Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 307

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Textile Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

307 Liquid Illumination: Fabricating Images of Fashion and Architecture

Authors: Sue Hershberger Yoder, Jon Yoder


“The appearance does not hide the essence, it reveals it; it is the essence.”—Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness Three decades ago, transarchitect Marcos Novak developed an early form of algorithmic animation he called “liquid architecture.” In that project, digitally floating forms morphed seamlessly in cyberspace without claiming to evolve or improve. Change itself was seen as inevitable. And although some imagistic moments certainly stood out, none was hierarchically privileged over another. That project challenged longstanding assumptions about creativity and artistic genius by posing infinite parametric possibilities as inviting alternatives to traditional notions of stability, originality, and evolution. Through ephemeral processes of printing, milling, and projecting, the exhibition “Liquid Illumination” destabilizes the solid foundations of fashion and architecture. The installation is neither worn nor built in the conventional sense, but—like the sensual art forms of fashion and architecture—it is still radically embodied through the logics and techniques of design. Appearances are everything. Surface pattern and color are no longer understood as minor afterthoughts or vapid carriers of dubious content. Here, they become essential but ever-changing aspects of precisely fabricated images. Fourteen silk “colorways” (a term from the fashion industry) are framed selections from ongoing experiments with intricate pattern and complex color configurations. Whether these images are printed on fabric, milled in foam, or illuminated through projection, they explore and celebrate the untapped potentials of the surficial and superficial. Some components of individual prints appear to float in front of others through stereoscopic superimpositions; some figures appear to melt into others due to subtle changes in hue without corresponding changes in value; and some layers appear to vibrate via moiré effects that emerge from unexpected pattern and color combinations. The liturgical atmosphere of Liquid Illumination is intended to acknowledge that, like the simultaneously sacred and superficial qualities of rose windows and illuminated manuscripts, artistic and religious ideologies are also always malleable. The intellectual provocation of this paper pushes the boundaries of current thinking concerning viable applications for fashion print designs and architectural images—challenging traditional boundaries between fine art and design. The opportunistic installation of digital printing, CNC milling, and video projection mapping in a gallery that is normally reserved for fine art exhibitions raises important questions about cultural/commercial display, mass customization, digital reproduction, and the increasing prominence of surface effects (color, texture, pattern, reflection, saturation, etc.) across a range of artistic practices and design disciplines.

Keywords: fashion, print design, architecture, projection mapping, image, fabrication

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306 Understanding National Soccer Jersey Design from a Material Culture Perspective: A Content Analysis and Wardrobe Interviews with Canadian Consumers

Authors: Olivia Garcia, Sandra Tullio-Pow


The purpose of this study was to understand what design attributes make the most ideal (wearable and memorable) national soccer jersey. The research probed Canadian soccer enthusiasts to better understand their jersey-purchasing rationale. The research questions framing this study were: how do consumers feel about their jerseys? How do these feelings influence their choices? There has been limited research on soccer jerseys from a material culture perspective, and it is not inclusive of national soccer jerseys. The results of this study may be used for product developers and advertisers who are looking to better understand the consumer base for national soccer jersey design. A mixed methods approach informed the research. To begin, a content analysis of all the home jerseys from the 2018 World Cup was done. Information such as size range, main colour, fibre content, brand, collar details, availability, sleeve length, place of manufacturing, pattern, price, fabric as per company, neckline, availability on company website, jersey inspiration, and badge/crest details were noted. Following the content analysis, wardrobe interviews were conducted with six consumers/fans. Participants brought two or more jerseys to the interviews, where the jerseys acted as clothing probes to recount information. Interview questions were semi-structured and focused on the participants’ relationship with the sport, their personal background, who they cheered for, why they bought the jerseys, and fit preferences. The goal of the inquiry was to pull out information on how participants feel about their jerseys and why. Finally, an interview with an industry professional was done. This interview was semi-structured, focusing on basic questions regarding sportswear design, sales, the popularity of soccer, and the manufacturing and marketing process. The findings proved that national soccer jerseys are an integral part of material culture. Women liked more fitted jerseys, and men liked more comfortable jerseys. Jerseys should be made with a cooling, comfortable fabric and should always prevent peeling. The symbols on jerseys are there to convey a team’s history and are most typically placed on the left chest. Jerseys should always represent the flag and/or the country’s colours and should use designs that are both fashionable and innovative. Jersey design should always consider the opinions of the consumers to help influence the design process. Jerseys should always use concepts surrounding culture, as consumers feel connected to the jerseys that represent the culture and/or family they have grown up with. Jerseys should use a team’s history, as well as the nostalgia associated with the team, as consumers prefer jerseys that reflect important moments in soccer. Jerseys must also sit at a reasonable price point for consumers, with an experience to go along with the jersey purchase. In conclusion, national soccer jerseys are considered sites of attachment and memories and play an integral part in the study of material culture.

Keywords: Design, Fashion, Material Culture, Sport

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305 Automatic Vertical Wicking Tester Based on Optoelectronic Techniques

Authors: Chi-Wai Kan, Kam-Hong Chau, Ho-Shing Law


Wicking property is important for textile finishing and wears comfort. Good wicking properties can ensure uniformity and efficiency of the textiles treatment. In view of wear comfort, quick wicking fabrics facilitate the evaporation of sweat. Therefore, the wetness sensation of the skin is minimised to prevent discomfort. The testing method for vertical wicking was standardised by the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) in 2011. The traditional vertical wicking test involves human error to observe fast changing and/or unclear wicking height. This study introduces optoelectronic devices to achieve an automatic Vertical Wicking Tester (VWT) and reduce human error. The VWT can record the wicking time and wicking height of samples. By reducing the difficulties of manual judgment, the reliability of the vertical wicking experiment is highly increased. Furthermore, labour is greatly decreased by using the VWT. The automatic measurement of the VWT has optoelectronic devices to trace the liquid wicking with a simple operation procedure. The optoelectronic devices detect the colour difference between dry and wet samples. This allows high sensitivity to a difference in irradiance down to 10 μW/cm². Therefore, the VWT is capable of testing dark fabric. The VWT gives a wicking distance (wicking height) of 1 mm resolution and a wicking time of one-second resolution. Acknowledgment: This is a research project of HKRITA funded by Innovation and Technology Fund (ITF) with title “Development of an Automatic Measuring System for Vertical Wicking” (ITP/055/20TP). Author would like to thank the financial support by ITF. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material/event (or by members of the project team) do not reflect the views of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Innovation and Technology Commission or the Panel of Assessors for the Innovation and Technology Support Programme of the Innovation and Technology Fund and the Hong Kong Research Institute of Textiles and Apparel. Also, we would like to thank the support and sponsorship from Lai Tak Enterprises Limited, Kingis Development Limited and Wing Yue Textile Company Limited.

