Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 214

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Textile Engineering ]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

214 Development of a Novel Ankle-Foot Orthotic Using a User Centered Approach for Improved Satisfaction

Authors: Martha Hall, Ahlad Neti, Elisa Arch

Abstract:

Studies have shown that individuals who use Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (AFOs) have a high level of dissatisfaction regarding their current AFOs. Studies point to the focus on technical design with little attention given to the user perspective as a source of AFO designs that leave users dissatisfied. To design a new AFO that satisfies users and thereby improves their quality of life, the reasons for their dissatisfaction and their wants and needs for an improved AFO design must be identified. There has been little research into the user perspective on AFO use and desired improvements, so the relationship between AFO design and satisfaction in daily use must be assessed to develop appropriate metrics and constraints prior to designing a novel AFO. To assess the user perspective on AFO design, structured interviews were conducted with 7 individuals (average age of 64.29±8.81 years) who use AFOs. All interviews were transcribed and coded to identify common themes using Grounded Theory Method in NVivo 12. Qualitative analysis of these results identified sources of user dissatisfaction such as heaviness, bulk, and uncomfortable material and overall needs and wants for an AFO. Beyond the user perspective, certain objective factors must be considered in the construction of metrics and constraints to ensure that the AFO fulfills its medical purpose. These more objective metrics are rooted in a common medical device market and technical standards. Given the large body of research concerning these standards, these objective metrics and constraints were derived through a literature review. Through these two methods, a comprehensive list of metrics and constraints accounting for both the user perspective on AFO design and the AFO’s medical purpose was compiled. These metrics and constraints will establish the framework for designing a new AFO that carries out its medical purpose while also improving the user experience. The metrics can be categorized into several overarching areas for AFO improvement. Categories of user perspective related metrics include comfort, discreteness, aesthetics, ease of use, and compatibility with clothing. Categories of medical purpose related metrics include biomechanical functionality, durability, and affordability. These metrics were used to guide an iterative prototyping process. Six concepts were ideated and compared using system-level analysis. From these six concepts, two concepts – the piano wire model and the segmented model – were selected to move forward into prototyping. Evaluation of non-functional prototypes of the piano wire and segmented models determined that the piano wire model better fulfilled the metrics by offering increased stability, longer durability, fewer points for failure, and a strong enough core component to allow a sock to cover over the AFO while maintaining the overall structure. As such, the piano wire AFO has moved forward into the functional prototyping phase, and healthy subject testing is being designed and recruited to conduct design validation and verification.

Keywords: Medical devices, assistive technology, Human Centered Design, ankle-foot orthotic

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213 Microstructures and Mechanical Property of ti6al4v - a Comparison between Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Prashanth Konda Gokuldoss, Javad Karimi

Abstract:

Microstructural inhomogeneity in additively manufactured materials affects the material properties. The present study aims in minimizing such microstructural inhomogeneity in Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from the gas atomized powder. A detailed and systematic study of the effect of remelting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V manufactured by SLM was compared with electron beam melting and spark plasma sintering.

Keywords: Microstructure, Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, Ti6Al4V

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212 Tree Dress and the Internet of Living Things

Authors: Nagaraju Thummanapalli, J. Stephen Lansing, Vibeke Sorensen

Abstract:

Inspired by the indigenous people of Borneo, Indonesia and their traditional bark cloth, artist and professor Vibeke Sorensen executed a “digital unwrapping” of several trees in Southeast Asia using a digital panorama camera and digitally “stitched” them together for printing onto sustainable silk and fashioning into the “Tree Dress”. This dress is a symbolic “un-wrapping” and “re-wrapping” of the tree’s bark onto a person as a second skin. The “digital bark” is directly responsive to the real tree through embedded and networked electronics that connect in real-time to sensors at the physical site of the living tree. LEDs and circuits inserted into the dress display the continuous measurement of the O2 / CO2, temperature, humidity, and light conditions at the tree. It is an “Internet of Living Things” (IOLT) textile that can be worn to track and interact with it. The computer system connecting the dress and the tree converts the gas emission data at the site of the real tree into sound and music as sonification. This communicates not only the scientific data but also translates it into a poetic representation. The wearer of the garment can symbolically identify with the tree, or “become one” with it by adorning its “skin.” In this way, the wearer also becomes a human agent for the tree, bringing its actual condition to direct perception of the wearer and others who may engage it. This project is an attempt to bring greater awareness to issues of deforestation by providing a direct access to living things separated by physical distance, and hopefully, to increase empathy for them by providing a way to sense individual trees and their daily existential condition through remote monitoring of data. Further extensions to this project and related issues of sustainability include the use of recycled and alternative plant materials such as bamboo and air plants, among others.

Keywords: Sustainability, Wearable Technology, tree, sonification, IOLT

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211 Arbutin-loaded Butylglyceryl Dextran Nanoparticles for Topical Delivery

Authors: Mohammad F. Bostanudin, Tan S. Fei, Azwan M. Lazim

Abstract:

Toward the development of colloidal systems that are able to enhance permeation across the skin, a material combining the non-toxic and non-immunogenic of dextran with alkylglycerols permeation enhancing property has been designed. To this purpose, a range of butylglyceryl dextrans (DEX-OX4) were synthesized via functionalization with n-butylglycidyl ether and the successful functionalization was confirmed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies, along with GPC with a degree of modification in the range 6.3–35.7 %. A reduced viscosity and an increased molecular weight of DEX-OX4 were also recorded when compared to that of the native dextran. DEX-OX4 was further formulated into nanocarriers and loaded with α-arbutin prior to be investigated for their particle size, morphology, stability, loading ability, and release profiles. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be close-to-spherical and relatively stable at pH 5 and 7, with size 180–220 nm (ζ-potential -22 to -25 mV), and a loading degree of 11.7 %. Lack of toxicity at application-relevant concentrations and increased permeation across skin biological membrane model were demonstrated by nanoparticles in-vitro results against immortalized skin human keratinocytes cells (HaCaT).

