Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1339

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nutrition and Food Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1339 New Applications of Essential Oils: Edible Packaging Material for Food Supplements

Authors: Roxana Gheorghita, Gheorghe Gutt

Abstract:

Environmental pollution due to non-degradation of packaging from the food and pharmaceutical industry is reaching increasingly alarming levels. The packaging used for food supplements is usually composed of successive layers of synthetic materials, conventional, glue, and paint. The situation is becoming more and more problematic as the population, according to statistics, uses food supplements more and more often. The solution can be represented by edible packaging, completely biodegradable, and compostable. The tested materials were obtained from biopolymers, agar, carrageenan, and alginate, in well-established quantities and plasticized with glycerol. Rosemary, thyme, and oregano essential oils have been added in varying proportions. The obtained films are completely water-soluble in hot liquids (with a temperature of about 80° C) and can be consumed with the product contained. The films were glossy, pleasant to the touch, thin (thicknesses between 32.8 and 52.8 μm), transparent, and with a pleasant smell, specific to the added essential oil. Tested for microbial evaluation, none of the films indicated the presence of E. coli, S. aureus, enterobacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts, or molds. This aspect can also be helped by the low values of the water activity index (located between 0.546 and 0.576). The mechanical properties indicated that the material became more resistant with the addition of essential oil, the best values being recorded by the addition of oregano. The results obtained indicate the possibility of using biopolymer-based films with the addition of rosemary, thyme, and oregano essential oil, for wrapping food supplements, thus replacing conventional packaging, multilayer, impossible to sort and recycle.

Keywords: Food Supplements, thyme, edible films, rosemary, oregano

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1338 Combined Effect of Gluten-Free Superfoods and by-Products from Ecuador to Evaluate the Functional and Sensory Properties of Breadmaking

Authors: Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado, Andrea Vasquez

Abstract:

In general, 'gluten-free' foods like breadmaking products provide functional or nutraceutical benefits for the consumer's health and increased their demand on the market. In Ecuador, there is an overproduction of superfoods, and the food by-products are undervalued. For the first time, to the author's best knowledge, gluten-free bread mixtures from quinoa and banana flour, cassava starch, lupine flour (LF), or whey protein (WP) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and transglutaminase (TG) were evaluated on their functional and sensory properties. Free amino groups and thiols, rheology, and electrophoresis SDS PAGE were performed to analyze the crosslinking of TG at different concentrations with HC or PL proteins. Dough characterization, pasting properties were evaluated, respectively, by a MIXOLAB and a rheometer with a pasting cell. The texture, porosity, and loaf volume were characterized using a texturometer, ImageJ software, and breadmaking ability, respectively. Finally, a breadmaking aptitude and sensorial bread acceptability were performed. A significant decrease in the content of free amino groups (0.16 to 0.11 and 0.46 to 0.36 mM/mg of protein) and free thiol groups (0.37 to 0.21 and 1.79 to 1.32 mM/mg protein) was observed when 1.0% and 0.5% TG were added to LF and WP, respectively. In apparent viscosity analysis, the action of TG on HC proteins changes their viscosity, while the viscosity of LF is not modified by TG. Results of electrophoresis in PL showed bands of higher molecular weight of different fragments of proteins with 1% TG. Formulation with 59.8, 39.9, 160.8, 6.0, 1.0, and 1.5% of, respectively, QF, BF, CS, LF or WP, TG, and HPMC had the best properties in dough parameters, pasting parameters (lower pasting temperature and higher peak viscosity), best crumb structure, lower crumb hardness and higher loaf volume (2.24 and 2.28 mL/g). All the loaves of bread were acceptable in baking aptitude and general acceptability.

Keywords: by-products, gluten-free, Ecuador, superfoods, breadmaking

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1337 Mathematical Modelling of Bacterial Growth in Products of Animal Origin in Storage and Transport: Effects of Temperature, Use of Bacteriocins and pH Level

Authors: Benjamin Castillo, Luis Pastenes, Fernando Cordova

Abstract:

The pathogen growth in animal source foods is a common problem in the food industry, causing monetary losses due to the spoiling of products or food intoxication outbreaks in the community. In this sense, the quality of the product is reflected by the population of deteriorating agents present in it, which are mainly bacteria. The factors which are likely associated with freshness in animal source foods are temperature and processing, storage, and transport times. However, the level of deterioration of products depends, in turn, on the characteristics of the bacterial population, causing the decomposition or spoiling, such as pH level and toxins. Knowing the growth dynamics of the agents that are involved in product contamination allows the monitoring for more efficient processing. This means better quality and reasonable costs, along with a better estimation of necessary time and temperature intervals for transport and storage in order to preserve product quality. The objective of this project is to design a secondary model that allows measuring the impact on temperature bacterial growth and the competition for pH adequacy and release of bacteriocins in order to describe such phenomenon and, thus, estimate food product half-life with the least possible risk of deterioration or spoiling. In order to achieve this objective, the authors propose an analysis of a three-dimensional ordinary differential which includes; logistic bacterial growth extended by the inhibitory action of bacteriocins including the effect of the medium pH; change in the medium pH levels through an adaptation of the Luedeking-Piret kinetic model; Bacteriocin concentration modeled similarly to pH levels. These three dimensions are being influenced by the temperature at all times. Then, this differential system is expanded, taking into consideration the variable temperature and the concentration of pulsed bacteriocins, which represent characteristics inherent of the modeling, such as transport and storage, as well as the incorporation of substances that inhibit bacterial growth. The main results lead to the fact that temperature changes in an early stage of transport increased the bacterial population significantly more than if it had increased during the final stage. On the other hand, the incorporation of bacteriocins, as in other investigations, proved to be efficient in the short and medium-term since, although the population of bacteria decreased, once the bacteriocins were depleted or degraded over time, the bacteria eventually returned to their regular growth rate. The efficacy of the bacteriocins at low temperatures decreased slightly, which equates with the fact that their natural degradation rate also decreased. In summary, the implementation of the mathematical model allowed the simulation of a set of possible bacteria present in animal based products, along with their properties, in various transport and storage situations, which led us to state that for inhibiting bacterial growth, the optimum is complementary low constant temperatures and the initial use of bacteriocins.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, temperature, bacteriocins, bacterial growth