Keywords: AATCC method, comfort, textile measurement, wetness sensation

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304 Continued usage of Wearable FItness Technology: An Extended UTAUT2 Model Perspective

Authors: Rasha Elsawy


Aside from the rapid growth of global information technology and the Internet, another key trend is the swift proliferation of wearable technologies. The future of wearable technologies is very bright as an emerging revolution in this technological world. Beyond this, individual continuance intention toward IT is an important area that drew academics' and practitioners' attention. The literature review exhibits that continuance usage is an important concern that needs to be addressed for any technology to be advantageous and for consumers to succeed. However, consumers noticeably abandon their wearable devices soon after purchase, losing all subsequent benefits that can only be achieved through continued usage. Purpose-This thesis aims to develop an integrated model designed to explain and predict consumers' behavioural intention(BI) and continued use (CU) of wearable fitness technology (WFT) to identify the determinants of the CU of technology. Because of this, the question arises as to whether there are differences between technology adoption and post-adoption (CU) factors. Design/methodology/approach- The study employs the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology2 (UTAUT2), which has the best explanatory power, as an underpinning framework—extending it with further factors, along with user-specific personal characteristics as moderators. All items will be adapted from previous literature and slightly modified according to the WFT/SW context. A longitudinal investigation will be carried out to examine the research model, wherein a survey will include these constructs involved in the conceptual model. A quantitative approach based on a questionnaire survey will collect data from existing wearable technology users. Data will be analysed using the structural equation modelling (SEM) method based on IBM SPSS statistics and AMOS 28.0. Findings- The research findings will provide unique perspectives on user behaviour, intention, and actual continuance usage when accepting WFT. Originality/value- Unlike previous works, the current thesis comprehensively explores factors that affect consumers' decisions to continue using wearable technology. That is influenced by technological/utilitarian, affective, emotional, psychological, and social factors, along with the role of proposed moderators. That novel research framework is proposed by extending the UTAUT2 model with additional contextual variables classified into Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence (societal pressure regarding body image), Facilitating Conditions, Hedonic Motivation (to be split up into two concepts: perceived enjoyment and perceived device annoyance), Price value, and Habit-forming techniques; adding technology upgradability as determinants of consumers' behavioural intention and continuance usage of Information Technology (IT). Further, using personality traits theory and proposing relevant user-specific personal characteristics (openness to technological innovativeness, conscientiousness in health, extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness) to moderate the research model. Thus, the present thesis obtains a more convincing explanation expected to provide theoretical foundations for future emerging IT (such as wearable fitness devices) research from a behavioural perspective.

Keywords: wearable technology, wearable fitness devices/smartwatches, continuance use, behavioural intention, upgradability, longitudinal study

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303 Impact of aSolar System Designed to Improve the Microclimate of an Agricultural Greenhouse

Authors: Nora Arbaoui, Rachid Tadili, Ilham Ihoume


The improvement of the agricultural production and food preservation processes requires the introduction of heating and cooling techniques in greenhouses. To develop these techniques, our work proposes a design of an integrated and autonomous solar system for heating, cooling, and production conservation in greenhouses. The hot air produced by the greenhouse effect during the day will be evacuated to compartments annexed in the greenhouse to dry the surplus agricultural production that is not sold on the market. In this paper, we will give a description of this solar system and the calculation of the fluid’s volume used for heat storage that will be released during the night.

Keywords: solar system, agricultural greenhouse, heating, cooling, storage, drying

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302 Effects of Knitting Variables for Pressure Controlling of Tubular Compression Fabrics

Authors: Shi Yu, Rong Liu, Jingyun Lv


Compression textiles with ergonomic-fit and controllable pressure performance have demonstrated positive effect on prevention and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Well-designed compression textile products contribute to improving user compliance in their daily application. This study explored the effects of multiple knitting variables (yarn-machinery settings) on the physical-mechanical properties and the produced pressure magnitudes of tubular compression fabrics (TCFs) through experimental testing and multiple regression modeling. The results indicated that fabric physical (stitch densities and circumference) and mechanical (tensile) properties were affected by the linear density (yarn diameters) of inlay yarns, which, to some extent, influenced pressure magnitudes of the TCFs. Knitting variables (e.g., feeding velocity of inlay yarns and loop size settings) can alter circumferences and tensile properties of tubular fabrics, respectively, and significantly varied pressure values of the TCFs. This study enhanced the understanding of the effects of knitting factors on pressure controlling of TCFs, thus facilitating dimension and pressure design of compression textiles in future development.

Keywords: laid-in knitted fabric, yarn-machinery settings, pressure magnitudes, quantitative analysis, compression textiles

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301 Temperature-Responsive Shape Memory Polymer Filament Integrated Smart Polyester Knitted Fabric Featuring Memory Behavior

Authors: Priyanka Gupta, Bipin Kumar


Recent developments in smart materials motivate researchers to create novel textile products for innovative and functional applications, which have several potential uses beyond the conventional. This study investigates the memory behavior of shape memory filaments integrated into a knitted textile structure. The research advances the knowledge of how these intelligent materials respond within textile structures. This integration may also open new avenues for developing smart fabrics with unique sensing and actuation capabilities. A shape memory filament and polyester yarn were knitted to produce a shape memory knitted fabric (SMF). Thermo-mechanical tensile test was carried out to quantify the memory behavior of SMF under different conditions. The experimental findings demonstrate excellent shape recovery (100%) and shape fixity up to 88% at different strains (20% and 60%) and temperatures (30 ℃ and 50 ℃). Experimental results reveal that memory filament behaves differently in a fabric structure than in its pristine condition at various temperatures and strains. The cycle test of SMF under different thermo-mechanical conditions indicated complete shape recovery with an increase in shape fixity. So, the utterly recoverable textile structure was achieved after a few initial cycles. These intelligent textiles are beneficial for the development of novel, innovative, and functional fabrics like elegant curtains, pressure garments, compression stockings, etc. In addition to fashion and medical uses, this unique feature may also be leveraged to build textile-based sensors and actuators.

