Abstracts | Materials and Textile Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 377

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Textile Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

377 Edible Food Packaging: A Hope for the Future of the Earth

Authors: Kamile Nazan Turhan


When work on edible packaging began, the hope was to provide a sustainable alternative to reduce plastic consumption. Edible packaging can take the form of a coating or film that provides better protection of food. They have the potential to be a feasible alternative to traditional plastic food packaging as they can increase the shelf life of foods by reducing their respiration rate and water loss and protecting them from physical damage and microbial spoilage, preventing post-harvest loss. Edible films and coatings can extend the shelf life of the food product and improve food quality by regulating the transfer of moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipids, aroma and taste compounds in food systems. The main advantage of using edible packaging is that it reduces the amount of plastic waste produced. Another interesting advantage is that some edible food packaging elements may actually have added vitamins, probiotics and other nutrients, bioactive compounds that support technological and biological properties. Despite the use of many different biomaterials in the production of edible packaging, most of the problems experienced are similar. Among these problems: hydrophilicity, low water stability, high humidity sensitivity, poor resistance to moisture, high water vapor permeability, poor mechanical properties and machinability, fragility, insolubility, low melting point, sensitivity to ph, temperature, ionic, electro reactions, brittle. and hard structure, low thermal stability, hardness, hazy film are available. Edible films have the disadvantage of being difficult to apply to the food surface due to their weak barrier and mechanical properties.One of the most important problems is that the developed films have a brittle structure, since biomaterials are generally hydrophilic in nature. Plasticizer is added to increase the flexibility of the film, and as the plasticizer content increases, the film permeability also increases. The correct choice of plasticizer for a particular biopolymer allows optimization of the mechanical properties of the film with minimal increase in film permeability. The effect of the amount and type of plasticizer in achieving the desired mechanical properties with optimum permeability is constantly being investigated by researchers. However, it should be noted that in the studies conducted so far, plasticized biofilms cannot provide high mechanical strength or good flexibility compared to synthetic polymer materials. In this review, according to the results of the researches in the literature, the disadvantages of implementing edible packaging will be revealed and possible solutions will be presented.

Keywords: edible packaging, biyomateryal, disadvantages, production

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376 Marketing in the Fashion Industry and Its Critical Success Factors: The Case of Fashion Dealers in Ghana

Authors: Kumalbeo Paul Kamani


Marketing plays a very important role in the success of any firm since it represents the means through which a firm can reach its customers and also promotes its products and services. In fact, marketing aids the firm in identifying customers who the business can competitively serve, and tailoring product offerings, prices, distribution, promotional efforts, and services towards those customers. Unfortunately, in many firms, marketing has been reduced to merely advertisement. For effective marketing, firms must go beyond this often-limited function of advertisement. In the fashion industry in particular, marketing faces challenges due to its peculiar characteristics. Previous research for instance affirms the idiosyncrasy and peculiarities that differentiate the fashion industry from other industrial areas. It has been documented that the fashion industry is characterized seasonal intensity, short product life cycles, the difficulty of competitive differentiation, and long time for companies to reach financial stability. These factors are noted to pose obstacles to the fashion entrepreneur’s endeavours and can be the reasons that explain their low survival rates. In recent times, the fashion industry has been described as a market that is accessible market, has low entry barriers, both in terms of needed capital and skills which have all accounted for the burgeoning nature of startups. Yet as already stated, marketing is particularly challenging in the industry. In particular, areas such as marketing, branding, growth, project planning, financial and relationship management might represent challenges for the fashion entrepreneur but that have not been properly addressed by previous research. It is therefore important to assess marketing strategies of fashion firms and the factors influencing their success. This study generally sought to examine marketing strategies of fashion dealers in Ghana and their critical success factors. The study employed the quantitative survey research approach. A total of 120 fashion dealers were sampled. Questionnaires were used as instrument of data collection. Data collected was analysed using quantitative techniques including descriptive statistics and Relative Importance Index. The study revealed that the marketing strategies used by fashion apparels are text messages using mobile phones, referrals, social media marketing, and direct marketing. Results again show that the factors influencing fashion marketing effectiveness are strategic management, marketing mix (product, price, promotion etc), branding and business development. Policy implications are finally outlined. The study recommends among others that there is a need for the top management executive to craft and adopt marketing strategies that enable that are compatible with the fashion trends and the needs of the customers. This will improve customer satisfaction and hence boost market penetration. The study further recommends that the fashion industry in Ghana should seek to ensure that fashion apparels accommodate the diversity and the cultural setting of different customers to meet their unique needs.

