Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1417

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nutrition and Food Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1417 Diversity and Quality of Food Consumption Compared to Nutritional Status in Ages 15–17 Years Old in Jakarta

Authors: Andra Vidyarini


Adolescence is a transition period in which various changes occur, both biologically, intellectually and psychosocially. Changes in adolescents, one of which is a change in food consumption patterns that make adolescents vulnerable to nutritional problems that can affect their growth and health in the future. Nutritional problems in adolescents have increased from year to year and one of the causes is the low diversity and quality of consumption. The diversity and quality of consumption can be seen through the Individual Dietary Diversity Score and the Healthy Eating Index. Currently, in Indonesia, data on the diversity and quality of food consumption, especially among adolescents, are still scarce. In general, the purpose of this study is to describe the diversity and quality of adolescent food consumption and the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption with nutritional status. This study is a cross-sectional study by looking at the diversity and quality of consumption of adolescents aged 15-17 years. The total number of subjects in this study amounted to 70 teenagers. This research was conducted online via a google form. Data analysis in this study was univariate and bivariate. The results showed that the diversity of the subject's food consumption was in the diverse and very diverse category with an average of 6. However, the quality was still not good, whereas it was still in the bad and moderate categories with an average of 12.93. The nutritional status of the majority of the subjects was in the normal category and overweight to obese. The implementation of blended learning where there are still limited face-to-face meetings at school can be the reason why teenagers' food consumption is more diverse than when they are face-to-face schools. In addition, changes in people's diet during the pandemic also influenced the results of the study. The change in pattern is a change in eating habits to three times a day with menu choices ranging from rice, meat, fish, bean and vegetables. Analysis of the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption shows that the diversity of consumption has a significant relationship with the quality of food consumption with a p-value of 0.002 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the diversity and quality of food consumption have no significant relationship with nutritional status, with p values 0.777 and 0.251 (>0.05), respectively. This shows that the diversity of food consumption is directly proportional to the quality of consumption, where if you have a variety of food consumption, the quality or in terms of portions and weight are also sufficient in accordance with the recommendations of PGRS.

Keywords: healthy eating index (HEI), food diversity, quality of consumption, adolescent

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1416 Eating Patterns and Food Coping Strategy for Students of Prof. Dr. Hamka University During Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Chica Riska Ashari, Yoli Farradika


Background: Nutritional problems arise due to food security problems in the family, such as the ability of families to obtain food which is common in poor people due to lack of economic access to buy food. For this reason, it is hoped that there will be actions or behaviors that can be taken to fulfill their food or known as the Food Coping Strategy. The purpose of this study is to identify the eating patterns and Food Coping strategies of household students of prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University Jakarta during the covid-19 pandemic. Methods: This study is a quantitative observational study with a cross-sectional approach. The dependent variable in this study is food coping strategies and eating patterns. The location of this research is Prof. DR. Hamka Muhammadiyah University. The population in this study were all students of Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. The minimum number of samples in this study is 97 people with a response rate or drop out an estimate of 10%, so the total number of samples was 107 people. Statistical analysis with descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that most of the food coping strategies were carried out by the students of the household of Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University, were buying the cheaper food (91.6%), then changing the priority of buying food (75.7%) and household members who carry out this food coping strategy are mothers (59.8%) then followed by students themselves (57, 9%). The diet of most students at the Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University in a day was fond of consuming sugar and foods containing sugar (candy, sugar, honey, sweet drinks) (98.1%) then eggs (97.2%). Conclusion: Food coping strategies are mostly used by households students at Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University who were buying the cheaper food and the member who did this behavior the most were the mothers. The diet of most students at Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University in a day was fond of consuming sugar and foods containing sugar (candy, sugar, honey, sweet drinks).

Keywords: behavior, eating patterns, food coping strategies, food security, students

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1415 Analyzing the Association between Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in College Students: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Fildzah Badzlina, Mega Puspa Sari


To rest the body after a full day of activities, the body needs sleep. During sleep, the body's response to external stimuli will be reduced and relatively inactive so that it is used to optimize the body's biological functions that cannot be done when awake. College students often experience poor sleep quality because of the dense activities carried out during the day. In addition, the level of physical activity of college students is also relatively low. Based on previous research, college students who have low physical activity have poor sleep quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and sleep quality in college students of the University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka. This study used a cross-sectional research design with 107 respondents as research subjects. Samples were taken using the purposive sampling technique. The data was taken using a google form which was distributed to all college students in September 2021. The statistical test used was Chi-square. The results of this study showed that 85 (79.4%) college students experienced poor sleep quality during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. Most respondents were 96 women (89.7%) and 32.7% (35 people) aged 20 years. In the pocket money category, most college students (71%) got pocket money less than 500.000 rupiahs per month. A total of 52 respondents (48.6%) had a moderate level of physical activity category. Poor sleep quality was more common in male students (90.9%) compared to female students (78.1%) (p>0.05). In the group with poor sleep quality, 88.9% of students were categorized in Rp. 500.001 to Rp. 1.000.000 for pocket money, 80.3% of students included in the category Rp. 500.000 or less, and 61.5% of students are included in the category of Rp. 1.000.000 or more. Poor sleep quality was more common among students in the age category 20 years (84.1%), compared to students in the age category > 20 years (71.1%). For the level of physical activity in the poor sleep quality group, 87% were included in the category of heavy physical activity, 82.7% included in the moderate level of physical activity, and 68.8% included in the category of low-level physical activity. There was no significant relationship between gender, pocket money, age, and physical activity with sleep quality (p>0.05).

Keywords: college students, physical activity, sleep quality, university students

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1414 Child Feeding Practices of Mothers (Childbearing) and Exploration of Their Household Food Insecurity in a Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Mamun


Background: The current situation of Ensuring WHO recommended feeding practices for infant and young children which is becoming a challenge nowadays in many developing countries, especially in areas where household food security is at risk. Because many households of the developing countries often encounter severe food insecurity hence provision of adequate child nutrition is threatened. Aim: The study aimed to assess the child feeding practices of 0-24 months childbearing mothers and explore their household food insecurity in a coastal region of Bangladesh. Methods: This study was conducted in Suborno Char (one of the coastal suburbs in Noakhali District in Bangladesh) from October 2019 to April 2020. A total of 400 mothers were selected with their children of 0-24 months following a cross sectional study sampling procedure of the population. Data were collected through a standard questionnaire and analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS version 20.0.0. Results: The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, timely initiation of complementary feeding, and giving foods from four food groups to the children were 53.5%, 75.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. Mother's level of education showed a strong association with the child feeding practices of the mothers. Mothers of severely food insecure households showed lower odds in exclusive breastfeeding practice (COR 0.233 at 95% CI 0.083, 0.655; and AOR 0.478 at 95% CI 0.133, 1.713) than mothers of food secured households. Similar results have also been found in case of timely initiation of complementary feeding and minimum dietary diversity of the children.