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1336 Effects of Temperature and the Use of Bacteriocins on Cross-Contamination from Animal Source Food Processing: A Mathematical Model

Authors: Benjamin Castillo, Luis Pastenes, Fernando Cerdova

Abstract:

The contamination of food by microbial agents is a common problem in the industry, especially regarding the elaboration of animal source products. Incorrect manipulation of the machinery or on the raw materials can cause a decrease in production or an epidemiological outbreak due to intoxication. In order to improve food product quality, different methods have been used to reduce or, at least, to slow down the growth of the pathogens, especially deteriorated, infectious or toxigenic bacteria. These methods are usually carried out under low temperatures and short processing time (abiotic agents), along with the application of antibacterial substances, such as bacteriocins (biotic agents). This, in a controlled and efficient way that fulfills the purpose of bacterial control without damaging the final product. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to design a secondary mathematical model that allows the prediction of both the biotic and abiotic factor impact associated with animal source food processing. In order to accomplish this objective, the authors propose a three-dimensional differential equation model, whose components are: bacterial growth, release, production and artificial incorporation of bacteriocins and changes in pH levels of the medium. These three dimensions are constantly being influenced by the temperature of the medium. Secondly, this model adapts to an idealized situation of cross-contamination animal source food processing, with the study agents being both the animal product and the contact surface. Thirdly, the stochastic simulations and the parametric sensibility analysis are compared with referential data. The main results obtained from the analysis and simulations of the mathematical model were to discover that, although bacterial growth can be stopped in lower temperatures, even lower ones are needed to eradicate it. However, this can be not only expensive, but counterproductive as well in terms of the quality of the raw materials and, on the other hand, higher temperatures accelerate bacterial growth. In other aspects, the use and efficiency of bacteriocins are an effective alternative in the short and medium terms. Moreover, an indicator of bacterial growth is a low-level pH, since lots of deteriorating bacteria are lactic acids. Lastly, the processing times are a secondary agent of concern when the rest of the aforementioned agents are under control. Our main conclusion is that when acclimating a mathematical model within the context of the industrial process, it can generate new tools that predict bacterial contamination, the impact of bacterial inhibition, and processing method times. In addition, the mathematical modeling proposed logistic input of broad application, which can be replicated on non-meat food products, other pathogens or even on contamination by crossed contact of allergen foods.

Keywords: temperature, mathematical model, cross-contamination, bacteriocins

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1335 Effect of Mutagenic Compounds on the Yield of Cultivated Pleurotus Pulmonarius

Authors: Simbiat O. Ayilara-Akande, Soji Fakoya

Abstract:

Quality and yield are always the target of farmers, including mushroom farmers. This study investigated how better Pleurotus pulmonarius can be obtained with the induction of mutagens into the process of spawn production in order to improve both the quality and the yield. Mushroom spawns were treated with ultraviolet radiation (UV) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) at different exposure times (2, 6, and 10 minutes) and different concentrations (10, 30, and 50Mm), respectively. The treated spawns were used to cultivate mushrooms on five substrates in the family of Gramineae viz: sorghum, rice, bamboo, sugarcane, and corn straws. Matured fruit bodies were harvested after a few weeks, and their parameters were taken and recorded. This study reveals a significant yield increase in mushroom grown on all the substrates when treated with ultraviolet radiation (UV) for 10 minutes and 6 minutes, respectively. Mushroom spawns treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride showed a negative correlation in the yield with an increased in mutagen concentration. Hence, Ultraviolet light could be employed to enhance the quality and yield of mushroom production.

Keywords: Protein, Yield, mushroom, mutagens

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1334 Antibacterial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Potential Multidrug - Resistant Pathogens Isolated from Rabbit

Authors: Checkfaith I. Aizebeoje, Temitope O. Lawal, Bolanle A. Adeniyi

Abstract:

The overuse and abuse of antibiotics in treating zoonotic infections in humans and opportunistic infections in rabbit has contributed to the increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, therefore, an alternative to antibiotics is needed in treating these infections. The study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from rabbit’s faeces against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens isolated from the same rabbit. Twelve faecal samples and twelve swabs from fur samples were randomly collected aseptically from apparently healthy rabbits from Ajibode, Ibadan and University of Ibadan research farm in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Lactic acid bacteria and multidrug-resistant pathogens were isolated using appropriate agar media and identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria and LAB were determined by the agar diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the LAB against the test pathogens was determined using the agar overlay and agar diffusion methods. The pathogens Myroides gitamensis, Citrobacter rodentium, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter oryzendophyticus and Serratia marcescens as well as twenty-eight (28) species of LAB belonging to Acetobacter and Lactobacillus genera were identified and characterized. Lactobacillus plantarum had the highest (60.71%) occurrence of the LAB. Viable cells and cell free supernatant (CFS) of isolated LAB inhibited the growth of the test organisms with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Citrobacter rodentium. This study showed that LAB from rabbit possess considerable antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria from the same environment.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, cell-free supernatant, lactic acid bacteria; multidrug-resistant pathogens, rabbits’ faeces

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1333 Potentialities of Onopordum Tauricum (Willd.) as Milk Clotting Agent

Authors: Massimo Mozzon, Nadia Raffaelli

Abstract:

Proteases from herbs, woody plants, and trees are exploited for cheesemaking in several countries, especially in South Europe and West Africa. Particularly, “thistles” belonging to several genera within the Asteraceae family (Cynara, Silybum, Centaurea, Carlina, Cirsium, Onopordum) are traditionally used in Mediterranean countries for clotting raw ewe’s and goat’s milk. For the first time, the clotting performance of an aqueous extract from flowers of Onopordum tauricum Willd. (Taurian thistle, bull cottonthistle) were tested in milk of different origin (cow, goat, ewe). The vegetable material was collected in the Central Apennines range, between the Marche and Umbria regions. A response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to study the effect of the curdling variables (temperature, pH, amount of enzymatic extract) on the technological performance of the thistle extract. A three-step procedure for the purification of the enzyme (ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography) was also carried out. The milk clotting activity (MCA) of O. tauricum crude extracts was strongly affected by temperature, pH and by the interaction between these two variables, according to a second-order response surface model, while the milk/coagulant ratio did not affect in a significant way the clotting properties. Experimental data showed that the addition of 10 mM CaCl2 reduced the clotting time of ewe’s, goat’s, and cow’s milk by about 3-fold, 8-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, at 35°C and pH 6.7-6.8. After purification, an enzymatic preparation very close to homogeneity was obtained, which showed a major band at about 30 kDa when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The identity of the enzyme as an aspartic protease was confirmed by inhibition studies. Cheese-making trials were carried out to check the scale-up (1 to 5 L of milk; 37 °C; 10 mM CaCl2 fortification) and set the recipe: 35-45% of curd yields were recorded, according to curd cutting and pressing.