Keywords: marketing, fashion, industry, success factors

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375 Exploring the Concept of Fashion Waste: Hanging by a Thread

Authors: Timothy Adam Boleratzky


The goal of this transformative endeavour lies in the repurposing of textile scraps, heralding a renaissance in the creation of wearable art. Through a judicious fusion of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies and cutting-edge techniques, this research embarks upon a voyage of exploration, unraveling the intricate tapestry of environmental implications woven into the fabric of textile waste. Delving deep into the annals of empirical evidence and scholarly discourse, the study not only elucidates the urgent imperative for waste reduction strategies but also unveils the transformative potential inherent in embracing circular economy principles within the hallowed halls of fashion. As the research unfurls its sails, guided by the compass of sustainability, it traverses uncharted territories, charting a course toward a more enlightened and responsible fashion ecosystem. The canvas upon which this journey unfolds is richly adorned with insights gleaned from the crucible of experimentation, laying bare the myriad pathways toward waste minimisation and resource optimisation. From the adoption of recycling strategies to the cultivation of eco-friendly production techniques, the research endeavours to sculpt a blueprint for a more sustainable future, one stitch at a time. In this unfolding narrative, the role of wearable art emerges as a potent catalyst for change, transcending the boundaries of conventional fashion to embrace a more holistic ethos of sustainability. Through the alchemy of creativity and craftsmanship, discarded textile scraps are imbued with new life, morphing into exquisite creations that serve as both a testament to human ingenuity and a rallying cry for environmental preservation. Each thread, each stitch, becomes a silent harbinger of change, weaving together a tapestry of hope in a world besieged by ecological uncertainty. As the research journey culminates, its echoes resonate far beyond the confines of academia, reverberating through the corridors of industry and beyond. In its wake, it leaves a legacy of empowerment and enlightenment, inspiring a generation of designers, entrepreneurs, and consumers to embrace a more sustainable vision of fashion. For in the intricate interplay of threads and textiles lies the promise of a brighter, more resilient future, where beauty coexists harmoniously with responsibility and where fashion becomes not merely an expression of style but a celebration of sustainability.

Keywords: fabric-manipulation, sustainability, textiles, waste, wearable-art

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374 The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Textiles Technology

Authors: Ramy Kamel Fekrey Gadelrab


Textile sensors have gained a lot of interest in recent years as it is instrumental in monitoring physiological and environmental changes, for a better diagnosis that can be useful in various fields like medical textiles, sports textiles, protective textiles, agro textiles, and geo-textiles. Moreover, with the development of flexible textile-based wearable sensors, the functionality of smart clothing is augmented for a more improved user experience when it comes to technical textiles. In this context, conductive textiles using new composites and nanomaterials are being developed while considering its compatibility with the textile manufacturing processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the contemporary advancements in textile-based wearable physical sensors, used in the field of medical, security, surveillance, and protection, from a global perspective. The methodology used is through analysing various examples of integration of wearable textile-based sensors with clothing for daily use, keeping in mind the technological advances in the same. By comparing various case studies, it come across various challenges textile sensors, in terms of stability, the comfort of movement, and reliable sensing components to enable accurate measurements, in spite of progress in the engineering of the wearable. Addressing such concerns is critical for the future success of wearable sensors.

Keywords: nanoparticles, enzymes, immobilization, textilesconductive yarn, e-textiles, smart textiles, thermal analysisflexible textile-based wearable sensors, contemporary advancements, conductive textiles, body conformal design

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373 Exploring the Impact of Body Shape on Bra Fit: Integrating 3D Body Scanning and Traditional Patternmaking Methods

Authors: Yin-Ching Keung, Kit-Lun Yick


The issue of bra fitting has persisted throughout history despite advancements in molded bra cups. To gain a deeper understanding of the interaction between the breast and bra pattern, this study combines the art of traditional bra patternmaking with 3D body scanning technology. By employing a 2D bra pattern drafting method and analyzing the effect of body shape on the desired bra cup shape, the study focuses on the differentiation of the lower cup among bras designed for flat and round body-shaped breasts. The results shed light on the impact of body shape on bra fit and provide valuable insights for further research and improvements in bra design, pattern drafting, and fit. The integration of 3D body scanning technology enhances the accuracy and precision of measurements, allowing for a more comprehensive analysis of the unique contours and dimensions of the breast and body. Ultimately, the study aims to provide individuals with different body shapes a more comfortable and well-fitted bra-wearing experience, contributing to the ongoing efforts to alleviate the longstanding problem of bra fitting.

Keywords: breast shapes, bra fitting, 3D body scanning, bra patternmaking

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372 Optimizing 3D Shape Parameters of Sports Bra Pads in Motion by Finite Element Dynamic Modelling with Inverse Problem Solution

