Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1691

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nutrition and Food Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1691 Nurture Early for Optimal Nutrition: A Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Infant Feeding and Care Practices Using Participatory Learning and Actions Approach

Authors: Priyanka Patil, Logan Manikam


Background: The first 1000 days of life are a critical window and can result in adverse health consequences due to inadequate nutrition. South-Asian (SA) communities face significant health disparities, particularly in maternal and child health. Community-based interventions, often employing Participatory-Learning and Action (PLA) approaches, have effectively addressed health inequalities in lower-income nations. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing a PLA intervention to improve infant feeding and care practices in SA communities living in London. Methods: Comprehensive analyses were conducted to assess the feasibility/fidelity of this pilot randomized controlled trial. Summary statistics were computed to compare key metrics, including participant consent rates, attendance, retention, intervention support, and perceived effectiveness, against predefined progression rules guiding toward a definitive trial. Secondary outcomes were analyzed, drawing insights from multiple sources, such as The Children’s-Eating-Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), Parental-Feeding-Style Questionnaires (PFSQ), Food-diary, and the Equality-Impact-Assessment (EIA) tool. A video analysis of children's mealtime behavior trends was conducted. Feedback interviews were collected from study participants. Results: Process-outcome measures met predefined progression rules for a definitive trial, which deemed the intervention as feasible and acceptable. The secondary outcomes analysis revealed no significant changes in children's BMI z-scores. This could be attributed to the abbreviated follow-up period of 6 months, reduced from 12 months, due to COVID-19-related delays. CEBQ analysis showed increased food responsiveness, along with decreased emotional over/undereating. A similar trend was observed in PFSQ. The EIA tool found no potential discrimination areas, and video analysis revealed a decrease in force-feeding practices. Participant feedback revealed improved awareness and knowledge sharing. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a co-adapted PLA intervention is feasible and well-received in optimizing infant-care practices among South-Asian community members in a high-income country. These findings highlight the potential of community-based interventions to enhance health outcomes, promoting health equity.

Keywords: child health, childhood obesity, community-based, infant nutrition

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1690 Silver Nanoparticle Application in Food Packaging and Impacts on Food Safety and Consumer’s Health

Authors: 1worku Dejene Bekele, András Marczika Csilla Sörös


Silver nanoparticles are silver metal with a size of 1-100nm. The most common source of silver nanoparticles is inorganic salts. Nanoparticles can be ingested through our foods and constitute nanoparticles and silver ions, whether as an additive or by migrants and, in some cases, as a pollutant. Silver nanoparticles are the most widely applicable engineered nanomaterials, especially for antimicrobial function. Ag nanoparticles give different advantages in the case of food safety, quality, and overall acceptability; however, they affect the health of humans and animals, putting them at risk of health problems and environmental pollution. Silver nanoparticles have been used widely in food packaging technologies, especially in water treatments, meat and meat products, fruit, and many other food products. This is for bio-preservation from food products. The primary goal of this review is to determine the safety and health impact of Ag nanoparticles application in food packaging and analysis of the human organs more affected by this preservative technology, to assess the implications of a nanoparticle on food safety, to determine the effects of nanoparticles on consumers health and to determine the impact of nanotechnology on product acceptability. But currently, much research has demonstrated that there is cause to believe that silver nanoparticles may have toxicological effects on biological organs and systems. The silver nanoparticles affect DNA expression, gastrointestinal barriers, lungs, and other breathing organs illness. Silver particles and molecules are very toxic. During its application in food packaging, food industries used the thinnest particle. This particle can potentially affect the gastrointestinal tracts-it suffers from mucus production, DNA, lungs, and other breezing organs. This review is targeted to demonstrate the knowledge gap that industrials use in the application of silver nanoparticles in food packaging and preservation and its health effects on the consumer.

Keywords: food preservatives, health impact, nanoparticle, silver nanoparticle

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1689 Detection of Acrylamide Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Quantitative Risk Assessment in Selected Food from Saudi Market

Authors: Sarah A. Alotaibi, Mohammed A. Almutairi, Abdullah A. Alsayari, Adibah M. Almutairi, Somaiah K. Almubayedh


Concerns over the presence of acrylamide in food date back to 2002, when Swedish scientists stated that, in carbohydrate-rich foods, amounts of acrylamide were formed when cooked at high temperatures. Similar findings were reported by other researchers which, consequently, caused major international efforts to investigate dietary exposure and the subsequent health complications in order to properly manage this issue. Due to this issue, in this work, we aim to determine the acrylamide level in different foods (coffee, potato chips, biscuits, and baby food) commonly consumed by the Saudi population. In a total of forty-three samples, acrylamide was detected in twenty-three samples at levels of 12.3 to 2850 µg/kg. In reference to the food groups, the highest concentration of acrylamide was found in coffee samples (<12.3-2850 μg/kg), followed by potato chips (655-1310 μg/kg), then biscuits (23.5-449 μg/kg), whereas the lowest acrylamide level was observed in baby food (<14.75 – 126 μg/kg). Most coffee, biscuits and potato chips products contain high amount of acrylamide content and also the most commonly consumed product. Saudi adults had a mean exposure of acrylamide for coffee, potato, biscuit, and cereal (0.07439, 0.04794, 0.01125, 0.003371 µg/kg-b.w/day), respectively. On the other hand, exposure to acrylamide in Saudi infants and children to the same types of food was (0.1701, 0.1096, 0.02572, 0.00771 µg/kg-b.w/day), respectively. Most groups have a percentile that exceeds the tolerable daily intake (TDI) cancer value (2.6 µg/kg-b.w/day). Overall, the MOE results show that the Saudi population is at high risk of acrylamide-related disease in all food types, and there is a chance of cancer risk in all age groups (all values ˂10,000). Furthermore, it was found that in non-cancer risks, the acrylamide in all tested foods was within the safe limit (˃125), except for potato chips, in which there is a risk for diseases in the population. With potato and coffee as raw materials, additional studies were conducted to assess different factors, including temperature, cocking time, and additives affecting the acrylamide formation in fried potato and roasted coffee, by systematically varying processing temperatures and time values, a mitigation of acrylamide content was achieved when lowering the temperature and decreasing the cooking time. Furthermore, it was shown that the combination of the addition of chitosan and NaCl had a large impact on the formation.

Keywords: risk assessment, dietary exposure, MOA, acrylamide, hazard

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1688 Physicochemical Characteristics and Evaluation of Main Volatile Compounds of Fresh and Dehydrated Mango

Authors: Maria Terezinha Santos Leite Neta, Mônica Silva de Jesus, Hannah Caroline Santos Araujo, Rafael Donizete Dutra Sandes, Raquel Anne Ribeiro Dos Santos, Narendra Narain


Mango is one of the most consumed and appreciated fruits in the world, mainly due to its peculiar and characteristic aroma. Since the fruit is perishable, it requires conservation methods to prolong its shelf life. Mango cubes were dehydrated at 40°C, 50°C and 60°C and by lyophilization, and the effect of these processes were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics (color and texture) of the products and monitoring of the main volatile compounds for the mango aroma. Volatile compounds were extracted by the SPME technique and analyzed in GC-MS system. Drying temperature at 60°C and lyophilization showed higher efficiency in retention of main volatile compounds, being 63.93% and 60.32% of the total concentration present in the fresh pulp, respectively. The freeze-drying process also presented features closer to the fresh mango in relation to color and texture, which contributes to greater acceptability.