Keywords: Nanoparticles, dextran, transdermal, butylglycerols

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210 Biomechanical Prediction of Veins and Soft Tissues beneath Compression Stockings Using Fluid-Solid Interaction Model

Authors: Rong Liu, Chongyang Ye

Abstract:

Elastic compression stockings (ECSs) have been widely applied in prophylaxis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The medical function of ECS is to improve venous return and increase muscular pumping action to facilitate blood circulation, which is largely determined by the complex interaction between the ECS and lower limb tissues. Understanding the mechanical transmission of ECS along the skin surface, deeper tissues, and vascular system is essential to assess the effectiveness of the ECSs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the leg-ECS system integrated with a 3D fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of the leg-vein system was constructed to analyze the biomechanical properties of veins and soft tissues under different ECS compression. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the human leg was divided into three regions, including soft tissues, bones (tibia and fibula) and veins (peroneal vein, great saphenous vein, and small saphenous vein). The ECSs with pressure ranges from 15 to 26 mmHg (Classes I and II) were adopted in the developed FE-FSI model. The soft tissue was assumed as a Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model with the fixed bones, and the ECSs were regarded as an orthotropic elastic shell. The interfacial pressure and stress transmission were simulated by the FE model, and venous hemodynamics properties were simulated by the FSI model. The experimental validation indicated that the simulated interfacial pressure distributions were in accordance with the pressure measurement results. The developed model can be used to predict interfacial pressure, stress transmission, and venous hemodynamics exerted by ECSs and optimize the structure and materials properties of ECSs design, thus improving the efficiency of compression therapy.

Keywords: fluid-solid interaction, prediction, elastic compression stockings, tissue and vein properties

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209 Fashion Appropriation: A Study in Awareness of Crossing Cultural Boundaries in Design

Authors: Anahita Suri

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Myriad cultures form the warp and weft of the fabric of this world. The last century saw mass migration of people across geographical boundaries, owing to industrialization and globalization. These people took with them their cultures, costumes, traditions, and folklore, which mingled with the local cultures to create something new and place it in a different context to make it contemporary. With the surge in population and growth of the fashion industry, there has been an increasing demand for innovative and individual fashion, from street markets to luxury brands. Exhausted by local influences, designers take inspiration from the so called ‘low’ culture and create artistic products, place it in a different context, and the end-product is categorized as ‘high’ culture. It is challenging as to why a design/culture is ‘high’ or ‘low’. Who decides which works, practices, activities, etc., are ‘high’ and which are ‘low’? The justification for this distinction is often found not in the design itself but the context attached to it. Also, the concept of high/ low is relative to time- what is ‘high’ today can be ‘low’ tomorrow and ‘high’ again the day after. This raises certain concerns. Firstly, it is sad that a culture which offers inspiration is looked down upon as ‘low’ culture. Secondly, it is ironic because the so designated ‘high’ culture is a manipulation of the truth from the authentic ‘low’ culture, which is capable of true expression. When you borrow from a different culture, you pretend to be authentic because you actually are not. Finally, it is important to be aware of crossing cultural boundaries and the context attached to a design/product so as to use it a responsible way that communicates the design without offending anyone. Is it ok for a person’s cultural identity to become another person’s fashion accessory? This essay explores the complex, multi-layered subject of fashion appropriation and aims to provoke debate over cultural ‘borrowing’ and create awareness that commodification of cultural symbols and iconography in fashion is inappropriate and offensive and not the same as ‘celebrating cultural differences’.

Keywords: Culture, context, fashion appropriation, inoffensive, responsible

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208 The Path of Cotton-To-Clothing Value Chains to Development: A Mixed Methods Exploration of the Resuscitation of the Cotton-To-Clothing Value Chain in Post

Authors: Emma Van Schie

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The purpose of this study is to use mixed methods research to create typologies of the performance of firms in the cotton-to-clothing value chain in Zimbabwe, and to use these typologies to achieve the objective of adding to the small pool of studies on Sub-Saharan African value chains performing in the context of economic liberalisation and achieving development. The uptake of economic liberalisation measures across Sub-Saharan Africa has led to the restructuring of many value chains. While this action has resulted in some African economies positively reintegrating into global commodity chains, it has also been deeply problematic for the development impacts of the majority of others. Over and above this, these nations have been placed at a disadvantage due to the fact that there is little scholarly and policy research on approaches for managing economic liberalisation and value chain development in the unique African context. As such, the central question facing these less successful cases is how they can integrate into the world economy whilst still fostering their development. This paper draws from quantitative questionnaires and qualitative interviews with 28 stakeholders in the cotton-to-clothing value chain in Zimbabwe. This paper examines the performance of firms in the value chain, and the subsequent local socio-economic development impacts that are affected by the revival of the cotton-to-clothing value chain following its collapse in the wake of Zimbabwe’s uptake of economic liberalisation measures. Firstly, the paper finds the relatively undocumented characteristics and structures of firms in the value chain in the post-economic liberalisation era. As well as this, it finds typologies of the status of firms as either being in operation, closed down, or being placed under judicial management and the common characteristics that these typologies hold. The key findings show how a mixture of macro and local level aspects, such as value chain governance and the management structure of a business, leads to the most successful typology that is able to add value to the chain in the context of economic liberalisation, and thus unlock its socioeconomic development potential. These typologies are used in making industry and policy recommendations on achieving this balance between the macro and the local level, as well as recommendations for further academic research for more typologies and models on the case of cotton value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa. In doing so, this study adds to the small collection of academic evidence and policy recommendations for the challenges that African nations face when trying to incorporate into global commodity chains in attempts to benefit from their associated socioeconomic development opportunities.