Authors: Jiazhen Chen, Yue Sun, Joanne Yip, Kit-Lun Yick


The design of sports bras poses a considerable challenge due to the difficulty in accurately predicting the wearing result after computer-aided design (CAD). It needs repeated physical try-on or virtual try-on to obtain a comfortable pressure range during motion. Specifically, in the context of running, the exact support area and force exerted on the breasts remain unclear. Consequently, obtaining an effective method to design the sports bra pads shape becomes particularly challenging. This predicament hinders the successful creation and production of sports bras that cater to women's health needs. The purpose of this study is to propose an effective method to obtain the 3D shape of sports bra pads and to understand the relationship between the supporting force and the 3D shape parameters of the pads. Firstly, the static 3D shape of the sports bra pad and human motion data (Running) are obtained by using the 3D scanner and advanced 4D scanning technology. The 3D shape of the sports bra pad is parameterised and simplified by Free-form Deformation (FFD). Then the sub-models of sports bra and human body are constructed by segmenting and meshing them with MSC Apex software. The material coefficient of sports bras is obtained by material testing. The Marc software is then utilised to establish a dynamic contact model between the human breast and the sports bra pad. To realise the reverse design of the sports bra pad, this contact model serves as a forward model for calculating the inverse problem. Based on the forward contact model, the inverse problem of the 3D shape parameters of the sports bra pad with the target bra-wearing pressure range as the boundary condition is solved. Finally, the credibility and accuracy of the simulation are validated by comparing the experimental results with the simulations by the FE model on the pressure distribution. On the one hand, this research allows for a more accurate understanding of the support area and force distribution on the breasts during running. On the other hand, this study can contribute to the customization of sports bra pads for different individuals. It can help to obtain sports bra pads with comfortable dynamic pressure.

Keywords: sports bra design, breast motion, running, inverse problem, finite element dynamic model

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371 The Impact of Artificial Intelligence in the Development of Textile and Fashion Industry

Authors: Basem Kamal Abasakhiroun Farag


Fashion, like many other areas of design, has undergone numerous developments over the centuries. The aim of the article is to recognize and evaluate the importance of advanced technologies in fashion design and to examine how they are transforming the role of contemporary fashion designers by transforming the creative process. It also discusses how contemporary culture is involved in such developments and how it influences fashion design in terms of conceptualization and production. The methodology used is based on examining various examples of the use of technology in fashion design and drawing parallels between what was feasible then and what is feasible today. Comparison of case studies, examples of existing fashion designs and experiences with craft methods; We therefore observe patterns that help us predict the direction of future developments in this area. Discussing the technological elements in fashion design helps us understand the driving force behind the trend. The research presented in the article shows that there is a trend towards significantly increasing interest and progress in the field of fashion technology, leading to the emergence of hybrid artisanal methods. In summary, as fashion technologies advance, their role in clothing production is becoming increasingly important, extending far beyond the humble sewing machine.

Keywords: fashion, identity, such, textiles ambient intelligence, proximity sensors, shape memory materials, sound sensing garments, wearable technology bio textiles, fashion trends, nano textiles, new materials, smart textiles, techno textiles fashion design, functional aesthetics, 3D printing.

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370 Design Aspects of 3D Printing for Fashion and Textiles

Authors: Chi-Chung Marven Chick, Chu-Po Ho, Sau-Chuen Joe Au, Wing-Fai Sidney Wong, Chi-Wai Kan


3D printing is now drawing attention to manufacturing process. In fashion and textile industry, many 3D printing applications had been developed for prototyping or even final product production because of its great flexibility in production. However, when compared with conventional manufacturing processes for fashion and textiles, the design aspects and requirements may not be same for using 3D printing process. Therefore, in this paper, we will compare the design aspects between conventional manufacturing processes and 3D printing processes. Also, the material requirements related to the design in 3D printing for fashion and textiles will be reviewed and discussed. This review paper may demonstrate a possible way to develop 3D printing method(s) for fashion and textiles.

Keywords: 3D printing, design, textile, applications

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369 Development of Soft 3D Printing Materials for Textile Applications

Authors: Chi-Chung Marven Chick, Chu-Po Ho, Sau-Chuen Joe Au, Wing-Fai Sidney Wong, Chi-Wai Kan


Recently, 3D printing becomes popular process for manufacturing, especially has special attention in textile applications. However, there are various types of 3D printing materials, including plastic, resin, rubber, ceramics, gold, platinum, silver, iron, titanium but not all these materials are suitable for textile application. Generally speaking, 3D printing of textile mainly uses thermoplastic polymers such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactide (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP). Due to the characteristics of the polymers, 3D printed textiles usually have low air permeability and poor comfortable. Therefore, in this paper, we will review the possible materials suitable for textile application with desired physical and mechanical properties.

Keywords: 3D printing, 3D printing materials, textile, properties

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368 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical Properties of Polyester-Cotton Friction Spun Yarn

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sinha, R. Chattopadhyay


In the course of processing phases and use, fibres, yarns, or fabrics are subjected to a variety of stresses and strains, which cause the development of internal stresses. Given an opportunity, these inherent stresses try to bring back the structure to the original state. As an example, a twisted yarn always shows a tendency to untwist whenever its one end is made free. If the yarn is not held under tension, it may form snarls due to the presence of excessive torque. The running performance of such yarn or thread may, therefore, get negatively affected by it, as a snarl may not pass through the knitting or sewing needle smoothly, leading to an end break. A fabric shows a tendency to form wrinkles whenever squeezed. It may also shrink when brought to a relaxed state. In order to improve performance (i.e., dimensional stability or appearance), stabilization of the structure is needed. The stabilization can be attained through the release of internal stresses, which can be brought about by the process of annealing and/or other finishing treatments. When a fabric is subjected to heat, a change in the properties of the fibers, yarns, and fabric is expected. The degree to which the properties are affected would depend upon the condition of heat treatment and on the properties & structure of fibres, yarns, and fabric. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of annealing treatment on the properties of polyester cotton yarns with varying sheath structures.