Keywords: household food insecurity, exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, maternal education, mothers age, household income

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1413 Investigation Of The Possible Beneficial And Protective Effects Of An Ethanolic Extract From Sarcopoterium spinosum Fruits

Authors: Hawraa Zbeeb, Hala Khalifeh, Mohamad Khalil, Francesca Storace, Francesca Baldini, Giulio Lupidi, Laura Vergani


Sarcopoterium spinosum, a widely distributed spiny shrubbelonging to the Rosaceae family, isrich in essential and beneficial constituents. In fact, S. spinosum fruits and roots are traditionally used as herbal medicinein the eastern Mediterranean landscape, and this shrub is mentioned as a medicinal plant in a large number of ethnobotanical surveys. Aqueous root extracts from S. spinosum are used by traditional medicinal practitioners for weight loss, treatment of diabetes, and pain. Moreover, the anti-diabetic activity of S. spinosum root extract is reported in different studies, but the beneficial effects of aerial parts, especially fruits, has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of an ethanolic extract from S. spinosum fruits using both hepatic (FaO) and endothelial (HECV) cells in the attempt to evaluate its possible employment as a nutraceutical supplement. First of all, in vitro spectrophotometric assays were employed to characterize the extract. The total phenol content (TPC) was evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteuspectrophotometric method, the radical scavenging activity was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. After that, the beneficial effects of the extract were tested on cells. FaO cells treated for 3 hours with 0.75 mM oleate/palmitate mix (1:2 molar ratio) mimic in vitroa moderate hepato-steatosis. HECV cells exposed for 1 hour to 100 µM H2O2mimic, an oxidative insult leading to oxidative stress condition. After the metabolic and oxidative insult, both cell lines were treated with increasing concentrations of theS. spinosum extract (1, 10, 25 µg/mL) for 24 hours. The results showed the S. spinosumethanolic extract is rather rich in phenols (TPC of 18.6 mgGAE/g dry extract). Moreover, the extract showed a good scavenging abilityin vitro(IC50 15.9 µg/mland 10.9 µg/mlmeasured by DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively). When the extract was tested on cells, we observed that it could ameliorate some markers of cell dysfunction. The three concentrations of the extractled to a significant decrease in the intracellular triglyceride (TG) contentin steatoticFaO cells measured by spectrophotometric assay. On the other hand, HECV cells treated with increasing concentrations of the extract did not result in a significant decrease in both lipid peroxidation measured by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production measured by fluorometric analysis after DCF staining. Interestingly, the ethanolic extract was able to accelerate the wound repair of confluentHECV cells respect to H2O2-insulted cells as measured by T-scratch assay. Taken together, these results seem to indicate that the ethanol extract from S. spinosum fruits is rich in phenol compounds and plays considerable lipid lowering activity in vitroon steatotichepatocytes, and accelerates wound healing repair on endothelial cells. In light of that, the ethanolic extract from S. spinosumfruits could be a potential candidate for nutraceutical applications.

Keywords: sarcopoterium spinosum fruits, ethanolic extract, phenolic compounds, lipid-lowering activity, antioxidant activity

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1412 Breastfeeding Experiences of Nutritionist who are Mothers in Quito- Ecuador

Authors: Maria Jose Mendoza Gordillo


Introduction: Research regarding breastfeeding is devoted to how essential breastfeeding is to guarantee wellbeing for the mother and the baby from a medical standpoint relegating the cultural, material and social barriers for breastfeeding. Consequently, worldwide breastfeeding rates are low, and Ecuador is not the exception, especially among working mothers. Worldwide, health care providers have low rates of breastfeeding due to several barriers to lactation, such as the work schedule, a lack of private places for pumping while at work, and negative emotions. Goals and Methods: This study aimed to explore how do Ecuadorian women embrace their identities as nutritionists and mothers within their breastfeeding experience. The primary data come from 20 synchronous semi-structured interviews, which follow a topic guide. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data analysis followed the Phronetic Iterative Approach. Results: Women shifted the preconceived idea of the ideal breastfeeding that came from the medicalized discourse of breastfeeding, and that was constructed in their training as nutritionists. Although these women believe that breast milk and breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby, the internalized ideal of breastfeeding shifted through the experience of motherhood. When these women developed their identity as mothers, they understood that the ideal breastfeeding is different from the medicalized discourse. Although they have that clash between the ideal and the external reality, they continued breastfeeding their babies and those experiences made them improve their professional practice. Conclusions: The narratives that women shared illustrate how complex it was to manage the different roles and identities that they wanted to fulfill to keep their identity of a good mother who breastfeeds her baby and, at the same time, a good healthcare provider identity. The process of breastfeeding for this group of women who are mothers and healthcare professionals appears to be a unique relational and identity negotiation process.

Keywords: breastfeeding, identity, nutritionist, qualitative

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1411 Evaluation of Visco-Elastic Properties and Microbial Quality of Oat-Based Dietetic Food

Authors: Uchegbu Nneka Nkechi, Okoye Ogochukwu Peace


The evaluation of the visco-elastic properties and microbial quality of a formulated oat-based dietetic food were investigated. Oat flour, pumpkin seed flour, carrot flour and skimmed milk powder were blended in varying proportions to formulate a product with codes OCF, which contains 70% oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 10% skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 65 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 15 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 60 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 20 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 55 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 25 % skimmed milk powder and OF with 95 % oat as the commercial control. All the samples were assessed for their proximate composition, microbial quality and visco-elastic properties. The moisture content was highest at sample OF (10.73%) and lowest at OCF (7.10%) (P<0.05). Crude protein ranged from 13.38%-22.86%, with OCF having the highest (P<0.05) protein content and OF having the lowest. Crude fat was 3.74% for OCF and 6.31% for OF. Crude fiber ranged from 3.58% - 17.39% with OF having the lowest (P<0.05) fiber content and OCF having the highest. Ash content was 1.30% for OCF and 2.75% for OCF. There was no mold growth in the samples. The total viable ml/wl count ranged from 1.5×10³ cfu/g - 2.6×10³ cfu/g, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest (P<0.05) total viable count. The peak viscosity of the sample ranged from 75.00 cP-2895.00 cP, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest value. The final viscosity was 130.50 cP in OCF and 3572.50 cP in OF. The setback viscosity was 58.00 cP in OCF and 1680.50 cP in OF. The peak time was 6.93 mins in OCF to 5.57 mins in OF. There was no pasting temperature for all samples except the OF, which had 86.43. Sample OF was the highest in terms of overall acceptability. This study showed that the oat-based composite flour produced had a nutritional profile that would be acceptable for the aged population.

