Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1283

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nutrition and Food Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1283 Rheological Study of Wheat-Chickpea Flour Blend Bread for People with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Tasleem Zafar, Jiwan Sidhu

Abstract:

Introduction: Chickpea flour is known to offer many benefits to diabetic persons, especially in maintaining their blood sugar levels in the acceptable range. Under this project we have studied the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white flour (WF), whole wheat flour (WWF) and chickpea flour (BF), in addition to the effect of replacement of WF and WWF with BF on the rheological characteristics of these flour blends, with the ultimate objective of producing acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread for the diabetic consumers. Methods: WF and WWF were replaced with BF ranging from 0 to 40%, to investigate its effect on the rheological properties and functionality of blended flour dough using farinograph, viscoamylograph, mixograph and falling number apparatus as per the AACC standard methods. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF using Stable Micro System Texture Analyzer. Effect of certain additives, such as freeze-dried amla fruit powder (Phyllanthus emblica L.), guar gum, and xanthan gum on the dough rheological properties were also studied. Results: Freeze-dried amla fruit powder was found to be very rich in ascorbic acid and other phenolics having higher antioxidant activity. A decreased farinograph water absorption, increased dough development time, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, lower ratio numbers were obtained when the replacement with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. The BF gave lower peak viscosity, lower paste breakdown, and lower setback values when compared with WF. The falling number values were significantly lower in WWF (meaning higher α-amylase activity) than both the WF and BF. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF showed significant variations in hardness and compressibility values, dough becoming less hard and less compressible when the replacement of WF and WWF with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. Conclusions: To overcome the deleterious effects of adding BF to WF and WWF on the rheological properties will be an interesting challenge when good quality pan bread and Arabic flatbread have to be commercially produced in a bakery. Use of freeze-dried amla fruit powder, guar gum, and xanthan gum did show some promise to improve the mixing characteristics of WF, WWF, and their blends with BF, and these additives are expected to be useful in producing an acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread on a commercial scale.

Keywords: wheat flour, chickpea flour, amla fruit, rheology

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1282 Proximate Composition, Minerals and Sensory Attributes of Cake, Cookies, Cracker, and Chin-Chin Prepared from Cassava-Gari Residue Flour

Authors: Alice Nwanyioma Ohuoba, Rose Erdoo Kukwa, Ukpabi Joseph Ukpabi

Abstract:

Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) is one of the important carbohydrates containing crops in Nigeria. It is a staple food, mostly in the southern part of the country, and a source of income to farmers and processors. Cassava gari processing methods result to residue fiber (solid waste) from the sieving operation, these residue fibers ( solid wastes) can be dried and milled into flour and used to prepare cakes, cookies, crackers and chin-chin instead of being thrown away mostly on farmland or near the residential area. Flour for baking or frying may contain carbohydrates and protein (wheat flour) or rich in only carbohydrates (cassava flour). Cake, cookies, crackers, and chin-chin were prepared using the residue flour obtained from the residue fiber of cassava variety NR87184 roots, processed into gari. This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, mineral content and sensory attributes of these selected snacks produced. The proximate composition results obtained showed that crackers had the lowest value in moisture (2.3390%) and fat (1.7130%), but highest in carbohydrates (85.2310%). Amongst the food products, cakes recorded the highest value in protein (8.0910%). Crude fibre values ranges from 2.5265% (cookies) to 3.4165% (crackers). The result of the mineral contents showed cookies ranking the highest in Phosphorus (65.8535 ppm) and Iron (0.1150 mg/L), Calcium (1.3800mg/L) and Potassium (7.2850 mg/L) contents, while chin-chin and crackers were lowest in Sodium ( 2.7000 mg/L). The food products were also subjected to sensory attributes evaluation by thirty member panelists using 9-hedonic scale which ranged from 1 ( dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely). The means score obtained shows all the food products having above 7.00 (above “like moderately”). This study has shown that food products that may be functional or nutraceuticals could be prepared from the residue flour. There is a call for the use of gluten-free flour in baking due to ciliac disease and other allergic causes by gluten. Therefore local carbohydrates food crops like cassava residue flour that are gluten-free, could be the solution. In addition, this could aid cassava gari processing waste management thereby reducing post-harvest losses of cassava root.

Keywords: allergy, flour, food-products, gluten-free

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1281 Physicochemical Properties of Low Viscosity Banana Juice

Authors: Victor Vicent, Oscar Kibazohi

Abstract:

Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most largely consumed fruits in the world. It is an excellent source of potassium, antioxidants, and fiber. In East and Central African countries, banana is used to produce low viscosity clear juice using traditional kneading of ripe banana and grasses until juice oozes out. Recently, an improved method involving blending of the banana followed by pressing to separate the juice from pulp has been achieved. This study assessed the physicochemical properties of banana juice prior to product formulation. Two different banana juices from two cultivars: Pisang awak and Mbile an East African Highland Banana (EAHB) were evaluated for viscosity, sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), organic acids (malic, citric and succinic acids) and minerals using the HPLC and AAS. Juice extracted from Pisang awak had a viscosity of 3.43 × 10⁻⁵ N.m⁻² s while EAHB juice had a viscosity of 6.02 × 10⁻⁵ N.m⁻² s. Sugar concentrations varied with banana place of origin. Pisang awak juice had a higher dissolved solids value of 24-28ᵒ Brix then EAHB, whose value was 18-24ᵒ Brix. Juice viscosity was 3.5–5.3 mPa.s, specific gravity was 1.0-1.1, and pH was 4.3-4.8. The average concentration of sucrose, fructose, and glucose was 1.10 g/L, 70 g/L 70 g/l, respectively for Pisang awak from lower altitude compared to 45-200 g/L 45-120 g/l and 45-120 g/L, respectively for Pisang awak from higher altitude. On the other hand, EAHB from North East Tanzania produced juice corresponding concentrations of 45 g/L, 56 g/L, and 55 g/L, respectively while another EAHB from North West of Tanzania had sucrose and fructose and glucose concentration of 155 g/L and 145 g/L. respectively. Dominant acids were malic and citric acids for pisang awak but succinic for EAHB. Dominant minerals in all cultivars were potassium 2.7-3.1 g/L followed by magnesium 0.6-2 g/L.

