Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1534

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nutrition and Food Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1534 A New Development Pathway And Innovative Solutions Through Food Security System

Authors: Osatuyi Kehinde Micheal

Abstract:

There is much research that has contributed to an improved understanding of the future of food security, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pathway was developed by using a local community kitchen in Muizenberg in western cape province, cape town, south Africa, a case study to map out the future of food security in times of crisis. This kitchen aims to provide nutritious, affordable, plant-based meals to our community. It is also a place of diverse learning, sharing, empowering the volunteers, and growth to support the local economy and future resilience by sustaining our community kitchen for the community. This document contains an overview of the story of the community kitchen on how we create self-sustainability as a new pathway development to sustain the community and reduce Zero hunger in the regional food system. This paper describes the key elements of how we respond to covid-19 pandemic by sharing food parcels and creating 13 soup kitchens across the community to tackle the immediate response to covid-19 pandemic and agricultural systems by growing home food gardening in different homes, also having a consciousness Dry goods store to reduce Zero waste and a local currency as an innovation to reduce food crisis. Insights gained from our article and outreach and their value in how we create adaptation, transformation, and sustainability as a new development pathway to solve any future problem crisis in the food security system in our society.

Keywords: sustainability, food security, community development, adapatation, transformation

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1533 New Off-Line SPE-GC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Mineral Oil Saturated Hydrocarbons/Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons in Animal Feed, Foods, Infant Formula and Vegetable Oils

Authors: Ovanes Chakoyan

Abstract:

MOH (mineral oil hydrocarbons), which consist of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons(MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons(MOAH), are present in various products such as vegetable oils, animal feed, foods, and infant formula. Contamination of foods with mineral oil hydrocarbons, particularly mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons(MOAH), exhibiting carcinogenic, mutagenic, and hormone-disruptive effects. Identifying toxic substances among the many thousands comprising mineral oils in food samples is a difficult analytical challenge. A method based on an offline-solid phase extraction approach coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole(GC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of MOSH/MOAH in various products such as vegetable oils, animal feed, foods, and infant formula. A glass solid phase extraction cartridge loaded with 7 g of activated silica gel impregnated with 10 % silver nitrate for removal of olefins and lipids. The MOSH/MOAH fractions were eluated with hexane and hexane: dichloromethane : toluene, respectively. Each eluate was concentrated to 50 µl in toluene and injected on splitless mode into GC-MS/MS. Accuracy of the method was estimated as measurement of recovery of spiked oil samples at 2.0, 15.0, and 30.0 mg kg -1, and recoveries varied from 85 to 105 %. The method was applied to the different types of samples (sunflower meal, chocolate ships, santa milk chocolate, biscuits, infant milk, cornflakes, refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil), detecting MOSH up to 56 mg/kg and MOAH up to 5 mg/kg. The limit of quantification(LOQ) of the proposed method was estimated at 0.5 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg for MOSH and MOAH, respectively.

Keywords: MOSH, MOAH, GC-MS/MS, foods, solid phase extraction

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1532 Anti-diabetic Potential of Olive (Olea Europaea) Leaves Extract: In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Sobhy El-Sohaimy, Abduvali Toshev, Hanem Mansour

Abstract:

(1) Objective: The main objective of the current study was to evaluate in an In Vitro and In Vivo, the potential activity of olive leaves extract (OLE) in the treatment and/or preventing the diabetes mellitus type II and related implications; (2) Methodology: Five groups of male rats were used in the current study: group (1)- negative control (normal); group (2)- positive control, streptozotocin (STZ) induced rats; group (3)-diabetic rats treated with metformin (200 mg/kg) plus OLE (200 mg/kg); group 4- diabetic rats treated with metformin (200 mg/kg); group 5- diabetic rats treated with OLE (200 mg/kg). A four-week regime of oral treatment was administered once daily; (3) Results: Diabetic rats treated with metformin + OLE clearly showed normal blood glucose level (121.67 ± 5.49 mg/dl), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (3.70 ± 0.10%). The combination of metformin + OLE obviously showed a superior improvement in the lipid profile (TG, TC, HDL and LDL) compared to both metformin and OLE individually. The histological examination revealed that the combination of metformin + Olive leaves extract successfully repaired of the liver, kidneys, and pancreatic tissues in diabetic rats to be near to the normal status; (4) Conclusion: Finally, it can be concluded that, the combination of metformin and OLE exhibited a superior improvement than metformin and OLE individually which emphasized the promising adjuvant role of the OLE in the treatment protocol of diabetes mellitus type II.

Keywords: olive (olea europaea) leaves extracts, hypoglycemic agents, cytotoxicity, nitic oxide scavenging activity, α-glucose oxidase inhibitor

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1531 EverPro as the Missing Piece in the Plant Protein Portfolio to Aid the Transformation to Sustainable Food Systems

Authors: Aylin W Sahin, Alice Jaeger, Laura Nyhan, Gregory Belt, Steffen Münch, Elke K. Arendt

Abstract:

Our current food systems cause an increase in malnutrition resulting in more people being overweight or obese in the Western World. Additionally, our natural resources are under enormous pressure and the greenhouse gas emission increases yearly with a significant contribution to climate change. Hence, transforming our food systems is of highest priority. Plant-based food products have a lower environmental impact compared to their animal-based counterpart, representing a more sustainable protein source. However, most plant-based protein ingredients, such as soy and pea, are lacking indispensable amino acids and extremely limited in their functionality and, thus, in their food application potential. They are known to have a low solubility in water and change their properties during processing. The low solubility displays the biggest challenge in the development of milk alternatives leading to inferior protein content and protein quality in dairy alternatives on the market. Moreover, plant-based protein ingredients often possess an off-flavour, which makes them less attractive to consumers. EverPro, a plant-protein isolate originated from Brewer’s Spent Grain, the most abundant by-product in the brewing industry, represents the missing piece in the plant protein portfolio. With a protein content of >85%, it is of high nutritional value, including all indispensable amino acids which allows closing the protein quality gap of plant proteins. Moreover, it possesses high techno-functional properties. It is fully soluble in water (101.7 ± 2.9%), has a high fat absorption capacity (182.4 ± 1.9%), and a foaming capacity which is superior to soy protein or pea protein. This makes EverPro suitable for a vast range of food applications. Furthermore, it does not cause changes in viscosity during heating and cooling of dispersions, such as beverages. Besides its outstanding nutritional and functional characteristics, the production of EverPro has a much lower environmental impact compared to dairy or other plant protein ingredients. Life cycle assessment analysis showed that EverPro has the lowest impact on global warming compared to soy protein isolate, pea protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and egg white powder. It also contributes significantly less to freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication and land use compared the protein sources mentioned above. EverPro is the prime example of sustainable ingredients, and the type of plant protein the food industry was waiting for: nutritious, multi-functional, and environmentally friendly.