Keywords: Zimbabwe, cotton-to-clothing value chain, economic liberalisation, restructuring value chain, typologies of firms, value chain governance

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207 Investigation of Garment Fit Using Virtual Try-On Technology

Authors: Kristina Ancutiene, Agne Lage, Ada Gulbiniene

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Virtual garment fitting has gotten considerable attention for researchers currently. Virtual try-on technologies provide the opportunity to check garment fit using various fabrics and sizes. Differences in fabric mechanical properties produce differences in garment fit. This research aimed to investigate the virtual garment fit concerning the fabric's mechanical properties by determining distance ease between the body and the garment. In this research, virtual women mannequin was covered with straight fit virtual dress stitched in Modaris 3D (CAD Lectra). Garment fitting was investigated using seven cotton/cotton blended plain weave fabrics. Ease allowance value at bust, waist and hip girths in 2D basic patterns was changed uniformly from 0 cm to 8 cm. The values of distance ease in 3D virtual garments at the three main girths were investigated. Distance ease distribution in the virtual garment was investigated also. It was defined that by increasing of 2D patterns ease allowance, 3D garment distance ease changes proportionally but differently using various fabrics. Correlation analysis between 3D garment ease and mechanical properties showed that tensile strain in weft direction had the strongest relation.

Keywords: Fabric, garment fit, distance ease, virtual try-on

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206 Investigating the Thermal Comfort Properties of Mohair Fabrics

Authors: Jiri Militky, Adine Gericke, Mohanapriya Venkataraman

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Mohair, obtained from the Angora goat, is a luxury fiber and recognized as one of the best quality natural fibers. Expansion of the use of mohair into technical and functional textile products necessitates the need for a better understanding of how the use of mohair in fabrics will impact on its thermo-physiological comfort related properties. Despite its popularity, very little information is available on the quantification of the thermal and moisture management properties of mohair fabrics. This study investigated the effect of fibrous matter composition and fabric structural parameters on conductive and convective heat transfers to attain more information on the thermal comfort properties of mohair fabrics. Dry heat transfer through textiles may involve conduction through the fibrous phase, radiation through fabric interstices and convection of air within the structure. Factors that play a major role in heat transfer by conduction are fabric areal density (g/m2) and derived quantities such as cover factor and porosity. Convective heat transfer through fabrics is found in environmental conditions where there is wind-flow or the object is moving (e.g. running or walking). The thermal comfort properties of mohair fibers were objectively evaluated firstly in comparison with other textile fibers and secondly in a variety of fabric structures. Two sample sets were developed for this purpose, with fibre content, yarn structure and fabric design as main variables. SEM and microscopic images were obtained to closely examine the physical structures of the fibers and fabrics. Thermal comfort properties such as thermal resistance and thermal conductivity, as well as fabric thickness, were measured on the well-known Alambeta test instrument. Clothing insulation (clo) was calculated from the above. The thermal properties of fabrics under heat convection was evaluated using a laboratory model device developed at the Technical University of Liberec (referred to as the TP2-instrument). The effects of the different variables on fabric thermal comfort properties were analyzed statistically using TIBCO Statistica Software. The results showed that fabric structural properties, specifically sample thickness, played a significant role in determining the thermal comfort properties of the fabrics tested. It was found that regarding thermal resistance related to conductive heat flow, the effect of fiber type was not always statistically significant, probably as a result of the amount of trapped air within the fabric structure. The very low thermal conductivity of air, compared to that of the fibers, had a significant influence on the total conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples. This was confirmed by the high correlation of these factors with sample thickness. Regarding convective heat flow, the most important factor influencing the ability of the fabric to allow dry heat to move through the structure, was again fabric thickness. However, it would be wrong to totally disregard the effect of fiber composition on the thermal resistance of textile fabrics. In this study, the samples containing mohair or mohair/wool were consistently thicker than the others even though weaving parameters were kept constant. This can be ascribed to the physical properties of the mohair fibers that renders it exceptionally well towards trapping air among fibers (in a yarn) as well as among yarns (inside a fabric structure). The thicker structures trap more air to provide higher thermal insulation, but also prevent the free flow of air that allow thermal convection.

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, convective heat transfer, mohair fabrics, thermal comfort properties

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205 Reactive Dyed Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabric Production by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Kuddis Büyükakıllı

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The pretreated and bleached mercerized cotton fabric was dyed with reactive Everzol Brilliant Yellow 4GR (C.I. Yellow 160) dyestuff. Superhydrophobicity is provided to white and reactive dyed fabrics by using a nanotechnological sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and fluorcarbon water repellent agents by the two-step method. The effect of coating on color yield, fastness and functional properties of fabric was investigated. It was observed that water drop contact angles were higher in colorless coated fabrics compared to colored coated fabrics, there was no significant color change in colored superhydrophobic fabric and high color fastness values. Although there are no significant color losses in the fabrics after multiple washing and dry cleaning processes, water drop contact angles are greatly reduced.