Keywords: knitting, memory filament, shape memory, smart textiles, thermo-mechanical cycle

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300 E-Commerce Product Return Management Effects on Consumer Experience and Satisfaction: A Fast-Fashion Perspective

Authors: Nora Alomar, Bianca Alexandra Stefa, Saleh Bazi


This research uncovers the determinants that drive millennial consumers to adhere to product return of fast-fashion products purchases via e-commerce and what effects it has on consumer experience and satisfaction. Online consumption has skyrocketed, with e-commerce being the only, most reliable, and safe method of shopping during and post Covid-19. It has been noted customers are demanding a wide variety of product characteristics and a generous optimal return policy. The authors have selected to examine millennial consumers as they are digital natives and have an affinity for researching, reading product reviews, and shopping online, with a great spending power due to a higher disposable income in comparison to other generations. A multi-study approach is adopted, where study one (interviews, sample of 20 respondents) investigates the factors that drive product return, and study two (PLS-SEM, sample of 250 respondents) looks into the relationships of product return management against behavioral outcomes by having the generated factors (from study one) as moderators. Five themes are generated from study one (return policies, product characteristics, delivery lead time, seasonality, product trial & overspending). The authors identify that two out of the five factors (seasonality, product trial & overspending) have not been highlighted by the literature. The paper examines 11 hypotheses, where 10 are supported. Findings highlight the quality of the product return management influences the overall millennial customer experience and satisfaction. Findings also indicate that product return management was identified to have a significant negative effect on customer experience. Additionally, seasonality has a significant but negative moderation, which means increasing seasonality decreases the relationship between product return management and customer experience and satisfaction. Results highlight that return policies have a significant negative influence on the relationship between returning a product and customer experience and satisfaction. Moreover, product characteristics are also identified to have a significant negative influence on the relationship between returning a product and customer experience and satisfaction. This study further examines the influence of the factors on direct e-commerce websites and third-party e-commerce websites. Findings showcase a strong statistical significance for the increased rate of return of fast-fashion products on third-party websites. This paper aids practitioners in taking strategic decisions related to return management, to improve the quality of logistical services and, in turn, increase profitability.

Keywords: customer experience, customer satisfaction, e-commerce, fast-fashion, product returns

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299 Masstige and the New Luxury: An Exploratory Study on Cosmetic Brands Among Black African Woman

Authors: Melanie Girdharilall, Anjli Himraj, Shivan Bhagwandin, Marike Venter De Villiers


The allure of luxury has long been attractive, fashionable, mystifying, and complex. As globalisation and the popularity of social media continue to evolve, consumers are seeking status products. However, in emerging economies like South Africa, where 60% of the country lives in poverty, this desire is often far-fetched and out of reach to most of the consumers. As a result, luxury brands are introducing masstige products: products that are associated with luxury and status but within financial reach to the middle-class consumer. The biggest challenge that this industry faces is the lack of knowledge and expertise on black female’s hair composition and offering products that meet their intricate requirements. African consumers have unique hair types, and global brands often do not accommodate for the complex nature of their hair and their product needs. By gaining insight into this phenomenon, global cosmetic brands can benefit from brand expansion, product extensions, increased brand awareness, brand knowledge, and brand equity. The purpose of this study is to determine how cosmetic brands can leverage the concept of masstige products to cater to the needs of middle-income black African woman. This study explores the 18- to 35-year-old black female cohort, which comprises approximately 17% of the South African population. The black hair care industry in Africa is expected a 6% growth rate over the next 5 years. The study is grounded in Paul’s (2019) 3-phase model for masstige marketing. This model demonstrates that product, promotion, and place strategies play a significant role in masstige value creation and the impact of these strategies on the branding dimensions (brand trust, brand association, brand positioning, brand preference, etc.).More specifically, this theoretical framework encompasses nine stages, or dimensions, that are of critical importance to companies who plan to infiltrate the masstige market. In short, the most critical components to consider are the positioning of the product and its competitive advantage in comparison to competitors. Secondly, advertising appeals and use of celebrities, and lastly, distribution channels such as online or in-store while maintain the exclusivity of the brand. By means of an exploratory study, a qualitative approach was undertaken, and focus groups were conducted among black African woman. The focus groups were voice recorded, transcribed, and analysed using Atlas software. The main themes were identified and used to provide brands with insight and direction for developing a comprehensive marketing mix for effectively entering the masstige market. The findings of this study will provide marketing practitioners with in-depth insight into how to effectively position masstige brands in line with consumer needs. It will give direction to both existing and new brands aiming to enter this market, by giving a comprehensive marketing mix for targeting the growing black hair care industry in Africa.

Keywords: africa, masstige, cosmetics, hard care, black females

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298 Natural Dyes in Schools. Development of Techniques From Early Childhood as a Tool for Art, Design and Sustainability

Authors: Luciana Marrone


Natural dyes are a great resource for today's artists and designers providing endless possibilities for design and sustainability. This research and development project focuses on the idea of making these dyeing or painting methodologies reach the widest possible range of students. The main objective is to inform and train, free of charge, teachers and students from different academic institutions, at different levels, kindergarten, primary, secondary, tertiary and university. In this research and dissemination project, in the first instance, institutions from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, Italy, Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Brazil and Australia joined the project, reaching the grassroots of education from the very beginning. Natural dyes will become part of everyday life for more people, achieving their own colors for art, textiles or any other application. The knowledge of the techniques and resources of the student a fundamental tool, sustainable and opens endless possibilities even in places or homes with few economic resources, thus achieving that natural dyes are not only part of the world of designers but also that they are incorporated from the basics and can thus become a resource applicable in different areas even in places with few economic or development possibilities.

Keywords: art, education, natural dyes, sustainability, textile design.