Keywords: plant-based protein, upcycled, brewers' spent grain, low environmental impact, highly functional ingredient

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1530 Effect of Single and Double Treatment Methods on the Micronutrients in Mucuna Pruriens (Velvet Bean) Seed Flour

Authors: Clement Chinedum Ezegbe, Justina Nne Nwosu, Clifford Ifeanyi Owuamanam

Abstract:

Mucuna pruriens seed is an underutilized legume with good nutritional value with a possibility of changes in its micronutrient composition during processing, whose data is scanty. M. pruriens seed flour was evaluated for the effect of soaking, cooking, roasting, germination, fermentation and some double treatments on its content of vitamins and minerals. Seeds were cleaned, washed, soaked, cooked, roasted, germinated and fermented. Vitamins and minerals composition were determined. Soaking, cooking and roasting significantly reduced (p < 0.05) all the vitamins. Vitamin B₉ was significantly reduced the most, with a range of 0.28 – 21.88 mg/100 g. Vitamins B₁, B₂, B₃ and B₁₂ were significantly increased by fermentation, with vitamin B₂ increasing the most (57.7% increase). Vitamin B₉ was the most significantly reduced (p < 0.05) from 21.88 to 0.28 mg/100 g by 72 h fermentation. Cooking reduces all the minerals except Potassium and sodium. Potassium in roasted samples increased from 690.50 to 930.75, 760.50 and 730.00 mg/100 in 10, 15, and 20 minutes respectively. Germination significantly reduced all the minerals except in 24 h germination, which increased calcium from 218.17 mg/100 g in the raw seed to 234.36 mg/100g. Fermentation generally reduced all the minerals significantly (p < 0.05) except calcium and Zinc. Single treatments, germination and fermentation have proved to be suitable methods for the enhancement of vitamins B₂, B₃, B₁₂ and Zinc in M. pruriens seed flour. Combined process treatments reduce most vitamins and minerals and are, therefore, not suitable for seed flour improvement.

Keywords: mucuna pruriens, vitamin, mineral, germination, fermentation

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1529 The Contribution of Diet and Lifestyle Factors in the Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Authors: Oscar Wambuguh

Abstract:

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous functional bowel disease that is characterized by chronic visceral abdominal pain and abnormal bowel function and habits. Its multifactorial pathophysiology and mechanisms are still largely a mystery to the contemporary biomedical community, although there are many hypotheses to try to explain IBS’s presumed physiological, psychosocial, genetic, and environmental etiologies. IBS’s symptomatic presentation is varied and divided into four major subtypes: IBS-C, IBS-D, IBS-M, and IBS-U. Given its diverse presentation and unclear mechanisms, diagnosis is made through a combination of positive identification utilizing the “Rome IV Irritable Bowel Syndrome Criteria'' (Rome IV) diagnostic criteria while also excluding other potential conditions with similar symptoms. Treatment of IBS is focused on the management of symptoms using an assortment of pharmaceuticals, lifestyle changes, and dietary changes, with future potential in microbial treatment and psychotherapy as other therapy methods. IBS is prevalent around the world, with approximately 10% prevalence in Western countries and as low as 7% in Asia. Its chronic, heterogeneous nature and disruptive gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are negatively impactful on patients’ daily lives, health systems, and society. However, with technological advances and an understanding of where the gaps of knowledge are present in IBS’s pathophysiology and management, there is optimism for future research to discover more about IBS and innovate new therapies.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, lifestyle, diet, functional gastrointestinal disorder

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1528 Anti-inflammatory Effect of Wild Indigo (Baptisia tinctoria) Root on Raw 264.7 Cells with Stimulated Lipopolysaccharide

Authors: Akhmadjon Sultanov, Eun-Ho Lee, Hye-Jin Park, Young-Je Cho

Abstract:

This study tested the anti-inflammatory effect of wild indigo (Baptisia tinctoria) root in Raw 264.7 cells. We prepared two extracts of B. tinctoria; one in water and the other in 50% ethanol. Then we evaluated the toxicities of the B. tinctoria root extracts at 10 to 100 mg mL-1 concentrations in raw 264.7 cells and observed 80% cell viability. The anti-inflammatory effect of B. tinctoria root extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells were observed with concentrations at 10, 30, and 50 μg mL-1. The results showed that 77.27-66.82% of nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited by 50 μg mL-1 B. tinctoria root extract. The protein expression of Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression dramatically decreased by 93.14% and 52.65% in raw 264.7 cells treated with water and ethanol extracts of B. tinctoria root, respectively. Moreover, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression decreased by 42.85% and 69.70% in raw 264.7 cells treated with water and ethanol extracts of B. tinctoria root, respectively. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and prostaglandin E synthase 2, was significantly suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the B. tinctoria root extracts effectively inhibited enzymes involved in physiological activities. The B. tinctoria root extracts showed excellent anti-inflammatory effects and can be used as a functional material for biological activities.

Keywords: cytokine, macrophage, pro-inflammatory, protein expression, real-time PCR

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1527 Formulation and Characterization of Active Edible Films from Cassava Starch for Snacks and Savories

Authors: P. Raajeswari, S. M. Devatha, S. Yuvajanani, U. Rashika

Abstract:

Edible food packaging are the need of the hour to save life on land and under water by eliminating waste cycle and replacing Single Use Plastics at grass root level as it can be eaten or composted as such. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) selected for making edible films are rich source of starch, and also it exhibit good sheeting propertiesdue to the high amylose: amylopectin content. Cassava starch was extracted by manual method at a laboratory scale and yielded 65 per cent. Edible films were developed by adding food grade plasticizers and water. Glycerol showed good plasticizing property as compared to sorbitol and polylactic acid in both manual (petri dish) and machine (film making machine) production. The thickness of the film is 0.25±0.03 mm. Essential oil and components from peels like pomegranate, orange, pumpkin, onion, and banana brat, and herbs like tulsi and country borage was extracted through the standardized aqueous and alkaline method. In the standardized film, the essential oil and components from selected peel and herbs were added to the casting solution separately and casted the film. It was added to improve the anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and optical properties. By inclusion of extracts, it reduced the bubble formation while casting. FTIR, Water Vapor and Oxygen Transmission Rate (WVTR and OTR), tensile strength, microbial load, shelf life, and degradability of the films were done to analyse the mechanical property of the standardized films. FTIR showed the presence of essential oil. WVTR and OTR of the film was improved after inclusion of essential oil and extracts from 1.312 to 0.811 cm₃/m₂ and 15.12 to 17.81 g/ m₂.d. Inclusion of essential oil from herbs showed better WVTR and OTR than the inclusion of peel extract and standard. Tensile strength and Elongation at break has not changed by essential oil and extracts at 0.86 ± 0.12 mpa and 14 ± 2 at 85 N force. By inclusion of extracts, an optical property of the film enhanced, and it increases the appearance of the packaging material. The films were completely degraded on 84thdays and partially soluble in water. Inclusion of essential oil does not have impact on degradability and solubility. The microbial loads of the active films were decreased from 15 cfu/gm to 7 cfu/gm. The films can be stored at frozen state for 24 days and 48 days at atmospheric temperature when packed with South Indian snacks and savories.