Keywords: mango, freeze drying, convection drying, aroma

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1687 Antagonistic Activity of Streptococcus Salivarius K12 Against Pathogenic and Opportunistic Microorganisms

Authors: Andreev V. A., Kovalenko T. N., Privolnev V. V., Chernavin A. V., Knyazeva E. R.


Aim: To evaluate the antagonistic activity of Streptococcus salivarius K12 (SsK12) against ENT and oral cavity infection pathogens (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. aureus), gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) and C. albicans. Materials and methods: The probiotic strain SsK12 was isolated from the dietary supplement containing at least 1 × 109 CFU per tablet. The tablet was dissolved in the enrichment broth. The resulting suspension was seeded on 5% blood agar and incubated at 35°C in 4-6% CO2 for 48 hours. The raised culture was identified as Streptococcus salivarius with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry method. The evaluation of SsK12 antagonistic activity was carried out using a perpendicular streak technique. The daily SsK12 culture was inoculated as heavy streaks with a loop at one side of Petri dish with the Muller-Hinton agar (MHA) and incubated for 24 hours at 350 C in anaerobic conditions. It was supposed that bacteriocins would diffuse over the whole area of the agar media. On the next day S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans clinical isolates were streaked at the clear side of MHA Petri dish. MHA Petri dish inoculated with SsK12 (one part) and with the respective clinical isolates (another part) streaked perpendicularly on the same day was used as the control. Results: There was no growth of S. pyogenes on the Petri dish with SsK12 daily culture; the growth of a few colonies of S. pneumonia was noted. The growth of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans was noted along the inoculated streak. On the control Petri dish with simultaneous inoculating of the SsK12 strain and the test cultures, the growth of all the testes isolates was noted. Conclusions: (1) SsK12 possesses perfect antagonistic activity against S. pyogenes and good activity against S. pneumoniae. (2) There was no antagonistic activity of SsK12 against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. (3) SsK12 antagonistic properties make it possible to use this probiotic strain for prophylaxis of recurrent ENT infections.

Keywords: probiotics, SsK12, streptococcus salivarius K12, antagonistic activity

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1686 Kluyveromyces marxianus ABB S8 as Yeast-Based Technology to Manufacture Low FODMAP Baking Good

Authors: Jordi Cuñé, Carlos de Lecea, Laia Marti


Small molecules known as fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are quickly fermented in the large intestine after being poorly absorbed in the small intestine. There is proof that individuals suffering from functional gastrointestinal disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), observe an improvement while following a diet low in FODMAPs. Because wheat has a relatively high fructan content, it is a key source of FODMAPs in our diet. A yeast-based method was created in this study to lower the amounts of FODMAP in (whole wheat) bread. In contrast to fermentation by regular baker yeast, the combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus ABB S7 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed a reduction of fructan content by 60% without implying the appearance of other substrates categorized as FODMAP (excess fructose or polyols). The final FODMAP content in the developed whole wheat bread would allow its classification as a safe product for sensitive people, according to international consensus. Cocultures of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus were established in order to ensure sufficient CO₂ generation; larger quantities of gas were produced due to the strains' synergistic relationship. Thus, this method works well for lowering the levels of FODMAPs in bread.

Keywords: Kluyveromyces marxianus, bakery, bread, FODMAP, IBS, functional gastro intestinal disorders

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1685 Development of an Appropriate Method for the Determination of Multiple Mycotoxins in Pork Processing Products by UHPLC-TCFLD

Authors: Jason Gica, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Deng-Jye Yang, Yi-Chen Chen


Mycotoxins, harmful secondary metabolites produced by certain fungi species, pose significant risks to animals and humans worldwide. Their stable properties lead to contamination during grain harvesting, transportation, and storage, as well as in processed food products. The prevalence of mycotoxin contamination has attracted significant attention due to its adverse impact on food safety and global trade. The secondary contamination pathway from animal products has been identified as an important route of exposure, posing health risks for livestock and humans consuming contaminated products. Pork, one of the highly consumed meat products in Taiwan according to the National Food Consumption Database, plays a critical role in the nation's diet and economy. Given its substantial consumption, pork processing products are a significant component of the food supply chain and a potential source of mycotoxin contamination. This study is paramount for formulating effective regulations and strategies to mitigate mycotoxin-related risks in the food supply chain. By establishing a reliable analytical method, this research contributes to safeguarding public health and enhancing the quality of pork processing products. The findings will serve as valuable guidance for policymakers, food industries, and consumers to ensure a safer food supply chain in the face of emerging mycotoxin challenges. An innovative and efficient analytical approach is proposed using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Temperature Control Fluorescence Detector Light (UHPLC-TCFLD) to determine multiple mycotoxins in pork meat samples due to its exceptional capacity to detect multiple mycotoxins at the lowest levels of concentration, making it highly sensitive and reliable for comprehensive mycotoxin analysis. Additionally, its ability to simultaneously detect multiple mycotoxins in a single run significantly reduces the time and resources required for analysis, making it a cost-effective solution for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in pork processing products. The research aims to optimize the efficient mycotoxin QuEChERs extraction method and rigorously validate its accuracy and precision. The results will provide crucial insights into mycotoxin levels in pork processing products.

Keywords: multiple-mycotoxin analysis, pork processing products, QuEChERs, UHPLC-TCFLD, validation

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1684 Processing, Nutritional Assessment and Sensory Evaluation of Bakery Products Prepared from Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (OFSP) and Wheat Composite Flours

Authors: Hategekimana Jean Paul, Irakoze Josiane, Ishimweyizerwe Valentin, Iradukunda Dieudonne, Uwanyirigira Jeannette


Orange fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) are highly grown and are available plenty in rural and urban local markets and its contribution in reduction of food insecurity in Rwanda is considerable. But the postharvest loss of this commodity is a critical challenge due to its high perishability. Several research activities have been conducted on how fresh food commodities can be transformed into extended shelf life food products for prevention of post-harvest losses. However, such activity was not yet well studied in Rwanda. The aim of the present study was the processing of backed products from (OFSP)combined with wheat composite flour and assess the nutritional content and consumer acceptability of new developed products. The perishability of OFSP and their related lack during off season can be eradicated by producing cake, doughnut and bread with OFSP puree or flour. The processing for doughnut and bread were made by making OFSP puree and other ingredients then a dough was made followed by frying and baking while for cake OFSP was dried through solar dryer to have a flour together with wheat flour and other ingredients to make dough cake and baking. For each product, one control and three experimental samples, (three products in three different ratios (30,40 and50%) of OFSP and the remaining percentage of wheat flour) were prepared. All samples including the control were analyzed for the consumer acceptability (sensory attributes). Most preferred samples (One sample for each product with its control sample and for each OFSP variety) were analyzed for nutritional composition along with control sample. The Cake from Terimbere variety and Bread from Gihingumukungu supplemented with 50% OFSP flour or Puree respectively were most acceptable except Doughnut from Vita variety which was highly accepted at 50% of OFSP supplementation. The moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, Total carbohydrate, Vitamin C, reducing sugar and minerals (Sodium, Potassium and Phosphorus.) content was different among products. Cake was rich in fibers (14.71%), protein (6.590%), and vitamin c(19.988mg/100g) compared to other samples while bread found to be rich in reducing sugar with 12.71mg/100g compared to cake and doughnut. Also doughnut was found to be rich in fat content with 6.89% compared to other samples. For sensory analysis, doughnut was highly accepted in ratio of 60:40 compared to other products while cake was least accepted at ratio of 50:50. The Proximate composition and minerals content of all the OFSP products were significantly higher as compared to the control samples.