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297 Role of Rafoogars in Textile Repair and Recycling in India

Authors: Dolly Kumar


India is a country with profound cultural heritage and traditional textiles. Each traditional textiles narrates a story about the culture. The paper focuses on the textile repair of antique Pashmina, Kani and Jamawar Shawls of Kashmir (India). These shawls were once sought-after textiles of 18th century. Even today, these shawls with extra-ordinary weave designs are produced by the weavers from Kashmir and sold at expensive prices to high-end consumers. Delicately light-weight and warm, these shawls represents a status - quo in the society. Clients who possess the antique shawls buy them at lavish prices and possess them as a status symbol. Thus, any sort of damage in such textile needs an expert textile repairer who can finely repair the piece without the damage being visible. One such community of people who are proficient in performing this task of damage repair are the rafoogars from Najibabad, a small city in Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh (India). These menders known as rafoogars by virtue of their occupation belong to the Muslim Community and known for mending of antique shawls using traditional darning technique. The tacit knowledge possessed by these rafoogars from generation to generation is worthy to be appreciated and documented. The skill of these needle workers lies in making the darning invisible and mimicking the pattern of the weave in the damaged area in a way that damaged area blends with the rest of the textile. With experience and knowledge, they are able to repair any kind of textile. It is pertinent to mention that the repair work may take 6-8 months or even more depending on the complexity of the damage. These rafoogars play a pivotal role not only in the recycle of these expensive shawls but also upcycle them based on the damage condition. The needle work practiced by them requires experience, understanding of the textile yarn, weave, pattern and application of appropriate technique to repair the damage. The entire process unfolds in various stage and demands prolonged sitting hours, sunlight, sharp eyesight and patience to undertake the repair work with passion and dedication. Interestingly, they possess a gamut of old, worn-out yarns that serve as valuable raw material for the repair work. It is noteworthy to mention that the technique of rafoogari and the community of rafoogars have somehow missed the attention of the academicians and scholars. However, this needle craft can be viewed to possess a major scope in 21st century where sustainability has emerged as the need of the hour. But unfortunately, it is languishing skill and requires urgent attention for documentation and sustenance. Thus, the paper presents a descriptive study on rafoogars elaborating on the artisans and their needlework. It shall further establish the relevance of the needleworkers and their needlework in 21st century as a prime example to address the issue of recycling and sustainability.

Keywords: mending, needlecraft, rafoogari, recycling, sustainability

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296 Re-Orienting Fashion: Fashionable Modern Muslim Women beyond Western Modernity

Authors: Amany Abdelrazek


Fashion is considered the main feature of modern and postmodern capitalist and consumerist society. Consumer historians maintain that fashion, namely, a sector of people embracing a prevailing clothing style for a short period, started during the Middle Ages but gained popularity later. It symbolised the transition from a medieval society with its solid fixed religious values into a modern society with its secular consumer dynamic culture. Renaissance society was a modern secular society concerning its preoccupation with daily life and changing circumstances. Yet, the late 18th-century industrial revolution revolutionised thought and ideology in Europe. The Industrial Revolution reinforced the Western belief in rationality and strengthened the position of science. In such a rational Western society, modernity, with its new ideas, came to challenge the whole idea of old fixed norms, reflecting the modern secular, rational culture and renouncing the medieval pious consumer. In modern society, supported by the industrial revolution and mass production, fashion encouraged broader sectors of society to integrate into fashion reserved for the aristocracy and royal courts. Moreover, the fashion project emphasizes the human body and its beauty, contradicting Judeo-Christian culture, which tends to abhor and criticize interest in sensuality and hedonism. In mainstream Western discourse, fashionable dress differentiates between emancipated stylish consumerist secular modern female and the assumed oppressed traditional modest religious female. Opposing this discourse, I look at the controversy over what has been called "Islamic fashion" that started during the 1980s and continued to gain popularity in contemporary Egyptian society. I discuss the challenges of being a fashionable and Muslim practicing female in light of two prominent models for female "Islamic fashion" in postcolonial Egypt; Jasmin Mohshen, the first hijabi model in Egypt and Manal Rostom, the first Muslim woman to represent the Nike campaign in the Middle East. The research employs fashion and postcolonial theories to rethink current Muslim women's position on women's emancipation, Western modernity and practising faith in postcolonial Egypt. The paper argues that Muslim women's current innovative and fashionable dress can work as a counter-discourse to the Orientalist and exclusive representation of non-Western Muslim culture as an inherently inert timeless culture. Furthermore, "Islamic" fashionable dress as an aesthetic medium for expressing ideas and convictions in contemporary Egypt interrogates the claim of universal secular modernity and Western fashion theorists' reluctance to consider Islamic fashion as fashion.

Keywords: fashion, muslim women, modernity, secularism

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295 Structure and Mechanics Patterns in the Assembly of Type V Intermediate-Filament Protein-Based Fibers

Authors: Mark Bezner, Shani Deri, Tom Trigano, Kfir Ben-Harush


Intermediate filament (IF) proteins-based fibers are among the toughest fibers in nature, as was shown by native hagfish slime threads and by synthetic fibers that are based on type V IF-proteins, the nuclear lamins. It is assumed that their mechanical performance stems from two major factors: (1) the transition from elastic -helices to stiff-sheets during tensile load; and (2) the specific organization of the coiled-coil proteins into a hierarchical network of nano-filaments. Here, we investigated the interrelationship between these two factors by using wet-spun fibers based on C. elegans (Ce) lamin. We found that Ce-lamin fibers, whether assembled in aqueous or alcoholic solutions, had the same nonlinear mechanical behavior, with the elastic region ending at ~5%. The pattern of the transition was, however, different: the ratio between -helices and -sheets/random coils was relatively constant until a 20% strain for fibers assembled in an aqueous solution, whereas for fibers assembled in 70% ethanol, the transition ended at a 6% strain. This structural phenomenon in alcoholic solution probably occurred through the transition between compacted and extended conformation of the random coil, and not between -helix and -sheets, as cycle analyses had suggested. The different transition pattern can also be explained by the different higher order organization of Ce-lamins in aqueous or alcoholic solutions, as demonstrated by introducing a point mutation in conserved residue in Ce-lamin gene that alter the structure of the Ce-lamins’ nano-fibrils. In addition, biomimicking the layered structure of silk and hair fibers by coating the Ce-lamin fiber with a hydrophobic layer enhanced fiber toughness and lead to a reversible transition between -helix and the extended conformation. This work suggests that different hierarchical structures, which are formed by specific assembly conditions, lead to diverse secondary structure transitions patterns, which in turn affect the fibers’ mechanical properties.