Keywords: sol-gel, superhydrophobic, fluorcarbon water repellent agent, colored cotton fabric

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204 Skin-to-Skin Contact Simulation: Improving Health Outcomes for Medically Fragile Newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Gabriella Zarlenga, Martha L. Hall

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Introduction: Premature infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and families. Kangaroo care (skin-to-skin contact) is a practice that can improve preterm infant health outcomes. Preterm infants can acquire adequate body temperature, heartbeat, and breathing regulation through lying directly on the mother’s abdomen and in between her breasts. Due to some infant’s condition, kangaroo care is not a feasible intervention. The purpose of this proof-of-concept research project is to create a device which simulates skin-to-skin contact for pre-term infants not eligible for kangaroo care, with the aim of promoting baby’s health outcomes, reducing the incidence of serious neonatal and early childhood illnesses, and/or improving cognitive, social and emotional aspects of development. Methods: The study design is a proof-of-concept based on a three-phase approach; (1) observational study and data analysis of the standard of care for 2 groups of pre-term infants, (2) design and concept development of a novel device for pre-term infants not currently eligible for standard kangaroo care, and (3) prototyping, laboratory testing, and evaluation of the novel device in comparison to current assessment parameters of kangaroo care. A single center study will be conducted in an area hospital offering Level III neonatal intensive care. Eligible participants include newborns born premature (28-30 weeks of age) admitted to the NICU. The study design includes 2 groups: a control group receiving standard kangaroo care and an experimental group not eligible for kangaroo care. Based on behavioral analysis of observational video data collected in the NICU, the device will be created to simulate mother’s body using electrical components in a thermoplastic polymer housing covered in silicone. It will be designed with a microprocessor that controls simulated respiration, heartbeat, and body temperature of the 'simulated caregiver' by using a pneumatic lung, vibration sensors (heartbeat), pressure sensors (weight/position), and resistive film to measure temperature. A slight contour of the simulator surface may be integrated to help position the infant correctly. Control and monitoring of the skin-to-skin contact simulator would be performed locally by an integrated touchscreen. The unit would have built-in Wi-Fi connectivity as well as an optional Bluetooth connection in which the respiration and heart rate could be synced with a parent or caregiver. A camera would be integrated, allowing a video stream of the infant in the simulator to be streamed to a monitoring location. Findings: Expected outcomes are stabilization of respiratory and cardiac rates, thermoregulation of those infants not eligible for skin to skin contact with their mothers, and real time mother Bluetooth to the device to mimic the experience in the womb. Results of this study will benefit clinical practice by creating a new standard of care for premature neonates in the NICU that are deprived of skin to skin contact due to various health restrictions.

Keywords: Wearable Technology, kangaroo care, pre-term infants, medical design

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203 Metal-Organic Frameworks for Innovative Functional Textiles

Authors: Hossam E. Emam

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Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are new hybrid materials investigated from 15 years ago; they synthesized from metals as inorganic center joined with multidentate organic linkers to form a 1D, 2D or 3D network structure. MOFs have unique properties such as pore crystalline structure, large surface area, chemical tenability and luminescent characters. These significant properties enable MOFs to be applied in many fields such like gas storage, adsorption/separation, drug delivery/biomedicine, catalysis, polymerization, magnetism and luminescence applications. Recently, many of published reports interested in superiority of MOFs for functionalization of textiles to exploit the unique properties of MOFs. Incorporation of MOFs is found to acquire the textiles some additional formidable functions to be used in considerable fields such like water treatment and fuel purification. Modification of textiles with MOFs could be easily performed by two main techniques; Ex-situ (preparation of MOFs then applied onto textiles) and in-situ (ingrowth of MOFs within textiles networks). Uniqueness of MOFs could be assimilated in acquirement of decorative color, antimicrobial character, anti-mosquitos character, ultraviolet radiation protective, self-clean, photo-luminescent and sensor character. Additionally, textiles treatment with MOFs make it applicable as filter in the adsorption of toxic gases, hazardous materials (such as pesticides, dyes and aromatics molecules) and fuel purification (such as removal of oxygenated, nitrogenated and sulfur compounds). Also, the porous structure of MOFs make it mostly utilized in control release of insecticides from the surface of the textile. Moreover, [email protected] as recyclable materials lead it applicable as photo-catalyst composites for photo-degradation of different dyes in the day light. Therefore, MOFs is extensively considered for imparting textiles with formidable properties as ingeniousness way for textile functionalization.

Keywords: Environmental Applications, Water Treatment, Functional Textiles, MOF, fuel purification

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202 Sensitizing Bamboo Fabric with Antimicrobial Turmeric Dye

Authors: Varinder Kaur, Amanjit Kaur, Simran Kaur, Samriti Vaid

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Coating of fabrics with anti-microbial dyes is an adaptable technique of protection from various diseases. Natural dyes, which are known to possess antibacterial properties, can be used for antibacterial finishing of fibers like cotton, wool, bamboo and so many. Dyeing of fabrics with natural dyes normally requires the use of mordants so that dyes can stay on the fabric as well as into interstices of the fabric during multiple washings. In this study, the mordants used are alum and chitosan for ensuring a reasonable color fastness to light and washing. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide having significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, microbial activity and polycationicity. The metal ion of alum mordant can act as electron acceptor for electron donor to form coordination bond with the dye molecule, making them insoluble in water. The dyeing of bamboo fabric using a natural dye extracted from turmeric has been studied using conventional dyeing method. Natural dye was extracted using water as solvent by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity. The effect of mordants on the dyeing outcome in terms of colour depth as well as fastness properties of the dyeing was investigated. It has been found that employing the conventional dyeing technique at 100 oC, the mordanted samples were deeper in depth than their unmordanted counterparts. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Turmeric extract was found to enhance microbial resistance of bamboo as well as was itself as a good cause of coloration. These textiles dyed with the turmeric as natural dye can be very useful in developing clothing for infants, elderly and infirm people to protect them against common infections. The outcome of this study will provide a new feature to the interface of dyeing and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, natural dye, turmeric, bamboo fabric

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201 Investigation on Hand-Woven School Uniform Initiative and Sustainability: The Kerala Model from India

Authors: Abhilash Balan Paleri

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Hand woven fabric embellishes an exceptional identity in the social milieu of Kerala; still, the artisans and handloom sector is undergoing crisis due to various reasons. The hand woven school uniform initiative of Govt. of Kerala launched in 2016 aims at enhancing the sector, ensuring sustainability at artisan and end-user levels. The Kerala Government already distributed 23 lakhs meters of cloth (for shirting, suiting, and skirting) woven by 4085 artisans in their traditional looms covering 4.5 lakhs of students in the public education sector which covers cover 3,701 schools in the state. The 2019-20 year production is expected to be 42 Lakhs meters of hand woven clothing catering 8.6 lakhs of students in the primary sector. This particular investigation unveils the upshots of the initiative, and the observations are derived through systematic enquiry with artisans, authorities, and end-users. The findings show a remarkable positive impact in the livelihood of artisans and the entire handloom sector.