Keywords: banana juice, sugar content, acids, minerals, quality analysis

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1280 A Differential Scanning Calorimetric Study of Frozen Liquid Egg Yolk Thawed by Different Thawing Methods

Authors: Karina I. Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Judit Csonka, László Friedrich, Ildikó Cs. Nyulas-Zeke

Abstract:

Egg yolk is a popular ingredient in the food industry due to its gelling, emulsifying, colouring, and coagulating properties. Because of the heat sensitivity of proteins, egg yolk can only be heat treated at low temperatures, so its shelf life, even with the addition of a preservative, is only a few weeks. Freezing can increase the shelf life of liquid egg yolk up to 1 year, but it undergoes gelling below -6 ° C, which is an irreversible phenomenon. The degree of gelation depends on the time and temperature of freezing and is influenced by the process of thawing. Therefore, in our experiment, we examined egg yolks thawed in different ways. In this study, unpasteurized, industrially broken, separated, and homogenized liquid egg yolk was used. Freshly produced samples were frozen in plastic containers at -18°C in a laboratory freezer. Frozen storage was performed for 90 days. Samples were analysed at day zero (unfrozen) and after frozen storage for 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Samples were thawed in two ways (at 5°C for 24 hours and 30°C for 3 hours) before testing. Calorimetric properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, where heat flow curves were recorded. Denaturation enthalpy values were calculated by fitting a linear baseline, and denaturation temperature values were evaluated. Besides, dry matter content of samples was measured by the oven method with drying at 105°C to constant weight. For statistical analysis two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) was employed, where thawing mode and freezing time were the fixed factors. Denaturation enthalpy values decreased from 1.1 to 0.47 at the end of the storage experiment, which represents a reduction of about 60%. The effect of freezing time was significant on these values, already the enthalpy of samples stored frozen for 1 day was significantly reduced. However, the mode of thawing did not significantly affect the denaturation enthalpy of the samples, and no interaction was seen between the two factors. The denaturation temperature and dry matter content did not change significantly either during the freezing period or during the defrosting mode. Results of our study show that slow freezing and frozen storage at -18°C greatly reduces the amount of protein that can be denatured in egg yolk, indicating that the proteins have been subjected to aggregation, denaturation or other protein conversions regardless of how they were thawed.

Keywords: denaturation enthalpy, differential scanning calorimetry, liquid egg yolk, slow freezing

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1279 Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-To-Eat Food Sold in Johannesburg, South Africa

Authors: Hattie Hope Makumbe, Bhekisisa Dlamini, Frederick Tabit

Abstract:

Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food. This study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in 80 RTE food sold in the formal (dairy and processed meat) and informal markets (vegetable salads, beef stew, and rice) of Johannesburg, South Africa. High Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, and E. coli counts were obtained, which ranged from 1.9-7.5 log CFU/g. Listeria monocytogenes microbial counts in the food samples ranged from 3.5-6.0 log colony forming unit per gram except in cooked rice. The Listeria monocytogenes isolates were identified using biochemical tests and confirmed with the Biolog identification system and PCR analyses. The percentage incidence for Listeria monocytogenes in ready to eat food was 12.5%. When Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations were under consideration, all disinfectants were effective against Listeria monocytogenes strains. For antimicrobial work, rates of resistance amongst the antibiotics ranged from 17-100%. Therefore, more effective preventive control strategies for Listeria monocytogenes are needed to reduce the prevalence of the pathogen in RTE food that is sold in Johannesburg.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species, ready to eat food, sanitiser efficacy

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1278 Cultural Environment, Behavior and Diabetes Melitus Incident in Urban Area of Semarang, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Efa Nugroho, Berta Kalswahermawati

Abstract:

Diabetes occurs 10 years faster in the Southeast Asian region than the European region, which occurs in the most productive periods. Cultural differences as well as cultural transitions can be determinant factors of health cases in urban and rural areas. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of the cultural environment, behavior and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in urban areas of Semarang, Indonesia. The research was conducted in the area of Semarang Regency, using a quantitative approach and supported by qualitative data, the population is DM type 2 patients, sample size of 200 people, with a purposive sampling technique. The independent variable consists of cultural environment, behavior, and the dependent variable is DM. The data is analyzed with regression test method. Cultural environment affects behavior positively, with t value of 4,690 and p (sig.) 0.000, this means sig <0.05, while the effect of behavior on Diabetes Mellitus obtained t value 2.950 with p-value (sig.) 0.003 this means that sig <0.05, thus it can be interpreted that the behavior has a significant effect on Diabetes Mellitus. The cultural environment directly affects the incidence of DM. It can also shape a person's behavior or lifestyle or habit, whether healthy or unhealthy one, which in turn causes symptoms of DM.