Keywords: friction spun yarn, annealing, tenacity, structural integrity, decay

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367 Augmenting Cultural Heritage Through 4.0 Technologies: A Research on the Archival Jewelry of the Gianfranco Ferré Research Center

Authors: Greta Rizzi, Ashley Gallitto, Federica Vacca


Looking at design artifacts as bearers and disseminators of material knowledge and intangible socio-cultural meanings, the significance of archival jewelry was investigated following digital cultural heritage research streams. The application of the reverse engineering concept guided the research path: starting with the study of Gianfranco Ferré's archival jewelry and analyzing its technical heritage and symbolic value, the digitalization, dematerialization, and rematerialization of the artifact were carried out. According to that, the proposed paper results from research conducted within the residency program between the Gianfranco Ferré Research Center (GFRC) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), involving both the Design and Mechanical Engineering Departments of Politecnico di Milano. The paper will discuss the analysis of traditional design manufacturing techniques, re-imagined through 3D scanning, 3D modeling, and 3D printing technical knowledge while emphasizing the significance of the designer's role as an explorer of socio-cultural meanings and technological mediators in the analog-digital-analog transition.

Keywords: Archival jewelry, cultural heritage, rematerialization, reverse engineering.

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366 Development and Analysis of Waste Human Hair Fiber Reinforced Composite

Authors: Tesfaye Worku


Human hair, chicken feathers, and hairs of other birds and animals are commonly described as waste products, and the currently available disposal methods, such as burying and burning these waste products, are contributing to environmental pollution. However, those waste products are used to develop fiber-reinforced textile composite material. In this research work, the composite was developed using human hair fiber and analysis of the mechanical and physical properties of the developed composite sample. A composite sample was made with different ratios of human hair and unsaturated polyester resin, and an analysis of the mechanical and physical properties of the developed composite sample was tested according to standards. The fabricated human hair fibers reinforced polymer matrix composite sample has given encouraging results in terms of high strength and rigidity for lightweight house ceiling board material.

Keywords: composite, human hair fiber, matrix, unsaturated polyester

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365 Feasibility of Chicken Feather Waste as a Renewable Resource for Textile Dyeing Processes

Authors: Belayihun Missaw


Cotton cationization is an emerging area that solves the environmental problems associated with the reactive dyeing of cotton. In this study, keratin hydrolysate cationizing agent from chicken feather was extracted and optimized to eliminate the usage of salt during dyeing. Cationization of cotton using the extracted keratin hydrolysate and dyeing of the cationized cotton without salt was made. The effect of extraction parametric conditions like concentration of caustic soda, temperature and time were studied on the yield of protein from chicken feather and colour strength (K/S) values, and these process conditions were optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were. 25g/l caustic soda, at 500C temperature and 105 minutes with average yield = 91.2% and 4.32 colour strength value. The effect of salt addition, pH and concentration of cationizing agent on yield colour strength was also studied and optimized. It was observed that slightly acidic condition with 4% (% owf) concentration of cationizing agent gives a better dyeability as compared to normal cotton reactive dyeing. The physical properties of cationized-dyed fabric were assessed, and the result reveals that the cationization has a similar effect as normal dyeing of cotton. The cationization of cotton with keratin extract was found to be successful and economically viable.

Keywords: cotton materials, cationization, reactive dye, keratin hydrolysate

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364 The Use of Instagram as a Sales Tool by Small Fashion/Clothing Businesses

Authors: Santos Andressa M. N.


The research brings reflections on the importance of Instagram for the clothing trade, aiming to analyze the use of this social network as a sales tool by small companies in the fashion/clothing sector in Boqueirão-PI. Thus, field research was carried out, with the application of questionnaires, to raise and analyze data related to the topic. Thus, it is believed that Instagram positively influences the dissemination, visibility, reach and profitability of companies in Boqueirão do Piauí. The survey had a low number of companies due to the lack of availability of the owners during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Instagram, sales, fashion, marketing

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363 Development and Characterization of a Composite Material for Ceiling Board Construction Applications in Ethiopia

Authors: Minase Yitbarek Mengistu, Abrham Melkamu, Dawit Yisfaw, Bisrat Belihu, Abdulhakim Lalega


This research was aimed at reducing and recycling waste paper and sawdust from our environment, thereby reducing environmental pollution resulting from the management/disposal of these waste materials. In this research, some mechanical properties of composite ceiling board materials made from waste paper, sawdust, and pineapple leaf fibers were investigated to determine their suitability for use in low-cost construction work. The ceiling board was obtained from the waste of paper, sawdust chips, and pineapple leaf fibers by manual mechanical bonding techniques using dissolved polystyrene films as a binding agent. The results obtained showed that the water absorption values of between 6 % and 8.1 %; as well as density values of 500 kg/mm3 and 611.1 kg/mm3.From our result, the better one is a ratio of pineapple leaf fiber 25%, sawdust 40%, binder 25%, and waste paper 10%. The composite ceiling boards were successfully nailed with firm grips. These values obtained were compared with those of the conventional ceiling boards and it was observed that these composite materials can be used for internal low-cost construction work and Insulation (acoustic and thermal) performance. It is highly recommended that small and medium enterprises be encouraged to venture into waste recycling and the production of these composite ceiling materials to create jobs for skilled and unskilled labor that are locally available.

