m⁻²s⁻¹ and under continuous low light illumination (13-16 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 1.2-1.6 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS), as these conditions supported good cell growth and cellular protein yields. A ~23-fold increase in protein accumulation per cell and ~9-fold increase L⁻¹ culture was observed compared to standard constant 24 hr illumination for GFP-PlyGBS. The highest yields under photoautotrophic conditions were obtained under 9 hrs illumination (6 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 2.1 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS). This represents a ~4-fold increase in cellular protein accumulation for GFP-PlyGBS. On a volumetric basis the highest yield was at 15 hrs illumination (~2-fold increase L⁻¹ over the constant light for GFP-PlyGBS). Optimising illumination conditions to balance growth and protein expression can thus significantly enhance overall recombinant protein production in C. reinhardtii cultures.

Keywords: chlamydomonas reinhardtii, light, mixotrophic, recombinant protein

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524 Cloning and Expression of Azurin: A Protein Having Antitumor and Cell Penetrating Ability

Authors: Mohsina Akhter


Cancer has become a wide spread disease around the globe and takes many lives every year. Different treatments are being practiced but all have potential side effects with somewhat less specificity towards target sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to secrete a protein azurin with special anti-cancer function. It has unique cell penetrating peptide comprising of 18 amino acids that have ability to enter cancer cells specifically. Reported function of Azurin is to stabilize p53 inside the tumor cells and induces apoptosis through Bax mediated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. At laboratory scale, we have made recombinant azurin through cloning rpTZ57R/T-azu vector into E.coli strain DH-5α and subcloning rpET28-azu vector into E.coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3). High expression was ensured with IPTG induction at different concentrations then optimized high expression level at 1mM concentration of IPTG for 5 hours. Purification has been done by using Ni+2 affinity chromatography. We have concluded that azurin can be a remarkable improvement in cancer therapeutics if it produces on a large scale. Azurin does not enter into the normal cells so it will prove a safe and secure treatment for patients and prevent them from hazardous anomalies.

Keywords: azurin, pseudomonas aeruginosa, cancer, therapeutics

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523 Conversion of Glycerol to 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Genetically Engineered Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Aida Kalantari, Boyang Ji, Tao Chen, Ivan Mijakovic


3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-HP) is one of the most important biomass-derivable platform chemicals that can be converted into a number of industrially important compounds. There have been several attempts at production of 3-HP from renewable sources in cell factories, focusing mainly on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant progress made in this field, commercially exploitable large-scale production of 3-HP in microbial strains has still not been achieved. In this study, we investigated the potential of Bacillus subtilis to be used as a microbial platform for bioconversion of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from various backgrounds. The recombinant strains harboring the codon-optimized synthetic pathway from K. pneumoniae produced low levels of 3-HP. Since the enzymes in the heterologous pathway are sensitive to oxygen, we had to perform our experiments in micro-aerobic conditions. Under these conditions, the cell produces lactate in order to regenerate NAD+, and we found the lactate production to be in competition with the production of 3-HP. Therefore, based on the in silico predictions, we knocked out the glycerol kinase (glpk), which in combination with growth on glucose, resulted in improving the 3-HP titer to 1 g/L and the removal of lactate. Cultivation of the same strain in an enriched medium improved the 3-HP titer up to 7.6 g/L. Our findings provide the first report of successful introduction of the biosynthetic pathway for conversion of glycerol into 3-HP in B. subtilis.

Keywords: bacillus subtilis, glycerol, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid, metabolic engineering

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522 Kinetics Study for the Recombinant Cellulosome to the Degradation of Chlorella Cell Residuals

Authors: C. C. Lin, S. C. Kan, C. W. Yeh, C. I Chen, C. J. Shieh, Y. C. Liu


In this study, lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae were hydrolyzed for the production of reducing sugars by using the recombinant Bacillus cellulosome, carrying eight genes from the Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405. The obtained cellulosome was found to exist mostly in the broth supernatant with a cellulosome activity of 2.4 U/mL. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax of cellulosome were found to be 14.832 g/L and 3.522 U/mL. The activation energy of the cellulosome to hydrolyze microalgae LDRs was calculated as 32.804 kJ/mol.