Keywords: Milk clotting activity, Onopordum tauricum, plant proteases, vegetable rennet

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1332 Study on the Efficiency of Some Antioxidants on Reduction of Maillard Reaction in Low Lactose Milk

Authors: Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Farnaz Alaeimoghadam

Abstract:

In low-lactose milk, due to lactose hydrolysis and its conversion to monosaccharides like glucose and galactose, the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning) occurs more readily compared to non-hydrolyzed milk. This reaction incurs off-flavor and dark color, as well as a decrease in the nutritional value of milk. The target of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants in diminishing the browning in low-lactose milk. In this research, three antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and pantothenic acid in the concentration range of 0-1 mM/L, either in combination with each other or separately, were added to low-lactose milk. After heat treatment (120 0C for 3 min.), milk samples incubated at 55 0C for one day and then stored at 4 0C for 9 days. Quality indices, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color indices, and sensory characters, were measured during intervals of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results of this research showed that the effect of storage time and adding antioxidants were significant on pH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds either before or after heating, index L*, color change, and sensational characteristics (p < 0.05); however, acidity, a* and b* indices, chroma, and hue angle showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). The findings showed that the simultaneous application of gallic acid and ascorbic in the diminishing of non-enzymatic browning and color change, increasing pH, longevity, and antioxidant activity after heat treatment, and augmenting phenolic compounds before heat treatment was better than that of pantothenic acid.

Keywords: natural antioxidant, Maillard, low-lactose milk, non-enzymatic browning

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1331 Phytochemical Profile of Ripe Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Galbuli from Bulgaria

Authors: S. Stankov, H. Fidan, N. Petkova, M. Stoyanova, Tz. Radoukova, A. Stoyanova

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of ripe Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. galbuli (female cones) collected from "Izgoraloto Gyune" Reserve in Krichim, Bulgaria. The moisture (36.88%), abs. weight 693.96 g/1000 pcs., and the ash content (10.57%) of ripe galbuli were determined. Lipid fraction (9.12%), cellulose (13.54%), protein (13.64%), and total carbohydrates (31.20%) were evaluated in the ripe galbuli. It was found that the ripe galbuli contained glucose (4.00%) and fructose (4.25%), but disaccharide sucrose was not identified. The main macro elements presented in the sample were K (8390.00 mg/kg), Ca (4596.00 g/kg), Mg (837.72 mg/kg), followed by Na (7.69 mg/kg); while the detected microelements consisted of Zn (8.51 mg/kg), Cu (4.66 mg/kg), Mn (3.65 mg/kg), Fe (3.26 mg/kg), Cr (3.00 mg/kg), Cd (< 0.1 mg/kg), and Pb (0.01 mg/kg).

Keywords: Minerals, Chemical Composition, Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb, ripe galbuli

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1330 Adaptative Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Brewers' Spent Grain Fermentation

Authors: M. Acin-Albiac, P. Filannino, R. Coda, Carlo G. Rizzello, M. Gobbetti, R. Di Cagno

Abstract:

Demand for smart management of large amounts of agro-food by-products has become an area of major environmental and economic importance worldwide. Brewers' spent grain (BSG), the most abundant by-product generated in the beer-brewing process, represents an example of valuable raw material and source of health-promoting compounds. To the date, the valorization of BSG as a food ingredient has been limited due to poor technological and sensory properties. Tailored bioprocessing through lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is a versatile and sustainable means for the exploitation of food industry by-products. Indigestible carbohydrates (e.g., hemicelluloses and celluloses), high phenolic content, and mostly lignin make of BSG a hostile environment for microbial survival. Hence, the selection of tailored starters is required for successful fermentation. Our study investigated the metabolic strategies of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum strains to exploit BSG as a food ingredient. Two distinctive BSG samples from different breweries (Italian IT- and Finish FL-BSG) were microbially and chemically characterized. Growth kinetics, organic acid profiles, and the evolution of phenolic profiles during the fermentation in two BSG model media were determined. The results were further complemented with gene expression targeting genes involved in the degradation cellulose, hemicelluloses building blocks, and the metabolism of anti-nutritional factors. Overall, the results were LAB genus dependent showing distinctive metabolic capabilities. Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 may degrade BSG xylans while sucrose metabolism could be furtherly exploited for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production to enhance BSG pro-technological properties. Although L. plantarum strains may follow the same metabolic strategies during BSG fermentation, the mode of action to pursue such strategies was strain-dependent. L. plantarum PU1 showed a great preference for β-galactans compared to strain WCFS1, while the preference for arabinose occurred at different metabolic phases. Phenolic compounds profiling highlighted a novel metabolic route for lignin metabolism. These findings will allow an improvement of understanding of how lactic acid bacteria transform BSG into economically valuable food ingredients.

Keywords: Gene expression, brewery by-product valorization, metabolism of plant phenolics, metabolism of lactic acid bacteria

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1329 Biotechnological Recycling of Apple By-Products: A Reservoir Model to Produce a Dietary Supplement Fortified with Biogenic Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Ali Zein Aalabiden Tlais, Alessio Da Ros, Pasquale Filannino, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Gobbetti, Raffaella Di Cagno

Abstract:

This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, antioxidant activity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acid derivatives highlighted microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolic compounds were likely responsible for the increased antioxidant activity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and preserved the integrity of tight junctions. An alternative and suitable model for food by-products recycling to manufacture a dietary supplement fortified with biogenic compounds was proposed. Highlighting the microbial metabolism of several phenolic compounds, undoubted additional value to such downstream wastes was created.