Keywords: active films, cassava starch, plasticizer, characterization

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1526 Development of Carrot Puree with Algae for the Elderly with Dysphagia

Authors: Obafemi Akinwotu, Aylin Tas, Tony Taylor, Bukola Onarinde

Abstract:

The study was conducted to explore the methods and tools to improve texture and preserve the total phenolic and antioxidant compounds of dysphagia foods produced from carrot-based puree with decolourised Chlorella algae. Textural properties (Texture profile analysis [TPA]; the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative, particle size test [PST]) and rheological properties (viscosity and viscoelastic properties) of carrot puree defrosted by different treatments (microwave, steamer, oven), were characterised using hydrocolloids (guar gum, k. carrageenan, and xanthan gum), and the results were compared to a level 4 commercial sample. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) antiradical scavenging radicals and total phenolic contents were employed to evaluate the total phenolics, and radical scavenging properties of defrosted carrot puree sonicated carrot puree (20 Hz, 30 min, 60 oC), and vacuum-dried carrot powder with the addition of algae. Results show that the viscosity, viscoelasticity test, TPA, and PST of the commercial sample were comparable to those of guar gum and xanthan gum containing puree, suggesting that they could be used as dysphagia diets. There was no noticeable decolourisation of the Chlorella pigment. Additionally, the use of the microwave, stemmer, and oven for defrosting treatment had an impact on the textural characteristics of the moulded samples upon cooling and also contributed to the reduction in the total phenolic and antioxidant properties of the samples. Sonication treatments of algae exposure reduced the cloudiness of the green pigment and lightened the colour of the samples containing algae, and they also reduced the drying time from 2.5 to 1.5 hours during the preliminary work. The low-temperature vacuum- and freeze-dried samples increased the concentration of the powder and resulted in an increase in the total phenolic content of the dry samples. The dried products may therefore have the potential to become more nutrient-dense to benefit the health of individuals with dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, elderly, hydrocolloids, carrot puree

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1525 Active Packaging Films Based on Chitosan Incorporated with Thyme Essential Oil and Cross Linkers and Its Effect on the Quality Shelf Life of Food

Authors: Aiman Zehra, Sajad Mohd Wani

Abstract:

Packaging has a vital role as it contains and protects the food that moves from the supply chain to the consumer. Chitosan (CH) has been extensively used in food packaging applications among the plentiful natural macromolecules, including all the polysaccharide class, owing to its easy film-forming capacity, biodegradability, better oxygen and water vapour barrier ability and good mechanical strength. Compared to synthetic films, the films produced from chitosan present poor barrier and mechanical properties. To overcome its deficient qualities, a number of modification procedures are required to enhance the mechanical and physical properties. Various additives such as plasticizers (e.g., glycerol and sorbitol), crosslinkers (e.g.,CaCl₂, ZnO), fillers (nanoclay), and antimicrobial agents (e.g. thyme essential oil) have been used to improve the mechanical, thermal, morphological, antimicrobial properties and emulsifying agents for the stability and elasticity of chitosan-based biodegradable films. Different novel biocomposite films based on chitosan incorporated with thyme essential oil and different additives (ZnO, CaCl₂, NC, and PEG) were successfully prepared and used as packaging material for carrot candy. The chitosan film incorporated with crosslinkers was capable of forming a protective barrier on the surface of the candy to maintain moisture content, water activity, TSS, total sugars, and titratable acidity. ZnO +PEG +NC +CaCl₂ remarkably promotes a synergistic effect on the barrier properties of the film. The combined use of ZnO +PEG +NC +CaCl₂ in CH-TO films was more effective in preventing the moisture gain in candies. The lowest a𝓌 (0.624) was also observed for the candies stored in treatment. The color values L*, a*, b* of the candies were also retained in the film containing all the additives during the 6th month of storage. The value for L*, a*, and b* observed for T was 42.72, 9.89, and 10.84, respectively. The candies packaged in film retained TSS and acidity. The packaging film significantly p≤0.05 conserved sensory qualities and inhibited microbial activity during storage. Carrot candy was found microbiologically safe for human consumption even after six months of storage in all the packaging materials.

Keywords: chitosan, biodegradable films, antimicrobial activity, thyme essential oil, crosslinkers

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1524 Computer Simulation Approach in the 3D Printing Operations of Surimi Paste

Authors: Timilehin Martins Oyinloye, Won Byong Yoon

Abstract:

Simulation technology is being adopted in many industries, with research focusing on the development of new ways in which technology becomes embedded within production, services, and society in general. 3D printing (3DP) technology is fast developing in the food industry. However, the limited processability of high-performance material restricts the robustness of the process in some cases. Significantly, the printability of materials becomes the foundation for extrusion-based 3DP, with residual stress being a major challenge in the printing of complex geometry. In many situations, the trial-a-error method is being used to determine the optimum printing condition, which results in time and resource wastage. In this report, the analysis of 3 moisture levels for surimi paste was investigated for an optimum 3DP material and printing conditions by probing its rheology, flow characteristics in the nozzle, and post-deposition process using the finite element method (FEM) model. Rheological tests revealed that surimi pastes with 82% moisture are suitable for 3DP. According to the FEM model, decreasing the nozzle diameter from 1.2 mm to 0.6 mm, increased the die swell from 9.8% to 14.1%. The die swell ratio increased due to an increase in the pressure gradient (1.15107 Pa to 7.80107 Pa) at the nozzle exit. The nozzle diameter influenced the fluid properties, i.e., the shear rate, velocity, and pressure in the flow field, as well as the residual stress and the deformation of the printed sample, according to FEM simulation. The post-printing stability of the model was investigated using the additive layer manufacturing (ALM) model. The ALM simulation revealed that the residual stress and total deformation of the sample were dependent on the nozzle diameter. A small nozzle diameter (0.6 mm) resulted in a greater total deformation (0.023), particularly at the top part of the model, which eventually resulted in the sample collapsing. As the nozzle diameter increased, the accuracy of the model improved until the optimum nozzle size (1.0 mm). Validation with 3D-printed surimi products confirmed that the nozzle diameter was a key parameter affecting the geometry accuracy of 3DP of surimi paste.