Keywords: dietetic, pumpkin, visco-elastic, microbial

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1410 Linkage between a Plant-based Diet and Visual Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Cristina Cirone, Katrina Cirone, Monali S. Malvankar-Mehta


Purpose: An increased risk of visual impairment has been observed in individuals lacking a balanced diet. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the relationship between plant-based diets and specific ocular outcomes among adults. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and PubMed, were systematically searched up until May 27, 2021. Of the 503 articles independently screened by two reviewers, 21 were included in this review. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by both reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 15.0. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were computed based on heterogeneity. Results: A total of 503 studies were identified which then underwent duplicate removal and a title and abstract screen. The remaining 61 studies underwent a full-text screen, 21 progressed to data extraction and fifteen were included in the quantitative analysis. Meta-analysis indicated that regular consumption of fish (OR = 0.70; CI: [0.62-0.79]) and skim milk, poultry, and non-meat animal products (OR = 0.70; CI: [0.61-0.79]) is positively correlated with a reduced risk of visual impairment (age-related macular degeneration, age-related maculopathy, cataract development, and central geographic atrophy) among adults. Consumption of red meat [OR = 1.41; CI: [1.07-1.86]) is associated with an increased risk of visual impairment. Conclusion: Overall, a pescatarian diet is associated with the most favorable visual outcomes among adults, while the consumption of red meat appears to negatively impact vision. Results suggest a need for more local and government-led interventions promoting a healthy and balanced diet.

Keywords: plant-based diet, pescatarian diet, visual impairment, systematic review, meta-analysis

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1409 Quality Assessment Of Instant Breakfast Cereals From Yellow Maize (Zea mays), Sesame (Sesamum indicium), And Mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus) Flour Blends

Authors: Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, Ifeoma Elizabeth, Orngu, Africa Orngu


Composite flours were processed from blends of yellow maize (Zea mays), sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder in the ratio of 80:20:0; 75:20:5; 70:20:10; 65:20:10 and 60:20:20, respectively to produce the breakfast cereal coded as YSB, SMB, TMB, PMB and OMB with YSB as the control. The breakfast cereals were produced by hydration and toasting of yellow maize and sesame to 160oC for 25 minutes and blended together with oven dried and packaged oyster mushroom. The developed products (flours and breakfast cereals) were analyzed for proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, anti-nutrients, phytochemicals, functional, microbial and sensory properties. Results for the flours showed: proximate composition (%): moisture (2.59-7.27), ash (1.29-7.57), crude fat (0.98-14.91), fibre (1.03-16.02), protein (10.13-35.29), carbohydrate (75.48-38.18) and energy (295.18-410.75kcal). Vitamins ranged as: vitamin A (0.14-9.03 ug/100g), vitamin B1 (0.14-0.38), vitamin B2 (0.07-0.15), vitamin B3(0.89-4.88) and Vitamin C (0.03-4.24). Minerals (mg/100g) were reported thus: calcium (8.01-372.02), potassium (1.40-1.85), magnesium (12.09-13.15), iron (1.23-5.25) and zinc (0.85-2.20). The results for anti-nutrients and phytochemical ranged from: tannin (1.50-1.61mg/g), Phytate (0.40-0.71mg/g), Oxalate(1.81-2.02mg/g), Flavonoid (0.21-1.27%) and phenolic (1.12-2.01%). Functional properties showed: bulk density (0.51-0.77g/ml), water absorption capacity (266.0-301.5%), swelling capacity (136.0-354.0%), least Gelation (0.55-1.45g/g) and reconstitution index (35.20-69.60%). The total viable count ranged from 6.4× 102to1.0× 103cfu/g while the total mold count was from 1.0× 10to 3.0× 10 cfu/g. For the breakfast cereals, proximate composition (%) ranged thus: moisture (4.07-7.08), ash (3.09-2.28), crude fat(16.04-12.83), crude fibre(4.30-8.22), protein(16.14-22.54), carbohydrate(56.34-47.04) and energy (434.34-393.83Kcal).Vitamin A (7.99-5.98 ug/100g), vitamin B1(0.08-0.42mg/100g), vitamin B2(0.06-0.15 mg/100g), vitamin B3(1.91-4.52 mg/100g) and Vitamin C(3.55-3.32 mg/100g) were reported while Minerals (mg/100g) were: calcium (75.31-58.02), potassium (0.65-4.01), magnesium(12.25-12.62), iron (1.21-4.15) and zinc (0.40-1.32). The anti-nutrients and phytochemical revealed the range (mg/g) as: tannin (1.12-1.21), phytate (0.69-0.53), oxalate (1.21-0.43), flavonoid (0.23-1.22%) and phenolic (0.23-1.23%). The bulk density (0.77-0.63g/ml), water absorption capacity (156.5-126.0%), swelling capacity (309.5-249.5%), least gelation (1.10-0.75g/g) and reconstitution index (49.95-39.95%) were recorded. From the total viable count, it ranged from 3.3× 102to4.2× 102cfu/g but no mold growth was detected. Sensory scores revealed that the breakfast cereals were acceptable to the panelist with oyster mushroom supplementation up to 10%.