Keywords: protein-based fibers, intermediate filaments (IF) assembly, toughness, structure-property relationships

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294 The Impact that Smart Retail Technologies have on Consumers’ In-Store Shopping Experience

Authors: A. Frankel, K. Swinburn, M. Venter de Villiers


Against the backdrop of the rapidly changing technological landscape, brick-and-mortar retailers are forced to embrace new ways to attract customers to their stores. An effective and popular method is by creating a unique in-store experience, coupled with advanced technology such as hologram window displays, virtual reality glasses that allows consumers to virtually travel around the world, and virtual in-store fitting rooms, to mention a few. This notion is supported by the shift in consumer mindsets from cognitive to affective-driven consumption decisions. Retailers are therefore using experiential cues to catch the attention of consumers by means of creative and innovative approaches. This is especially relevant to the apparel industry, where competition has increased significantly, largely due to the rise of globalisation. Over recent years, brands like Adidas and Nike have been in the forerunning of implementing advanced technology into their retail strategies and have mastered the implementation of smart retail technology (SRT). The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of smart retail technology on customer loyalty and word-of-mouth, respectively, with customer experience as the mediator. Ultimately, the study wants to determine the role of customer experience in creating loyalty and positive word-of-mouth. In other words, therefore aiming to determine whether SRT is more effective if the customer has a pleasant in-store experience within the apparel industry. The main theories grounding this study are the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) and the Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD) theories. Both of these are centered around the belief that consumers respond to external sensory stimuli, which influence their purchase decisions. By means of a conceptual framework, 12 hypotheses are proposed, of which the main constructs are augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), smart screens (SS), and smart mirrors (SM), and the impact it has on customer loyalty and word-of-mouth respectively, with the overall in-store customer experience as a mediator. This study undertakes an empirical approach, and 350 participants will be surveyed online to gain insight into the role of SRT on their loyalty and word-of-mouth toward apparel brands. The data analysis will be conducted using SPSS 27 and AMOS to test the hypotheses, path coefficients, and model fit. The findings of this study will provide apparel brands with insight into the effectiveness of implementing SRT in their retail stores. This is of particular interest to brands in emerging economies, such as South Africa, which are still in the infant stages of investing in SRT.

Keywords: augmented reality, in-store experience, smart retail technology, virtual reality

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293 Advanced Textiles for Soldier Clothes Based on Coordination Polymers

Authors: Hossam E. Emam


The functional textiles development history in the military field could be ascribed as a uniquely interesting research topic. Soldiers are like a high-performance athletes, where monitoring their physical and physiological capabilities is a vital requirement. Functional clothes represent a “second skin” that has a close, “intimate” relationship with the human body. For the application of textiles in military purposes, which is normally required in difficult weather and environmental conditions, several functions are required. The requirements for designing functional military textiles for soldier's protection can be categorized into three categories; i) battle field (protection from chemical warfare agents, flames, and thermal radiation), ii) environmental (water proof, air permeable, UV-protection, antibacterial), iii) physiological (minimize heat stress, low weight, insulative, durability). All of these requirements are important, but the means to fulfill these requirements are not simple and straight forward. Additionally, the combination of more than one function is reported to be very expensive and requires many complicated steps, and the final product is found to be low durability. Not only do all of these requirements are overlapping, but they are also contradicting each other at various levels. Thus, we plan to produce multi-functional textiles (e.g., anti-microbial, UV-protection, fire retardant, photoluminescent) to be applied in military clothes. The current project aims to use quite a simple and applicable technique through the modification of textiles with different coordination polymers and functionalized coordination polymers.

Keywords: functional textiles, military clothes, coordination polymers, antimicrobial, fire retardant, photolumenscent

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292 Role of QR Codes in Environmental Consciousness of Apparel Consumption

Authors: Eleanor L. Kutschera


This study explores the possible impact that QR codes play in helping individuals make more sustainable choices regarding apparel consumption. Data was collected via an online survey to ascertain individuals’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to QR codes and how this impacts their decisions to purchase apparel. Results from 250 participants provide both qualitative and quantitative data that provide valuable information regarding consumers’ use of QR codes and more sustainable purchases. Specifically, results indicate that QR codes are currently under-utilized in the apparel industry but have the potential to generate more environmentally conscious purchases. Also, results posit that while the cost of the item is the most influential factor in purchasing sustainable garments, other factors such as how, where, and what it is made of are in the middle, along with the company’s story/inspiration for creation have an impact. Moreover, participants posit the use of QR codes could make them more informed and empowered consumers, and they would be more likely to make purchases that are better for the environment. Participants’ qualitative responses provide useful incentives that could increase their future sustainable purchases. Finally, this study touches on the study’s limitations, implications, and future direction of research.

Keywords: digital ID, QR codes, environmental consciousness, sustainability, fashion industry, apparel consumption

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291 Ayurvastra: A Study on the Ancient Indian Textile for Healing

Authors: Reena Aggarwal


The use of textile chemicals in the various pre and post-textile manufacturing processes has made the textile industry conscious of its negative contribution to environmental pollution. Popular environmentally friendly fibers such as recycled polyester and organic cotton have been now increasingly used by fabrics and apparel manufacturers. However, after these textiles or the finished apparel are manufactured, they have to be dyed in the same chemical dyes that are harmful and toxic to the environment. Dyeing is a major area of concern for the environment as well as for people who have chemical sensitivities as it may cause nausea, breathing difficulties, seizures, etc. Ayurvastra or herbal medical textiles are one step ahead of the organic lifestyle, which supports the core concept of holistic well-being and also eliminates the impact of harmful chemicals and pesticides. There is a wide range of herbs that can be used not only for dyeing but also for providing medicinal properties to the textiles like antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antidepressant and for treating insomnia, skin diseases, etc. The concept of herbal dyeing of fabric is to manifest herbal essence in every aspect of clothing, i.e., from production to end-use, additionally to eliminate the impact of harmful chemical dyes and chemicals which are known to result in problems like skin rashes, headache, trouble concentrating, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, dizziness, difficulty breathing, irregular heartbeat and seizures. Herbal dyeing or finishing on textiles will give an extra edge to the textiles as it adds an extra function to the fabric. The herbal extracts can be applied to the textiles by a simple process like the pad dry cure method and mainly acts on the human body through the skin for aiding in the treatment of disease or managing the medical condition through its herbal properties. This paper, therefore, delves into producing Ayurvastra, which is a perfect amalgamation of cloth and wellness. The aim of the paper is to design and create herbal disposable and non-disposable medical textile products acting mainly topically (through the skin) for providing medicinal properties/managing medical conditions. Keeping that in mind, a range of antifungal socks and antibacterial napkins treated with turmeric and aloe vera were developed, which are recommended for the treatment of fungal and bacterial infections, respectively. Both Herbal Antifungal socks and Antibacterial napkins have proved to be efficient enough in managing and treating fungal and bacterial infections of the skin, respectively.