Keywords: Sustainability, handloom school uniform initiative of Kerala, hand woven fabric, handloom weavers

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200 The Socio-Economic Impact of the English Leather Glove Industry from the 17th Century to Its Recent Decline

Authors: F. Turner

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Gloves are significant physical objects, being one of the oldest forms of dress. Glove culture is part of every facet of life; its extraordinary history encompasses practicality, and symbolism reflecting a wide range of social practices. The survival of not only the gloves but associated articles enables the possibility to analyse real lives. The developments in English fashion across the centuries have been widely explored by researchers and historians who have documented every aspect of garment and textile design, millinery, and footwear, but gloves have been largely ignored. Limited information is available to students, researchers, or those involved with the design and making of gloves. There are several museums and collectors in England who independently hold collections of gloves (some from as early as 16th century), machinery, tools, designs and patterns, marketing materials and significant archives which demonstrate the rich heritage of English glove design and manufacturing, being of national significance and worthy of international interest. Through a research glove network which now exists thanks to research grant funding, there is potential for the holders of glove collections to make connections and explore links between these resources to promote a stronger understanding of the significance, breadth, and heritage of the English glove industry. The network takes an interdisciplinary approach to bring together interested parties from academia, museums, and manufacturing, with expert knowledge of the production, collections, conservation, and display of English leather gloves. Academics from diverse arts and humanities disciplines benefit from the opportunities to share research and discuss ideas with network members from non-academic contexts, including museums and heritage organisations, industry, and contemporary designers. The fragmented collections, when considered in entirety, provide an overview of English glove-making since earliest times and those who wore them. This paper makes connections and explores links between these resources to promote a stronger understanding of the significance, breadth, and heritage of the English Glove industry. The following areas are explored: current content and status of the individual museum collections, potential links, sharing of information histories, social and cultural and relationship to history of fashion design, manufacturing, and materials, approaches to maintenance and conservation, access to the collections and strategies for future understanding of their national significance. The facilitation of knowledge exchange and exploration of the collections through the network informs organisations' future strategies for the maintenance, access, and conservation of their collections. By involving industry in the network, it is ensured that a contemporary perspective on glove-making is captured, and so enable knowledge exchange with and between industry and heritage partners. The slow fashion movement and awareness of artisan craft and how these can be preserved and adopted for glove and accessory design is addressed. Artisan leather glove making was a skilled and significant industry in England that has now declined to the point where there is little production remaining to utilise the specialist skills that have hardly changed since the earliest times. This heritage will be identified and preserved for future generations of the rich cultural history of gloves may be lost.

Keywords: artisan glove-making skills, English leather gloves, glove culture, the glove network

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199 The Influence of Experiential Marketing on Customer Purchase Intention of Online Fashion Products

Authors: Marike Venter De Villiers, Alicia Kruger

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The rapid development of the Internet has facilitated the proliferation of online stores. It has, therefore, become a pertinent issue for online retailers to provide the ultimate experience to customers in an attempt to maintain market share in this competitive landscape. Experiential marketing refers to the sensory dimensions that consumers experience when being faced with a purchase decision, such as getting them to sense, feel, think, act, and relate. The goal of experiential marketing is to provide a holistic experience for customers that allow them to engage in an activity where they may be motivated to purchase the concept behind the product. Creating a unique online experience holds several benefits to brands such as increased customer satisfaction, increased revisit intention, and higher levels of customer loyalty. Although several studies have explored the topic of experiential marketing in an online context, a lack of research exists on South African consumers, an emerging economy that is often overlooked globally. More specifically, the present study focused on professional females and their perceptions of experiential marketing when shopping for fashion products online. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the experiential factors that influence the online purchase intention of fashion products among female professionals. Furthermore, this study aimed to achieve the following objectives: firstly, to gain insight into key website characteristics that consumers value when shopping online for fashion products; secondly, to apply Pine and Gilmore’s (1989) Four Realms of an Experience (entertainment, education, esthetics, and escapism) to ground the study; and thirdly, to gain in-depth insight into the importance of these dimensions and identifying sub-categories that fashion marketers can use to enhance consumers’ online experience. By means of a qualitative study, a focus group was conducted comprising six professional females by using semi-structured questions. Respondents were selected using convenience sampling, and the results were analyzed using thematic analysis. The present research suggests that three of the four realms of experience influence purchase intention of fashion products online, namely, escapism, esthetics, and education. The fourth dimension, pleasure, was present but to a lesser degree. In other words, ‘escapism’ provides online shoppers with a sense of emotional and intellectual pleasure, while ‘esthetics’ refers to the website design, functionality, and product range, and ‘education’ comprises the product information such as the quality, fabric, price and available sizes. The findings of this study provide fashion marketers with insight into how they can maximize on experiential marketing when selling fashion products online. It further provides strategies and techniques for creating an enhanced online experience that ultimately may lead to increased purchase intention.