Keywords: oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), sesame seed (Sesamum indicum), yellow maize (Zea mays, instant breakfast cereals

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1408 The Efficacy of Thymbra spicata Ethanolic Extract and its Main Component Carvacrol on In vitro Model of Metabolically-Associated Dysfunctions

Authors: Farah Diab, Mohamad Khalil, Francesca Storace, Francesca Baldini, Piero Portincasaa, Giulio Lupidi, Laura Vergani


Thymbra spicata is a thyme-like plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family that shows a global distribution, especially in the eastern Mediterranean region. Leaves of T. spicata contain large amounts of phenols such as phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid), phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol), and flavonoids. In Lebanon, T. spicata is currently used as a culinary herb in salad and infusion, as well as for traditional medicinal purposes. Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methyl phenol), the most abundant polyphenol in the organic extract and essential oils, has a great array of pharmacological properties. In fact, carvacrol is largely employed as a food additive and neutraceutical agent. Our aim is to investigate the beneficial effects of T. spicata ethanolic extract (TE) and its main component, carvacrol, using in vitro models of hepatic steatosis and endothelial dysfunction. As a further point, we focused on investigating if and how the binding of carvacrol to albumin, the physiological transporter for drugs in the blood, might be altered by the presence of high levels of fatty acids (FAs), thus impairing the carvacrol bio-distribution in vivo. For that reason, hepatic FaO cells treated with exogenous FAs such as oleate and palmitate mimic hepatosteatosis; endothelial HECV cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide are a model of endothelial dysfunction. In these models, we measured lipid accumulation, free radical production, lipoperoxidation, and nitric oxide release before and after treatment with carvacrol. The carvacrol binding to albumin with/without high levels of long-chain FAs was assessed by absorption and emission spectroscopies. Our findings show that both TE and carvacrol (i) counteracted lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by decreasing the intracellular and extracellular lipid contents in steatotic FaO cells; (ii) decreased oxidative stress in endothelial cells by significantly reducing lipoperoxidation and free radical production, as well as, attenuating the nitric oxide release; (ii) high levels of circulating FAs reduced the binding of carvacrol to albumin. The beneficial effects of TE and carvacrol on both hepatic and endothelial cells point to a nutraceutical potential. However, high levels of circulating FAs, such as those occurring in metabolic disorders, might hinder the carvacrol transport, bio-distribution, and pharmacodynamics.

Keywords: carvacrol, endothelial dysfunction, fatty acids, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, serum albumin

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1407 Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Complementary Food from Fermented Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean and Orange-Flesh Sweet Potato Blends

Authors: N. C. Okoronkwo, I. E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, C. P. Agbata


Childhood malnutrition is one of the most persistent public health problems throughout developing countries, including Nigeria. Demographic and Health survey data from twenty-one developing countries indicated that poor complementary feeding of children aged 6- 23 months contributes to negative growth trends. To reduce malnutrition among children in the society, formulation of complimentary food rich in essential nutrient for optimum growth and development of infants is essential. This study focused on the evaluation of complementary food produced by solid-state fermentation of Acha and Soybean using Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) using Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). The raw materials were soaked separately, each in four volumes of 0.9M acetic acid for 16 hours, rinsed with clean water, steam cooked and cooled. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out by inoculating Acha and Soybean with spore suspension (1x 10⁶spores/ml) of Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and OFSP with spore suspension (1x 106spores/ml) of Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). Fermentation which lasted for 72hours was carried out with 24hours sampling. The samples were blended in the following ratios: Acha and soybean 100: 100 (AS), Acha/soybean and OFSP 50: 50(ASO), made into gruel and compared with a commercial infant formula (Cerelac) which served as the control (CTRL). The samples were analyzed for proximate composition using AOAC methods and sensory attributes using a hedonic scale. Results showed that moisture, crude protein, fibre and ash content increased significantly (p<0.05) as fermentation progressed, while carbohydrate and fat content decreased. The protein, moisture, fibre and ash content ranged from 17.10-19.02%, 54.97-56.27%, 7.08-7.60% and2.09-2.38%, respectively, while carbohydrate and fat content ranged from 12.95-10.21% and 5.81-4.52%, respectively. In sensory scores, there were no significant (p>0.05) difference between the average mean scores of colours, texture and consistency of the samples. The sensory score for the overall acceptability ranged from 6.20-7.80. Sample CTRL had the highest score, while sample ASO had the least score. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between samples CTRL and AS. Solid-state fermentation improved the nutritional content and flavour of the developed complementary food, which is needed for infant growth and development.

Keywords: Complementary food, malnutrition, proximate composition, solid-state fermentation

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1406 Quantification of Peptides (linusorbs) in Gluten-free Flaxseed Fortified Bakery Products

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin JT Reaney


Flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a superfood due to its health-promoting properties. Linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. Cyclolinopeptide) are bioactive compounds present in flaxseed exhibiting potential health effects. The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived LOs added to various bakery products. The flaxseed meal fortified gluten-free (GF) bakery bread was prepared, and the changes of LOs during the bread-making process (meal, fortified flour, dough, and bread) and storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The total oxidative LOs and LO1OB2 were almost kept stable in flaxseed meals at storage temperatures of 22−23 °C, −18 °C, and 4 °C for up to four weeks. Processing steps during GF-bread production resulted in the oxidation of LOs. Interestingly, no LOs were detected in the dough sample; however, LOs appeared when the dough was stored at −18 °C for one week, suggesting that freezing destroyed the sticky structure of the dough and resulted in the release of LOs. The final product, flaxseed meal fortified bread, could be stored for up to four weeks at −18 °C and 4 °C, and for one week at 22−23 °C. All these results suggested that LOs may change during processing and storage and that flaxseed flour-fortified bread should be stored at low temperatures to preserve effective LOs components.

Keywords: linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linusorb, stability, gluten-free, peptides, cyclolinopeptide

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1405 Modelling the Physicochemical Properties of Papaya Based-Cookies Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Mayowa Saheed Sanusi A, Musiliu Olushola Sunmonua, Abdulquadri Alakab Owolabi Raheema, Adeyemi Ikimot Adejokea


The development of healthy cookies for health-conscious consumers cannot be overemphasized in the present global health crisis. This study was aimed to evaluate and model the influence of ripeness levels of papaya puree (unripe, ripe and overripe), oven temperature (130°C, 150°C and 170°C) and oven rack speed (stationary, 10 and 20 rpm) on physicochemical properties of papaya-based cookies using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The physicochemical properties (baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, proximate composition, Calcium, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content) were determined using standard procedures. The data obtained were statistically analysed at p≤0.05 using ANOVA. The polynomial regression model of response surface methodology was used to model the physicochemical properties. The adequacy of the models was determined using the coefficient of determination (R²) and the response optimizer of RSM was used to determine the optimum physicochemical properties for the papaya-based cookies. Cookies produced from overripe papaya puree were observed to have the shortest baking time; ripe papaya puree favors cookies spread ratio, while the unripe papaya puree gives cookies with the highest mass and thickness. The highest crude protein content, fiber content, calcium content, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were observed in papaya based-cookies produced from overripe puree. The models for baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, moisture content, crude protein and TPC were significant, with R2 ranging from 0.73 – 0.95. The optimum condition for producing papaya based-cookies with desirable physicochemical properties was obtained at 149°C oven temperature, 17 rpm oven rack speed and with the use of overripe papaya puree. The Information on the use of puree from unripe, ripe and overripe papaya can help to increase the use of underutilized unripe or overripe papaya and also serve as a strategic means of obtaining a fat substitute to produce new products with lower production cost and health benefit.