Keywords: post-harvest loss, OFSP products, wheat flour, sensory evaluation, proximate composition

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1683 Comparison of Storage Facilities on Different Varieties of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Grown in Rwanda

Authors: Jean Paul Hategekimana, Dukuzumuremyi Yvonne, Mukeshimana Marthe, Alexandre Niyonshima


Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a very important staple food crop in Rwanda due to its high growth and consumption in all parts of the country. The effect of seven different storage conditions on the quality and nutritional composition of the three most grown and consumed varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), namely Kabode, Terimbere, and Vita, were studied over a period of six weeks at Postharvest Service and Training Center of University Rwanda, Busogo Campus. The potato stored under the following conditions (zero energy cooling chamber, ground washed sweet potato, ground unwashed sweet potato, perforated washed sweet potato, perforated unwashed sweet potato, non-perforated washed sweet potato, and non-perforated unwashed sweet potato) were assessed in this study. These storage conditions are the modifications of existing methods currently used in Rwanda for suitable local climatic conditions. Hence, 30kgs of freshly harvested OFSP for each variety were bought from farmers of Gakenke and Rulindo districts and then transported to the postharvest training and service center UR-CAVM, Busogo Campus. 2.5kg of each potato sample was selected and stored under the above-mentioned storage conditions after pretreatment. Data were collected for six weeks on percent weight loss, shrinkability and the general appearance at interval of three days. The stored samples were also analyzed for moisture, crude ash, crude fiber, and reduced sugar levels during the entire storage period. Results showed the difference among the various storage conditions. It was shown that ZECC and non-perforated sacs (in the open air) storage techniques had good potential for storage of orange flesh sweet potato for up to six weeks without considerable change in physical and nutritional parameters compared to other considered conditions and, therefore, can be recommended as more useful for OSFP at farm level and during transport and market storage.

Keywords: ZECC, orange fleshed sweet potato, perforated sacs, storage conditions

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1682 Engineering Packaging for a Sustainable Food Chain

Authors: Ezekiel Olukayode Akintunde


There is a high level of inadequate methods at all levels of food supply in the global food industry. The inadequacies have led to vast wastages of food. Hence there is a need to curb the wastages that can later affect natural resources, water resources, and energy to avoid negative impacts on the climate and the environment. There is a need to engage multifaceted engineering packaging approaches for a sustainable food chain to ensure active packaging, intelligent packaging, new packaging materials, and a sustainable packaging system. Packaging can be regarded as an indispensable component approach that can be applied to solve major problems of sustainable food consumption globally; this is about controlling the environmental impact of packed food. The creative innovation will ensure that packaged foods are free from food-borne diseases and food chemical pollution. This paper evaluates the key shortcomings that must be addressed by innovative food packaging to ensure a safe, natural environment that will preserve energy and sustain water resources. Certain solutions, including fabricating microbial biodegradable chemical compounds/polymers from agro-food waste remnants, appear a bright path to ensure a strong and innovative waste-based food packaging system. Over the years, depletion in the petroleum reserves has brought about the emergence of biodegradable polymers as a proper replacement for traditional plastics; moreover, the increase in the production of traditional plastics has raised serious concerns about environmental threats. Biodegradable polymers have proven to be biocompatible, which can also be processed for other useful applications. Therefore, this study will showcase a workable guiding framework for designing a sustainable food packaging system that will not constitute a danger to our present society and that will surely preserve natural water resources. Various assessment methods will be deployed at different stages of the packaging design to enhance the package's sustainability. Every decision that will be made must be facilitated with methods that will be engaged per stage to allow for corrective measures throughout the cycle of the design process. Basic performance appraisal of packaging innovations. Food wastage can result in inimical environmental impacts, and ethical practices must be carried out for food loss at home. An examination in West Africa quantified preventable food wastage over the entire food value chain at almost 180kg per person per year. That is preventable food wastage, 35% of which originated at the household level. Many food losses reported, which happened at the harvesting, storage, transportation, and processing stages, are not preventable and are without much environmental impact because such wastage can be used for feeding. Other surveys have shown that 15%-20% of household food losses can be traced to food packaging. Therefore, new innovative packaging systems can lessen the environmental effect of food wastage to extend shelf‐life to lower food loss in the process distribution chain and at the household level.

Keywords: food packaging, biodegradable polymer, intelligent packaging, shelf-life

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1681 Helicobacter Pylori Detection by Invasive and Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests from Dyspepsia Patients

Authors: Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim, Ahmad Mujtaba


Background: The accuracy of the most frequently used tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori is always under consideration in clinical settings. A reliable diagnosis is crucial to confirm the success of therapy. Objective: The aim of this research was to study the isolation frequency of H. pylori from patients compatible with gastritis or gastric ulcer and to compare some feasible non-invasive and invasive methods for the diagnosis of infection. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six gastric biopsy and blood samples were obtained with various gastroduodenal symptoms after obtaining informed consent. The biopsies were analyzed and compared using the culture, microscopic examination, histopathology, Rapid urease RUT), serology, biochemical, antibiotic susceptibility test and molecular method. Results: A number of 40 (41.67%) were considered H. pylori positive in both histopathology and RUT. On the other hand, 46 patients were positive against anti IgA and IgG by ELISA. Eighteen biopsies were positive according to the culture test. This was further confirmed by endoscopic examination, urease, catalase and oxidase tests. A high percentage of resistance to polymyxin B, amoxicillin, and kanamycin was observed (100, 88.89, and 77.78%, respectively). A gene (Cag A) was also detected by using molecular technique which appeared positive in 16 patients. The sensitivity/specificity (%) of diagnostic method was 95/77 for histology, 100/83.5 for rapid urease, 85.7/90 for gram staining, 100/66.6 for IgG serology, 100/79.5 for IgA serology, 100/75.0 for PCR, 100/79.04 for combination of RUT and IgG serology and 100/92.4 for combination of RUT, gram staining and IgG serology. Conclusion: In view of the result obtained, PCR appeared to be the most reliable test. However, higher sensitivity and specificity were also recorded for other tests. So, for more accurate results, it is advisable not to rely solely on a single method for detection.

Keywords: helicobacter pylori, isolation, detection, culture, urease, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic susceptibility test, dyspeptic patients

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1680 Sensory and Microbial Properties of Fresh and Canned Calocybe indica

Authors: Apotiola Z. O., Anyakorah C. I., Kuforiji O. O.