Keywords: composite material, environment, textile, ceiling board

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362 Study the Effect of Rubbery Phase on Morphology Development of PP/PA6/(EPDM:EPDM-g-MA) Ternary Blends

Authors: B. Afsari, M. Hassanpour, M. Shabani


This study aimed to investigate the phase morphology of ternary blends comprising PP, PA6, and a blend of EPDM and EPDM-g-MA in a 70/15/15 ratio. Varying ratios of EPDM to EPDM-g-MA were examined. As the proportion of EPDM-g-MA increased, an interlayer phase formed between the dispersed PA6 domains and the PP matrix. This resulted in the development of a core-shell encapsulation morphology within the blends. The concentration of the EPDM-g-MA component is inversely correlated with the average size of PA6 particles. Additionally, blends containing higher proportions of the EPDM-g-MA rubbery phase exhibited an aggregated structure of the modifier particles. Notably, as the concentration of EPDM-g-MA increased from 0% to 15% in the blend, there was a consistent monotonic reduction in the size of PA6 particles.

Keywords: phase morphology, rubbery phase, rubber functionality, ternary blends

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361 Monitoring Surface Modification of Polylactide Nonwoven Fabric with Weak Polyelectrolytes

Authors: Sima Shakoorjavan, Dawid Stawski, Somaye Akbari


In this study, great attempts have been made to initially modify polylactide (PLA) nonwoven surface with poly(amidoamine) (PAMMA) dendritic polymer to create amine active sites on PLA surface through aminolysis reaction. Further, layer-by-layer deposition of four layers of two weak polyelectrolytes, including PAMAM as polycation and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as polyanion on activated PLA, was monitored with turbidity analysis of waste-polyelectrolytes after each deposition step. The FTIR-ATR analysis confirmed the successful introduction of amine groups into PLA polymeric chains through the emerging peak around 1650 cm⁻¹ corresponding to N-H bending vibration and a double wide peak at around 3670-3170 cm⁻¹ corresponding to N-H stretching vibration. The adsorption-desorption behavior of (PAMAM) and poly (PAA) deposition was monitored by turbidity test. Turbidity results showed the desorption and removal of the previously deposited layer (second and third layers) upon the desorption of the next layers (third and fourth layers). Also, the importance of proper rinsing after aminolysis of PLA nonwoven fabric was revealed by turbidity test. Regarding the sample with insufficient rinsing process, higher desorption and removal of ungrafted PAMAM from aminolyzed-PLA surface into PAA solution was detected upon the deposition of the first PAA layer. This phenomenon can be due to electrostatic attraction between polycation (PAMAM) and polyanion (PAA). Moreover, the successful layer deposition through LBL was confirmed by the staining test of acid red 1 through spectrophotometry analysis. According to the results, layered PLA with four layers with PAMAM as the top layer showed higher dye absorption (46.7%) than neat (1.2%) and aminolyzed PLA (21.7%). In conclusion, the complicated adsorption-desorption behavior of dendritic polycation and linear polyanion systems was observed. Although desorption and removal of previously adsorbed layers occurred upon the deposition of the next layer, the remaining polyelectrolyte on the substrate is sufficient for the adsorption of the next polyelectrolyte through electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Also, an increase in dye adsorption confirmed more introduction of PAMAM onto PLA surface through LBL.

Keywords: surface modification, layer-by-layer technique, weak polyelectrolytes, adsorption-desorption behavior

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360 Balancing Aesthetics, Sustainability, and Safety in Handmade Fabric Face Masks: A Testimony of Creativity and Adaptability

Authors: Anne Mastamet-Mason, Oluwatosin Onakoya, Karla Tissiman


The COVID-19 pandemic that ravaged the world in 2020 brought about the need for handmade fabric face masks in South Africa and beyond. These masks showcased individuality and environmental responsibility and effectively aided our battle against the virus. These practical masks held significant meaning, representing human creativity, resilience, and commitment to sustainability in adversity. This paper examines how aesthetics, sustainability, and safety were achieved in the Handmade Fabric Face Masks. It analyses how their integration signified human agility and resilience to the pandemic while promoting dignity and environmental welfare. The research conducted a qualitative analysis to choose handmade fabric face masks and assess their aesthetic, sustainable, and safety features. The study involved interviewing a group of mask designers and users who evaluated the masks' efficacy in providing protection, aesthetics, and environmental sustainability. Although the designers demonstrated a high level of knowledge in the design aspects, the results indicated a need for more information regarding the functional safety measures and some environmental factors in mask selection and production. The mask analysis also revealed that the masks available in the market combined aesthetics and environmental protection but had limited safety measures. Despite the lack of balance of aesthetics, sustainability, and safety among the designers and the users of hand-fabric masks, functional aspects of fabrics and sustainability literacy are essential

Keywords: sustainable fashion, fabric mask, aesthetics, safety measures

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359 Influence of Packing Density of Layers Placed in Specific Order in Composite Nonwoven Structure for Improved Filtration Performance