Keywords: papaya based-cookies, modeling, response surface methodology, physicochemical properties

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1404 Conflict and Hunger Revisit: Evidences from Global Surveys, 1989-2020

Authors: Manasse Elusma, Thung-Hong Lin, Chun-yin Lee


The relationship between hunger and war or conflict remains to be discussed. Do wars or conflicts cause hunger and food scarcity, or is the reverse relationship is true? As the world becomes more peaceful and wealthier, some countries are still suffered from hunger and food shortage. So, eradicating hunger calls for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between conflict and hunger. Several studies are carried out to detect the importance of conflict or war on food security. Most of these studies, however, perform only descriptive analysis and largely use food security indicators instead of the global hunger index. Few studies have employed cross-country panel data to explicitly analyze the association between conflict and chronic hunger, including hidden hunger. Herein, this study addresses this issue and the knowledge gap. We combine global datasets to build a new panel dataset including 143 countries from 1989 to 2020. This study examines the effect of conflict on hunger with fixed effect models, and the results show that the increase of conflict frequency deteriorates hunger. Peacebuilding efforts and war prevention initiative are required to eradicate global hunger.

Keywords: armed conflict, food scarcity, hidden hunger, hunger, malnutrition

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1403 Aquafaba Derived from Korean Soybean Cultivars: A Novel Vegan Egg Replacer

Authors: Yue He, Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin J. T. Reaney


Recently, pulse cooking water (a.k.a. Aquafaba) has been used as an important and cost-effective alternative to eggs in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. The aquafaba (AQ) is primarily due to its excellent ability to stabilize foams and emulsions in foods. However, the functional ingredients of this excellent AQ are usually discarded with the compound release. This study developed a high-functional food material, AQ, using functional soybean AQ that has not been studied in Korea. A zero-waste and cost-effective hybrid process were used to produce oil emulsifiers from Korean soybeans. The treatment technique was implemented using a small number of efficient steps. Aquafaba from Backtae had the best emulsion properties (92%) and has the potential to produce more stable food oil emulsions. Therefore, this study is expected to be utilized in the development of the first gluten-free, vegan product for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies, utilizing wastewater from cooked soybeans as a source of plant protein that can replace animal protein.

Keywords: aquafaba, soybean, chickpea, emulsifiers, egg replacer, egg-free products

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1402 Gastrointestinal Manifestations and Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jaylo Abalos, Sophia Zamora


BACKGROUND: Various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, have been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this context, the presence of GI symptoms is variably associated with poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. We aim to determine the outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective cohort study that used medical records of admitted COVID-19 patients from March 2020- March 2021 in a tertiary hospital in Pangasinan. Data records were evaluated for the presence of gastrointestinal manifestations, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain at the time of admission. Comparison between cases or COVID-19 patients presenting with GI manifestations to controls or COVID-19 patients without GI manifestation was made. RESULTS: Four hundred three patients were included in the study. Of these, 22.3% presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, while 77.7% comprised the study controls. Diarrhea was the most common GI symptom (10.4%). No statistically significant difference was observed in comorbidities and laboratory findings. Mortality was the primary outcome of the study that did not reach statistical significance between cases and controls (13.33% vs. 16.30%, p =0.621). There were also no significant differences observed in the secondary outcomes, mean length of stay, (14 [12-18 days] in cases vs 14 [12- 17.5 days] in controls, p = 0.716) and need for mechanical ventilation (12.22% vs 16.93%, p = 0.329). CONCLUSION: The results of the study revealed no association of the GI symptoms to poor outcomes, including a high rate of mortality, prolonged length of stay and increased need for mechanical ventilation.

Keywords: gastrointestinal symptoms, COVID-19, outcomes, mortality, length of stay

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1401 Edible and Ecofriendly Packaging – A Trendsetter of the Modern Era – Standardization and Properties of Films and Cutleries from Food Starch

Authors: P. Raajeswari, S. M. Devatha, R. Pragatheeswari


The edible packaging is a new trendsetter in the era of modern packaging. The researchers and food scientist recognise edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability. Starch was extracted from different sources that contains abundantly like potato, tapioca, rice, wheat, and corn. The starch based edible films and cutleries are developed as an alternative for conventional packages providing the nutritional benefit when consumed along with the food. The development of starch based edible films by the extraction of starch from various raw ingredients at lab scale level. The films are developed by the employment of plasticiser at different concentrations of 1.5ml and 2ml. The films developed using glycerol as a plasticiser in filmogenic solution to increase the flexibility and plasticity of film. It reduces intra and intermolecular forces in starch, and it increases the mobility of starch based edible films. The films developed are tested for its functional properties such as thickness, tensile strength, elongation at break, moisture permeability, moisture content, and puncture strength. The cutleries like spoons and cups are prepared by making dough and rolling the starch along with water. The overall results showed that starch based edible films absorbed less moisture, and they also contributed to the low moisture permeability with high tensile strength. Food colorants extracted from red onion peel, pumpkin, and red amaranth adds on the nutritive value, colour, and attraction when incorporated in edible cutleries, and it doesn’t influence the functional properties. Addition of a low quantity of glycerol in edible films and colour extraction from onion peel, pumpkin, and red amaranth enhances biodegradability and provides a good quantity of nutrients when consumed. Therefore, due to its multiple advantages, food starch can serve as the best response for eco-friendly industrial products aimed to replace single use plastics at low cost.