Keywords: Behavior, Cultural Environment, Diebetes Millitus, Urban

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1277 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Street Vendors in Mangaung Metro South Africa

Authors: Gaofetoge Lenetha, Malerato Moloi, Ntsoaki Malebo

Abstract:

Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold by street vendors has become an important public health issue. In developing countries including South Africa, health risks related to such kinds of foods are thought to be common. Thus, this study assessed knowledge, attitude and practices of street food vendors. Street vendors in the city of Mangaung Metro were investigated in order to assess their knowledge, attitudes and handling practices. A semi-structured questionnaire and checklist were used in interviews to determine the status of the vending sites and associa. ted food-handling practices. Data was collected by means of a face-to-face interview. The majority of respondents were black females. Hundred percent (100%) of the participants did not have any food safety training. However, street vendors showed a positive attitude towards food safety. Despite the positive attitude, vendors showed some non-compliance when it comes to handling food. During the survey, it was also observed that the vending stalls lack basic infrastructures like toilets and potable water that is currently a major problem. This study indicates a need for improvements in the environmental conditions at these sites to prevent foodborne diseases. Moreover, based on the results observed food safety and food hygiene training or workshops for street vendors are highly recommended.

Keywords: food hygiene, foodborne illnesses, food safety, Street foods

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1276 The Enquiry of Food Culture Products, Practices and Perspectives: An Action Research on Teaching and Learning Food Culture from International Food Documentary Films

Authors: Tsuiping Chen

Abstract:

It has always been an international consensus that food forms a big part of any culture since the old times. However, this idea has not been globally concretized until the announcement of including food or cuisine as intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2010. This announcement strengthens the value of food culture, which is getting more and more notice by every country. Although Taiwan is not one of the members of the United Nations, we cannot detach ourselves from this important global trend, especially when we have a lot of culinary students expected to join the world culinary job market. These students should have been well educated with the knowledge of world food culture to make them have the sensibility and perspectives for the occurring global food issues before joining the culinary jobs. Under the premise of the above concern, the researcher and also the instructor took on action research with one class of students in the 'Food Culture' course watching, discussing, and analyzing 12 culinary documentary films selected from one decade’s (2007-2016) of Berlin Culinary Cinema in one semester of class hours. In addition, after class, the students separated themselves into six groups and joined 12 times of one-hour-long focus group discussion on the 12 films conducted by the researcher. Furthermore, during the semester, the students submitted their reflection reports on each film to the university e-portfolio system. All the focus discussions and reflection reports were recorded and collected for further analysis by the researcher and one invited film researcher. Glaser and Strauss’ Grounded Theory (1967) constant comparison method was employed to analyze the collected data. Finally, the findings' results were audited by all participants of the research. All the participants and the researchers created 200 items of food culture products, 74 items of food culture practices, and 50 items of food culture perspectives from the action research journey through watching culinary documentaries. The journey did broaden students’ points of view on world food culture and enhance their capability on perspective construction for food culture. Four aspects of significant findings were demonstrated. First, learning food culture through watching Berlin culinary films helps students link themselves to the happening global food issues such as food security, food poverty, and food sovereignty, which direct them to rethink how people should grow, share and consume food. Second, watching different categories of documentary food films enhances students’ strong sense of responsibility for ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all people in every corner of the world. Third, watching these documentary films encourages students to think if the culinary education they have accepted in this island is inclusive and the importance of quality education, which can promote lifelong learning. Last but not least, the journey of the culinary documentary film watching in the 'Food Culture' course inspires students to take pride in their profession. It is hoped the model of teaching food culture with culinary documentary films will inspire more food culture educators, researchers, and the culinary curriculum designers.

Keywords: food culture, action research, culinary documentary films, food culture products, practices, perspectives

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1275 Pomegranate Peel Based Edible Coating Treatment for Safety and Quality of Chicken Nuggets

Authors: Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Sadaf Bashir

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of pomegranate peel based edible coating were determined on safety and quality of chicken nuggets. Four treatment groups were prepared as control (without coating), coating with sodium alginate (SA) (1.5%), pomegranate peel powder (PPP) (1.5%), and combination of SA and PPP. There was a significant variation observed with respect to coating treatments and storage intervals. The chicken nuggets were subjected to refrigerated storage (40C) and were analyzed at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14 1 and 21 days. The microbiological quality was determined by total aerobic and coliform counts. Total aerobic (5.09±0.05 log CFU/g) and coliforms (3.91±0.06 log CFU/g) counts were higher in uncoated chicken nuggets whereas lower was observed in coated chicken nuggets having combination of SA and PPP. Likewise, antioxidants potential of chicken nuggets was observed by assessing total phenolic contents (TPC) and DPPH activity. Higher TPC (135.66 GAE/100g) and DPPH (64.65%) were found in combination with SA and PPP, whereas minimum TPC (91.38) and DPPH (41.48) was observed in uncoated chicken nuggets. Regarding the stability analysis of chicken nuggets, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (POV) were determined. Higher TBARS (1.62±0.03 MDA/Kg) and POV (0.92±0.03 meq peroxide/kg) were found in uncoated chicken nuggets. Hunter color values were also observed in both uncoated and coated chicken nuggets. Sensorial attributes were also observed by the trained panelists. The higher sensory score for appearance, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability were observed in control (uncoated) while in coated treatments, it was found within acceptable limits. In nutshell, the combination of SA and PPP enhanced the overall quality, antioxidant potential, and stability of chicken nuggets.