Keywords: Fashion, Online, retail, Experiential Marketing

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198 The Perspective of Smart Thermoregulation in Personal Protective Equipment

Authors: Alireza Saidi

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Aside from injuries due to direct contact with hot or cold substances or objects, exposure to extreme temperatures in the workplace involves physical hazards to workers. On the other hand, a poorly acclimatized worker may have reduced performance and alertness and may, therefore, be more vulnerable to the risk of accidents and injuries. Due to the incompatibility of the standards put in place with certain workplaces and the lack of thermoregulation in many protective equipments, thermal strains remain among the physical risks most present in many work sectors. However, many of these problems can be overcome thanks to the potential of intelligent textile technologies allowing intelligent thermoregulation in protective equipment. Nowadays, technologies such as heating elements, cooling elements are applied in products intended for sport and leisure, and research work has been carried out in the integration of temperature sensors and thermal stress detectors in personal protective equipment. However, the usage of all of these technologies in personal protective equipment remains very marginal. This article presents a portrait of the current state of intelligent thermoregulation systems by carrying out a synthesis of technical developments, which is accompanied by a gap analysis of current developments. Thus, the research work necessary for the adaptation and integration of intelligent thermoregulation systems with personal protective equipment is discussed in order to offer a perspective of future developments.

Keywords: Smart Textiles, Personal Protective Equipment, thermoregulation, thermal strain

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197 Fashion Performing/Fashioning Performances: Catwalks as Communication Tools between Market, Branding and Performing Art

Authors: V. Linfante

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Catwalks are one of the key moments in fashion: the first and most relevant display where brands stage their collections, products, ideas, and style. The garment is 'the star' of the catwalk and must show itself not just as a product but as a result of a design process endured for several months. All contents developed within this process become ingredients for connecting scenography, music, lights, and direction into a unique fashion narrative. According to the spirit of different ages, fashion shows have been transformed and shaped into peculiar formats: from Pandoras to presentations organized by Parisian couturiers, across the 'marathons' typical of the beginning of modern fashion system, coming up to the present structure of fashion weeks, with their complex organization and related creative and technical businesses. The paper intends to introduce the evolution of the fashion system through its unique process of seasonally staging and showing its production. The paper intends to analyse the evolution of the fashion shows from the intimacy of ballrooms at the beginning of the 20th century, passing through the enthusiasm attitude typical from the '70s and the '80s, to finally depict our present. In this last scenario, catwalks are not anymore a standard collections presentation but become one of the most exciting expression of contemporary culture (and sub-cultures), going from sophisticated performances (as Karl Lagerfeld's Chanel shows) to real artistic happenings (as the events of Victor&Rolf, Alexander McQueen, OFF_WHITE, Vetements, and Martin Margiela), often involving contemporary architecture, digital world, technology, social media, performing art and artists.

Keywords: Communication, New Media, Fashion, branding, performing art

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196 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem

Abstract:

Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, fineness, fleece, Carpet, Raw Wool

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195 Urban Ethical Fashion Networks of Design, Production and Retail in Taiwan

Authors: WenYing Claire Shih, Konstantinos Agrafiotis

Abstract:

The circular economy has become one of the seven fundamental pillars of Taiwan’s economic development, as this is promulgated by the government. The model of the circular economy, with its fundamental premise of waste elimination, can transform the textile and clothing sectors from major pollutant industries to a much cleaner alternative for a better quality of all citizens’ lives. In a related vein, the notion of the creative economy and more specifically the fashion industry can prompt similar results in terms of jobs and wealth creation. The combining forces of the circular and creative economies and their beneficial output have resulted in the configuration of ethical urban networks which potentially may lead to sources of competitive advantage. All actors involved in the configuration of this urban ethical fashion network from public authorities to private enterprise can bring about positive changes in the urban setting. Preliminary results through action research show that this configuration is an attainable task in terms of circularity by reducing fabric waste produced from local textile mills and through innovative methods of design, production and retail around urban spaces where the network has managed to generate a stream of jobs and financial revenues for all participants. The municipal authorities as the facilitating platform have been of paramount importance in this public-private partnership. In the explorative pilot study conducted about a network of production, consumption in terms of circularity of fashion products, we have experienced a positive disposition. As the network will be fully functional by attracting more participant firms from the textile and clothing sectors, it can be beneficial to Taiwan’s soft power in the region and simultaneously elevate citizens’ awareness on circular methods of fashion production, consumption and disposal which can also lead to the betterment of urban lifestyle and may open export horizons for the firms.

Keywords: action research, the circular economy, the creative economy, ethical urban networks

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194 Prototype Development of Knitted Buoyant Swimming Vest for Children

Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou

Abstract:

The use of buoyant vests incorporated with swimsuits can develop children’s confidence in the water, particularly for novice swimmers. Consequently, parents intend to purchase buoyant swimming vests for the children to reduce their anxiety to water. Although the conventional buoyant swimming vests can provide the buoyant function to the wearer, their bulkiness and hardness make children feel uncomfortable and not willing to wear. This study aimed to apply inlay knitting technology to design new functional buoyant swimming vests for children. This prototype involved a shell and a buoyant knitted layer, which is the main media to provide buoyancy. Polypropylene yarn and 6.4 mm of Expandable Polyethylene (EPE) foam were fabricated in Full needle stitch with inlay knitting technology and were then linked by sewing to form the buoyant layer. The shell of the knitted buoyant vest was made of Polypropylene circular knitted fabric. The structure of knitted fabrics of the buoyant swimsuit makes them inherently stretchable, and the arrangement of the inlaid material was designed based on the body movement that can improve the ease with which the swimmer moves. Further, the shoulder seam is designed at the back to minimize the irritation of the wearer. Apart from maintaining the buoyant function to them, this prototype shows its contribution in reducing bulkiness and improving softness to the conventional buoyant swimming vest by taking the advantages of a knitted garment. The results in this study are significant to the development of the buoyant swimming vest for both the textile and the fast-growing sportswear industry.