Keywords: ayurvastra, ayurveda, herbal, pandemic, sustainable

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290 Development of Thermal Regulating Textile Material Consisted of Macrocapsulated Phase Change Material

Authors: Surini Duthika Fernandopulle, Kalamba Arachchige Pramodya Wijesinghe


Macrocapsules containing phase change material (PCM) PEG4000 as core and Calcium Alginate as the shell was synthesized by in-situ polymerization process, and their suitability for textile applications was studied. PCM macro-capsules were sandwiched between two polyurethane foams at regular intervals, and the sandwiched foams were subsequently covered with 100% cotton woven fabrics. According to the mathematical modelling and calculations 46 capsules were required to provide cooling for a period of 2 hours at 56ºC, so a panel of 10 cm x 10 cm area with 25 parts (having 5 capsules in each for 9 parts are 16 parts spaced for air permeability) were effectively merged into one textile material without changing the textile's original properties. First, the available cooling techniques related to textiles were considered and the best cooling techniques suiting the Sri Lankan climatic conditions were selected using a survey conducted for Sri Lankan Public based on ASHRAE-55-2010 standard and it consisted of 19 questions under 3 sections categorized as general information, thermal comfort sensation and requirement of Personal Cooling Garments (PCG). The results indicated that during daytime, majority of respondents feel warm and during nighttime also majority have responded as slightly warm. The survey also revealed that around 85% of the respondents are willing to accept a PCG. The developed panels were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) tests and the findings from FTIR showed that the macrocapsules consisted of PEG 4000 as the core material and Calcium Alginate as the shell material and findings from TGA showed that the capsules had the average weight percentage for core with 61,9% and shell with 34,7%. After heating both control samples and samples incorporating PCM panels, it was discovered that only the temperature of the control sample increased after 56ºC, whereas the temperature of the sample incorporating PCM panels began to regulate the temperature at 56ºC, preventing a temperature increase beyond 56ºC.

Keywords: phase change materials, thermal regulation, textiles, macrocapsules

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289 Electric Characteristics of Coils and Antennas with Sewing Techniques for Wireless Power Transfer

Authors: Hikari Ryu, Yuki Fukuda, Kento Oishi, Chiharu Igarashi, Shogo Kiryu


Recently, wireless power transfer has been developed in various fields. Three coupling techniques in the power deliveries have been used. Magnetic coupling is popular for feeding power at a relatively short distance and at a lower frequency. Electric field coupling is suitable when wide electrodes can be utilized. Electro-magnetic wave coupling at a high frequency is used for long-distance power transfer. The wireless power transfer has attracted attention in e-textile fields. Rigid batteries are required for many body-worn electric systems at the present time. The technology enables such butteries to be removed from the systems. Flexible coils have been studied for such applications. Coils with a high Q factor are required in the magnetic-coupling power transfer. Antennas with low return loss are needed for the electro-magnetic coupling. Litz wire is so flexible to fabricate coils and antennas sewn on a fabric and has low resistivity. In this study, the electric characteristics of some coils and antennas fabricated with the litz wire by using two sewing techniques are investigated. As examples, a coil and an antenna are described. Both were fabricated with 330/0.04 mm litz wire. The coil was a planar coil with a square shape. The outer side was 150 mm, the number of turns was 15, and the pitch interval between each turn was 5 mm. The litz wire of the coil was overstitched with a sewing machine. The coil was fabricated as an auxiliary coil for a magnetic coupled wireless power transfer. The Q factor was 200 at a frequency of 800 kHz. As an example of an antenna with a sewing technique, a fractal pattern antenna was stitched on a 500 mm x 500 mm fabric by using a needle punch method. The pattern was 2nd-oder Vicsec fractal. The return loss of the antenna was -28 dB at a frequency of 144 MHz.

Keywords: e-textile, flexible coils and antennas, litz wire, wireless power transfer

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288 Renewable and Functional Biopolymers Using Green Chemistry

Authors: Aman Ullah


The use of renewable resources in supplementing and/or replacing traditional petrochemical products, through green chemistry, is becoming the focus of research. The utilization of oils can play a primitive role towards sustainable development due to their large scale availability, built-in-functionality, biodegradability and no net CO2 production. Microwaves, being clean, green and environmentally friendly, are emerging as an alternative source for product development. Solvent free conversion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) derived from canola oil and waste cooking oil under microwave irradiation demonstrated dramatically enhanced rates. The microwave-assisted reactions lead to the most valuable terminal olefins with enhanced yields, purities and dramatic shortening of reaction times. Various monomers/chemicals were prepared in high yield in very short time. The complete conversions were observed at temperatures as low as 40 ºC within less than five minutes. The products were characterized by GC-MS, GC-FID and NMR. The monomers were separated and polymerized into different polymers including biopolyesthers, biopolyesters, biopolyamides and biopolyolefins. The polymers were characterized in details for their structural, thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties. The ability for complete conversion of oils under solvent free conditions and synthesis of different biopolymers is undoubtedly an attractive concept from both an academic and an industrial point of view.

Keywords: monomers, biopolymers, green chemistry, bioplastics, biomaterials

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287 Electrospinning Parameters: Effect on the Morphology of Polylactic Acid/Polybutylene Succinate Fibers

Authors: Hamad Al-Turaif, Usman Saeed


The development of nanofibers with the help of electrospinning is being prioritized as a method of choice because of the simplicity and efficiency of the process. The parameters of the electrospinning process effectively convert the polymer solution into an electrospun final product made of the desired diameter of nanofiber. The aim of the study presented is to recognize and analyze the effect of proposed parameters on biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid (PLA)/polybutylene succinate (PBS) nanofiber developed by the electrospinning process. The morphology of the fiber is characterized by implementing Scanning Electron Microscope. Studies were conducted to characterize the result of using different electrospinning parameters on the final diameter and orientation of fiber. It was determined that varying polymer solution concentration, feed rate, and applied voltage show different outcomes. The best results were obtained at 6% polymer solution concentration, 20 kV, and 0.5 ml/h, which can be applicable for biomedical applications. Finally, protein adsorption and mechanical testing were conducted on the PLA/PBS fiber.