Keywords: lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae, cellulosome, cellulose, reducing sugars, kinetics

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521 Cytolethal Distending Toxins in Intestinal and Extraintestinal E. coli

Authors: Katarína Čurová, Leonard Siegfried, Radka Vargová, Marta Kmeťová, Vladimír Hrabovský


Introduction: Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) represent intracellular acting proteins which interfere with cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. They are produced by Gram-negative bacteria with afinity to mucocutaneous surfaces and could play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. CDTs induce DNA damage probably through DNAse activity, which causes cell cycle arrest and leads to further changes (cell distension and death, apoptosis) depending on the cell type. Five subtypes of CDT (I to V) were reported in E. coli. Methods: We examined 252 E. coli strains belonging to four different groups. Of these strains, 57 were isolated from patients with diarrhea, 65 from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI), 65 from patients with sepsis and 65 from patients with other extraintestinal infections (mostly surgical wounds, decubitus ulcers and respiratory tract infections). Identification of these strains was performed by MALDI-TOF analysis and detection of genes encoding CDTs and determination of the phylogenetic group was performed by PCR. Results: In this study, we detected presence of cdt genes in 11 of 252 E. coli strains tested (4,4 %). Four cdt positive E. coli strains were confirmed in group of UTI (6,15 %), three cdt positive E. coli strains in groups of diarrhea (5,3 %) and other extraintestinal infections (4,6 %). The lowest incidence, one cdt positive E. coli strain, was observed in group of sepsis (1,5 %). All cdt positive E. coli strains belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Conclusion: CDT-producing E. coli are isolated in a low percentage from patients with intestinal and extraintestinal infections, including sepsis and our results correspond with these studies. A weak prevalence of cdt genes suggests that CDTs are not major virulence factors but in combination with other virulence factors may increase virulence potential of E. coli. We suppose that all 11 cdt positive E. coli strains represent real pathogens because they belong to the phylogenetic group B2 which is pathogenic lineage for bacteria E. coli.

Keywords: cytolethal distending toxin, E. coli, phylogenetic group, extraintestinal infection, diarrhea

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520 Chemical Synthesis of a cDNA and Its Expression Analysis

Authors: Salman Akrokayan


Synthetic cDNA (ScDNA) of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was constructed using a DNA synthesizer with the aim to increase its expression level. 5' end of the ScDNA of G-CSF coding region was modified by decreasing the GC content without altering the predicted amino acids sequence. The identity of the resulting protein from ScDNA was confirmed by the highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conclusion, a synthetic G-CSF cDNA in combination with the recombinant DNA protocol offers a rapid and reliable strategy for synthesizing the target protein. However, the commercial utilization of this methodology requires rigorous validation and quality control.

Keywords: synthetic cDNA, recombinant G-CSF, cloning, gene expression

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519 Designing Next Generation Platforms for Recombinant Protein Production by Genome Engineering of Escherichia coli