Keywords: 3D printing, deformation analysis, die swell, numerical simulation, surimi paste

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1523 Reduction of the Microbial Load of Biocontaminated Bovine Milk Using Grounding with Copper Wire

Authors: Claudivan Costa de Lima, Angelo da Silva Monteiro

Abstract:

With the aim of evaluating the effects of grounding with copper wire on the reduction of the microbial load of biocontaminated milk samples and on their acidification over time, two complementary experiments were carried out. In the first, the treatments consisted of: i) raw milk sample (control), ii) slow pasteurization, iii) grounding with copper wire and, iv) contact with copper ring. Analyzes of total, thermoresistant and mesophilic coliforms were performed 30 minutes after the application of these treatments. In the second experiment, under the same conditions as the first, measurements of pH and Dornic acidity were performed at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h from the installation of the experiment. Pasteurization eliminated almost all groups of bacteria present in the milk samples while grounding only allowed reductions in the population of thermotolerant coliforms and mesophiles, both greater than 95%, maintaining, however, unchanged the amounts of total coliforms. The copper ring, in turn, had no effect on the microbiological parameters studied. The reduction in the population of mesophiles in grounded milk samples, contrary to what happened with pasteurized milk, was not enough to inhibit the acidification process over the experimental period.

Keywords: pasteurization, low frequency electric current, thermotolerant coliforms, mesophiles in bovine milk

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1522 Determination of the Phytochemicals Composition and Pharmacokinetics of whole Coffee Fruit Caffeine Extract by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Boris Nemzer, Nebiyu Abshiru, Zb Pietrzkowski

Abstract:

Coffee cherry is one of the most ubiquitous agricultural commodities which possess nutritional and human health beneficial properties. Between the two most widely used coffee cherries Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta), Coffea arabica remains superior due to its sensory properties and, therefore, remains in great demand in the global coffee market. In this study, the phytochemical contents and pharmacokinetics of Coffeeberry® Energy (CBE), a commercially available Arabica whole coffee fruit caffeine extract, are investigated. For phytochemical screening, 20 mg of CBE was dissolved in an aqueous methanol solution for analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Quantification of caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents of CBE was performed using HPLC. For the bioavailability study, serum samples were collected from human subjects before and after 1, 2 and 3 h post-ingestion of 150mg CBE extract. Protein precipitation and extraction were carried out using methanol. Identification of compounds was performed using an untargeted metabolomic approach on Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS coupled to reversed-phase chromatography. Data processing was performed using Thermo Scientific Compound Discover 3.3 software. Phytochemical screening identified a total of 170 compounds, including organic acids, phenolic acids, CGAs, diterpenoids and hydroxytryptamine. Caffeine & CGAs make up more than, respectively, 70% & 9% of the total CBE composition. For serum samples, a total of 82 metabolites representing 32 caffeine- and 50 phenolic-derived metabolites were identified. Volcano plot analysis revealed 32 differential metabolites (24 caffeine- and 8 phenolic-derived) that showed an increase in serum level post-CBE dosing. Caffeine, uric acid, and trimethyluric acid isomers exhibited 4- to 10-fold increase in serum abundance post-dosing. 7-Methyluric acid, 1,7-dimethyluric acid, paraxanthine and theophylline exhibited a minimum of 1.5-fold increase in serum level. Among the phenolic-derived metabolites, iso-feruloyl quinic acid isomers (3-, 4- and 5-iFQA) showed the highest increase in serum level. These compounds were essentially absent in serum collected before dosage. More interestingly, the iFQA isomers were not originally present in the CBE extract, as our phytochemical screen did not identify these compounds. This suggests the potential formation of the isomers during the digestion and absorption processes. Pharmacokinetics parameters (Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-3h) of caffeine- and phenolic-derived metabolites were also investigated. Caffeine was rapidly absorbed, reaching a maximum concentration (Cmax) of 10.95 µg/ml in just 1 hour. Thereafter, caffeine level steadily dropped from the peak level, although it did not return to baseline within the 3-hour dosing period. The disappearance of caffeine from circulation was mirrored by the rise in the concentration of its methylxanthine metabolites. Similarly, serum concentration of iFQA isomers steadily increased, reaching maximum (Cmax: 3-iFQA, 1.54 ng/ml; 4-iFQA, 2.47 ng/ml; 5-iFQA, 2.91 ng/ml) at tmax of 1.5 hours. The isomers remained well above the baseline during the 3-hour dosing period, allowing them to remain in circulation long enough for absorption into the body. Overall, the current study provides evidence of the potential health benefits of a uniquely formulated whole coffee fruit product. Consumption of this product resulted in a distinct serum profile of bioactive compounds, as demonstrated by the more than 32 metabolites that exhibited a significant change in systemic exposure.

Keywords: phytochemicals, mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics, differential metabolites, chlorogenic acids

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1521 Comparison of Nutritional Status of Asthmatic vs Non-Asthmatic Adults

Authors: Ayesha Mushtaq

Abstract:

Asthma is a pulmonary disease in which blockade of the airway takes place due to inflammation as a response to certain allergens. Breathing troubles, cough, and dyspnea are one of the few symptoms. Several studies have indicated a significant effect on asthma due to changes in dietary routines. Certain food items, such as oily foods and other materials, are known to cause an increase in the symptoms of asthma. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables may be important in relation to asthma prevalence. The objective of this study is to assess and compare the nutritional status of asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. The significance of this study lies in the factor that it will help nutritionists to arrange a feasible dietary routine for asthmatic patients. This research was conducted at the Pulmonology Department of the Pakistan Institute of Medical Science Islamabad. About thirty hundred thirty-four million people are affected by asthma worldwide. Pakistan is on the verge of being an uplifted urban population and asthma cases are increasingly high these days. Several studies suggest an increase in the Asthmatic patient population due to improper diet. This is a cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the nutritious standing of Asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. This research took place at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan. The research included asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients coming to the pulmonology department clinic at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). These patients were aged between 20-60 years. A questionnaire was developed for these patients to estimate their dietary plans in these patients. The methodology included four sections. The first section was the Socio-Demographic profile, which included age, gender, monthly income and occupation. The next section was anthropometric measurements which included the weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of an individual. The next section, section three, was about the biochemical attributes, such as for biochemical profiling, pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed. In the next section, Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) through food habits and consumption pattern was assessed. The next section life style data, in which the person's level of physical activity, sleep and smoking habits were assessed. The next section was statistical analysis. All the data obtained from the study were statistically analyzed and assessed. Most of the asthma Patients were females, with weight more than normal or even obese. Body Mass Index (BMI) was higher in asthma Patients than those in non-Asthmatic ones. When the nutritional Values were assessed, we came to know that these patients were low on certain nutrients and their diet included more junk and oily food than healthy vegetables and fruits. Beverages intake was also included in the same assessment. It is evident from this study that nutritional status has a contributory effect on asthma. So, patients on the verge of developing asthma or those who have developed asthma should focus on their diet, maintain good eating habits and take healthy diets, including fruits and vegetables rather than oily foods. Proper sleep may also contribute to the control of asthma.