Authors: Saiyed M Ishtiaque, Priyal Dixit


Objectives: An approach is being suggested to design the filter media to maximize the filtration efficiency with minimum possible pressure drop of composite nonwoven by incorporating the layers of different packing densities induced by fibre of different deniers and punching parameters by using the concept of sequential punching technique in specific order in layered composite nonwoven structure. X-ray computed tomography technique is used to measure the packing density along the thickness of layered nonwoven structure composed by placing the layer of differently oriented fibres influenced by fibres of different deniers and punching parameters in various combinations to minimize the pressure drop at maximum possible filtration efficiency. Methodology Used: This work involves preparation of needle punched layered structure with batts 100g/m2 basis weight having fibre denier, punch density and needle penetration depth as variables to produce 300 g/m2 basis weight nonwoven composite. X-ray computed tomography technique is used to measure the packing density along the thickness of layered nonwoven structure composed by placing the layers of differently oriented fibres influenced by considered variables in various combinations. to minimize the pressure drop at maximum possible filtration efficiencyFor developing layered nonwoven fabrics, batts made of fibre of different deniers having 100g/m2 each basis weight were placed in various combinations. For second set of experiment, the composite nonwoven fabrics were prepared by using 3 denier circular cross section polyester fibre having 64 mm length on needle punched nonwoven machine by using the sequential punching technique to prepare the composite nonwoven fabrics. In this technique, three semi punched fabrics of 100 g/m2 each having either different punch densities or needle penetration depths were prepared for first phase of fabric preparation. These fabrics were later punched altogether to obtain the overall basis weight of 300 g/m2. The total punch density of the composite nonwoven fabric was kept at 200 punches/ cm2 with a needle penetration depth of 10 mm. The layered structures so formed were subcategorised into two groups- homogeneous layered structure in which all the three batts comprising the nonwoven fabric were made from same denier of fibre, punch density and needle penetration depth and were placed in different positions in respective fabric and heterogeneous layered structure in which batts were made from fibres of different deniers, punch densities and needle penetration depths and were placed in different positions. Contributions: The results concluded that reduction in pressure drop is not derived by the overall packing density of the layered nonwoven fabric rather sequencing of layers of specific packing density in layered structure decides the pressure drop. Accordingly, creation of inverse gradient of packing density in layered structure provided maximum filtration efficiency with least pressure drop. This study paves the way for the possibility of customising the composite nonwoven fabrics by the incorporation of differently oriented fibres in constituent layers induced by considered variablres for desired filtration properties.

Keywords: filtration efficiency, layered nonwoven structure, packing density, pressure drop

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358 Design and Synthesis of Fully Benzoxazine-Based Porous Organic Polymer Through Sonogashira Coupling Reaction for CO₂ Capture and Energy Storage Application

Authors: Mohsin Ejaz, Shiao-Wei Kuo


The growing production and exploitation of fossil fuels have placed human society in serious environmental issues. As a result, it's critical to design efficient and eco-friendly energy production and storage techniques. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are multi-dimensional porous network materials developed through the formation of covalent bonds between different organic building blocks that possess distinct geometries and topologies. POPs have tunable porosities and high surface area making them a good candidate for an effective electrode material in energy storage applications. Herein, we prepared a fully benzoxazine-based porous organic polymers (TPA–DHTP–BZ POP) through sonogashira coupling of dihydroxyterephthalaldehyde (DHPT) and triphenylamine (TPA) containing benzoxazine (BZ) monomers. Firstly, both BZ monomers (TPA-BZ-Br and DHTP-BZ-Ea) were synthesized by three steps, including Schiff base, reduction, and mannich condensation reaction. Finally, the TPA–DHTP–BZ POP was prepared through the sonogashira coupling reaction of brominated monomer (TPA-BZ-Br) and ethynyl monomer (DHTP-BZ-Ea). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the successful synthesis of monomers as well as POP. The porosity of TPA–DHTP–BZ POP was investigated by the N₂ absorption technique and showed a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of 196 m² g−¹, pore size 2.13 nm and pore volume of 0.54 cm³ g−¹, respectively. The TPA–DHTP–BZ POP experienced thermal ring-opening polymerization, resulting in poly (TPA–DHTP–BZ) POP having strong inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed by phenolic groups and Mannich bridges, thereby enhancing CO₂ capture and supercapacitive performance. The poly(TPA–DHTP–BZ) POP demonstrated a remarkable CO₂ capture of 3.28 mmol g−¹ and a specific capacitance of 67 F g−¹ at 0.5 A g−¹. Thus, poly(TPA–DHTP–BZ) POP could potentially be used for energy storage and CO₂ capture applications.