Keywords: Knitting Technology, buoyancy, inlay, swimming vest, functional garment

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193 Insertion Loss Improvement of a Two-Port Saw Resonator Based on AlN via Alloying with Transition Metals

Authors: Kanouni Fares

Abstract:

This paper describes application of X-doped AlN (X=Sc, Cr and Y) to wideband surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators in 200–300 MHz range. First, it is shown theoretically that Cr doped AlN thin film has the highest piezoelectric strain constant, accompanied by a lowest mechanical softening compared to Sc doped AlScN and Y doped AlN thin films for transition metals concentrations ranging from 0 to 25%. Next, the impact of transition metals (Sc, Cr and Y) concentration have been carried out for the first time, in terms of surface wave velocity, electrode reflectivity, transduction coefficient and distributed finger capacitance. Finely, the insertion loss of two-port SAW resonator based on AlXN (X=Sc, Cr and Y) deposited on sapphire substrate is obtained using P-matrix model, and it is shown that AlCrN-SAW resonator exhibit lower insertion loss compared to those based on AlScN and AlYN for metal concentrations of 25%.This finding may position Cr doped AlN as a prime piezoelectric material for low loss SAW resonators whose performance can be tuned via Cr composition.

Keywords: P-matrix, SAW-delay line, interdigital transducer, nitride aluminum, metals transition

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192 Quantification of Lustre in Textile Fibers by Image Analysis

Authors: Neelesh Bharti Shukla, Suvankar Dutta, Esha Sharma, Shrikant Ralebhat, Gurudatt Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

A key component of the physical attribute of textile fibers is lustre. It is a complex phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with fibers, yarn and fabrics. It is perceived as the contrast difference between the bright areas (specular reflection) and duller backgrounds (diffused reflection). Lustre of fibers is affected by their surface structure, morphology, cross-section profile as well as the presence of any additives/registrants. Due to complexities in measurements, objective measurements such as gloss meter do not give reproducible quantification of lustre. Other instruments such as SAMBA hair systems are expensive. In light of this, lustre quantification has largely remained subjective, judged visually by experts, but prone to errors. In this development, a physics-based approach was conceptualized and demonstrated. We have developed an image analysis based technique to quantify visually observed differences in lustre of fibers. Cellulosic fibers, produced with different approaches, with visually different levels of lustre were photographed under controlled optics. These images were subsequently analyzed using a configured software system. The ratio of Intensity of light from bright (specular reflection) and dull (diffused reflection) areas was used to numerically represent lustre. In the next step, the set of samples that were not visually distinguishable easily were also evaluated by the technique and it was established that quantification of lustre is feasible.

Keywords: Image Analysis, Measurement, fibre, lustre

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191 Mapping New Technologies for Sustainability along the Fashion Supply Chain

Authors: Hilde Heim

Abstract:

The textile industry is known for its swift adoption of innovations in fashion technology (Fash-Tech). The industry is also known for its harmful effects on the environment. Opportunely, Fash-Tech is expected to facilitate the turn towards more sustainable practice. However, although several technologies have the potential for advancing sustainable practice, many industry players, whether large or small, are confused and misinformed about Fash-Tech adoption, application, and impact. Through a visual poster presentation, this project aims to map global fashion innovations along the supply chain from fibre production to waste management, thus providing a clearer picture of numbers, scale, and adoption. While the project aims to identify Fash-Tech effectiveness in reaching sustainability goals, it also identifies areas of congestion as well as insufficiency in the accessibility of Fash-Tech. This project intends to help inform future decisions in business, investment, and policy for the advancement of sustainable practice.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Sustainability, Enterprise Management, Fashion Technology

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190 Fashion Designers' Role Towards Society through Ethical Designing

Authors: Vishaka Agarwal

Abstract:

Fashion is a dynamic entity. With globalisation, fashion is being retailed out to every corner of the world, and people are becoming fashion aware and adapting to the latest trends and look. In this scenario, the role of fashion in providing social change in society is strong. Every product that we use has a design element in it, and consumers prefer to buy those products. The aim of the paper is to look at the ways in which social change can be brought into society through ethical designing by designers taking into consideration the IPR issues. Review of research done by earlier researchers in studying the work done by designers to achieve social change in the society and also discussions with designers to understand the future plans looking at changing world scenario would be done. The paper concludes that fashion has a dynamic role to play in achieving social change in society, and designers are virtually controlling what people buy, wear, and consume globally. This paper would be useful to the social planners and designers in planning the future of society.

Keywords: Society, Ethics, fashion designers, intellectual property right

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189 Dyeing Properties of Natural Dyes on Silk Treated with ß-Cyclodextrin

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar

Abstract:

In this work, silk yarns were treated using ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and crosslinked with citric acid (CA) via pad-dry-cure method. Elemental and FESEM analyses confirmed the presence of ß-CD on the treated silk samples even after 5 washing cycles. Then, the treated samples were dyed using natural dyes (carrot, orange, and tomato). Results showed that the color strength (K/S) of the treated samples had been markedly enhanced compared with the control sample (after treatment with metal mordant). Finally, the color strength (K/S value) and color fastness (fading, staining, and lightfastness) of the treated samples with ß-CD were investigated and compared.