Keywords: BMI, nutrition, PAL, diet

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1520 Comparison of Nutritional Status of Asthmatic vs Non-asthmatic Adults

Authors: Ayesha Mushtaq

Abstract:

Asthma is a pulmonary disease in which blockade of the airway takes place due to inflammation as a response to certain allergens. Breathing troubles, cough, and dyspnea are one of the few symptoms. Several studies have indicated a significant effect on asthma due to changes in dietary routines. Certain food items, such as oily foods and other materials, are known to cause an increase in the symptoms of asthma. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables may be important in relation to asthma prevalence. The objective of this study is to assess and compare the nutritional status of asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. The significance of this study lies in the factor that it will help nutritionists to arrange a feasible dietary routine for asthmatic patients. This research was conducted at the Pulmonology Department of the Pakistan Institute of Medical Science Islamabad. About thirty hundred thirty-four million people are affected by asthma worldwide. Pakistan is on the verge of being an uplifted urban population and asthma cases are increasingly high these days. Several studies suggest an increase in the Asthmatic patient population due to improper diet. Other studies conducted at different institutions have conducted research on similar topics. These studies have suggested that there is a substantial alteration in the nutritional status of asthmatic and non-Asthmatic patients. This is a cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the nutritious standing of Asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. This research took place at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan. The research included asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients coming to the pulmonology department clinic at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). These patients were aged between 20-60 years. A questionnaire was developed for these patients to estimate their dietary plans in these patients. The methodology included four sections. The first section was the Socio-Demographic profile, which included age, gender, monthly income and occupation. The next section was anthropometric measurements which included the weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of the individual. The next section, section three, was about the biochemical attributes, such as for biochemical profiling, pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed. In the next section, Dietary habits, which were assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) through food habits and consumption pattern, was assessed. The next section life style data, in which the person's level of physical activity, sleep and smoking habits were assessed. The next section was statistical analysis. All the data obtained from the study were statistically analyzed and assessed. Most of the asthma Patients were females, with weight more than normal or even obese. Body Mass Index (BMI) was higher in asthma Patients than those in non-Asthmatic ones. When the nutritional Values were assessed, we came to know that these patients were low on certain nutrients and their diet included more junk and oily food than healthy vegetables and fruits. Beverages intake was also included in the same assessment. It is evident from this study that nutritional status has a contributory effect on asthma. So, patients on the verge of developing asthma or those who have developed asthma should focus on their diet, maintain good eating habits and take healthy diets, including fruits and vegetables rather than oily foods. Proper sleep may also contribute to the control of asthma.

Keywords: NUTRI, BMI, asthma, food

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1519 Exclusive Breast Feeding Practices in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman

Abstract:

Optimal breastfeeding practice is essential to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality and helps to achieve Millennium Development Goal (MDG). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area in Dhaka district to explore the barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices. The population of this study constitutes all nursing mothers having children aged 0-6 months, and they were selected purposively. The study adopted a structured and in-depth interview procedure consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Four hundred rural nursing mothers constituted the sample of the structured interview, while 15 were involved in the in-depth interview. Among the respondent's majority (67%) were in the age group 17-25 years, with a mean age of 24.44 years. Most (39.5%) of the mothers were housewives with a secondary level of education (46.5%). About 32% of mothers started breastfeeding within one hour after birth. But delayed initiation was reported in 31.5% of mothers, whereas 36.8% of mothers forgot the exact time of initiation of breastfeeding. The main reason not to practice colostrum was mothers tried to breastfeed, but there was no milk, stated 13.8% of mothers. In addition, about one-third (34.3%) of the respondents practiced pre-lacteal feeding, and among them, 12.8% introduced sugar with water. Reasons given by the mothers for bottle-feeding was that baby was not satisfied with breast milk only; 22.0% of mothers indicated this cause. The main influence to take formula milk by their mother and mothers-in-law was stated by 18.8% of mothers. Some mothers stated that major constraints to EBF were the perception of not having enough milk (25.5 %) and babies crying seems to be hungry (8.8%). One-third of the mothers (31.5%) felt uncomfortable during breastfeeding. Access to antenatal and postnatal counseling in the study area also was a key obstacle to optimal breastfeeding practices. In a qualitative survey, some mothers believed that there was no difference between breast milk and formula milk. Colostrum feeding, pre-lacteal feeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were strongly associated with family type, family member, birth order, religion, husbands' occupation, delivery attendants and delivery type, postnatal care, and health care facilities. To reduce the barriers to the successful practice of exclusive breastfeeding, there is a need for a grass-roots approach to educating and counseling nursing mothers with identifying factors influencing or discouraging the optimal practice.

Keywords: exclusive, breast feeding, practices, Bangladesh

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1518 Reproductive Health Behavior and Nutritional Status of Plain Land Ethnic Women in Bangladesh

Authors: Zainal Abedin

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Introduction: Reproductive health is one of the major priorities of global health and is a fundamental and inalienable part of women’s health due to childbearing, and it is closely associated with nutritional status. Objective: This study was done to assess reproductive health behavior and nutritional status of reproductive-age ethnic women residing in plain land. Method: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among conveniently selected 120 reproductive-aged ethnic women at three Upazila of Rajshahi District. Nutritional status was determined by the WHO cut-off value of BMI for the Asian population. Results: About 88% of respondents noticed that they seek treatment in response to disease, and most of them seek treatment from the pharmacy attendant. Two-thirds of women used contraceptives, and 76% of women received antenatal care visits from Govt health centers, private clinics, and NGO clinics, but 86% of respondents delivered at home. In terms of nutritional status, 70% were normal, 23% underweight, and 7% overweight. Conclusion: Though most of them were normal regarding nutritional status but one-fourth were still underweight. Local pharmacy/quack-dependent treatment should be reduced.

Keywords: reproductive health behavior, nutritional status, plain land, ethnic women

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1517 Exploitation of Date By-Products (Phoenix Dactylifera) as Functional Food Ingredients for Fortification of Natural Yoghurt

Authors: Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Kahina Djaoud

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This study was carried out with the aim of enriching a fresh cheese with the food by-products, which are the leaves of shallots and the peels of potatoes. Firstly, the conditions for extracting the total polyphenols using ultrasound are optimized. Then, the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for the extracts obtained by adopting the optimal parameter. On the other hand, we have carried out some physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyzes of the cheese produced. The maximum total polyphenols value of 70.44 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry matter of shallot leaves was reached with 40% (v/v) ethanol, an extraction time of 90 min, and a temperature of 10 °C. While, the maximum total polyphenols content of potato peels of 45.03 ± 4.16 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry matter was obtained using an ethanol /water mixture (40%, v/v), a time of 30 min and a temperature of 60 °C and the flavonoid contents were 13.99 and 7.52 quercetin equivalent/g dry matter, respectively. From the antioxidant tests, we deduced that the potatopeels present a higher antioxidant power with the concentration of extracts causing a 50% inhibition IC50s of 125.42 ± 2.78 μg/mL for 2,2-diphényl 1-picrylhydrazyle of 87.21 ± 7.72 μg/mL for phosphomolybdate and 200.77 ± 13.38 μg/mL for iron chelation, compared with the results obtained for shallot leaves which were 204.29 ± 0.09, 45.85 ± 3,46 and 1004.10 ± 145.73 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the physico-chemical analyzes have shown that the formulated cheese was compliant to standards. Microbiological analyzes show that the hygienic quality of the cheeseproduced was satisfactory. According to the sensory analyzes, the experts liked the cheese enriched with the powder and pieces of the leaves of the shallots.