Keywords: chicken nuggets, edible coatings, pomegranate peel powder, sodium alginate

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1274 Kitchen Bureaucracy: The Preparation of Banquets for Medieval Japanese Royalty

Authors: Emily Warren

Abstract:

Despite the growing body of research on Japanese food history, little has been written about the attitudes and perspectives premodern Japanese people held about their food, even on special celebratory days. In fact, the overall image that arises from the literature is one of ambivalence: that the medieval nobility of the Heian and Kamakura periods (795-1333) did not much care about what they ate and for that reason, food seems relatively scarce in certain historical records. This study challenges this perspective by analyzing the manuals written to guide palace management and feast preparation for royals, introducing two of the sources into English for the first time. This research is primarily based on three manuals that address different aspects of royal food culture and preparation. The Chujiruiki, or Record of the Palace Kitchens (1295), is a fragmentary manual written by a bureaucrat in charge of the main palace kitchen office. This document collection details the utensils, furnishing, and courses that officials organized for the royals’ two daily meals in the morning (asagarei gozen) and in the afternoon (hiru gozen) when they enjoyed seven courses, each one carefully cooked and plated. The orchestration of daily meals and frequent banquets would have been complicated affairs for those preparing the tableware and food, thus requiring texts like the Chûjiruiki, as well as another manual, the Nicchûgyôji (11th c.), or The Daily Functions. Because of the complex coordination between various kitchen-related bureaucratic offices, kitchen officials endeavored to standardize the menus and place settings depending on the time of year, religious abstinence days, and available ingredients flowing into the capital as taxes. For the most important annual banquets and rites celebrating deities and the royal family, kitchen officials would likely refer to the Engi Shiki (927), or Protocols of the Engi Era, for details on offerings, servant payments, and menus. This study proposes that many of the great feast events, and indeed even daily meals at the palace, were so standardized and carefully planned for repetition that there would have been little need for the contents of such feasts to be detailed in diaries or novels—places where historians have noted a lack of the mention of food descriptions. These descriptions were not included for lack of interest on the part of the nobility, but rather because knowledge of what would be served at banquets and feasts would be considered a matter-of-course in the same way that a modern American would likely not need to state the menu of a traditional Thanksgiving meal to an American audience. Where food was concerned, novelty more so than tradition prompted a response in personal records, like diaries.

Keywords: banquets, bureaucracy, Engi shiki, Japanese food

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1273 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui

Abstract:

The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: fermented milk, pectin, gelatin, whey proteins, functional properties, quality, conservation, valorization

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1272 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Tomato Fruits: Experimental and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mallikarjunachari G., Venkata Ravi M.

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and critical rupture load of tomato fruits. Determination of mechanical properties of tomato fruits is essential in various material handling applications, especially as related to robot harvesting, packaging, and transportation. However, extracting meaningful mechanical properties of tomato fruits are extremely challenging due to its layered structure, i.e., the combination of exocarp, mesocarp, and locular gel tissues. Apart from this layered structure, other physical parameters such as diameter, sphericity, locule number, and, the surface to volume ratio also influence the mechanical properties. In this research work, tomato fruits are cultivated in two different ways, namely organic and inorganic farming. Static compression tests are performed to extract the mechanical properties of tomato fruits. Finite element simulations are done to complement the experimental results. It is observed that the effective modulus decreases as the compression depth increase from 0.5 mm to 10 mm and also a critical load of fracture decreases as the locule number increases from 3 to 5. Significant differences in mechanical properties are observed between organically and inorganically cultivated tomato fruits. The current study significantly helps in the design of material handling systems to avoid damage of tomato fruits.

Keywords: elastic modulus, critical load of fracture, locule number, finite element analysis

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1271 Characterization of Potato Starch/Guar Gum Composite Film Modified by Ecofriendly Cross-Linkers

Authors: Sujosh Nandi, Proshanta Guha

Abstract:

Synthetic plastics are preferred for food packaging due to high strength, stretch-ability, good water vapor and gas barrier properties, transparency and low cost. However, environmental pollution generated by these synthetic plastics is a major concern of modern human civilization. Therefore, use of biodegradable polymers as a substitute for synthetic non-biodegradable polymers are encouraged to be used even after considering drawbacks related to mechanical and barrier properties of the films. Starch is considered one of the potential raw material for the biodegradable polymer, encounters poor water barrier property and mechanical properties due to its hydrophilic nature. That apart, recrystallization of starch molecules occurs during aging which decreases flexibility and increases elastic modulus of the film. The recrystallization process can be minimized by blending of other hydrocolloids having similar structural compatibility, into the starch matrix. Therefore, incorporation of guar gum having a similar structural backbone, into the starch matrix can introduce a potential film into the realm of biodegradable polymer. However, hydrophilic nature of both starch and guar gum, water barrier property of the film is low. One of the prospective solution to enhance this could be modification of the potato starch/guar gum (PSGG) composite film using cross-linker. Over the years, several cross-linking agents such as phosphorus oxychloride, sodium trimetaphosphate, etc. have been used to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films. However, these chemical cross-linking agents are toxic, expensive and take longer time to degrade. Therefore, naturally available carboxylic acid (tartaric acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, etc.) had been used as a cross-linker and found that water barrier property enhanced substantially. As per our knowledge, no works have been reported with tartaric acid and succinic acid as a cross-linking agent blended with the PSGG films. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the changes in water vapor barrier property and mechanical properties of the PSGG films after cross-linked with tartaric acid (TA) and succinic acid (SA). The cross-linkers were blended with PSGG film-forming solution at four different concentrations (4, 8, 12 & 16%) and cast on teflon plate at 37°C for 20 h. From the fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study of the developed films, a band at 1720cm-1 was observed which is attributed to the formation of ester group in the developed films. On the other hand, it was observed that tensile strength (TS) of the cross-linked film decreased compared to non-cross linked films, whereas strain at break increased by several folds. Moreover, the results depicted that tensile strength diminished with increasing the concentration of TA or SA and lowest TS (1.62 MPa) was observed for 16% SA. That apart, maximum strain at break was also observed for TA at 16% and the reason behind this could be a lesser degree of crystallinity of the TA cross-linked films compared to SA. However, water vapor permeability of succinic acid cross-linked film was reduced significantly, but it was enhanced significantly by addition of tartaric acid.