Keywords: porous organic polymer, benzoxazine, sonogashira coupling, CO₂, supercapacitor

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357 Effects of Combined Lewis Acid and Ultrasonic Pretreatment on the Physicochemical Properties of Heat-Treated Moso Bamboo

Authors: Tianfang Zhang, Luxi He, Zhengbin He, Songlin Yi


Moso bamboo is a common non-wood forest resource in Asia that is widely used in construction, furniture, and other fields. Influenced by the heterogeneous structure and various hygroscopic groups of bamboo, the deformation occurs as moisture absorption and desorption when the environment temperature and humidity conditions change. Thermal modification is a well-established commercial technology for improving the dimensional stability of bamboo. However, the higher energy consumption and carbon emissions limit its further development. Previous studies have indicated that inorganic salt-assisted thermal modification could lead to significant reductions in moisture absorption and energy consumption. Represented by metal chlorides, it could show Lewis acid properties when dissolved in water, generating metal ion ligand complexes. In addition, ultrasonic treatment, as an efficient and environmentally friendly physical treatment method, improved the accessibility of pretreatment chemical impregnation agents and intensified mass and heat transfer during reactions. To save energy and reduce deformation, this study elucidates the influence of zinc chloride-ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical properties of heat-treated bamboo, and the details of the bamboo deformation mechanism with Lewis acid are explained. Three sets of parameters (inorganic salt concentration, ultrasonic frequency and heat treatment temperature) were designed, and an optimized process was proposed to clarify this scientific question, that is: 5% (w/w) zinc chloride solution, 40 kHz ultrasonic waves and heat treatment at 160 °C. The samples were characterized by different means to analyze changes in their macroscopic features, pore structure, chemical structure and chemical composition. The results suggested that the maximum weight loss rate was reduced by at least 19.75%. The maximum thermal degradation peak of hemicellulose was significantly shifted forward. The hygroscopicity was reduced by 10.15%, the relative crystallinity was increased by 4.4%, the surface contact angle was increased by 25.2%, and the color change was increased by 23.60 in the optimal condition. From the electron microscope observation, the treated surface became rougher, and cracks appeared in some weaker areas, accelerating starch loss and removing granular attachments around the pits. By ion diffusion, zinc ions diffused into hemicellulose and a partial amorphous region of cellulose. Parts of the cell wall structure were subjected to swelling and degradation, leading to the broken state of parenchyma cells. From the Raman spectrum, compared to conventional thermal modifications, hemicellulose thermal degradation and lignin migration is promoted by Lewis acid under dilute acid-thermal condition. As shown in this work, the combined Lewis acid and ultrasonic pretreatment as an environmentally friendly, safe, and efficient physic-chemical combined pretreatment method improved the dimensional stability of Moso bamboo and lowered the thermal degradation conditions. This method has great potential for development in the field of bamboo heat treatment, and it might provide some guidance for making dark bamboo flooring.

Keywords: Moso bamboo, Lewis acid, ultrasound, heat treatment

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356 Influence of Synergistic Modification with Tung Oil and Heat Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Wood

Authors: Luxi He, Tianfang Zhang, Zhengbin He, Songlin Yi


Heat treatment has been widely recognized for its effectiveness in enhancing the physicochemical properties of wood, including hygroscopicity and dimensional stability. Nonetheless, the non-negligible volumetric shrinkage and loss of mechanical strength resulting from heat treatment may diminish the wood recovery and its product value. In this study, tung oil was used to alleviate heat-induced shrinkage and reduction in mechanical properties of wood during heat treatment. Tung oil was chosen as a modifier because it is a traditional Chinese plant oil that has been widely used for over a thousand years to protect wooden furniture and buildings due to its biodegradable and non-toxic properties. The effects of different heating media (air, tung oil) and their effective treatment parameters (temperature, duration) on the changes in the physical properties (morphological characteristics, pore structures, micromechanical properties), and chemical properties (chemical structures, chemical composition) of wood were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and dynamic vapor sorption. Meanwhile, the correlation between the mass changes and the color change, volumetric shrinkage, and hygroscopicity was also investigated. The results showed that the thermal degradation of wood cell wall components was the most important factor contributing to the changes in heat-induced shrinkage, color, and moisture adsorption of wood. In air-heat-treated wood samples, there was a significant correlation between mass change and heat-induced shrinkage, brightness, and moisture adsorption. However, the presence of impregnated tung oil in oil-heat-treated wood appears to disrupt these correlations among physical properties. The results of micromechanical properties demonstrated a significant decrease in elastic modulus following high-temperature heat treatment, which was mitigated by tung oil treatment. Chemical structure and compositional analyses indicated that the changes in chemical structure primarily stem from the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose, and the presence of tung oil created an oxygen-insulating environment that slowed down this degradation process. Morphological observation results showed that tung oil permeated the wood structure and penetrated the cell walls through transportation channels, altering the micro-morphology of the cell wall surface, obstructing primary water passages (e.g., vessels and pits), and impeding the release of volatile degradation products as well as the infiltration and diffusion of water. In summary, tung oil treatment represents an environmentally friendly and efficient method for maximizing wood recovery and increasing product value. This approach holds significant potential for industrial applications in wood heat treatment.