Keywords: edible films, edible cutleries, plasticizer, glycerol, starch, functional property

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1400 Art History as Inspiration for Chefs. An Autoethnographic Research About Art History Education in a Restaurant

Authors: Marta Merkl


The ongoing project what the paper will present is about how the author introduces chefs to the history of art through a selected piece of art. The author is originally an art historian, but since 2019 she has been working on her PhD research topic related to designing dining experiences in the restaurant context, including the role of sensory experiences and storytelling. Due to a scholarship, she can participate in the re-design of a fine dining restaurant called Onyx in Budapest, which was awarded two Michelin stars before the pandemic caused by COVID-19. The management of the restaurant wants to broaden the chefs' horizons and develop their creativity by introducing them to each chapter of the visual arts. There is a kind of polyphony in the mass of information about what should a chef, a food designer, or anybody who make food in everyday basis use as a source of inspiration for inventing and preparing new dishes: nostalgia, raw material, cookbooks, etc. In today's world of fine dining, nature is the main inspiration for outstanding achievements, as exemplified by the Slovenian restaurant Hiša Franko** and its chef Ana Roš. The starting point for the project and the research was the idea of using art history as an inspiration for gastronomy. The research relies on data collection via interviews, ethnography, and autoethnography. In this case, the reflective introspection of the researcher is also relevant because the researcher is an important part of the process (GOULD, 1995). The paper overviews the findings of the autoethnography literature relevant to our topic. In the literature review, it will be also pointed out that sustainability, eating as an experience, and the world of art can be linked. As ERDMANN and co-authors (1999) argues that the health dimension of sustainability has a component called 'joy of eating,' which implies strong ties to the experiential nature of eating. Therefore, it is worth to compare with PINE and GILMORE's (1998) theory of experience economy and with CSÍKSZENTMIHÁLYI's (1999) concept of flow, which give examples of gastronomy and art. The aim of the research is to map experiences of the pilot project, the discourse between the art world and the gastronomy actors. Another noteworthy aspect is whether the chefs are willing to use art history as an inspiration.

Keywords: art history, autoethnography, chef, education, experience, food preparation, inspiration, sustainability

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1399 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty


The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

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1398 Biopolymers: A Solution for Replacing Polyethylene in Food Packaging

Authors: Sonia Amariei, Ionut Avramia, Florin Ursachi, Ancuta Chetrariu, Ancuta Petraru


The food industry is one of the major generators of plastic waste derived from conventional synthetic petroleum-based polymers, which are non-biodegradable, used especially for packaging. These packaging materials, after the food is consumed, accumulate serious environmental concerns due to the materials but also to the organic residues that adhere to them. It is the concern of specialists, researchers to eliminate problems related to conventional materials that are not biodegradable or unnecessary plastic and replace them with biodegradable and edible materials, supporting the common effort to protect the environment. Even though environmental and health concerns will cause more consumers to switch to a plant-based diet, most people will continue to add more meat to their diet. The paper presents the possibility of replacing the polyethylene packaging from the surface of the trays for meat preparations with biodegradable packaging obtained from biopolymers. During the storage of meat products may occur deterioration by lipids oxidation and microbial spoilage, as well as the modification of the organoleptic characteristics. For this reason, different compositions of polymer mixtures and film conditions for obtaining must be studied to choose the best packaging material to achieve food safety. The compositions proposed for packaging are obtained from alginate, agar, starch, and glycerol as plasticizers. The tensile strength, elasticity, modulus of elasticity, thickness, density, microscopic images of the samples, roughness, opacity, humidity, water activity, the amount of water transferred as well as the speed of water transfer through these packaging materials were analyzed. A number of 28 samples with various compositions were analyzed, and the results showed that the sample with the highest values for hardness, density, and opacity, as well as the smallest water vapor permeability, of 1.2903E-4 ± 4.79E-6, has the ratio of components as alginate: agar: glycerol (3:1.25:0.75). The water activity of the analyzed films varied between 0.2886 and 0.3428 (aw< 0.6), demonstrating that all the compositions ensure the preservation of the products in the absence of microorganisms. All the determined parameters allow the appreciation of the quality of the packaging films in terms of mechanical resistance, its protection against the influence of light, the transfer of water through the packaging. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of Research, Innovation, and Digitization, CNCS/CCCDI – UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2019-3863, within PNCDI III.

Keywords: meat products, alginate, agar, starch, glycerol

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1397 Assessment of the Quality of a Mixture of Vegetable Oils from Kazakhstan Origin

Authors: Almas Mukhametov, Dina Dautkanova, Moldir Yerbulekova, Gulim Tuyakova, Raziya Zhakudaeva, Makpal Seisenaly, Asemay Kazhymurat


The composition of samples of mixtures of vegetable oils of Kazakhstan origin, consisting of sunflower, safflower and linseed oils, has been experimentally substantiated. With an approximate optimal ratio of w-6:w-3 fatty acids in 80:15:05 triacylglycerols, providing its therapeutic and prophylactic properties. The resulting mixture can be used in the development of functional products. The result was also identified and evaluated by physical and chemical quality indicators, the content of vitamin E, and the concentration of ions of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), as well as mercury (Hg).

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower, safflower, linseed, mixture, fatty acid composition, heavy metals

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1396 Gut Microbial Dynamics in a Mouse Model of Inflammation-Linked Carcinogenesis as a Result of Diet Supplementation with Specific Mushroom Extracts

Authors: Alvarez M., Chapela M. J., Balboa E., Rubianes D., Sinde E., Fernandez de Ana C., Rodríguez-Blanco A.


The gut microbiota plays an important role as gut inflammation could contribute to colorectal cancer development; however, this role is still not fully understood, and tools able to prevent this progression are yet to be developed. The main objective of this study was to monitor the effects of a mushroom extracts formulation in gut microbial community composition of an Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mice model of inflammation-linked carcinogenesis. For the in vivo study, 41 adult male mice of the C57BL / 6 strain were obtained. 36 of them have been induced in a state of colon carcinogenesis by a single intraperitoneal administration of AOM at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg; the control group animals received instead of the same volume of 0.9% saline. DSS is an extremely toxic polysaccharide sulfate that causes chronic inflammation of the colon mucosa, favoring the appearance of severe colitis and the production of tumors induced by AOM. Induction by AOM/DSS is an interesting platform for chemopreventive intervention studies. This time the model was used to monitor gut microbiota changes as a result of supplementation with a specific mushroom extracts formulation previously shown to have prebiotic activity. The animals have been divided into three groups: (i) Cancer + mushroom extracts formulation experimental group: to which the MicoDigest2.0 mushroom extracts formulation developed by Hifas da Terra S.L has been administered dissolved in drinking water at an estimated concentration of 100 mg / ml. (ii) Control group of animals with Cancer: to which normal water has been administered without any type of treatment. (iii) Control group of healthy animals: these are the animals that have not been induced cancer or have not received any treatment in drinking water. This treatment has been maintained for a period of 3 months, after which the animals were sacrificed to obtain tissues that were subsequently analyzed to verify the effects of the mushroom extract formulation. A microbiological analysis has been carried out to compare the microbial communities present in the intestines of the mice belonging to each of the study groups. For this, the methodology of massive sequencing by molecular analysis of the 16S gene has been used (Ion Torrent technology). Initially, DNA extraction and metagenomics libraries were prepared using the 16S Metagenomics kit, always following the manufacturer's instructions. This kit amplifies 7 of the 9 hypervariable regions of the 16S gene that will then be sequenced. Finally, the data obtained will be compared with a database that makes it possible to determine the degree of similarity of the sequences obtained with a wide range of bacterial genomes. Results obtained showed that, similarly to certain natural compounds preventing colorectal tumorigenesis, a mushroom formulation enriched the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and depleted Bacteroidetes. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the consumption of the mushroom extracts’ formulation developed could promote the recovery of the microbial balance that is disrupted in the mice model of carcinogenesis. More preclinical and clinical studies are needed to validate this promising approach.