Keywords: Fermentation, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant, apple by-products

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1328 Trends and Priorities for the Fishing Sector in the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Mihaela Munteanu Pila

Abstract:

Abstract The Republic of Moldova has a high potential for commercial growth of fish, due to its rich natural resources. Every year, national actions are implemented for the development and improvement of wetlands through acclimatization of hydrobionts, cleaning of adjacent waste areas and repopulation with valuable fish species. Due to aggressive environmental factors, anthropogenic factors, poaching or insufficient financial resources allocated to the authorities, there is a strong degradation of aquatic resources in the area. The main issue of the study is to identify priority areas for the development of fish farming in the area and maintain potential reserves to increase the efficiency of fish production in the pond. The rational operation of pond-type reservoirs will make it possible to maintain the breeding base of many fish species and will in future become a valuable source of local marketable products, in order to increase the productivity of fish in ponds and exploit the region's resources. The research looked at the problems that led to a decline in local fish production and identified a number of long-term measures needed to develop aquaculture.

Keywords: Fisheries, Development, Productivity, Republic of Moldova

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1327 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer

Abstract:

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, microwave drying, eggplant, Drying Rate, drying efficiency

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1326 The Effect of Nano-Silver Packaging on Quality Maintenance of Fresh Strawberry

Authors: Naser Valipour Motlagh, Majid Aliabadi, Elnaz Rahmani, Samira Ghorbanpour

Abstract:

Strawberry is one of the most favored fruits all along the world. But due to its vulnerability to microbial contamination and short life storage, there are lots of problems in industrial production and transportation of this fruit. Therefore, lots of ideas have tried to increase the storage life of strawberries especially through proper packaging. This paper works on efficient packaging as well. The primary material used is produced through simple mixing of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and silver nanoparticles in different weight fractions of 0.5 and 1% in presence of dicumyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. Final packages were made in a twin-screw extruder. Then, their effect on the quality maintenance of strawberry is evaluated. The SEM images of nano-silver packages show the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the packages. Total bacteria count, mold, yeast and E. coli are measured for microbial evaluation of all samples. Texture, color, appearance, odor, taste and total acceptance of various samples are evaluated by trained panelists and based on 9-point hedonic scale method. The results show a decrease in total bacteria count and mold in nano-silver packages compared to the samples packed in polyethylene packages for the same storage time. The optimum concentration of silver nanoparticles for the lowest bacteria count and mold is predicted to be around 0.5% which has attained the most acceptance from the panelist as well. Moreover, organoleptic properties of strawberry are preserved for a longer period in nano-silver packages. It can be concluded that using nano-silver particles in strawberry packages has improved the storage life and quality maintenance of the fruit.

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, Polyethylene, strawberry, antimicrobial properties

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1325 Determination of Chemical Contaminants in UHT Milk Consumed in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: Fatima Mohamed, Adem Rama, Rabiha Seboussi, Mahmoud Muhamadin, Sultan Alzarooni, Khuloud Al Ali

Abstract:

To assess public health hazards associated with the occurrence of Antibiotics and AFM1 residues in UHT milk, a survey was carried out in Sharjah, UAE. In the present study, a total of 42 UHT milk samples analyzed were from different commercial brands manufactured in industrial dairy units in the UAE and from foreign producers. Milk samples were collected for four months (January to April 2020). The occurrence and concentration range of Antibiotics (Streptomycin and Gentamycin) and AFM1 in the samples were investigated by applying the ELISA method. According to the methodology used in this study, in total, 2 (5%) out of 42(95%) samples tested positive on the presence of AFM1. While, 1(2.4%) out of 41(97.6%) positive samples were found to contain Streptomycin and Gentamycin, respectively. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the UHT milk samples ranged from 58.8 to 1074 µg/L, for Streptomycin from up to 1004 µg/L, and Gentamycin up to 6909 µg/L. There were no positive samples found in locally produced UHT milk. AFM1 and antibiotic levels in positive samples UHT milk samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limits as set by the European Union - EC guidelines/standards. These levels in the samples show a presence of contaminants that might constitute a human health risk in Sharjah. The results of this study imply that more emphasis should be given to the routine inspection of milk and dairy products in the Sharjah region.

Keywords: Public Health, Milk, ELISA, Sharjah, contaminant residues

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1324 Physical Property Characterization of Adult Dairy Nutritional Products for Powder Reconstitution

Authors: Wei Wang, Martin Chen

Abstract:

The reconstitution behaviours of nutritional products could impact user experience. Reconstitution issues such as lump formation and white flecks sticking to bottles surfaces could be very unappealing for the consumers in milk preparation. The controlling steps in dissolving instant milk powders include wetting, swelling, sinking, dispersing, and dissolution as in the literature. Each stage happens simultaneously with the others during milk preparation, and it is challenging to isolate and measure each step individually. This study characterized three adult nutritional products for different properties including particle size, density, dispersibility, stickiness, and capillary wetting to understand the relationship between powder physical properties and their reconstitution behaviours. From the results, the formation of clumps can be caused by different factors limiting the critical steps of powder reconstitution. It can be caused by small particle size distribution, light particle density limiting powder wetting, or the rapid swelling and dissolving of particle surface materials to impede water penetration in the capillary channels formed by powder agglomerates. For the grain or white flecks formation in milk preparation, it was believed to be controlled by dissolution speed of the particles after dispersion into water. By understanding those relationship between fundamental powder structure and their user experience in reconstitution, this information provides us new and multiple perspectives on how to improve the powder characteristics in the commercial manufacturing.