Keywords: cross linking agent, guar gum, organic acids, potato starch

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1270 Tomato Quality Produced in Saline Soils Using Irrigation with Treated Electromagnetic Water

Authors: Angela Vacaro de Souza, Fernando Ferrari Putti

Abstract:

One of the main plants cultivated in protected environment is tomato crop, which presents significant growth in its demand, because it is a tasty fruit, rich in nutrients and of high added value, however, poor management of fertilizers induces the process of soil salinization, causing several consequences, from reduced productivity to even soil infertility. These facts are derived from the increased concentration of salts, which hampers the process of water absorption by the plant, resulting in a biochemical and nutritional imbalance in the plant. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of untreated and electromagnetically treated water in salinized soils on physical, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters in tomato fruits. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tupã Campus (FCE/UNESP). A randomized complete block design with two types of treated water was adopted, with five different levels of initial salinity (0; 1.5; 2.5; 4; 5.5; 7 dS m⁻¹) by fertigation. Although the effects of salinity on fruit quality parameters are evident, no beneficial effects on increasing or maintaining postharvest quality of fruits whose plants were treated with electromagnetized water were evidenced.

Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, soil salinization, protected environment, fertigation

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1269 Probiotics as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment of Various Diseases: A Literature Review

Authors: K. B. Chathyushya, M. Shiva Prakash, R. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a number of microorganisms (microbiota) that influences the host’s health. The imbalance in the gut microbiota, which is also called as gut dysbiosis, affects human health which causes various metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Probiotics play an important role in reinstating the gut balance. Probiotics are involved in the maintenance of healthier gut microbiota and have also been identified as effective adjuvants in insulin resistance therapies. Methods: This paper systematically reviews different randomized, controlled, blinded trials of probiotics for the treatment of various diseases along with the therapeutic or prophylactic properties of probiotic bacteria in different metabolic, inflammatory, infectious and anxiety-related disorders. Conclusion: The present review summarises that probiotics have some considerable effect in the management of various diseases, however, the benefits are strain specific, although more clinical trials are need to be carried out with different probiotic and symbiotic combinations as some probiotics have broad spectrum of benefits and few with specific activity

Keywords: life style diseases, cognition, health, gut dysbiosis, probiotics

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1268 Commodity Factory or Food Farms an Irrational Dilemma: Reflections on the Brazilian Scenario

Authors: Monica Dantas

Abstract:

At what socio-economic costs can the food industry offer products at low prices? This research seeks to understand and to explore how we attribute competence and meaning, what enables the outcomes of agriculture and what institutions provides validation regarding food production. This study objective is to explain and interpret conditions of the present state of agriculture in Brazil centring on two distinct segments, agribusiness and family farming, as the Brazilian, rapidly changing political environment unfolds. The approach is grounded in multidisciplinary literature drawing from the politics of development, the sociology of food, the sustainability framework and the conceptual differences between agribusiness and family farming regarding the innate purpose of the two segments. In addition, a quantitative portion of the research includes secondary data analysis from statistical measurements, economic indicators, federal budget information, and census data to compare the two segments, conveying a general snapshot of the conditions investigated. The results raised questions about the perceived image of the success of agribusiness, against some contradicting economic checks and balances. Analyzing how public funds are invested in agriculture shed light on what can enable or undermine the development of food systems in Brazil. It also revealed how politics, ideology, and corporations might influence the Brazilian Federal. In the 2000-2018 observed timeline of annual federal spending on agriculture in Brazil, there is variation in the amount invested in family farming that seems to 'coincide' with the ideological direction of the federal government in power. It was also observed that significant changes in the institutional framework and financial support either promoted or purposely undermined family farming importance using public institutions to validate support for agribusiness.

Keywords: food politics, sustainability, family farming, food system, public budget

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1267 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: food safety, food packaging, essential oils, nanotechnology

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1266 Effect of Cadmium and Zinc on Initial Insect Food Chain in Wheat Agroecosystem

Authors: Muhammad Xaaceph Khan, Abida Butt, Farah Kausar

Abstract:

Due to geogenic and anthropogenic factors, heavy metals concentrations increased throughout the world and deposit into soil. Thus available to different plants and travel in different food chains. The present study was designed to achieve bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in the wheat-aphid-beetle food chain. For this purpose, wheat plants were grown in three different treatments: Cd, Zn, Cd+Zn. Data showed that Cd content in soil and wheat plant increases with increase in Cd concentration while plant weighs, panicle weight, seed number per panicle and seed weight per panicle decreases with increase in Cd content in the soil. Zn content in soil and wheat plant increases with increase in Cd concentration while plant weighs, panicle weight, seed number per panicle, and seed weight per panicle increase with an increase in Zn content in the soil. With the addition of Zn in Cd-treated soil, the uptake of Cd decreases in all parts of wheat plants. Bioaccumulation from wheat plant to aphids and then its predators were also studied. Cd concentration increases from low to high concentration in all arthropods. Same was observed in Zn concentrations, while in Cd+Zn, Cd accumulation decreases but Zn accumulates increases. Health risk index (HRI) also showed that in the presence of Zn, the HRI improves and can help to reduce health risks associated with Cd.