Keywords: exploitation, degla-beida, date powder, date syrup, date residu, yogurt

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1516 Comparison of the Oxidative Stability of Chinese Vegetable Oils during Repeated Deep-Frying of French Fries

Authors: TranThi Ly, Ligang Yang, Hechun Liu, Dengfeng Xu, Haiteng Zhou, Shaokang Wang, Shiqing Chen, Guiju Sun

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This study aims to evaluate the oxidative stability of Chinese vegetable oils during repeated deep-frying. For frying media, palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SFO), soybean oil (SBO), and canola oil (CO) were used. French fries were fried in oils heated to 180 ± 50℃. The temperature was kept constant during the eight h of the frying process. The oil quality was measured according to the fatty acid (FA) content, trans fatty acid (TFA) compounds, and chemical properties such as peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), anisidine value (AnV), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Additionally, the sensory characteristics such as color, flavor, greasiness, crispiness, and overall acceptability of the French fries were assessed. Results showed that the PV, AV, AnV, MDA, and TFA content of SFO, CO, and SBO significantly increased in conjunction with prolonged frying time. During the deep-frying process, the SBO showed the lowest oxidative stability at all indices, while PO retained oxidative stability and generated the lowest level of TFA. The French fries fried in PO also offered better sensory properties than the other oils. Therefore, results regarding oxidative stability and sensory attributes suggested that among the examined vegetable oils, PO appeared to be the best oil for frying food products.

Keywords: vegetable oils, French fries, oxidative stability, sensory properties, frying oil

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1515 Integrating Data Mining with Case-Based Reasoning for Diagnosing Sorghum Anthracnose

Authors: Mariamawit T. Belete

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Cereal production and marketing are the means of livelihood for millions of households in Ethiopia. However, cereal production is constrained by technical and socio-economic factors. Among the technical factors, cereal crop diseases are the major contributing factors to the low yield. The aim of this research is to develop an integration of data mining and knowledge based system for sorghum anthracnose disease diagnosis that assists agriculture experts and development agents to make timely decisions. Anthracnose diagnosing systems gather information from Melkassa agricultural research center and attempt to score anthracnose severity scale. Empirical research is designed for data exploration, modeling, and confirmatory procedures for testing hypothesis and prediction to draw a sound conclusion. WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) was employed for the modeling. Knowledge based system has come across a variety of approaches based on the knowledge representation method; case-based reasoning (CBR) is one of the popular approaches used in knowledge-based system. CBR is a problem solving strategy that uses previous cases to solve new problems. The system utilizes hidden knowledge extracted by employing clustering algorithms, specifically K-means clustering from sampled anthracnose dataset. Clustered cases with centroid value are mapped to jCOLIBRI, and then the integrator application is created using NetBeans with JDK 8.0.2. The important part of a case based reasoning model includes case retrieval; the similarity measuring stage, reuse; which allows domain expert to transfer retrieval case solution to suit for the current case, revise; to test the solution, and retain to store the confirmed solution to the case base for future use. Evaluation of the system was done for both system performance and user acceptance. For testing the prototype, seven test cases were used. Experimental result shows that the system achieves an average precision and recall values of 70% and 83%, respectively. User acceptance testing also performed by involving five domain experts, and an average of 83% acceptance is achieved. Although the result of this study is promising, however, further study should be done an investigation on hybrid approach such as rule based reasoning, and pictorial retrieval process are recommended.

Keywords: sorghum anthracnose, data mining, case based reasoning, integration

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1514 Predictive Modelling Approaches in Food Processing and Safety

Authors: Amandeep Sharma, Digvaijay Verma, Ruplal Choudhary

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Food processing is an activity across the globe that help in better handling of agricultural produce, including dairy, meat, and fish. The operations carried out in the food industry includes raw material quality authenticity; sorting and grading; processing into various products using thermal treatments – heating, freezing, and chilling; packaging; and storage at the appropriate temperature to maximize the shelf life of the products. All this is done to safeguard the food products and to ensure the distribution up to the consumer. The approaches to develop predictive models based on mathematical or statistical tools or empirical models’ development has been reported for various milk processing activities, including plant maintenance and wastage. Recently AI is the key factor for the fourth industrial revolution. AI plays a vital role in the food industry, not only in quality and food security but also in different areas such as manufacturing, packaging, and cleaning. A new conceptual model was developed, which shows that smaller sample size as only spectra would be required to predict the other values hence leads to saving on raw materials and chemicals otherwise used for experimentation during the research and new product development activity. It would be a futuristic approach if these tools can be further clubbed with the mobile phones through some software development for their real time application in the field for quality check and traceability of the product.

Keywords: predictive modlleing, ann, ai, food

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1513 Microbiological Properties and Mineral Contents of Honeys from Bordj Bou Arreridj Region (Algeria)

Authors: Diafat Abdelouahab, Ekhalfi A Hammoudia, Meribai Abdelmalek A, Bahloul Ahmedb

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The present study aimed to characterize 30 honey samples from the Bordj Bou Arreridj region (Algeria) regarding their floral origins, physicochemical parameters, mineral composition and microbial safety. Mean values obtained for physicochemical parameters were: pH 4.11, 17.17% moisture, 0.0061% ash, 370.57μS cm−1 electrical conductivity, 21.98 meq/kg free acidity, and 9.703 mg/kg HMF. The mineral content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean values obtained were (mg/kg): Fe, 7.5714; Mg, 37.68; Na, 186,63; Zn, 3,86; Pb, 0,4869 × 10-3 ; Cd, 267 × 10-3. Aerobic mesophiles, fecal coliforms and sulphite-reducing clostridia were the microbial contaminants of interest studied. Microbiologically, the honey quality was considered good and all samples showed to be negative in respect to safety parameters. The results obtained for physicochemical characteristics of Bordj Bou Arreridj honey indicate a good quality level, adequate processing, good maturity and freshness.