Keywords: Dyeing, Natural Dyes, ß-cyclodextrin, silk yarn

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188 The Effect of Gamma rays on Physicochemical Properties of Carboxymethyl Starch

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, N. Rajeswara Rao, T. Venkatappa Rao, N. Srinivas Rao, P. S. V. Shanmukhi

Abstract:

Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS) is a biopolymer derived from starch by the substitution method. CMS is proclaimed to have improved physicochemical properties than native starch. The present work deals with the effect of gamma radiation on the physicochemical properties of CMS. The samples were exposed to gamma irradiation of doses 30, 60 and 90 kGy. The resultant properties were studied with electron spin resonance (ESR), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. Irradiation of CMS by gamma rays initiates cleavage of glucosidic bonds producing different types of radicals. Some of these radicals convert to peroxy radicals by abstracting oxygen. The ESR spectrum of CMS is anisotropic and is thought to be due to the superposition of various component spectra. In order to analyze the ESR spectrum, computer simulations were also employed. ESR spectra are also recorded under different conditions like post-irradiation times, variable temperatures and saturation behavior in order to evaluate the stability of free radicals produced on irradiation. Thermal studies from DSC depict that for CMS the gelatization process was absconded at higher doses. Relative crystallinity was reduced significantly after irradiation from XRD Studies. FTIR studies also confirm the same aspect. From ESR studies, it was concluded that irradiated CMS could be a potential reference material in ESR dosimetry.

Keywords: Gamma rays, Free Radicals, ESR simulations, gelatization

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187 An Analysis of the Need of Training for Indian Textile Manufacturing Sector

Authors: Shipra Sharma, Jagat Jerath

Abstract:

Human resource training is an essential element of talent management in the current era of global competitiveness and dynamic trade in the manufacturing industry. Globally, India is behind only China as the largest textile manufacturer. The major challenges faced by the Indian textile manufacturing Industry are low technology levels, growing skill gaps, unorganized structure, lower efficiencies, etc. indicating the need for constant talent up-gradation. Assessment of training needs from a strategic perspective is an essential step for the formulation of effective training. The paper established the significance of training in the Indian textile industry and to determine the training needs on various parameters as presented. 40 HR personnel/s working in the textile and apparel companies based in the industrial region of Punjab, India, were the respondents for the study. The research tool used in this case was a structured questionnaire as per five-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis through descriptive statistics and chi-square test indicated the increased need for training whenever there were technical changes in the organizations. As per the data presented in this study, most of the HR personnel/s agreed that the variables associated with organizational analysis, task analysis, and individual analysis have a statistically significant role to play in determining the need for training in an organization.

Keywords: Indian textile manufacturing industry, significance of training, training needs analysis, parameters for training needs assessment

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186 Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts: A Sustainable and Eco-Friendly Resource for Multifunctional Cellulosic Fibers

Authors: Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Rehan, Gamil E. Ibrahim, Shaimaa R. Ibrahim, Tawfik A. Khattab

Abstract:

The utilization of natural products in finishing textiles toward multifunctional applications without side effects is an extremely motivating goal. Hibiscus sabdariffa usually has been used for many traditional medicine applications. To develop an additional use for Hibiscus sabdariffa, an extraction of bioactive compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa followed by finishing on cellulosic fibers was designed to cleaner production of the value-added textiles fibers with multifunctional applications. The objective of this study is to explore, identify, and evaluate the bioactive compound extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa by different solvent via ultrasonic technique as a potential eco-friendly agent for multifunctional cellulosic fabrics via two approaches. In the first approach, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract was used as a source of sustainable eco-friendly for simultaneous coloration and multi-finishing of cotton fabrics via in situ incorporations of nanoparticles (silver and metal oxide). In the second approach, the micro-capsulation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts was followed by coating onto cotton gauze to introduce multifunctional healthcare applications. The effect of the solvent type was accelerated by ultrasonic on the phytochemical, antioxidant, and volatile compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The surface morphology and elemental content of the treated fabrics were explored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The multifunctional properties of treated fabrics, including coloration, sensor properties and protective properties against pathogenic microorganisms and UV radiation as well as wound healing property were evaluated. The results showed that the water, as well as ethanol/water, was selected as a solvent for the extraction of natural compounds from Hibiscus Sabdariffa with high in extract yield, total phenolic contents, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity. These natural compounds were utilized to enhance cellulosic fibers functionalization by imparting faint/dark red color, antimicrobial against different organisms, and antioxidants as well as UV protection properties. The encapsulation of Hibiscus Sabdariffa extracts, as well as wound healing, is under consideration and evaluation. As a result, the current study presents a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to design cellulosic fabrics for multifunctional medical and healthcare applications.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, cellulosic fibers, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract, multifunctional application

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185 Adhesive Based upon Polyvinyl Alcohol And Chemical Modified Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) Starch

Authors: Samantha Borja, Vladimir Valle, Pamela Molina

Abstract:

The development of adhesives from renewable raw materials attracts the attention of the scientific community, due to it promises the reduction of the dependence with materials derived from oil. This work proposes the use of modified 'oca (Oxalis tuberosa)' starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the elaboration of adhesives for lignocellulosic substrates. The investigation focused on the formulation of adhesives with 3 different PVA:starch (modified and native) ratios (of 1,0:0,33; 1,0:1,0; 1,0:1,67). The first step to perform it was the chemical modification of starch through acid hydrolysis and a subsequent urea treatment to get carbamate starch. Then, the adhesive obtained was characterized in terms of instantaneous viscosity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and shear strength. The results showed that viscosity and mechanical tests exhibit data with the same tendency in relation to the native and modified starch concentration. It was observed that the data started to reduce its values to a certain concentration, where the values began to grow. On the other hand, two relevant bands were found in the FTIR spectrogram. The first in 3300 cm⁻¹ of OH group with the same intensity for all the essays and the other one in 2900 cm⁻¹, belonging to the group of alkanes with a different intensity for each adhesive. On the whole, the ratio PVA:starch (1:1) will not favor crosslinking in the adhesive structure and causes the viscosity reduction, whereas, in the others ones, the viscosity is higher. It was also observed that adhesives made with modified starch had better characteristics, but the adhesives with high concentrations of native starch could equal the properties of the adhesives made with low concentrations of modified starch.

Keywords: viscosity, Starch, Chemical Modification, Shear Strength, FTIR, polyvinyl alcohol, PVA

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