Keywords: aphid, beetle, bioaccumulation, cadmium, wheat, zinc

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1265 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev

Abstract:

Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.

Keywords: breads, bioactive compounds, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scores

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1264 Antioxidant Potential, Nutritional Value and Sensory Profiles of Bread Fortified with Kenaf Leaves

Authors: Kar Lin Nyam, Phey Yee Lim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant potential, nutritional composition, and functional properties of kenaf leaves powder. Besides, the effect of kenaf leaves powder in bread qualities, properties, and consumer acceptability were evaluated. Different formulations of bread fortified with 0%, 4% and 8% kenaf leaves powder, respectively were produced. Physical properties of bread, such as loaf volume, dough expansion, crumb colour, and bread texture, were determined. Nine points hedonic scale was utilized in sensory evaluation to determine the best formulation (the highest overall acceptability). Proximate composition, calcium content, and antioxidant properties were also determined for the best formulation. 4% leaves powder bread was the most preferred by the panelists followed by control bread, and the least preferred was being 8% leaves powder bread. 4% leaves powder bread had significantly higher value of DPPH radical scavenging capacity (8.05 mg TE/100g), total phenolic content (12.88 mg GAE/100g) and total flavonoid content (13.26 mg QE/100g) compared to control bread (1.38 mg TE/100g, 8.17 mg GAE/100g, and 8.77 mg QE/100g respectively). Besides, 4% leaves powder bread also showed higher in calcium content and total dietary fiber compared to control bread. Kenaf leaves powder is suitable to be used as a source of natural antioxidant for fortification and nutrient improver in bread.

Keywords: dietary fibre, calcium, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content

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1263 Postprandial Glycemic and Appetite Responses of Muffins Supplemented with Different Vegetables in Young Males

Authors: Muhammad Umair Arshad

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Different vegetables have been reported to possess diabetic potential in in-vitro studies; however, the same role of these vegetables has not been much explored through human intervention. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the comparative effects of muffins supplemented with bitter gourd (BGM), and other vegetables like spinach (SPM) and eggplant (EPM) on subjective appetite, blood glucose (BG), gut hormones and food intake in healthy young males through a randomized, cross over experiment. Methods and Study Design: After 12 hours fasting, twenty-four healthy young males (18-30 Y) were fed 250ml of plain muffins (control) or supplemented with bitter gourd powder, BGM (10g/100g flour), or spinach powder, SPM (10g/100g flour), or eggplant powder, EPM (10g/100g flour). An ad libitum pizza meal was served at 120min to measure the food intake. Subjective appetite, blood glucose, and gut hormones (insulin, GLP-1, active ghrelin) were measured at intervals from baseline to 120min. Results: Post-treatment (0-120min) glucose, but not insulin, decreased following all the vegetables supplemented muffins compared to the control (p < 0.0001) with a more pronounced effect of BGM. However, post-treatment avg. subjective appetite (p=0.0017) and food intake (p=0.0021) were reduced following BGM but not SPM and EPM. BGM further improved GLP-1 concentration (p < 0.0001), and reduced active ghrelin (p=0.0022), compared with control. Conclusions: The bitter gourd supplemented baked foods possess potential more than other vegetables to regulate postprandial appetite and glycemic responses, without a disproportionate increase in insulin concentration.

Keywords: vegetables, muffins, glucose homeostasis, subjective appetite, food intake

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1262 Development of Low Calorie Jelly with Increased Content of Natural Compounds from Superfoods with No Added Sugar

Authors: Liana C. Salanță, Maria Tofană, Carmen R. Pop, Vlad Mureșan

Abstract:

The landscape of functional food is expanding very fast, due to the consumer interest for healthy natural products. Consumers nowadays demand healthy products that impart phytonutrients to encourage good health and well-being, prevent diseases, without sacrificing taste and texture. Candies are foodstuffs appreciated by all category of consumers. They are available in a range variety of forms (jellies, marshmallows, caramels, lollipops, etc.). Jelly is characterized by a gummy and chewy texture typically conferred by a hydrocolloid (gelatin, pectin). The purpose of this research was to obtain hypocaloric jelly (no added sugar) enriched with protein powder from acai, chia seeds and hemp, which are considered superfood. Peach and raspberry juice were used for obtaining functional jelly, due to the specific flavour, natural carbohydrate, natural pigments and vitamins (C, B1, PP, etc). Instead of classic hydrocolloids used in Romania for the industry of jelly, agar-agar was used in this study, due to its properties. Agar-agar is able to form gels in the aqueous medium, stronger than other gel-forming agents. High sugar concentrations or an acid environment (as is necessary with pectins) are not needed. In addition to its gelation properties, Agar-agar is considered to have important nutritional benefits, high content of fibre and has low calories. Six prototypes of jellies were obtained and evaluated by physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial analysis. For the textural profile analysis, the Brookfield CT3 Texture Analyzer, equipped with a 10kg load cell, was used. The results revealed that hypocaloric jelly can serve as a good source of bioactive compounds in the diet. The jelly is a convenient way of delivering potential health benefits of protein powder and agar-agar to a wide range of consumers.