Sensory and microbial properties of fresh and canned Calocybe indica (milky mushroom) were evaluated. The mushroom was grown under a controlled environment with hardwood (Cola nitida) and rice bran substrate (4:1) canned in a brine solution of salt and citric acid. Analysis was carried out using standard methods. The overall acceptability ranged between 5.62 and 6.50, with sample S30 adjudged the best. In all, significant differences p<0.01 exist in the panelist judgment. Thus, the incorporation of salt and citric acid at 3.5g and 1.5g, respectively, improved sensory attributes such as texture, aroma, color, and overall acceptability. There was no coliform and fungi growth on the samples throughout the storage period. The bacterial count, on the other hand, was observed only in the fifth and sixth week of the storage period which varied between 0.2 to 0.9 x 10³ cfu/g. The highest value was observed in sample S20 of the sixth week of storage, while the lowest value was recorded in sample S30 of the sixth week of storage. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial species were taxonomically confirmed as Bacillus thuringiensis. The percentile compositions and Sequence ID of the bacterial species in the mushroom was 90%.

Keywords: sensory, microbial quality, Calocybe indica, rice bran

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1679 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Cocoa Shell and Their Encapsulation in Gum Arabic and Maltodextrin: A Technology to Produce Functional Food Ingredients

Authors: Saeid Jafari, Khursheed Ahmad Sheikh, Randy W. Worobo, Kitipong Assatarakul


In this study, the extraction of cocoa shell powder (CSP) was optimized, and the optimized extracts were spray-dried for encapsulation purposes. Temperature (45-65 ◦C), extraction time (30–60 min), and ethanol concentration (60–100%) were the extraction parameters. The response surface methodology analysis revealed that the model was significant (p ≤ 0.05) in interactions between all variables (total phenolic compound, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays), with a lack of fit test for the model being insignificant (p > 0.05). Temperature (55 ◦C), time (45 min), and ethanol concentration (60%) were found to be the optimal extraction conditions. For spray-drying encapsulation, some quality metrics (e.g., water solubility, water activity) were insignificant (p > 0.05). The microcapsules were found to be spherical in shape using a scanning electron microscope. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric measurements of the microcapsules revealed nearly identical results. The gum arabic + maltodextrin microcapsule (GMM) showed potential antibacterial (zone of inhibition: 11.50 mm; lower minimum inhibitory concentration: 1.50 mg/mL) and antioxidant (DPPH: 1063 mM trolox/100g dry wt.) activities (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the microcapsules in this study, particularly GMM, are promising antioxidant and antibacterial agents to be fortified as functional food ingredients for the production of nutraceutical foods with health-promoting properties.

Keywords: functional foods, coco shell powder, antioxidant activity, encapsulation, extraction

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1678 Reduction of Fermentation Duration of Cassava to Remove Hydrogen Cyanide

Authors: Jean Paul Hategekimana, Josiane Irakoze, Eugene Niyonzima, Annick Ndekezi


Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop comprising an anti-nutritive factor known as cyanide. The compound can be removed by numerous processing methods such as boiling, fermentation, blanching, and sun drying to avoid the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Inappropriate processing mean can lead to disease and death. Cassava-based dishes are consumed in different ways, where cassava is cultivated according to their culture and preference. However, they have been shown to be unsafe based on high cyanide levels. The current study targeted to resolve the problem of high cyanide in cassava consumed in Rwanda. This study was conducted to determine the effect of slicing, blanching, and soaking time to reduce the fermentation duration of cassava for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in mg/g removal. Cassava was sliced into three different portions (1cm, 2cm, and 5cm). The first portions were naturally fermented for seven days, where each portion was removed every 24 hours from soaking tanks and then oven dried at a temperature of 60°C and then milled to obtain naturally fermented cassava flours. Other portions of 1cm, 2cm, and 5cm were blanched for 2, 5, 10 min, respectively, and each similarly dried at 60°C and milled to produce blanched cassava flour. Other blanched portions were used to follow the previous fermentation steps. The last portions, which formed the control, were simply chopped. Cyanide content and starch content in mg/100g were investigated. According to the conducted analysis on different cassava treatments for detoxification, found that usual fermentation can be used, but for sliced portions aimed to size reduction for the easy hydrogen cyanide diffuse out and it takes four days to complete fermentation, which has reduced at 94.44% with significantly different (p<0.05)of total hydrogen cyanide contained in cassava to safe level of consumption, and what is recommended as more effective is to apply blanching combined with fermentation due to the fact that, it takes three days to complete hydrogen cyanide removal at 95.56% on significantly different (p<0.05) of reduction to the safe level of consumption.

Keywords: cassava, cyanide, blanching, drying, fermentation

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1677 Improving Physicochemical Properties of Milk Powder and Lactose-Free Milk Powder with the Prebiotic Carrier

Authors: Chanunya Fahwan, Supat Chaiyakul


A lactose-free diet is imperative for those with lactose intolerance and experiencing milk intolerance. This entails eliminating milk-based products, which may result in dietary and nutritional challenges and the main problems of Lactose hydrolyzed milk powder during production were the adhesion in the drying chamber and low-yield and low-quality powder. The use of lactose-free milk to produce lactose-free milk powder was studied here. Development of two milk powder formulas from cow's milk and lactose-free cow's milk by using a substitute for maltodextrin, Polydextrose (PDX), Resistant Starch (RS), Cellobiose (CB), and Resistant Maltodextrin (RMD) to improve quality and reduce the glycemic index from maltodextrin, which are carriers that were used in industry at three experimental levels 10%, 15% and 20% the properties of milk powder were studied such as color, moisture content, percentage yield (%yield) and solubility index. The experiment revealed that prebiotic carriers could replace maltodextrin and improve quality, such as solubility and percentage yield, and enriched nutrients, such as dietary fiber. CB, RMD, and PDX are three possible carriers, which are applied to both regular cow's milk formula and lactose-free cow milk.

Keywords: lactose-free milk powder, prebiotic carrier, co-particle, glycemic index

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1676 Untangling the Greek Seafood Market: Authentication of Crustacean Products Using DNA-Barcoding Methodologies