Keywords: Characterization, reconstitution, physical property, dairy nutritional powder

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1323 Objective vs. Perceived Quality in the Cereal Industry

Authors: Albena Ivanova, Jill Kurp, Austin Hampe

Abstract:

Cereal products in the US contain rich information on the front of the package (FOP) as well as point-of-purchase (POP) summaries provided by the store. These summaries frequently are confusing and misleading to the consumer. This study explores the relationship between perceived quality, objective quality, price, and value in the cold cereal industry. A total of 270 cold cereal products were analyzed and the price, quality and value for different summaries were compared using ANOVA tests. The results provide evidence that the United States Department of Agriculture Organic FOP/POP are related to higher objective quality, higher price, but not to a higher value. Whole grain FOP/POP related to a higher objective quality, lower or similar price, and higher value. Heart-healthy POP related to higher objective quality, similar price, and higher value. Gluten-free FOP/POP related to lower objective quality, higher price, and lower value. Kid's cereals were of lower objective quality, same price, and lower value compared to family and adult markets. The findings point to a disturbing tendency of companies to continue to produce lower quality products for the kids’ market, pricing them the same as high-quality products. The paper outlines strategies that marketers and policymakers can utilize to contribute to the increased objective quality and value of breakfast cereal products in the United States.

Keywords: cereals, consumer health, certifications, front-of-package claims

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1322 Research Regarding Resistance Characteristics of Biscuits Assortment Using Cone Penetrometer

Authors: G. Voicu, G.–A. Constantin, E.–M. Stefan, P. Tudor, G. Paraschiv, M.–G. Munteanu

Abstract:

In the activity of handling and transport of food products, the products may be subjected to mechanical stresses that may lead to their deterioration by deformation, breaking, or crushing. This is the case for biscuits, regardless of their type (gluten-free or sugary), the addition of ingredients or flour from which they are made. However, gluten-free biscuits have a higher mechanical resistance to breakage or crushing compared to easily shattered sugar biscuits (especially those for children). The paper presents the results of the experimental evaluation of the texture for four varieties of commercial biscuits, using the penetrometer equipped with needle cone at five different additional weights on the cone-rod. The assortments of biscuits tested in the laboratory were Petit Beurre, Picnic, and Maia (all three manufactured by RoStar, Romania) and Sultani diet biscuits, manufactured by Eti Burcak Sultani (Turkey, in packs of 138 g). For the four varieties of biscuits and the five additional weights (50, 77, 100, 150 and 177 g), the experimental data obtained were subjected to regression analysis in the MS Office Excel program, using Velon's relationship (h = a∙ln(t) + b). The regression curves were analysed comparatively in order to identify possible differences and to highlight the variation of the penetration depth h, in relation to the time t. Based on the penetration depth between two-time intervals (every 5 seconds), the curves of variation of the penetration speed in relation to time were then drawn. It was found that Velon's law verifies the experimental data for all assortments of biscuits and for all five additional weights. The correlation coefficient R2 had in most of the analysed cases values over 0.850. The values recorded for the penetration depth were framed, in general, within 45-55 p.u. (penetrometric units) at an additional mass of 50 g, respectively between 155-168 p.u., at an additional mass of 177 g, at Petit Beurre biscuits. For Sultani diet biscuits, the values of the penetration depth were within the limits of 32-35 p.u., at an additional weight of 50 g and between 80-114 p.u., at an additional weight of 177g. The data presented in the paper can be used by both operators on the manufacturing technology flow, as well as by the traders of these food products, in order to establish the most efficient parametric of the working regimes (when packaging and handling).

Keywords: penetration depth, biscuits resistance/texture, penetration velocity, sharp pin penetrometer

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1321 The Development of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Citrinin Determination in Dry-Fermented Meat Products

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Nina Kudumija, Manuela Zadravec, Nada Vahcic, Maja Kis, Tomaz Polak

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by numerous types of molds. They can contaminate both food and feed so that they represent a serious public health concern. Production of dry-fermented meat products involves ripening, during which molds can overgrow the product surface, produce mycotoxins, and consequently contaminate the final product. Citrinin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by the Penicillium citrinum. Data on citrinin occurrence in both food and feed are limited. Therefore, there is a need for research on citrinin occurrence in these types of meat products. The LC-MS/MS method for citrinin determination was developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed using immunoaffinity columns, which resulted in clean sample extracts. Method validation included the determination of the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, linearity, and matrix effect in accordance to the latest validation guidance. The determined LOD and LOQ were 0.60 µg/kg and 1.98 µg/kg, respectively, showing a good method sensitivity. The method was tested for its linearity in the calibration range of 1 µg/L to 10 µg/L. The recovery was 100.9 %, while the matrix effect was 0.7 %. This method was employed in the analysis of 47 samples of dry-fermented sausages collected from local households. Citrinin wasn’t detected in any of these samples, probably because of the short ripening period of the tested sausages that takes three months tops. The developed method shall be used to test other types of traditional dry-cured products, such as prosciuttos, whose surface is usually more heavily overgrown by surface molds due to the longer ripening period.

Keywords: Mycotoxins, LC-MS/MS, citrinin, dry-fermented meat products

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1320 Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Antifungal Food Packaging Applications

Authors: Francisco Rodríguez, Abel Guarda, Cristina Munoz-Shuguli, Julio Bruna, M. Jose Galotto

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The microbial contamination in fruits due to the presence of fungal is the most important cause of their deterioration and loss. The development of active food packaging materials with antifungal properties has been proposed as an innovative strategy in order to prevent this problem. In this way, natural compounds as the essential oils or their derivatives, also called volatile compounds (VC), can be incorporated in the food packaging materials to control the fungal growth during fruit packaging. However, if the VC is incorporated directly in the packaging material, it is released very fast due to VC high volatility. For this reason, the formation of inclusion complexes through the encapsulation of VC into beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and their incorporation in package materials is an alternative to maintain an antifungal atmosphere around the packaged fruits for longer times. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop inclusion complexes based in β-CD and VC (β-CD:VC) for further application in the antifungal food packaging materials development. β-CD:VC inclusion complexes were obtained with two different molar ratios 2:1 and 1:1, through co-precipitation method. The entrapment efficiency of β-CD:VC as well the release of antifungal compound from inclusion complexes exposed to different relative humidity (25, 50, and 97 %) to headspace were determined by gaseous chromatography (GC). Also, thermal and antimicrobial properties of β-CD:VC were determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antifungal assays against Botrytis cinerea, respectively. GC results showed that β-CD:VC 2:1 had a higher entrapment efficiency than β-CD:VC 1:1, with values of 75.5 ± 3.71 % and 59.6 ± 1.51 %, respectively. It was probably because during the synthesis of β-CD:VC 1:1, there was less molecular space to the movement of VC molecules. Furthermore, the release of VC from β-CD:VC was directly related with the relative humidity. High amount of VC was released when the inclusion complexes were exposed to high humidity, possibly due to the interactions between the water molecules and the β-CD hydrophilic wall. On the other hand, a better thermal stability of VC in inclusion complexes allowed to verify its effective encapsulation into β-CD. Finally, antimicrobial assays showed that the inclusion complexes had a high antifungal activity at very low concentrations. Therefore, the results obtained in this work allow suggesting the β-CD:VC inclusion complexes as potential candidates to the development of fruit antifungal packaging materials, which activity is relative humidity dependent.