Keywords: pollen analysis, physicochemical analysis, mineral content, microbial contaminants

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1512 Pandemic-Era WIC Participation in Delaware, U.S.: Participants' Experiences and Challenges

Authors: McKenna Halverson, Allison Karpyn

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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic posed unprecedented challenges for families with young children in the United States. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a federal nutrition assistance program that provides low-income mothers and young children with access to healthy foods (e.g., infant formula, milk, and peanut butter), mitigated some financial challenges for families. However, the U.S. experienced a national infant formula shortage and rising inflation rates during the pandemic, which likely impacted WIC participants’ shopping experiences and well-being. As such, this study aimed to characterize how the COVID-19 pandemic and related events impacted Delaware WIC participants’ in-store benefit redemption experiences and overall well-being. Method: The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 51 WIC participants in Wilmington, Delaware. Survey measures included demographic questions and open-ended questions regarding participants’ experiences with WIC benefit redemption during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed using a hybrid inductive and deductive coding approach. Findings: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted WIC participants’ shopping experiences and well-being. Specifically, participants were forced to alter their shopping behaviors to account for rising food prices (e.g., used coupons, bought less food, used food banks). Additionally, WIC participants experienced significant distress during the national infant formula shortage resulting from difficulty finding formula to feed their children. Participants also struggled with in-store benefit redemption due to inconsistencies in shelf labelling, the WIC app, and low stock of WIC foods. These findings highlight the need to reexamine WIC operations and emergency food response policy in the United States during times of crisis to optimize public health and ensure federal nutrition assistance programs meeting the needs of low-income families with young children.

Keywords: benefit redemption, COVID-19 pandemic, infant formula shortage, inflation, shopping, WIC

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1511 Working Towards More Sustainable Food Waste: A Circularity Perspective

Authors: Rocío González-Sánchez, Sara Alonso-Muñoz

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Food waste implies an inefficient management of the final stages in the food supply chain. Referring to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by United Nations, the SDG 12.3 proposes to halve per capita food waste at the retail and consumer level and to reduce food losses. In the linear system, food waste is disposed and, to a lesser extent, recovery or reused after consumption. With the negative effect on stocks, the current food consumption system is based on ‘produce, take and dispose’ which put huge pressure on raw materials and energy resources. Therefore, greater focus on the circular management of food waste will mitigate the environmental, economic, and social impact, following a Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approach and consequently the SDGs fulfilment. A mixed methodology is used. A total sample of 311 publications from Web of Science database were retrieved. Firstly, it is performed a bibliometric analysis by SciMat and VOSviewer software to visualise scientific maps about co-occurrence analysis of keywords and co-citation analysis of journals. This allows for the understanding of the knowledge structure about this field, and to detect research issues. Secondly, a systematic literature review is conducted regarding the most influential articles in years 2020 and 2021, coinciding with the most representative period under study. Thirdly, to support the development of this field it is proposed an agenda according to the research gaps identified about circular economy and food waste management. Results reveal that the main topics are related to waste valorisation, the application of waste-to-energy circular model and the anaerobic digestion process towards fossil fuels replacement. It is underlined that the use of food as a source of clean energy is receiving greater attention in the literature. There is a lack of studies about stakeholders’ awareness and training. In addition, available data would facilitate the implementation of circular principles for food waste recovery, management, and valorisation. The research agenda suggests that circularity networks with suppliers and customers need to be deepened. Technological tools for the implementation of sustainable business models, and greater emphasis on social aspects through educational campaigns are also required. This paper contributes on the application of circularity to food waste management by abandoning inefficient linear models. Shedding light about trending topics in the field guiding to scholars for future research opportunities.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, circular economy, food waste management, future research lines

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1510 An Investigation of How Salad Rocket May Provide Its Own Defence Against Spoilage Bacteria

Authors: Huda Aldossari

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Members of the Brassicaceae family, such as rocket species, have high concentrations of glucosinolates (GLSs). GSLs and isothiocyanates (ITCs), the product of GLSs hydrolysis, are the most influential compounds that affect flavour in rocket species. Aside from their contribution to the flavour, GSLs and ITCs are of particular interest due to their potential ability to inhibit the growth of human pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of glucosinolate compounds in rocket extracts was obtained by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS).Each individual component of non-volatile GLSs and ITCs was isolated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractionation. The identity and purity of each fraction were confirmed using Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). The separation of glucosinolates in the complex rocket extractions was performed by optimizing a HPLC fractionation method through changing the mobile phase composition, solvent gradient, and the flow rate. As a result, six glucosinolates compounds (Glucosativin, 4-Methoxyglucobrassicin, Glucotropaeolin GTP, Glucoiberin GIB, Diglucothiobenin, and Sinigrin) have been isolated, identified and quantified in the complex samples. This step aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of glucosinolates and their enzymatic hydrolysis against bacterial growth of E.coli k12. Therefore, fractions from this study will be used to determine the most active compounds by investigating the efficacy of each component of GLSs and ITCs at inhibiting bacterial growth.

Keywords: rocket, glucosinolates, E.coli k12., HPLC fractionatio

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1509 The Effectiveness of Copegus (Ribavirin) Placed in a Field of Unexplored Properties of Low-Level Laser Radiation in the Treatment of Long-Covid Syndrome

Authors: Naylya Djumaeva

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Since the end of 2019, the world has been shaken by an infection that has claimed the lives of more than six and a half million patients. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 not only causes acute damage but has long-term consequences affecting every organ and has brought a wave of a new chronic disabling condition called Long-Covid..This preliminary study describes an application of un-explored properties of low-level laser radiation with laser- light emitter in the field of which is placed Copegus (Ribavirin) with the aim of treatment of patients with Long-Covid syndrome. The difference from the traditional use of the drug is that Copegus was not prescribed to the patient by the traditional method - orally or intravenously, and the medicinal properties of the drug were introduced into the patient’s body using the un-explored properties of low-power laser radiation. Ninety eight patients with Long- Covid syndrome were observed. The obtained findings suggest that under the influence of the field formed into the laser- light emitter with a Copegus placed inside the field, the remote transfer of pharmacological properties of Сopegus occurs. Conclusions about the produced effect of exposure were made based on improvement in the condition of patients, the disappearance of complaints, and positive changes in various diagnostic tests performed by the patients. Biography: Djumaeva N completed her PhD from the Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in 2000. In her dissertation work devoted to the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, she presented data on the possible influence of Complex Homeopathic Preparations on the organization of bound intracellular water in the cells of the body. She is the Consultant (Neurologist) at the Scientific-Research Institute for Virology, Uzbekistan, and an expert in “medicament testing” method (30 years). She has published 43 papers, including 2 patents.