Keywords: electrospinning, polylactic acid, polybutylene succinate, morphology

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286 Determination of Poisson’s Ratio and Elastic Modulus of Compression Textile Materials

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu


Compression textiles such as compression stockings (CSs) have been extensively applied for the prevention and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The involvement of multiple mechanical factors such as interface pressure, frictional force, and elastic materials make the interactions between lower limb and CSs to be complex. Determination of Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli of CS materials are critical for constructing finite element (FE) modeling to numerically simulate a complex interactive system of CS and lower limb. In this study, a mixed approach, including an analytic model based on the orthotropic Hooke’s Law and experimental study (uniaxial tension testing and pure shear testing), has been proposed to determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and shear modulus of CS fabrics. The results indicated a linear relationship existing between the stress and strain properties of the studied CS samples under controlled stretch ratios (< 100%). The newly proposed method and the determined key mechanical properties of elastic orthotropic CS fabrics facilitate FE modeling for analyzing in-depth the effects of compression material design on their resultant biomechanical function in compression therapy.

Keywords: elastic compression stockings, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, mechanical analysis

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285 Investigation of Different Surface Oxidation Methods on Pyrolytic Carbon

Authors: Lucija Pustahija, Christine Bandl, Wolfgang Kern, Christian Mitterer


Concerning today´s ecological demands, producing reliable materials from sustainable resources is a continuously developing topic. Such an example is the production of carbon materials via pyrolysis of natural gases or biomass. The amazing properties of pyrolytic carbon are utilized in various fields, where in particular the application in building industry is a promising way towards the utilization of pyrolytic carbon and composites based on pyrolytic carbon. For many applications, surface modification of carbon is an important step in tailoring its properties. Therefore, in this paper, an investigation of different oxidation methods was performed to prepare the carbon surface before functionalizing it with organosilanes, which act as coupling agents for epoxy and polyurethane resins. Made in such a way, a building material based on carbon composites could be used as a lightweight, durable material that can be applied where water or air filtration / purification is needed. In this work, both wet and dry oxidation were investigated. Wet oxidation was first performed in solutions of nitric acid (at 120 °C and 150 °C) followed by oxidation in hydrogen peroxide (80 °C) for 3 and 6 h. Moreover, a hydrothermal method (under oxygen gas) in autoclaves was investigated. Dry oxidation was performed under plasma and corona discharges, using different power values to elaborate optimum conditions. Selected samples were then (in preliminary experiments) subjected to a silanization of the surface with amino and glycidoxy organosilanes. The functionalized surfaces were examined by X-ray photon spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy, and by scanning electron microscopy. The results of wet and dry oxidation methods indicated that the creation of functionalities was influenced by temperature, the concentration of the reagents (and gases) and the duration of the treatment. Sequential oxidation in aq. HNO₃ and H₂O₂ results in a higher content of oxygen functionalities at lower concentrations of oxidizing agents, when compared to oxidizing the carbon with concentrated nitric acid. Plasma oxidation results in non-permanent functionalization on the carbon surface, by which it´s necessary to find adequate parameters of oxidation treatments that could enable longer stability of functionalities. Results of the functionalization of the carbon surfaces with organosilanes will be presented as well.

Keywords: building materials, dry oxidation, organosilanes, pyrolytic carbon, resins, surface functionalization, wet oxidation

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284 Investigation of Alfa Fibers Reinforced Epoxy-Amine Composites Properties

Authors: Amar Boukerrou, Ouerdia Belhadj, Dalila Hammiche, Jean Francois Gerard, Jannick Rumeau


The main goal of this study is the investigation of alfa fiber content, treated with alkali treatment, on the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-amine matrix-based composites. The fibers were treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide solution and varied between 10% to 30% weight fractions. The tensile, flexural, and hardness tests are carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of composites. The results show those composites’ mechanical properties are higher than the neat epoxy-amine. It was noticed that the alkali treatment is more effective in the case of the tensile and flexural modulus than the tensile and flexural strength. The decline of both the tensile and flexural behavior of all composites with the increasing of the filler content was due probably to the random dispersion of the fibers in the epoxy resin The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was employed to analyze the chemical structure of epoxy resin before and after curing with amine hardener. FTIR and DSC analysis confirmed that epoxy resin was completely cured with amine hardener at room temperature. SEM analysis has highlighted the microstructure of epoxy matrix and its composites.

Keywords: alfa fiber, epoxy resin, alkali treatment, mechanical properties

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283 The Use of Waste Fibers as Reinforcement in Biopolymer Green Composites

Authors: Dalila Hammiche, Lisa Klaai, Amar Boukerrou


Following this trend, natural fiber reinforcements have been gaining importance in the composites sector. The effectiveness of natural fiber–reinforced PLA composite as an alternative material to substitute the non-renewable petroleum-based materials has been examined by researchers. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical, particle size and distribution, and thermal behavior of prickly pear seed flour (PPSF). Then, composites were manufactured with 20% in PPSF. Thermal, morphological, and mechanical properties have been studied, and water absorption tests as well. The characterization of this fiber has shown that cellulose is the majority constituent (30%), followed by hemicellulose (27%). To improve the fiber-matrix adhesion, the PPS was chemically treated with alkali treatment. The addition of PPSF decreases the thermal properties, and the study of the mechanical properties showed that the increase in the fiber content from 0 to 20% increased Young’s modulus. According to the results, the mechanical and thermal behaviors of composites are improved after fiber treatment. However, there is an increase in water absorption of composites compared to the PLA matrix. The moisture sensitivity of natural fiber composites limits their use in structural applications. Degradation of the fiber-matrix interface is likely to occur when the material is subjected to variable moisture conditions.

Keywords: biopolymer, composites, alcali treatment, mechanical properties

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282 Contact Zones and Fashion Hubs: From Circular Economy to Circular Neighbourhoods