Authors: Z. Giagkazoglou, D. Loukovitis, C. Gubili, A. Imsiridou


Along with the increase in human population, demand for seafood has increased. Despite the strict labeling regulations that exist for most marketed species in the European Union, seafood substitution remains a persistent global issue. Food fraud occurs when food products are traded in a false or misleading way. When one species is traded under the name of another, it is considered mislabeling, and it can be intentional or unintentional. Crustaceans are one of the most regularly consumed seafood in Greece. Shrimps, prawns, lobsters, crayfish, and crabs are considered a delicacy and can be encountered in a variety of market presentations (fresh, frozen, pre-cooked, peeled, etc.). With most of the external traits removed, products as such are susceptible to species substitution. DNA barcoding has proven to be the most accurate method for the detection of fraudulent seafood products. This study aims, for the first time in Greece, to use the DNA barcoding methodology in order to investigate the labeling practices for crustacean products available in the market. A total of 100 tissue samples were collected from various retailers and markets across four Greek cities. In an effort to cover the highest range of products possible, different market presentations were targeted (fresh, frozen and cooked). Genomic DNA was extracted using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The mitochondrial gene selected as the target region of the analysis was the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). PCR products were purified and sequenced using an ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Sequences were manually checked and edited using BioEdit software and compared against the ones available in GenBank and BOLD databases. Statistical analyses were conducted in R and PAST software. For most samples, COI amplification was successful, and species-level identification was possible. The preliminary results estimate moderate mislabeling rates (25%) in the identified samples. Mislabeling was most commonly detected in fresh products, with 50% of the samples in this category labeled incorrectly. Overall, the mislabeling rates detected by our study probably relate to some degree of unintentional misidentification and lack of knowledge surrounding the legal designations by both retailers and consumers. For some species of crustaceans (i.e., Squila mantis), the mislabeling appears to be also affected by the local labeling practices. Across Greece, S. mantis is sold in the market under two common names, but only one is recognized by the country's legislation, and therefore, any mislabeling is probably not profit-motivated. However, the substitution of the speckled shrimp (Metapenaus monoceros) for the distinct, giant river prawn (Macrobranchium rosenbergii) is a clear example of deliberate fraudulent substitution, aiming for profit. Until now, no scientific study investigating substitution and mislabeling rates in crustaceans has been conducted in Greece. For a better understanding of Greece's seafood market, similar DNA barcoding studies in other regions with increased touristic importance (e.g., the Greek islands) should be conducted. Regardless, the expansion of the list of species-specific designations for crustaceans in the country is advised.

Keywords: COI gene, food fraud, labelling control, molecular identification

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1675 Change of Physicochemical Properties of Grain in the Germination of Chickpea Grain

Authors: Mira Zhonyssova, Nurlaym Ongarbayeva, Makpal Atykhanova


Indicators of quality of grain chickpeas, the absorption of water different temperatures by grain chickpeas studied. Organoleptic and physicochemical changes in the germination of chickpeas studied. The total time of the duration of germination of chickpea grain is determined. As a result of the analysis of experimental data, it was found that the germination time at which the chickpea sprout length was 0.5- 3 mm varies from 21 to 25 hours. The change in the volume of chickpea grain during germination was investigated. It was found that in the first 2 hours the volume of chickpeas changes slightly – by 38%. This is due to the process of adsorption of water to a critical state. From 2 to 9 hours, the process of swelling of chickpea grain is observed – the vital activity of cells increases, enzymatic systems become active, the respiratory coefficient increases; gibberellin, stimulating the formation of a number of enzymes, is released. During this period, there is a sharp increase in the volume of chickpea grains – up to 138%. From 9 to 19 hours, “sprouting” of chickpea grains is observed, no morphological changes occur in the corcule – the grain volume remains at 138%. From 19 hours, the grain growth process begins, while the grain volume increases by 143%.

Keywords: chickpea, seeds, legumes, germination, physic-chemical properties

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1674 Inhibitory Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Growth and Biogenic Amines Production by Foodborne Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria

Authors: Abderrezzak khatib


Biogenic amines are low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds that have the potential to accumulate in food, posing a significant risk to food safety and human health. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), against the growth and production of biogenic amines by both foodborne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. The foodborne pathogens studied included Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella Paratyphi, while the food spoilage bacteria comprised Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus mirabilis. The methodology involved bacterial growth determination in petri dishes, bacterial culture extraction and derivatization, and biogenic amine analysis using HPLC. Our findings revealed that the inhibitory effects of LAB on these pathogens varied, with all three LAB strains demonstrating a remarkable reduction in the total bacterial count when combined with most pathogens, compared to the individual cultures of the pathogens. Furthermore, the presence of LAB in co-cultures with the pathogens resulted in a significant decrease in the production of tyramine and other biogenic amines by the pathogens themselves. These results suggest that LAB strains hold considerable promise in preventing the accumulation of biogenic amines in food products, thereby enhancing food safety. This study provides insights into the potential utilization of LAB in the context of preserving and ensuring the safety of food products. It highlights the significance of conducting additional research endeavors to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved and to identify the precise bioactive compounds that are responsible for the observed inhibitory effects.

Keywords: food safety, lactic acid bacteria, foodborne pathogens, food spoilage bacteria, biogenic amines, tyrosine

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1673 Contamination with Heavy Metals of Frozen Fish Sold in Open Markets in Ondo City, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Adebisi M. Tiamiyu, Adewale F. Adeyemi, Olu-Ayobamikale V. Irewunmi


Fish consumption has increased in recent years in both developing and advanced countries, owing to increased awareness of its nutritional and therapeutic benefits and its availability and affordability relative to other animal protein sources. Fish and fish products, however, are extremely prone to contamination by a wide range of hazardous organic and inorganic substances. This study assessed the levels of three heavy metals, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn), in frozen fish imported into Nigeria and sold in Ondo City for their safety for human consumption as recommended by WHO and FEPA. Three species of frozen fish (Scombrus scombrus, Merluccius merluccius, and Clupea harengus) were purchased, and the wet tissues (gills, muscles, and liver) were digested using a 3:1 mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCL). An atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to detect the amount of metal in the tissues. The levels of heavy metals in different fish species' organs varied. The fish had Zn > Fe > Cu heavy metal concentrations in that order. While the concentration of Cu and Fe in the tissues of all three fish species studied were within the WHO and FEPA prescribed limits for food fish, the concentration of Zn in the muscles of M. merluccius (0.262±0.052), C. harengus harengus (0.327±0.099), and S. scombrus (0.362±0.119) was above the prescribed limit (0.075 ppm) set by FEPA. An excessive amount of zinc in the body can cause nausea, headaches, decreased immunity, and appetite loss.

Keywords: heavy metal, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, fish, agencies

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1672 Investigation of the Function of Chemotaxonomy of White Tea on the Regulatory Function of Genes in Pathway of Colon Cancer

Authors: Fereydoon Bondarian, Samira Shaygan


Today, many nutritionists recommend the consumption of plants, fruits, and vegetables to provide the antioxidants needed by the body because the use of plant antioxidants usually causes fewer side effects and better treatment. Natural antioxidants increase the power of plasma antioxidants and reduce the incidence of some diseases, such as cancer. Bad lifestyles and environmental factors play an important role in increasing the incidence of cancer. In this study, different extracts of white teas taken from two types of tea available in Iran (clone 100 and Chinese hybrid) due to the presence of a hydroxyl functional group in their structure to inhibit free radicals and anticancer properties, using 3 aqueous, methanolic and aqueous-methanolic methods were used. The total polyphenolic content was calculated using the Folin-Ciocalcu method, and the percentage of inhibition and trapping of free radicals in each of the extracts was calculated using the DPPH method. With the help of high-performance liquid chromatography, a small amount of each catechin in the tea samples was obtained. Clone 100 white tea was found to be the best sample of tea in terms of all the examined attributes (total polyphenol content, antioxidant properties, and individual amount of each catechin). The results showed that aqueous and aqueous-methanolic extracts of Clone 100 white tea have the highest total polyphenol content with 27.59±0.08 and 36.67±0.54 (equivalent gallic acid per gram dry weight of leaves), respectively. Due to having the highest level of different groups of catechin compounds, these extracts have the highest property of inhibiting and trapping free radicals with 66.61±0.27 and 71.74±0.27% (mg/l) of the extracted sample against ascorbic acid). Using the MTT test, the inhibitory effect of clone 100 white tea extract in inhibiting the growth of HCT-116 colon cancer cells was investigated and the best time and concentration treatments were 500, 150 and 1000 micrograms in 8, 16 and 24 hours, respectively. To investigate gene expression changes, selected genes, including tumorigenic genes, proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and genes involved in apoptosis, were selected and analyzed using the real-time PCR method and in the presence of concentrations obtained for white tea. White tea extract at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml 3 times 16, 8, and 24 hours showed the highest growth inhibition in cancer cells with 53.27, 55.8, and 86.06%. The concentration of 1000 μg/ml aqueous extract of white tea under 24-hour treatment increased the expression of tumor suppressor genes compared to the normal sample.