Keywords: long covid, low level laser, copegus, laser- light emmiter

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1508 Separation and Identification of Iron-Chelating Peptides from Mung Bean Protein Hydrolysates by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Zohreh Karami, Kiattisak Duangmal

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Around the world, iron deficiency is a common dietary issue, particularly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Peptides produced from protein hydrolysates have recently attracted interest as novel iron chelators due to their superiority in terms of improving solubility, bioavailability, and absorption. In this study, mung bean protein concentrate was hydrolyzed using Alcalase and Flavourzyme; Alcalase mung bean protein hydrolysates (MBHA) and Flavourzyme mung bean protein hydrolysates (MBHF) had increasing Fe²⁺ chelating activity (6.2-66.6 µM EDTA) as concentration rose from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL. It was shown that the Fe2+ chelating activity of Alcalase and Flavourzyme hydrolysates differed, most likely due to changes in amino acid sequence and peptide chain length. The resulting hydrolysates fractionated by size exclusion-high-performance liquid chromatography, Fraction 4 of MBHA had the most active chelating activity (98.69±0.2%) and was further identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In our investigation, KLLPLKL, LLKKTV, KPLLPPN, and VKGTTDK were discovered as significant iron-chelating peptides in MBHA. Results indicated that peptides from fraction 4 of both MBHA and MBHF had great potential as natural iron chelator materials for the supplement.

Keywords: iron-chelating, bioactive peptides, vigna bean, protein hydrolysates

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1507 Preservation of Traditional Algerian Sausage Against Microbial Activity by the Garlic (Allium Sativum L.)

Authors: Abed Hannane, Rouag Noureddine

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The present study aims to evaluate the association of fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) and storage at 4°C in preserving the microbiological, nutritional, and sanitary quality of Merguez-type sausages prepared and sold locally from meat offal. The analysis focused on the evaluation of the microbiological quality of fifteen samples randomly taken from several butcheries in the wilaya of BBA, eastern Algeria. The bacteriological analysis revealed the presence of 6.88.10⁵ CFU/g of total aerobic bacteria, 5.39.10⁵ CFU/g of total coliforms, 2.23.10⁵ CFU/g of fecal coliforms, 2.43.103 CFU/g of Escherichia coli and 1.8.10⁵ CFU/g of coagulase-positive staphylococci, values higher than Algerian standards. The addition of fresh garlic as an antibacterial preservative at concentrations of 0.06, 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 g/g to ground beef samples and stored in the refrigerator at 4°C for 15 days. The addition of garlic to Merguez made it possible to significantly reduce the presence of different bacterial groups during their refrigerated storage, compared to untreated meat, bringing it below the standards defined in the matter. Thus, the use of garlic as a food additive at a concentration of 0.12 g/g was sufficient to obtain levels according to Algerian standards equal to 1.8.10⁴ CFU/g of total aerobic bacteria, 9.48.10³ CFU/ g of total coliforms, 3.68.10³ UFC/g fecal coliforms, 4.56.10² UFC/g of E.coli 2.39.10⁴ UFC/g of coagulase-positive staphylococci. It is clear that thanks to the addition of garlic to Merguez, the sanitary quality has been improved by reducing the aerobic bacterial load and increasing the shelf life at 4°C.

Keywords: antimicrobial effect, garlic, sausage, storage

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1506 Autophagy Acceleration and Self-Healing by the Revolution against Frequent Eating, High Glycemic and Unabsorbable Substances as One Meal a Day Plan

Authors: Reihane Mehrparvar

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Human age could exceed further by altering gene expression through food intaking, although as a consequence of recent century eating patterns, human life-span getting shorter by emerging irregulating in autophagy mechanism, insulin, leptin, gut microbiota which are important etiological factors of type-2 diabetes, obesity, infertility, cancer, metabolic and autoimmune diseases. However, restricted calorie intake and vigorous exercise might be beneficial for losing weight and metabolic regulation in a short period but could not be implementable in the long term as a way of life. Therefore, the lack of a dietary program that is compatible with the genes of the body is essential. Sweet and high-glycemic-index (HGI) foods were associated with type-2 diabetes and cancer morbidity. The neuropsychological perspective characterizes the inclination of sweet and HGI-food consumption as addictive behavior; hence this process engages preference of gut microbiota, neural node, and dopaminergic functions. Moreover, meal composition is not the only factor that affects body hemostasis. In this narrative review, it is believed to attempt to investigate how the body responded to different food intakes and represent an accurate model based on current evidence. Eating frequently and ingesting unassimilable protein and carbohydrates may not be compatible with human genes and could cause impairments in the self-renovation mechanism. This trajectory indicates our body is more adapted to starvation and eating animal meat and marrow. Here has been recommended a model that takes into account three important factors: frequent eating, meal composition, and circadian rhythm, which may offer a promising intervention for obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular, autoimmune disorder, type-2 diabetes, insulin resistance, infertility, and cancer through intensifying autophagy-mechanism and eliminate medical costs.

Keywords: metabolic disease, anti-aging, type-2 diabetes, autophagy

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1505 Polyvinyl Alcohol Incorporated with Hibiscus Extract Microcapsules as Combined Active and Intelligent Composite Film for Meat Preservation

Authors: Ahmed F. Ghanem, Marwa I. Wahba, Asmaa N. El-Dein, Mohamed A. EL-Raey, Ghada E.A. Awad

Abstract:

Numerous attempts are being performed in order to formulate suitable packaging materials for meat products. However, to the best of our knowledge, the incorporation of free hibiscus extract or its microcapsules in the pure polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix as packaging materials for meats is seldom reported. Therefore, this study aims at protection of the aqueous crude extract of hibiscus flowers utilizing spry drying encapsulation technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and zetasizer results confirmed the successful formation of assembled capsules via strong interactions, spherical rough microparticles, and ~ 235 nm of particle size, respectively. Also, the obtained microcapsules enjoy high thermal stability, unlike the free extract. Then, the obtained spray-dried particles were incorporated into the casting solution of the pure PVA film with a concentration 10 wt. %. The segregated free-standing composite films were investigated, compared to the neat matrix, with several characterization techniques such as FTIR, SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical tester, contact angle, water vapor permeability, and oxygen transmission. The results demonstrated variations in the physicochemical properties of the PVA film after the inclusion of the free and the extract microcapsules. Moreover, biological studies emphasized the biocidal potential of the hybrid films against microorganisms contaminating the meat. Specifically, the microcapsules imparted not only antimicrobial but also antioxidant activities to PVA. Application of the prepared films on the real meat samples displayed low bacterial growth with a slight increase in the pH over the storage time up to 10 days at 4 oC which further proved the meat safety. Moreover, the colors of the films did not significantly changed except after 21 days indicating the spoilage of the meat samples. No doubt, the dual-functional of prepared composite films pave the way towards combined active/smart food packaging applications. This would play a vital role in the food hygiene, including also quality control and assurance.

Keywords: PVA, hibiscus, extraction, encapsulation, active packaging, smart and intelligent packaging, meat spoilage

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