Keywords: volatile compounds, botrytis cinerea, fruit packaging, headspace release

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1319 Medical Nutritional Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with Tuberculosis and Severe Malnutrition: A Case Report

Authors: Lista Andriyati, Nurpudji A Taslim

Abstract:

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients have potential nutritional and metabolic problems. HIV is a virus that attacks cells T helper and impairs the function of immune cells. Infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient, results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections such as tuberculosis (TB). Malnutrition has destructive effects on the immune system and host defense mechanisms. Effective and proper nutritional therapies are important to improve medical outcomes and quality of life, which is associated with functional improvement. A case of 38-years old man admitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and was diagnosed HIV infection and relapse lung TB with severe malnutrition, fever, oral candidiasis, anemia (6.3 g/dL), severe hypoalbuminemia (1.9 g/dL), severe hypokalemia (2.2 mmol/L), immune depletion (1085 /µL) and elevated liver enzyme (ALT 1198/AST 375 U/L). Nutritional intervention by giving 2300 kcal of energy, protein 2 g/IBW/day, carbohydrate 350 g, fat 104 g through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Supplementations administered are zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, and snakehead fish extract high content of protein albumin (Pujimin®). After 46 days, there are clinical and metabolic improvement in Hb (6.3 to 11.2 g/dL), potassium (2.2 to 3.4 mmol/L), albumin (1.9 to 2.3 g/dL), ALT 1198 to 47/AST 375 to 68 U/L) and improved awareness. In conclusion, nutritional therapy in HIV infection with adequate macronutrients and micronutrients fulfillment and immunonutrition is very important to avoid cachexia and to improve nutritional status and immune disfunction.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Tuberculosis, HIV, hypoalbuminemia

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1318 Quality Assessment of Some Selected Locally Produced and Marketed Soft Drinks

Authors: Gerardette Darkwah, Gloria Ankar Brewoo, John Barimah, Gilbert Owiah Sampson, Vincent Abe-Inge

Abstract:

Soft drinks which are widely consumed in Ghana have been reported in other countries to contain toxic heavy metals beyond the acceptable limits in other countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of selected locally produced and marketed soft drinks. Three (3) different batches of 23 soft drinks were sampled from the Takoradi markets. The samples were prescreened for the presence of reducing sugars, phosphates, alcohol and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties were also determined with AOAC methods. The results indicated the presence of reducing sugars, carbon dioxide and the absence of alcohol in all the selected soft drink samples. The pH, total sugars, moisture, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity ranged from 2.42 – 3.44, 3.30 – 10.44%, 85.63 – 94.85%, 5.00 – 13.33°Brix, and 0.21 – 1.99% respectively. The concentration of heavy metals were also below detection limits in all samples. The quality of the selected were within specifications prescribed by regulatory bodies.

Keywords: Quality, heavy metal contamination, soft drinks, locally manufactured

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1317 Functional Foods and Their Health Benefits with an Emphasis on Probiotics

Authors: Tanu Malik, Eusebe Gnonlonfoun, Eudes L. Anihouvi

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The rise of nutrition-related diseases, increase of health care cost, and the social perception that food could directly affect health have naturally created an environment conducive to the development of foods and beverages with an asserted health benefit. Consumer habits have turned considerably healthier in recent years and led to the demand for fortified and enhanced foods that could adequately provide health benefits beyond necessary nutrients for humans when they are consumed as part of the diet and regularly. These trends have developed a global market for functional foods, that grows annually and undoubtedly requires to be diversified. Product development appears thus as a key research priority for both the food industry and science sectors. The health benefits of these functional foods are summarized in two possible ways: either indirectly as a desired result of biogenic effect or through the direct interaction of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect). This paper reviews functional foods and their beneficial health effects with a key focus on probiotics for the possible expansion of their use by the food industry in order to develop non-dairy based probiotics foods. Likewise, it reveals the need for more researches oriented towards an accurate understanding of the possible interaction between probiotic strains and the matrix and, on the other hand, the interaction between probiotic strains and some enzymes used during food manufacturing.

Keywords: Functional foods, Probiotics, Food industry, Health Benefits

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1316 Effects of Enzymatic Liquefaction on the Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Zn-Amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) Puree

Authors: M. A. Siti Faridah, K. Muhammad, H. M. Ghazali, Y. A. Yusof

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of three variables namely types of cell wall degrading enzymes (Viscozyme L, Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Rapidase PAC, Rohament CL and Rohapect PTE) at varying concentrations (0.25-3% v/w) and times (30 min-24 h) on the zinc (Zn-) amaranth purees. Liquefaction treatment of the Zn-amaranth purees with Viscozyme (1% v/w at pH 5 and 45ºC for 3 h) was found to be the best procedure, which produced Zn-amaranth puree with low viscosity (8.60 mPas). Zn-amaranth purees were also found to have the highest metallo-chlorophyll derivative contents (0.16 mg/g), free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) values (12.49 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (4.57 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) within 3 h of liquefaction. Other physicochemical properties of the enzyme-liquefied Zn-amaranth purees indicated that lightness (L*) (12.54), greenness a*/b* (-0.30), reducing sugar (103.88 mg/mL) and soluble dietary fibre (5.94%) of the purees were higher compared to that of nonenzyme-liquefied amaranth purees.