Keywords: catechin, gene expression, suppressor genes, colon cell line

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1671 Determinants of Household Food Security in Addis Ababa City Administration

Authors: Estibe Dagne Mekonnen


In recent years, the prevalence of undernourishment was 30 percent for sub-Saharan Africa, compared with 16 percent for Asia and the Pacific (Ali, 2011). In Ethiopia, almost 40 percent of the total population in the country and 57 percent of Addis Ababa population lives below the international poverty line of US$ 1.25 per day (UNICEF, 2009). This study aims to analyze the determinant of household food secrity in Addis Ababa city administration. Primary data were collected from a survey of 256 households in the selected sub-city, namely Addis Ketema, Arada, and Kolfe Keranio, in the year 2022. Both Purposive and multi-stage cluster random sampling procedures were employed to select study areas and respondents. Descriptive statistics and order logistic regression model were used to test the formulated hypotheses. The result reveals that out of the total sampled households, 25% them were food secured, 13% were mildly food insecure, 26% were moderately food insecure and 36% were severely food insecure. The study indicates that household family size, house ownership, household income, household food source, household asset possession, household awareness on inflation, household access to social protection program, household access to credit and saving and household access to training and supervision on food security have a positive and significant effect on the likelihood of household food security status. However, marital status of household head, employment sector of household head, dependency ratio and household’s nonfood expenditure has a negative and significant influence on household food security status. The study finally suggests that the government in collaboration with financial institutions and NGO should work on sustaining household food security by creating awareness, providing credit, facilitate rural-urban linkage between producer and consumer and work on urban infrastructure improvement. Moreover, the governments also work closely and monitor consumer good suppliers, if possible find a way to subsidize consumable goods to more insecure households and make them to be food secured. Last but not least, keeping this country’s peace will play a crucial role to sustain food security.

Keywords: determinants, household, food security, order logit model, Addis Ababa

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1670 Ground Water Sustainable Management in Ethiopia, Africa

Authors: Ebissa Gadissa Kedir


This paper presents the potential groundwater assessment and sustainable management in the selected study area. It is the most preferred water source in all climatic zones for its convenient availability, drought dependability, excellent quality, and low development cost. The rural areas, which account for more than 85% of the country's population, are encountered a shortage of potable water supply which can be solved by proper groundwater utilization. For the present study area, the groundwater potential is assessed and analysed. Thus, the study area falls in four potential groundwater zones ranging from poor to high. However, the current groundwater management practices in the study area are poor. Despite the pervasive and devastating challenges, immediate and proper responses have not yet been given to the problem. Thus, such frustrating threats and challenges have initiated the researcher to work in the project area.

Keywords: GW potential, GW management, GW sustainability, South gonder, Ethiopia

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1669 Development and application of Humidity-Responsive Controlled Release Active Packaging Based on Electrospinning Nanofibers and In Situ Growth Polymeric Film in Food preservation

Authors: Jin Yue


Fresh produces especially fruits, vegetables, meats and aquatic products have limited shelf life and are highly susceptible to deterioration. Essential oils (EOs) extracted from plants have excellent antioxidant and broad-spectrum antibacterial activities, and they can play as natural food preservatives. But EOs are volatile, water insoluble, pungent, and easily decomposing under light and heat. Many approaches have been developed to improve the solubility and stability of EOs such as polymeric film, coating, nanoparticles, nano-emulsions and nanofibers. Construction of active packaging film which can incorporate EOs with high loading efficiency and controlled release of EOs has received great attention. It is still difficult to achieve accurate release of antibacterial compounds at specific target locations in active packaging. In this research, a relative humidity-responsive packaging material was designed, employing the electrospinning technique to fabricate a nanofibrous film loaded with a 4-terpineol/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (4-TA/β-CD ICs). Functioning as an innovative food packaging material, the film demonstrated commendable attributes including pleasing appearance, thermal stability, mechanical properties, and effective barrier properties. The incorporation of inclusion complexes greatly enhanced the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the film, particularly against Shewanella putrefaciens, with an inhibitory efficiency of up to 65%. Crucially, the film realized controlled release of 4-TA under 98% high relative humidity conditions by inducing the plasticization of polymers caused by water molecules, swelling of polymer chains, and destruction of hydrogen bonds within the cyclodextrin inclusion complex. This film with a long-term antimicrobial effect successfully extended the shelf life of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp to 7 days at 4 °C. To further improve the loading efficiency and long-acting release of EOs, we synthesized the γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks (γ-CD-MOFs), and then efficiently anchored γ-CD-MOFs on chitosan-cellulose (CS-CEL) composite film by in situ growth method for controlled releasing of carvacrol (CAR). We found that the growth efficiency of γ-CD-MOFs was the highest when the concentration of CEL dispersion was 5%. The anchoring of γ-CD-MOFs on CS-CEL film significantly improved the surface area of CS-CEL film from 1.0294 m2/g to 43.3458 m2/g. The molecular docking and 1H NMR spectra indicated that γ-CD-MOF has better complexing and stabilizing ability for CAR molecules than γ-CD. In addition, the release of CAR reached 99.71±0.22% on the 10th day, while under 22% RH, the release pattern of CAR was a plateau with 14.71 ± 4.46%. The inhibition rate of this film against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cinerea was more than 99%, and extended the shelf life of strawberries to 7 days. By incorporating the merits of natural biopolymers and MOFs, this active packaging offers great potential as a substitute for traditional packaging materials.