Authors: Priyanka Jain, Ashish K. Sharma, Esha Shukla, K. J. Mukherjee


We propose a paradigm shift in our approach to design improved platforms for recombinant protein production, by addressing system level issues rather than the individual steps associated with recombinant protein synthesis like transcription, translation, etc. We demonstrate that by controlling and modulating the cellular stress response (CSR), which is responsible for feedback control of protein synthesis, we can generate hyper-producing strains. We did transcriptomic profiling of post-induction cultures, expressing different types of protein, to analyze the nature of this cellular stress response. We found significant down-regulation of substrate utilization, translation, and energy metabolism genes due to generation CSR inside the host cell. However, transcription profiling has also shown that many genes are up-regulated post induction and their role in modulating the CSR is unclear. We hypothesized that these up-regulated genes trigger signaling pathways, generating the CSR and concomitantly reduce the recombinant protein yield. To test this hypothesis, we knocked out the up-regulated genes, which did not have any downstream regulatees, and analyzed their impact on cellular health and recombinant protein expression. Two model proteins i.e., GFP and L-Asparaginase were chosen for this analysis. We observed a significant improvement in expression levels, with some knock-outs showing more than 7-fold higher expression compared to control. The 10 best single knock-outs were chosen to make 45 combinations of all possible double knock-outs. A further increase in expression was observed in some of these double knock- outs with GFP levels being highest in a double knock-out ΔyhbC + ΔelaA. However, for L-Asparaginase which is a secretory protein, the best results were obtained using a combination of ΔelaA+ΔcysW knock-outs. We then tested all the knock outs for their ability to enhance the expression of a 'difficult-to-express' protein. The Rubella virus E1 protein was chosen and tagged with sfGFP at the C-terminal using a linker peptide for easy online monitoring of expression of this fusion protein. Interestingly, the highest increase in Rubella-sGFP levels was obtained in the same double knock-out ΔelaA + ΔcysW (5.6 fold increase in expression yield compared to the control) which gave the highest expression for L-Asparaginase. However, for sfGFP alone, the ΔyhbC+ΔmarR knock-out gave the highest level of expression. These results indicate that there is a fair degree of commonality in the nature of the CSR generated by the induction of different proteins. Transcriptomic profiling of the double knock out showed that many genes associated with the translational machinery and energy biosynthesis did not get down-regulated post induction, unlike the control where these genes were significantly down-regulated. This confirmed our hypothesis of these genes playing an important role in the generation of the CSR and allowed us to design a strategy for making better expression hosts by simply knocking out key genes. This strategy is radically superior to the previous approach of individually up-regulating critical genes since it blocks the mounting of the CSR thus preventing the down-regulation of a very large number of genes responsible for sustaining the flux through the recombinant protein production pathway.

Keywords: cellular stress response, GFP, knock-outs, up-regulated genes

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518 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Dairy Product

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hazmi, Abdullah Al-Arfaj, Moussa Ihab


Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was molecular characterization of shiga toxogenic E. coli in raw milk collected from different Egyptian governorates by multiplex PCR. During the period of 25th May to 25th October 2012, a total of 320 bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 10 cow farms located in different Egyptian governorates. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed the presence of E. coli organisms in 65 samples (20.3%), serotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed, 35 strains (10.94%) O111, 15 strains (4.69%) O157: H7, 10 strains (3.13%) O128 and 5 strains (1.56%) O119. Multiplex PCR for detection of shiga toxin type 2 and intimin genes revealed positive amplification of 255 bp fragment of shiga toxin type 2 gene and 384 bp fragment of intimin gene from all E. coli serovar O157: H7, while from serovar O111 were 25 (71.43%), 20 (57.14%) and from serovar O128 were 6 (60%), 8 (80%), respectively. The results of multiplex PCR assay are useful for identification of STEC possessing the eaeA and stx2 genes.

Keywords: raw milk, E. coli, multiplex PCR, Shiga toxin type 2, intimin gene

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517 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Faecal Carriage Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: C. A. Ologunde


Escherichia coli have been a major microorganisms associated with, and isolated from feacal samples either in adult or children all over the world. Strains of these organisms are resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients and FQs are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class in hospitals, and the level of resistant of E. coli to these antimicrobial agents is a risk factor that should be assessed. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli in hospitalized patients in Ado-Ekiti. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients in hospitals in the study area and FQ-resistant E. coli were isolated and identified by means of Nalidixic acid multi-disk and a 1-step screening procedure. Species identification and FQ resistance were confirmed by automated testing (Vitek, bioMerieux, USA). Individual colonies were subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine macro-restriction polymorphism after digestion of chromosomal DNA. FQ-resistant E. coli was detected in the stool sample of 37(62%) hospitalized patient. With multivariable analyses, the use of FQ before hospitalization was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures for the 3-12 months of study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified conal spread of 1(one) strain among 18 patients. Loss (9 patients) or acquisition (10 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. It was concluded that FQ-resistant E. coli carriage was associated with clonal spread. The differential effects of individual fluoroquinolone on antimicrobial drug resistance are an important area for future study, as hospitals manipulate their formularies with regard to use of individual fluoroquinolone, often for economic reasons.

Keywords: E. coli, fluoroquinolone, risk factors, feacal carriage, hospitalized patients, Ado-Ekiti

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