Keywords: antioxidant, amaranth, chlorophyll derivative, enzymatic liquefaction

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1315 Adequate Dietary Intake to Improve Outcome of Urine: Urea Nitrogen with Balance Nitrogen and Total Lymphocyte Count

Authors: Mardiana Madjid, Nurpudji Astuti Taslim, Suryani As'ad, Haerani Rasyid, Agussalim Bukhari

Abstract:

The high level of Urine Urea Nitrogen (UUN) indicates hypercatabolism occurs in hospitalized patients. High levels of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) indicates the immune system condition, adequate wound healing, and limit complication. Adequate dietary intake affects to decrease of hypercatabolism status in treated patient’s hospitals. Nitrogen Balance (NB) is simply the difference between nitrogen (N₂) intake and output. If more N₂ intake than output, then positive NB or anabolic will occur. This study aims to evaluate the effect of dietary intake in influencing balance nitrogen and total lymphocyte count. Method: A total of 43 patients admitted to a Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital between 2018 and 2019 for 10 days' treats are included. The inclusion criteria were patients who were treated for 10 days and receives food from the hospital orally. Patients did not experience gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea and experience impair kidney function and liver function and expressed approval to participate in this study. During hospitalization, food intake, UUN, albumin serum, balance nitrogen, and TLC was assessed twice on day 1 and day 10. There is no Physician Clinical Nutritional intervention to correct food intake. UUN is 24 hours of urine collected on the second day after admission and the tenth day. Statistical analysis uses SPSS 24 with observational cohort methods. Result: The Forty-three participants completed the follow-up (27 men and 18 women). The age of fewer than 4 years is 22 people, 45 to 60 years is 16 people, and over 60 years is 4 people. The result of the study on day 1 obtained SGA score A, SGA score B, SGA score C are 8, 32, 3 until day 10 are 8, 31, 4, respectively. According to 24h dietary recalls, the energy intake during observation was from 522.5 ± 400.4 to 1011.9 ± 545.1 kcal/day P < 0.05, protein intake from 20.07 ± 17.2 to 40.3 ± 27.3 g/day P < 0.05, carbohydrates from 92.5 ± 71.6 to 184.8 ± 87.4 g/day, and fat from 5.5 ± 3.86 to 13.9 ± 13.9 g/day. The UUN during the observation was from 6.6 ± 7.3 to 5.5 ± 3.9 g/day, TLC decreased from 1622.9 ± 897.2 to 1319.9 ± 636.3/mm³ value target 1800/mm³, albumin serum from 3.07 ± 0.76 to 2.9 ± 0.57 g/day, and BN from -7.5 ± 7.2 to -3.1 ± 4.86. Conclusion: The high level of UUN needs to correct adequate dietary intake to improve NB and TLC status on hospitalized patients.

Keywords: adequate dietary intake, balance nitrogen, total lymphocyte count, urine urea nitrogen

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1314 Rheological and Sensory Attributes of Dough and Crackers Including Amaranth Flour (Amaranthus spp.)

Authors: Claudia Cabezas-Zabala, Jairo Lindarte-Artunduaga, Carlos Mario Zuluaga-Dominguez

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Amaranth is an emerging pseudocereal rich in such essential nutrients as protein and dietary fiber, which was employed as an ingredient in the formulation of crackers to evaluate the rheological performance and sensory acceptability of the obtained food. A completely randomized factorial design was used with two factors: (A) ratio of wheat and amaranth flour used in the preparation of the dough, in proportion 90:10 and 80:20 (% w/w) and (B) two levels of inulin addition of 8.4% and 16.7 %, having two control doughs made from amaranth and wheat flour, respectively. Initially, the functional properties of the formulations mentioned were measured, showing no significant differences in the water absorption capacity (WAC) and swelling power (SP), having mean values between 1.66 and 1.81 g/g for WAC and between 1.75 and 1.86 g/g for SP, respectively. The amaranth flour had the highest water holding capacity (WHR) of 8.41 ± 0.15 g/g and emulsifying activity (EA) of 74.63 ± 1.89 g/g. Moreover, the rheological behavior, measured through the use of farinograph, extensograph, Mixolab, and falling index, showed that the formulation containing 20% of amaranth flour and 7.16% of inulin had a rheological behavior similar to the control produced exclusively with wheat flour, being the former, the one selected for the preparation of crackers. For this formulation, the farinograph showed a mixing tolerance index of 11 UB, indicating a strong and cohesive dough; likewise, the Mixolab showed dough reaches stability at 6.47 min, indicating a good resistance to mixing. On the other hand, the extensograph exhibited a dough resistance of 637 UB, as well as extensibility of 13.4 mm, which corresponds to a strong dough capable of resisting the laminate. Finally, the falling index was 318 s, which indicates the crumb will retain enough air to enhance the crispness of a characteristic cracker. Finally, a sensory consumer test did not show significant differences in the evaluation of aroma between the control and the selected formulation, while this latter had a significantly lower rating in flavor. However, a purchase intention of 70 % was observed among the population surveyed. The results obtained in this work give perspectives for the industrial use of amaranth in baked goods. Additionally, amaranth has been a product typically linked to indigenous populations in the Andean South American countries; therefore, the search for diversification and alternatives of use for this pseudocereal has an impact on the social and economic conditions of such communities. The technological versatility and nutritional quality of amaranth is an advantage for consumers, favoring the consumption of healthy products with important contributions of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: Rheology, crackers, amaranth, pseudocereals, kneaded products

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1313 Mathematical Modelling of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment in Microwave Dried Strawberry (Fragaria L.) Slices