Keywords: carcinogenesis, microbiota, mushroom extracts, inflammation

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1395 Total-Reflection X-Ray Spectroscopy as a Tool for Element Screening in Food Samples

Authors: Hagen Stosnach


The analytical demands on modern instruments for element analysis in food samples include the analysis of major, trace and ultra-trace essential elements as well as potentially toxic trace elements. In this study total reflection, X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is presented as an analytical technique, which meets the requirements, defined by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) regarding the limit of quantification, repeatability, reproducibility and recovery for most of the target elements. The advantages of TXRF are the small sample mass required, the broad linear range from µg/kg up to wt.-% values, no consumption of gases or cooling water, and the flexible and easy sample preparation. Liquid samples like alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages can be analyzed without any preparation. For solid food samples, the most common sample pre-treatment methods are mineralization, direct deposition of the sample onto the reflector without/with minimal treatment, mainly as solid suspensions or after extraction. The main disadvantages are due to the possible peaks overlapping, which may lower the accuracy of quantitative analysis and the limit in the element identification. This analytical technique will be presented by several application examples, covering a broad range of liquid and solid food types.

Keywords: essential elements, toxic metals, XRF, spectroscopy

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1394 Assay for SARS-Cov-2 on Chicken Meat

Authors: R. Mehta, M. Ghogomu, B. Schoel


Reports appeared in 2020 about China detecting SARS-Cov-2 (Covid-19) on frozen meat, shrimp, and food packaging material. In this study, we examined the use of swabs for the detection of Covid-19 on meat samples, and chicken breast (CB) was used as a model. Methods: Heat inactivated SARS-Cov-2 virus (IV) from Microbiologics was loaded onto the CB, swabbing was done, and the recovered inactivated virus was subjected to the Machery & Nagel NucleoSpin RNAVirus kit for RNA isolation according to manufacturer's instructions. For RT-PCR, the IDT 2019-nCoV RUO Covid-19 test kit was used with the Taqman Fast Virus 1-step master mix. The limit of detection (LOD) of viral load recovered from the CB was determined under various conditions: first on frozen CB where the IV was introduced on a defined area, then on frozen CB, with IV spread-out, and finally, on thawed CB. Results: The lowest amount of IV which can be reliably detected on frozen CB was a load of 1,000 - 2,000 IV copies where the IV was loaded on one spot of about 1 square inch. Next, the IV was spread out over a whole frozen CB about 16 square inches. The IV could be recovered at a lowest load of 4,000 to 8,000 copies. Furthermore, the effects of temperature change on viral load recovery was investigated i.e., if raw unfrozen meat became contaminated and remains for 1 hour at 4°C or gets refrozen. The amount of IV recovered successfully from CB kept at 4°C and the refrozen CB was similar to the recovery gotten from loading the IV directly on the frozen CB. In conclusion, an assay using swabs was successfully established for the detection of SARS-Cov-2 on frozen or raw (unfrozen) CB with a minimal load of up to 8,000 copies spread over 16 square inches.

Keywords: assay, COVID-19, meat, SARS-Cov-2

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1393 A Risk Assessment Tool for the Contamination of Aflatoxins on Dried Figs Based on Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Kottaridi Klimentia, Demopoulos Vasilis, Sidiropoulos Anastasios, Ihara Diego, Nikolaidis Vasileios, Antonopoulos Dimitrios


Aflatoxins are highly poisonous and carcinogenic compounds produced by species of the genus Aspergillus spp. that can infect a variety of agricultural foods, including dried figs. Biological and environmental factors, such as population, pathogenicity, and aflatoxinogenic capacity of the strains, topography, soil, and climate parameters of the fig orchards, are believed to have a strong effect on aflatoxin levels. Existing methods for aflatoxin detection and measurement, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), can provide accurate results, but the procedures are usually time-consuming, sample-destructive, and expensive. Predicting aflatoxin levels prior to crop harvest is useful for minimizing the health and financial impact of a contaminated crop. Consequently, there is interest in developing a tool that predicts aflatoxin levels based on topography and soil analysis data of fig orchards. This paper describes the development of a risk assessment tool for the contamination of aflatoxin on dried figs, based on the location and altitude of the fig orchards, the population of the fungus Aspergillus spp. in the soil, and soil parameters such as pH, saturation percentage (SP), electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter, particle size analysis (sand, silt, clay), the concentration of the exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), extractable P, and trace of elements (B, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu), by employing machine learning methods. In particular, our proposed method integrates three machine learning techniques, i.e., dimensionality reduction on the original dataset (principal component analysis), metric learning (Mahalanobis metric for clustering), and k-nearest neighbors learning algorithm (KNN), into an enhanced model, with mean performance equal to 85% by terms of the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between observed and predicted values.

Keywords: aflatoxins, Aspergillus spp., dried figs, k-nearest neighbors, machine learning, prediction

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1392 Crossing of the Intestinal Barrier Thanks to Targeted Biologics: Nanofitins

Authors: Solene Masloh, Anne Chevrel, Maxime Culot, Leonardo Scapozza, Magali Zeisser-Labouebe