Keywords: agar-agar, functional food, hypocaloric jelly, superfoods

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1261 Antioxidant Efficacy of Lovi (Flacourtia inermis) Peel Extract in Edible Oils during Storage

Authors: Sasini U. G. Nanayakkara, Nishala E. Wedamulla, W. A. J. P. Wijesinghe

Abstract:

Lovi (Flacourtia inermis) is an underutilized fruit crop grown in Sri Lanka with promising antioxidant properties; thus, exhibits the great potential to use as a natural antioxidant. With the concern of synthetic antioxidants, there is a growing trend towards the addition of a natural antioxidant to retard the rancidity of edible oils. Hence, in this backdrop, extract obtained from the peel of F. inermis fruit was used to retard the rancidity of selected edible oils. Free fatty acid (FFA) content and peroxide value (PV) of sunflower oil (SO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were measured at 3-day intervals for 21 days at 65 ± 5°C after addition of extract at 500, 1000, 2000 ppm levels and α-tocopherol at 500 ppm level was used as positive control. SO and VCO without added extract was used as the control. The extract was prepared with 70% ethanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction, and antioxidant efficacy and total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract were measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and Folin-Ciocalteu method respectively. Antioxidant activity (IC50) and TPC of the extract were 227.14 ± 4.12 µgmL⁻¹ and 4.87 ± 0.01 mg GAE per gram, respectively. During the storage period, FFA content and PV of both oils were increased with time. However, SO showed comparatively high PV than that of VCO and thereby indicate the progression of lipid oxidation as PV is a good indicator of the extent of primary oxidative products formed in oils. The most effective extract concentration was 2000 ppm. After 21 days of storage, VCO (control) sample exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) high FFA (0.36%) and PV (1.93 meq kg⁻¹) than that of VCO with 1000 ppm (FFA: 0.35%; PV: 1.72 meq kg⁻¹) and 2000 ppm (FFA: 0.28%; PV: 1.19 meq kg-1) levels of extract. Thus, demonstrates the efficacy of lovi peel extract in retardation of lipid oxidation of edible oils during storage at higher concentrations of the extract addition. Moreover, FFA and PV of SO (FFA: 0.10%; PV: 12.38 meq kg⁻¹) and VCO (FFA: 0.28%; PV: 1.19 meq kg⁻¹) at 2000 ppm level of extract were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of positive control: SO with α-tocopherol (FFA: 0.22%, PV: 17.94 meq kg⁻¹) and VCO with α-tocopherol (FFA: 0.29%, PV: 1.39 meq kg⁻¹) after 21 days. Accordingly, lovi peel extract at 2000 ppm level was more effective than α-tocopherol in retardation of lipid oxidation of edible oils. In conclusion, lovi peel extract has strong antioxidant properties and can be used as a natural antioxidant to inhibit deteriorative oxidation of edible oils.

Keywords: antioxidant, Flacourtia inermis, peroxide value, virgin coconut oil

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1260 Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Peels

Authors: E. Chiam, E. Koh, W. Teh, M. Prabhakaran

Abstract:

Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are widely eaten for their nutritional value and associated health benefits being an immense source of bioactive compounds. However, F&V peels are often discarded, and it accounts for a higher proportion of food waste. Incorporation of F&V peels as functional ingredients can add more value to food due to the higher amounts of phytochemicals present in them. In this research, methanolic extracts of different F&V peels, namely apple, orange, kiwi, grapefruit, dragon fruit, pomelo, and pumpkin are investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) assay and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assay using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out during this study to determine the antidiabetic potential of F&V peels. Results of our study showed that grapefruit peels contained the highest total phenolic content of 477.81 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight of the sample, and kiwi peel had the highest antioxidant capacity (90.51 ± 0.10 % inhibition of DPPH radical) among the different F&V peels studied. Fruit peels exhibited high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Comparing fruit peels with vegetable peels, it was found that fruit peels had high total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and anti-diabetic potential compared to vegetable peels.

Keywords: polyphenolics, fruit peels, antioxidant, antidiabetic

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1259 Application of Active Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Spirulina Extract as a Potential Food Packaging Material for Enhancing Quality and Shelf Life of Shrimp

Authors: Rafik Balti, Nourhene Zayoud, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Abdellah Arhaliass, Anthony Masse

Abstract:

Application of edible films and coatings with natural active compounds for enhancing storage stability of food products is a promising active packaging approach. Shrimp are generally known as valuable seafood products around the world because of their delicacy and good nutritional. However, shrimp is highly vulnerable to quality deterioration associated with biochemical, microbiological or physical changes during postmortem storage, which results in the limited shelf life of the product. Chitosan is considered as a functional packaging component for maintaining the quality and increasing the shelf life of perishable foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate edible coating of crab chitosan containing variable levels of ethanolic extract of Spirulina on microbiological (mesophilic aerobic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteriacea), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, PV, TBARS) and sensory (odor, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptance) properties of shrimp during refrigerated storage. Also, textural and color characteristics of coated shrimp were performed. According to the obtained results, crab chitosan in combination with Spirulina extract was very effective in order to extend the shelf life of shrimp during storage in refrigerated condition.