Keywords: active packaging, antibacterial activity, controlled release, essential oils, food quality control

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1668 In situ Growth of ZIF-8 on TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibril Film and Coated with Pectin for pH and Enzyme Dual-Responsive Controlled Release Active Packaging

Authors: Tiantian Min, Chuanxiang Cheng, Jin Yue


The growth and reproduction of microorganisms in food packaging can cause food decay and foodborne diseases, which pose a serious threat to the health of consumers and even cause serious economic losses. Active food packaging containing antibacterial bioactive compounds is a promising strategy for extending the shelf life of products and maintaining the food quality, as well as reducing the food waste. However, most active packaging can only act as slow-release effect for antimicrobials, which causes the release rate of antimicrobials not match the growth rate of microorganisms. Stimuli-responsive active packaging materials based on biopolymeric substrates and bioactive substances that respond to some biological and non-biological trigger factors provide more opportunities for fresh food preservation. The biological stimuli factors such as relative humidity, pH and enzyme existed in the exudate secreted by microorganisms have been expected to design food packaging materials. These stimuli-responsive materials achieved accurate release or delivery of bioactive substances at specific time and appropriate dose. Recently, metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs) nanoparticles become attractive carriers to enhance the efficiency of bioactive compounds or drugs. Cellulose nanofibrils have been widely applied for film substrates due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. The abundant hydroxyl groups in cellulose can be oxidized to carboxyl groups by TEMPO, making it easier to anchoring MOFs and to be further modification. In this study, a pH and enzyme dual-responsive CAR@ZIF-8/TOCNF/PE film was fabricated by in-situ growth of ZIF-8 nanoparticles onto TEMPO-oxidized cellulose (TOCNF) film and further coated with pectin (PE) for stabilization and controlled release of carvacrol (CAR). The enzyme triggered release of CAR was achieved owing to the degradation of pectin by pectinase secreted by microorganisms. Similarly, the pH-responsive release of CAR was attributed to the unique skeleton degradation of ZIF-8, further accelerating the release of CAR from the topological structure of ZIF-8. The composite film performed excellent crystallinity and adsorb ability confirmed by X-ray diffraction and BET analysis, and the inhibition efficiency against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger reached more than 99%. The composite film was capable of releasing CAR when exposure to dose-dependent enzyme (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/mL) and acidic condition (pH = 5). When inoculated 10 μL of Aspergillus niger spore suspension on the equatorial position of mango and raspberries, this composite film acted as packaging pads effectively inhibited the mycelial growth and prolonged the shelf life of mango and raspberries to 7 days. Such MOF-TOCNF based film provided a targeted, controlled and sustained release of bioactive compounds for long-term antibacterial activity and preservation effect, which can also avoid the cross-contamination of fruits.

Keywords: active food packaging, controlled release, fruit preservation, in-situ growth, stimuli-responsive

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1667 Antibacterial Nanofibrous Film Encapsulated with 4-terpineol/β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes: Relative Humidity-Triggered Release and Shrimp Preservation Application

Authors: Chuanxiang Cheng, Tiantian Min, Jin Yue


Antimicrobial active packaging enables extensive biological effects to improve food safety. However, the efficacy of antimicrobial packaging hinges on factors including the diffusion rate of the active agent toward the food surface, the initial content in the antimicrobial agent, and the targeted food shelf life. Among the possibilities of antimicrobial packaging design, an interesting approach involves the incorporation of volatile antimicrobial agents into the packaging material. In this case, the necessity for direct contact between the active packaging material and the food surface is mitigated, as the antimicrobial agent exerts its action through the packaging headspace atmosphere towards the food surface. However, it still remains difficult to achieve controlled and precise release of bioactive compounds to the specific target location with required quantity in food packaging applications. Remarkably, the development of stimuli-responsive materials for electrospinning has introduced the possibility of achieving controlled release of active agents under specific conditions, thereby yielding enduring biological effects. Relative humidity (RH) for the storage of food categories such as meat and aquatic products typically exceeds 90%. Consequently, high RH can be used as an abiotic trigger for the release of active agents to prevent microbial growth. Hence, a novel RH - responsive polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) composite nanofibrous film incorporated with 4-terpineol/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (4-TA@β-CD ICs) was engineered by electrospinning that can be deposited as a functional packaging materials. The characterization results showed the thermal stability of the films was enhanced after the incorporation due to the hydrogen bonds between ICs and polymers. Remarkably, the 4 wt% 4-TA@β-CD ICs/PVA/CS film exhibited enhanced crystallinity, moderate hydrophilic (Water contact angle of 81.53°), light barrier property (Transparency of 1.96%) and water resistance (Water vapor permeability of 3.17 g mm/m2 h kPa). Moreover, this film also showed optimized mechanical performance with a Young’s modulus of 11.33 MPa, a tensile strength of 19.99 MPa and an elongation at break of 4.44 %. Notably, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of this packaging material were significantly improved. The film demonstrated the half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values of 87.74% and 85.11% for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) (ABTS) free radicals, respectively, in addition to an inhibition efficiency of 65% against Shewanella putrefaciens, the characteristic bacteria in aquatic products. Most importantly, the film achieved controlled release of 4-TA under high 98% RH by inducing the plasticization of polymers caused by water molecules, swelling of polymer chains, and destruction of hydrogen bonds within the cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Consequently, low relative humidity is suitable for the preservation of nanofibrous film, while high humidity conditions typical in fresh food packaging environments effectively stimulated the release of active compounds in the film. This film with a long-term antimicrobial effect successfully extended the shelf life of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp to 7 days at 4 °C. This attractive design could pave the way for the development of new food packaging materials.

Keywords: controlled release, electrospinning, nanofibrous film, relative humidity–responsive, shrimp preservation

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1666 An Investigation into the Impact of Brexit on Consumer Perception of Trust in the Food Industry

Authors: Babatope David Omoniyi, Fiona Lalor, Sinead Furey


This ongoing project investigates the impact of Brexit on consumer perceptions of trust in the food industry. Brexit has significantly impacted the food industry, triggering a paradigm shift in the movement of food/agricultural produce, regulations, and cross-border collaborations between Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland. In a world where the dynamics have shifted because of regulatory changes that impact trade and the free movement of foods and agricultural produce between these three countries, monitoring and controlling every stage of the food supply chain have become challenging, increasing the potential for food fraud and food safety incidents. As consumers play a pivotal role in shaping the market, understanding any shifts in trust post-Brexit enables them to navigate the market with confidence and awareness. This study aims to explore the complexities of consumer perceptions, focusing on trust as a cornerstone of consumer confidence in the post-Brexit food landscape. The objectives include comparing trust in official controls pre- and post-Brexit, determining consumer awareness of food fraud, and devising recommendations that reflect the evidence from this primary research regarding consumer trust in food authenticity post-Brexit. The research design follows an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach, incorporating qualitative methods such as focus groups and structured interviews, along with quantitative research through a large-scale survey. Participants from UCD and Ulster University campuses, comprising academic and non-academic staff, students, and researchers, will provide insights into the impact of Brexit on consumer trust. Preliminary findings from focus groups and interviews highlight changes in labelling, reduced quantity and quality of foods in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, fewer food choices, and increased food prices since Brexit. The study aims to further investigate and quantify these impacts through a comprehensive large-scale survey involving participants from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The results will inform official controls and consumer-facing messaging contributing valuable insights to navigate the evolving post-Brexit food landscape.