The limited stability of clinically proven therapeutic antibodies limits their administration by the parenteral route. However, oral administration remains the best alternative as it is the most convenient and less invasive one. Obtaining a targeted treatment based on biologics, which can be orally administered, would, therefore, be an ideal situation to improve patient adherence and compliance. Nevertheless, the delivery of macromolecules through the intestine remains challenging because of their sensitivity to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and their low permeability across the intestinal mucosa. To address this challenge, this project aims to demonstrate that targeting receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by transcytosis could maximize the intestinal uptake and transport of large molecules, such as Nanofitins. These affinity proteins of 7 kDa with binding properties similar to antibodies have already demonstrated retained stability in the digestive tract and local efficiency. However, their size does not allow passive diffusion through the intestinal barrier. Nanofitins having a controlled affinity for membrane receptors involved in the transcytosis mechanism used naturally for the transport of large molecules in humans were generated. Proteins were expressed using ribosome display and selected based on affinity to the targeted receptor and other characteristics. Their uptake and transport ex vivo across viable porcine intestines were investigated using an Ussing chambers system. In this paper, we will report the results achieved while addressing the different challenges linked to this study. To validate the ex vivo model, first, we proved the presence of the receptors targeted in humans on the porcine intestine. Then, after the identification of an optimal way of detection of Nanofitins, transport experiments were performed on porcine intestines with viability followed during the time of the experiment. The results, showing that the physiological process of transcytosis is capable of being triggered by the binding of Nanofitins on their target, will be reported here. In conclusion, the results show that Nanofitins can be transported across the intestinal barrier by triggering the receptor-mediated transcytosis and that the ex vivo model is an interesting technique to assess biologics absorption through the intestine.

Keywords: ex-vivo, Nanofitins, oral administration, transcytosis

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1391 Isolation and Characterization of Ant-Salmonella Lactic Acid Bacteria from Dairy Products

Authors: Najie Hassanzade, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani


Dairy products have been regarded as the natural source of lactic acid bacteria with potential characteristics of probiotics; therefore, a lot of research and practical works have been carried out about the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dairy products, especially traditional yogurt and related products. Interest in traditional dairy products continues in the area of isolation of new LAB that can complement or replace currently used starters and/or that can be candidates as beneficial microorganisms for prevention or treatment purposes. In this perspective, such products are potentially good candidates for isolating new strains of probiotics. On the other hand, some infectious diseases such as salmonellosis have expressed resistance against many antibiotics; therefore, many attempts have been performed to use an alternative approach to overcome antibiotic resistance. The current research focuses on the isolation of LAB from dairy products, especially traditional dairy products and screening of them for anti-Salmonella activities. Twenty-five samples, including 15 sheep milk samples, one camel milk sample and seven cow milk samples from different areas of Iran and 2 yogurt samples from Herat, Afghanistan are collected. 20 bacteria are isolated by culturing the samples on MRS agar specific medium; among them 4 Lactobacillus strains, including 3L. plantarum strains and one L.gasseri strain, are identified by analyzing the biochemical tests and PCR tests in which 27F and 1492R primers are used. Then, their effects against Salmonella typhimurium using the well-diffusion method are evaluated.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, dairy products Salmonella

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1390 Coffee Consumption: Predictors, Prevalence, Awareness, and Trend among Saudi University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Hanan A. Alfawaz, Sobhy M. Yakout, Malak N. K. Khattak, Amani A. Alsaikhan, Areej A. Almousa, Taghreed A. Alsuwailem, Taghreed M. Almjlad, Nada A. Alamri, Sahar G. Alshammari, Nasser M. Al-Daghri


The consumption of coffee as a beverage is increasing in every part of the world. However, its excessive intake might exert negative effects. Our objective was to demonstrate the prevalence and awareness of coffee consumption among Saudi students and its determinants among this section of the population. Nine hundred thirty female students participated from various departments of King Saud University in a survey-based study using a face-to-face interview. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of coffee consumption (88.2%) among students in the Riyadh region. Certain situations such as exams were associated with increased frequency of coffee intake combined with unhealthy dietary habits of adding other ingredients such as sugar and spices in amount more than needed. Unmarried and fresh year students with high academic grades were associated with higher coffee consumption. The main determinants of coffee consumption among university students were high BMI and increased family income level. Continued awareness and basic knowledge, along with understanding the importance of reading food labels, should be provided to young generations. The university students must be cautioned to limit excessive coffee consumption and maintain healthy dietary habits.

Keywords: academic performance, BMI, coffee, health awareness

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1389 Online Dietary Management System

Authors: Kyle Yatich Terik, Collins Oduor


The current healthcare system has made healthcare more accessible and efficient by the use of information technology through the implementation of computer algorithms that generate menus based on the diagnosis. While many systems just like these have been created over the years, their main objective is to help healthy individuals calculate their calorie intake and assist them by providing food selections based on a pre-specified calorie. That application has been proven to be useful in some ways, and they are not suitable for monitoring, planning, and managing hospital patients, especially that critical condition their dietary needs. The system also addresses a number of objectives, such as; the main objective is to be able to design, develop and implement an efficient, user-friendly as well as and interactive dietary management system. The specific design development objectives include developing a system that will facilitate a monitoring feature for users using graphs, developing a system that will provide system-generated reports to the users, dietitians, and system admins, design a system that allows users to measure their BMI (Body Mass Index), the system will also provide food template feature that will guide the user on a balanced diet plan. In order to develop the system, further research was carried out in Kenya, Nairobi County, using online questionnaires being the preferred research design approach. From the 44 respondents, one could create discussions such as the major challenges encountered from the manual dietary system, which include no easily accessible information of the calorie intake for food products, expensive to physically visit a dietitian to create a tailored diet plan. Conclusively, the system has the potential of improving the quality of life of people as a whole by providing a standard for healthy living and allowing individuals to have readily available knowledge through food templates that will guide people and allow users to create their own diet plans that consist of a balanced diet.

Keywords: DMS, dietitian, patient, administrator

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1388 Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Female College Students in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Noor A. Hakim


Several studies in the developed countries investigated the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among individuals from different socioeconomic levels and suggested lower rates among the higher socioeconomic groups. However, studies evaluating diabetes risk and prevalence of obesity among the population of middle- to high-income status in developing countries are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the weight status of female students in private universities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study of 121 female students aged ≤ 25 years old was conducted; participants were recruited from two private universities. Diabetes risk was evaluated using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated. Diabetes risk scores indicated that 35.5% of the female students had a slightly elevated risk, and 10.8% had a moderate to high risk to develop T2DM. One-third of the females (29.7%) were overweight or obese. The majority of the normal weight and underweight groups were classified to have a low risk of diabetes, 22.2% of the overweight participants were classified to have moderate to high risk, and over half of the obese participants (55.5%) were classified to be at the moderate to high-risk category. Conclusions: Given that diabetes risk is alarming among the population in Saudi Arabia, healthcare providers should utilize a simple screening tool to identify high-risk individuals and initiate diabetes preventive strategies to prevent, or delay, the onset of T2DM and improve the quality of life.

Keywords: risk of type 2 diabetes, weight status, college students, socioeconomic status

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