Authors: Tiziana Ferrero-Regis, Marissa Lindquist


Circular Economy (CE) is increasingly seen as the reorganisation of production and consumption, and cities are acknowledged as the sources of many ecological and social problems; at the same time, they can be re-imagined through an ecologically and socially resilient future. The concept of the CE has received pointed critiques for its techno-deterministic orientation, focus on science and transformation by the policy. At the heart of our local re-imagining of the CE into circularity through contact zones there is the acknowledgment of collective, spontaneous and shared imaginations of alternative and sustainable futures through the creation of networks of community initiatives that are transformative, creating opportunities that simultaneously make cities rich and enrich humans. This paper presents a mapping project of the fashion and textile ecosystem in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Brisbane is currently the most aspirational city in Australia, as its population growth rate is the highest in the country. Yet, Brisbane is considered the least “fashion city” in the country. In contrast, the project revealed a greatly enhanced picture of distinct fashion and textile clusters across greater Brisbane and the adjacency of key services that may act to consolidate CE community contact zones. Clusters to the north of Brisbane and several locales to the south are zones of a greater mix between public/social amenities, walkable zones and local transport networks with educational precincts, community hubs, concentration of small enterprises, designers, artisans and waste recovery centers that will help to establish knowledge of key infrastructure networks that will support enmeshing these zones together. The paper presents two case studies of independent designers who work on new and re-designed clothing through recovering pre-consumer textiles and that operate from within creative precincts. The first case is designer Nelson Molloy, who recently returned to the inner city suburb of West End with their Chasing Zero Design project. The area was known in the 1980s and 1990s for its alternative lifestyle with creative independent production, thrifty clothing shops, alternative fashion and a socialist agenda. After 30 years of progressive gentrification of the suburb, which has dislocated many of the artists, designers and artisans, West End is seeing the return and amplification of clusters of artisans, artists, designers and architects. The other case study is Practice Studio, located in a new zone of creative growth, Bowen Hills, north of the CBD. Practice Studio combines retail with a workroom, offers repair and remaking services, becoming a point of reference for young and emerging Australian designers and artists. The paper demonstrates the spatial politics of the CE and the way in which new cultural capital is produced thanks to cultural specificities and resources. It argues for the recognition of contact zones that are created by local actors, communities and knowledge networks, whose grass-roots agency is fundamental for the co-production of CE’s systems of local governance.

Keywords: contact zones, circular citities, fashion and textiles, circular neighbourhoods, australia

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281 Fused Deposition Modelling as the Manufacturing Method of Fully Bio-Based Water Purification Filters

Authors: Natalia Fijol, Aji P. Mathew


We present the processing and characterisation of three-dimensional (3D) monolith filters based on polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with various nature-derived nanospecies such as hydroxyapatite, modified cellulose fibers and chitin fibers. The nanospecies of choice were dispersed in PLA through Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) method. The biocomposites were developed via solvent-assisted blending and the obtained pellets were further single-screw extruded into 3D-printing filaments and processed into various geometries using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. The printed prototypes included cubic, cylindrical and hour-glass shapes with diverse patterns of printing infill as well as varying pore structure including uniform and multiple level gradual pore structure. The pores and channel structure as well as overall shape of the prototypes were designed in attempt to optimize the flux and maximize the adsorption-active time. FDM is a cost and energy-efficient method, which does not require expensive tools and elaborated post-processing maintenance. Therefore, FDM offers the possibility to produce customized, highly functional water purification filters with tuned porous structures suitable for removal of wide range of common water pollutants. Moreover, as 3D printing becomes more and more available worldwide, it allows producing portable filters at the place and time where they are most needed. The study demonstrates preparation route for the PLA-based, fully biobased composite and their processing via FDM technique into water purification filters, addressing water treatment challenges on an industrial scale.

Keywords: fused deposition modelling, water treatment, biomaterials, 3D printing, nanocellulose, nanochitin, polylactic acid

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280 Identifying the Gap Between Adaptive Clothing Consumers and Brands

Authors: Lucky Farha, Martha L. Hall


The current adaptive clothing brands are limited to numbers and specific to categories. However, a few companies are focusing on consumers having Down syndrome, especially in children’s wear. This study explores clothing challenges for children with Down syndrome and factors that influence their perception of adaptive clothing brands. Another aim of this study was to explore brands challenges in the adaptive business and factors that influence their perceptions towards the adaptive market. In order to determine the market barriers affecting adaptive target market needs, researcher applied Technology Acceptance Model. After interviewing and surveying parents/caregivers having children with Down syndrome and current adaptive brands, the results found education as the significant gap in the adaptive clothing market yet to be overcome. Based on the finding, several recommendations were suggested to improve the current barriers in the adaptive clothing market.

Keywords: adaptive fashion, disability, functional clothing, clothing needs assessment, down syndrome, clothing challenge

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279 Cellulose Containing Metal Organic Frameworks in Environmental Applications

Authors: Hossam El-Sayed Emam


As an essential issue for life, water while it’s important for all living organisms. However, the world is dangerously facing the serious problem for the deficiency of the sources of drinking water. Within the aquatic systems, there are various gases, microbes, and other toxic ingredients (chemical compounds and heavy metals) occurred owing to the draining of agricultural and industrial wastewater, resulting in water pollution. On the other hand, fuel (gaseous, liquid, or in solid phase) is one of the extensively consumable energy sources, and owing to its origin from fossil, it contains some sulfur-, nitrogen- and oxygen-based compounds that cause serious problems (toxicity, catalyst poisoning, corrosion, and gum formation andcarcinogenic effects), to be ascribed as undesirable pollutants.MOFs as porous coordinating polymers are superiorly exploited in the adsorption and separationof contaminants for wastewater treatment and fuel purification. The inclusion of highly adsorbent materials like MOFs to be immobilized within cellulosic materialscould be investigated as a new challenge for the separation of contaminants with high efficiency and opportunity for recyclability. Therefore, the current approach ascribes the exploitation of different MOFsimmobilized within cellulose (powder, films, and fabrics)for applications in environmental. Herein, using cellulose containing MOFs in dye removal (degradation and adsorption), pharmaceutical intermediates removal, and fuel purification were summarized.

Keywords: cellulose, MOFs, dye removal, pharmaceutical intermediates, fuel purification

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278 The Jordanian Traditional Dress of Women as a Form of Cultural Heritage

Authors: Sarah Alkhateeb


This research explores the Jordanian traditional dress of women as a form of cultural heritage. The dress of the Jordanian woman expresses her social and cultural functions and reflects the local environment in its social and cultural frameworks and the determinants of the natural formation of climate and terrain, in addition to what is expressed by the person’s social status and position in the social ladder of any society. Therefore, the traditional dress of Jordanian women is distinguished by its abundance and diversity. Few studies have been conducted on the Jordanian traditional dress of women, the lack of studies about the Jordanian traditional dress of women needs highlighting and the characteristics of this dress have to be featured and documented as a part of cultural heritage. The main aim of this research is to contribute or to develop a conservation strategy to save this part of cultural heritage from loss. In this research, the qualitative method approach will be used and will follow the ethnographic method. The data will be gathered from a primary source which is the single focus group discussion with the TIRAZ museum team; the Jordanian traditional dress will be explored across three regions: The North, Middle and South of Jordan, investigating the regional differences and focusing on the details of the individual garment.

Keywords: Jordanian traditional dress, cultural heritage, tiraz museum, ethnographic method

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