Keywords: food packaging, chitosan, spirulina extract, white shrimp, shelf life

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1258 Implication of Oxidative Stress and Intracellular Mediators in the Protective Effect of Artemisia campestris against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rat Model

Authors: Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Haifa Tounsi, Lamjed Marzouki

Abstract:

Artemisia campestris has been widely used in Tunisian traditional medicine for its health beneficial effects. However, the present study aims at evaluating the antiulcer effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well as the mechanism of action involved in such gastroprotection. In this respect, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, aspirin (ASPR), ASPR + various doses of ACAE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), ASPR+ famotidine and ASPR+ caffeic acid. Animals were pre-treated with ACAE extract during 10 days. We firstly showed that aspirin administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level, a decrease of sulfhydryl -(SH) groups content and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Pre-treatment with ACAE protected against aspirin-induced gastric oxidative stress. More importantly, aspirin administration increased plasma and tissue hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), free iron and calcium levels while the ACAE pre-treatment reversed all aspirin-induced intracellular mediators disturbance. The results of the present study clearly indicated that AEAC gastroprotection might be related, at least in part, to its antioxidant properties as well as to various gastric mucosal defense mechanisms, including the protection of gastric sulfhydryls and an opposite effect on some intracellular mediators such as free iron, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium. However, our data confirm the use of Artemisia campestris extracts in the Tunisian traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Artemisia campestris, oxidative stress, sulfhydryl groups, Fenton reaction, rat

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1257 To Assess the Awareness and Health Seeking Practices Related to Vitamin-A Deficiency Diseases in Urban Slums of Delhi, India

Authors: Dr.Vasundhra Misra, Prof. Praveen Vashist

Abstract:

Purpose: Vitamin A deficiency prevention programmes are at varying stages of development and implementation in all countries. Vitamin A deficiency has been recognized as a public health issue in developing countries like India. Despite achieving a lot of success a load of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiencies is still high. In this regard, a study was conducted to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices about Vitamin A deficiency diseases among the urban slum population of Delhi, India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the 5 slum clusters from the urban population of South Delhi. A specially designed pre-tested questionnaire schedule was administered. The study sample was comprised of 1552 inhabitants. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34 ± 12.1 years. A total of 1003 (64.6%) participants out of 1552, had heard of night blindness. Awareness of night blindness was more in the elderly age group and also found significant (p < 0.001). Only 31 (3.1%) knew that night blindness is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A. The awareness of vitamin A prophylaxis programme was significantly higher among elder age (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings highlighted that even though many of the respondents have heard of night blindness but the awareness about causes and treatment was found low in the community. There is a need for efforts directed to enhance community-level counseling and educational programmes.

Keywords: awareness, health-seeking practices, night blindness, vitamin-A deficiency diseases

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1256 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz

Abstract:

GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, neuroinflammation, cytokines, high-fat-diet

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1255 Evaluation of Storage Stability and Quality Parameters in Biscuit Made from Blends of Wheat, Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour

Authors: Aminat. O Adelekan, Olawale T. Gbadebo

Abstract:

Biscuit is one of the most consumed cereal foods in Nigeria and research has shown that locally available tropical crops like cassava, sweet potato can be made into flour and used in the production of biscuits and other pastries. This study investigates some quality parameters in biscuits made from blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour. The values of result of samples increased with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour in some quality parameter like fiber, ash, gluten content, and carbohydrate. The protein content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour which ranged from 14.80% to 11.80% compared with the control sample which had 15.60%. There was a recorded significant increase (P < 0.05) in some mineral composition such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamin A and C composition as the percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour increased. During storage stability test, samples stored in the fridge and freezer were found to be the best storage location to preserve the sensory attributes and inhibit microbial growth when compared with storage under the sun and on the shelf. Biscuit made with blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour can therefore serve as an alternative to biscuits made from 100% wheat flour, as they are richer in vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and some essential minerals.

Keywords: biscuit, carrot, flour blends, storage

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1254 Vitamin Content of Swordfish (Xhiphias gladius) Affected by Salting and Frying

Authors: L. Piñeiro, N. Cobas, L. Gómez-Limia, S. Martínez, I. Franco

Abstract:

The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a large oceanic fish of high commercial value, which is widely distributed in waters of the world’s oceans. They are considered to be an important source of high quality proteins, vitamins and essential fatty acids, although only half of the population follows the recommendation of nutritionists to consume fish at least twice a week. Swordfish is consumed worldwide because of its low fat content and high protein content. It is generally sold as fresh, frozen, and as pieces or slices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salting and frying on the composition of the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B9 and B12) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) of swordfish. Three loins of swordfish from Pacific Ocean were analyzed. All the fishes had a weight between 50 and 70 kg and were transported to the laboratory frozen (-18 ºC). Before the processing, they were defrosted at 4 ºC. Each loin was sliced and salted in brine. After cleaning the slices, they were divided into portions (10×2 cm) and fried in olive oil. The identification and quantification of vitamins were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using methanol and 0.010% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases at a flow-rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The UV-Vis detector was used for the detection of the water- and fat-soluble vitamins (A and D), as well as the fluorescence detector for the detection of the vitamin E. During salting, water and fat-soluble vitamin contents remained constant, observing an evident decrease in the values of vitamin B2. The diffusion of salt into the interior of the pieces and the loss of constitution water that occur during this stage would be related to this significant decrease. In general, after frying water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins showed a great thermolability with high percentages of retention with values among 50–100%. Vitamin B3 is the one that exhibited higher percentages of retention with values close to 100%. However, vitamin B9 presented the highest losses with a percentage of retention of less than 20%.

Keywords: frying, HPLC, salting, swordfish, vitamins

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