Keywords: Brexit, consumer trust, food fraud, food authenticity, food safety, food industry

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1665 Effect of Golden Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) Powder on Physiochemical, Antioxidative, and Sensory Properties of Noodles

Authors: Giap Pham Ngoc Tram, Tran Hong Quan, Tran Tieu Yen, Nguyen Phung Tien


The use of natural ingredients to enhance the nutritional and sensory properties of food products has gained significant interest in recent years. This study focuses on the effect of Golden oyster mushroom powder (GOMP) on the physiochemical, antioxidative, and sensory properties of noodles. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of GOMP on the nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory properties of noodles. The study determined the color, moisture, total ash, protein, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, water activity, and antioxidant activity of GOMP and noodles. The incorporation of GOMP at levels of 5-15% increased the ash, protein, flavonoid, and total phenolic contents of the noodles. It also enhanced their antioxidant activities, as evidenced by improved DPPH radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. However, the incorporation of GOMP resulted in a decrease in the L* and b* values of the noodles. Furthermore, the GOMP-enriched noodles exhibited a lower cutting force compared to the control. This study highlights the potential of GOMP as a nutritional and antioxidant ingredient in noodle preparation. It adds to the existing literature by providing evidence of the positive effects of GOMP on the nutritional and functional properties of noodles. The researchers collected data on the physiochemical properties, nutritional contents, and antioxidant activities of GOMP and noodles. Statistical analysis was then performed to assess the differences between the control and GOMP-enriched noodles. The results of this study demonstrate that the inclusion of GOMP at the amount of 5-15% can increase the nutritional and antioxidant properties of noodles without significantly impacting sensory attributes.

Keywords: oyster mushroom, noodles, antioxidant activity, phytochemical, sensory property

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1664 Isolation and Identification of Salmonella spp and Salmonella enteritidis, from Distributed Chicken Samples in the Tehran Province using Culture and PCR Techniques

Authors: Seyedeh Banafsheh Bagheri Marzouni, Sona Rostampour Yasouri


Salmonella is one of the most important common pathogens between humans and animals worldwide. Globally, the prevalence of the disease in humans is due to the consumption of food contaminated with animal-derived Salmonella. These foods include eggs, red meat, chicken, and milk. Contamination of chicken and its products with Salmonella may occur at any stage of the chicken processing chain. Salmonella infection is usually not fatal. However, its occurrence is considered dangerous in some individuals, such as infants, children, the elderly, pregnant women, or individuals with weakened immune systems. If Salmonella infection enters the bloodstream, the possibility of contamination of tissues throughout the body will arise. Therefore, determining the potential risk of Salmonella at various stages is essential from the perspective of consumers and public health. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify Salmonella from chicken samples distributed in the Tehran market using the Gold standard culture method and PCR techniques based on specific genes, invA and ent. During the years 2022-2023, sampling was performed using swabs from the liver and intestinal contents of distributed chickens in the Tehran province, with a total of 120 samples taken under aseptic conditions. The samples were initially enriched in buffered peptone water (BPW) for pre-enrichment overnight. Then, the samples were incubated in selective enrichment media, including TT broth and RVS medium, at temperatures of 37°C and 42°C, respectively, for 18 to 24 hours. Organisms that grew in the liquid medium and produced turbidity were transferred to selective media (XLD and BGA) and incubated overnight at 37°C for isolation. Suspicious Salmonella colonies were selected for DNA extraction, and PCR technique was performed using specific primers that targeted the invA and ent genes in Salmonella. The results indicated that 94 samples were Salmonella using the PCR technique. Of these, 71 samples were positive based on the invA gene, and 23 samples were positive based on the ent gene. Although the culture technique is the Gold standard, PCR is a faster and more accurate method. Rapid detection through PCR can enable the identification of Salmonella contamination in food items and the implementation of necessary measures for disease control and prevention.

Keywords: culture, PCR, salmonella spp, salmonella enteritidis

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1663 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Vaccinium meridionale S. Pomace Extract Against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enterica

Authors: Carlos Y. Soto, Camila A. Lota, G. Astrid Garzón


Bacterial biofilms cause an ongoing problem for food safety. They are formed when microorganisms aggregate to form a community that attaches to solid surfaces. Biofilms increase the resistance of pathogens to cleaning, disinfection and antibacterial products. This resistance gives rise to problems for human health, industry, and agriculture. At present, plant extracts rich in polyphenolics are being investigated as natural alternatives to degrade bacterial biofilms. The pomace of the tropical Berry Vaccinium meridionale S. contains high amounts of phenolic compounds. Therefore, in the current study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of extracts from the pomace of Vaccinium meridionale S. were tested on three foodborne pathogens: Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC®700728TM), Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC® 6538TM), and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC® 13076TM). Microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract polyphenols with aqueous methanol (80% v/v) at a solid to solvent ratio of 1:10 (w/v) for 20 min. The magnetic stirring was set at 400 rpm, and the microwave power was adjusted to 400 W. The antimicrobial effect of the extract was assessed by determining the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) against the three food poisoning pathogens at concentrations ranging from 50 to 2,850 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL of the extract. Biofilm inhibition was assessed using a crystal violet assay applying the same range of concentration. Three replications of the experiments were carried out, and all analyses were run in triplicate. IC50 values were determined using the GraphPad Prism8® program. Significant differences (P<0.05) among means were identified using one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post-hoc least significant difference (LSD) test using the Statgraphics plus program, version 2.1.There was significant difference among the mean IC50 values for the tested bacteria. The IC50 for S. aureus was 48 ± 9 μg GAE/mL, followed by 123 ± 49 μg GAE/mL for Salmonella and 376 ± 32 μg GAE/mL for E. coli. The percent inhibition of the extract on biofilm formation was significantly higher for S. aureus (85.8  0.3), followed by E. coli (74.5  1.0) and Salmonella (53.6  9.7). These findings suggest that polyphenolic extracts obtained from the pomace of V. meridionale S. might be used as natural antimicrobial and anti-biofilm natural agents, effective against S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella enterica.

Keywords: antibiofilm, antimicrobial, E. coli, S. aureus, salmonella, IC50, pomace, V. meridionale

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1662 Food Insecurity Assessment, Consumption Pattern and Implications of Integrated Food Security Phase Classification: Evidence from Sudan

Authors: Ahmed A. A. Fadol, Guangji Tong, Wlaa Mohamed


This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of food insecurity in Sudan, focusing on consumption patterns and their implications, employing the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) assessment framework. Years of conflict and economic instability have driven large segments of the population in Sudan into crisis levels of acute food insecurity according to the (IPC). A substantial number of people are estimated to currently face emergency conditions, with an additional sizeable portion categorized under less severe but still extreme hunger levels. In this study, we explore the multifaceted nature of food insecurity in Sudan, considering its historical, political, economic, and social dimensions. An analysis of consumption patterns and trends was conducted, taking into account cultural influences, dietary shifts, and demographic changes. Furthermore, we employ logistic regression and random forest analysis to identify significant independent variables influencing food security status in Sudan. Random forest clearly outperforms logistic regression in terms of area under curve (AUC), accuracy, precision and recall. Forward projections of the IPC for Sudan estimate that 15 million individuals are anticipated to face Crisis level (IPC Phase 3) or worse acute food insecurity conditions between October 2023 and February 2024. Of this, 60% are concentrated in Greater Darfur, Greater Kordofan, and Khartoum State, with Greater Darfur alone representing 29% of this total. These findings emphasize the urgent need for both short-term humanitarian aid and long-term strategies to address Sudan's deepening food insecurity crisis.

Keywords: food insecurity, consumption patterns, logistic regression, random forest analysis

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