Authors: Hilal Uslu, Salih Eroglu, Betul Ozkan, Ozcan Bulantekin, Alper Kuscu

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In this study, the strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruits, which were pretreated with ultrasound (US), were worked on in the microwave by using 90W power. Then mathematical modelling was applied to dried fruits by using different experimental thin layer models. The sliced fruits were subjected to ultrasound treatment at a frequency of 40 kHz for 10, 20, and 30 minutes, in an ultrasonic water bath, with a ratio of 1:4 to fruit/water. They are then dried in the microwave (90W). The drying process continued until the product moisture was below 10%. By analyzing the moisture change of the products at a certain time, eight different thin-layer drying models, (Newton, page, modified page, Midilli, Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, two-term, Wang and Singh) were tested for verification of experimental data. MATLAB R2015a statistical program was used for the modelling, and the best suitable model was determined with R²adj (coefficient of determination of compatibility), and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to analysis, the drying model that best describes the drying behavior for both drying conditions was determined as the Midilli model by high R²adj and low RMSE values. Control, 10, 20, and 30 min US for groups R²adj and RMSE values was established as respectively; 0,9997- 0,005298; 0,9998- 0,004735; 0,9995- 0,007031; 0,9917-0,02773. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for each group and were determined as 3,80x 10⁻⁸, 3,71 x 10⁻⁸, 3,26 x10⁻⁸ ve 3,5 x 10⁻⁸ m/s, respectively.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Ultrasound, microwave drying, strawberry

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1312 Experimental and Modelling Performances of a Sustainable Integrated System of Conditioning for Bee-Pollen

Authors: Andrés Durán, Brian Castellanos, Marta Quicazán, Carlos Zuluaga-Domínguez

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Bee-pollen is an apicultural-derived food product, with a growing appreciation among consumers given the remarkable nutritional and functional composition, in particular, protein (24%), dietary fiber (15%), phenols (15 – 20 GAE/g) and carotenoids (600 – 900 µg/g). These properties are given by the geographical and climatic characteristics of the region where it is collected. There are several countries recognized by their pollen production, e.g. China, United States, Japan, Spain, among others. Beekeepers use traps in the entrance of the hive where bee-pollen is collected. After the removal of foreign particles and drying, this product is ready to be marketed. However, in countries located along the equator, the absence of seasons and a constant tropical climate throughout the year favors a more rapid spoilage condition for foods with elevated water activity. The climatic conditions also trigger the proliferation of microorganisms and insects. This, added to the factor that beekeepers usually do not have adequate processing systems for bee-pollen, leads to deficiencies in the quality and safety of the product. In contrast, the Andean region of South America, lying on equator, typically has a high production of bee-pollen of up to 36 kg/year/hive, being four times higher than in countries with marked seasons. This region is also located in altitudes superior to 2500 meters above sea level, having extremes sun ultraviolet radiation all year long. As a mechanism of defense of radiation, plants produce more secondary metabolites acting as antioxidant agents, hence, plant products such as bee-pollen contain remarkable more phenolics and carotenoids than collected in other places. Considering this, the improvement of bee-pollen processing facilities by technical modifications and the implementation of an integrated cleaning and drying system for the product in an apiary in the area was proposed. The beehives were modified through the installation of alternative bee-pollen traps to avoid sources of contamination. The processing facility was modified according to considerations of Good Manufacturing Practices, implementing the combined use of a cabin dryer with temperature control and forced airflow and a greenhouse-type solar drying system. Additionally, for the separation of impurities, a cyclone type system was implemented, complementary to a screening equipment. With these modifications, a decrease in the content of impurities and the microbiological load of bee-pollen was seen from the first stages, principally with a reduction of the presence of molds and yeasts and in the number of foreign animal origin impurities. The use of the greenhouse solar dryer integrated to the cabin dryer allowed the processing of larger quantities of product with shorter waiting times in storage, reaching a moisture content of about 6% and a water activity lower than 0.6, being appropriate for the conservation of bee-pollen. Additionally, the contents of functional or nutritional compounds were not affected, even observing an increase of up to 25% in phenols content and a non-significant decrease in carotenoids content and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Processing, Drying, Beekeeping

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1311 Agroecology and Seasonal Disparity Nexus with Nutritional Status of Children in Ethiopia

Authors: Dagem Alemayehu, Samson Gebersilassie, Jan Frank

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Climate change is impacting nutrition through reducing food quantity and access, limiting dietary diversity, and decreased nutritional food content as well as strongly affecting seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, only a few data is available on the impacts of seasonality in Infant, and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices undernutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of poor resource settings of Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometry, and IYCF indicators were assessed in the harvest and lean seasons among children aged 6–23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Results: Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 32.8 % and 23.9 % (lowland &midland respectively) in the lean season to 36.1% and 33.8 % harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in the prevalence of stunting and underweight between harvest and lean seasons was noted in the lowland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% lean to 8.5% harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the midland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet, and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in harvest compared to a lean season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children's age was a predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. Conclusion: There is seasonal variation in undernutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect lowland agro-ecological zone.

Keywords: Agroecology, Seasonality, Stunting, Wasting

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1310 Great Food, No Atmosphere: A Review of Performance Nutrition for Application to Extravehicular Activities in Spaceflight

Authors: Lauren E. Church

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Background: Extravehicular activities (EVAs) are a critical aspect of missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It has long been noted that the spaceflight environment and the physical demands of EVA cause physiological and metabolic changes in humans; this review aims to combine these findings with nutritional studies in analogues of the spaceflight and EVA environments to make nutritional recommendations for astronauts scheduled for and immediately returning from EVAs. Results: Energy demands increase during orbital spaceflight and see further increases during EVA. Another critical element of EVA nutrition is adequate hydration. Orbital EVA appears to provide adequate hydration under current protocol, but during lunar surface EVA (LEVA) and in a 10km lunar walk-back test astronauts have stated that up to 20% more water was needed. Previous attempts for in-suit edible sustenance have not been adequately taken up by astronauts to be economically viable. In elite endurance athletes, a mixture of glucose and fructose is used in gels, improving performance. Discussion: A combination of non-caffeinated energy drink and simple water should be available for astronauts during EVA, allowing more autonomy. There should also be provision of gels or a similar product containing appropriate sodium levels to maintain hydration, but not so much as to hyperhydrate through renal water reabsorption. It is also suggested that short breaks be built into the schedule of EVAs for these gels to be consumed, as it is speculated that reason for low uptake of in-suit sustenance is the lack of time available in which to consume it.

Keywords: Sport, Nutrition, Space, astronaut

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