Keywords: tung oil, heat treatment, physicochemical properties, wood cell walls

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355 Legal Considerations in Fashion Modeling: Protecting Models' Rights and Ensuring Ethical Practices

Authors: Fatemeh Noori


The fashion industry is a dynamic and ever-evolving realm that continuously shapes societal perceptions of beauty and style. Within this industry, fashion modeling plays a crucial role, acting as the visual representation of brands and designers. However, behind the glamorous façade lies a complex web of legal considerations that govern the rights, responsibilities, and ethical practices within the field. This paper aims to explore the legal landscape surrounding fashion modeling, shedding light on key issues such as contract law, intellectual property, labor rights, and the increasing importance of ethical considerations in the industry. Fashion modeling involves the collaboration of various stakeholders, including models, designers, agencies, and photographers. To ensure a fair and transparent working environment, it is imperative to establish a comprehensive legal framework that addresses the rights and obligations of each party involved. One of the primary legal considerations in fashion modeling is the contractual relationship between models and agencies. Contracts define the terms of engagement, including payment, working conditions, and the scope of services. This section will delve into the essential elements of modeling contracts, the negotiation process, and the importance of clarity to avoid disputes. Models are not just individuals showcasing clothing; they are integral to the creation and dissemination of artistic and commercial content. Intellectual property rights, including image rights and the use of a model's likeness, are critical aspects of the legal landscape. This section will explore the protection of models' image rights, the use of their likeness in advertising, and the potential for unauthorized use. Models, like any other professionals, are entitled to fair and ethical treatment. This section will address issues such as working conditions, hours, and the responsibility of agencies and designers to prioritize the well-being of models. Additionally, it will explore the global movement toward inclusivity, diversity, and the promotion of positive body image within the industry. The fashion industry has faced scrutiny for perpetuating harmful standards of beauty and fostering a culture of exploitation. This section will discuss the ethical responsibilities of all stakeholders, including the promotion of diversity, the prevention of exploitation, and the role of models as influencers for positive change. In conclusion, the legal considerations in fashion modeling are multifaceted, requiring a comprehensive approach to protect the rights of models and ensure ethical practices within the industry. By understanding and addressing these legal aspects, the fashion industry can create a more transparent, fair, and inclusive environment for all stakeholders involved in the art of modeling.

Keywords: fashion modeling contracts, image rights in modeling, labor rights for models, ethical practices in fashion, diversity and inclusivity in modeling

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354 Removal of Deposits and Improvement of Shelf Life in CO₂-Rich Mineral Water by Ozone-Microbubbles

Authors: Un Hwa Choe, Jong Hyon Choe, Yong Jun Kim


The aim of this study was to effectively remove Fe2+ by using ozone microbubbles in bottled mineral water to prevent sediment from occurring during storage and increase shelf life. By considering the characteristics of mineral water with low solubility of ozone and high CO2 content, a suitable ozone injection step was chosen and a new mineral water treatment method using microbubbles was proposed. As a result of the treatment of the bottled mineral water with ozone microbubbles, the iron ion concentration was reduced from 0.14 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L, and the shelf life increased to 360 days. During the treatment, the concentrations of K+ and Na+ were almost unchanged, and the deposition time was reduced to one-third compared to the natural oxidation.

Keywords: CO₂-rich mineral water, ozone-micro bubble, shelf life, bottled mineral water, water treatment

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353 Employing Artificial Intelligence Tools in Making Clothing Designs Inspired by the Najdi Art of Sadu

Authors: Basma Abdel Mohsen Al-Sheikh


This study aimed to create textile designs inspired by Najdi Al-Sadu art, with the objective of highlighting Saudi identity and heritage. The research proposed clothing designs for women and children, utilizing textiles inspired by Najdi Al-Sadu art, and incorporated artificial intelligence techniques in the design process. The study employed a descriptive-analytical approach to describe Najdi Al-Sadu, and an experimental method involving the creation of textile designs inspired by Al-Sadu. The study sample consisted of 33 participants, including experts in the fashion and textile industry, fashion designers, lecturers, professors, and postgraduate students from King Abdulaziz University. A questionnaire was used as a tool to gather opinions regarding the proposed designs. The results demonstrated a clear acceptance of the designs inspired by Najdi Al-Sadu and incorporating artificial intelligence, with approval rates ranging from 22% to 81% across different designs. The study concluded that artificial intelligence applications have a significant impact on fashion design, particularly in the integration of Al-Sadu art. The findings also indicated a positive reception of the designs in terms of their aesthetic and functional aspects, although individual preferences led to some variations in opinions. The results highlighted a demand for designs that combine heritage and modern fashion, striking a balance between authenticity and contemporary style. The study recommended that designers continue to explore ways to integrate cultural heritage, such as Al-Sadu art, with contemporary design elements to achieve this balance. Furthermore, it emphasized the importance of enhancing the aesthetic and functional aspects of designs, taking into consideration the preferences of the target market and customer expectations. The effective utilization of artificial intelligence was also emphasized to improve design processes, expand creative possibilities, and foster innovation and authenticity.

Keywords: Najdi Al-Sadu art, artificial intelligence, women's and children's fashion, clothing designs

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352 Monitoring a Membrane Structure Using Non-Destructive Testing

Authors: Gokhan Kilic, Pelin Celik


Structural health monitoring (SHM) is widely used in evaluating the state and health of membrane structures. In the past, in order to collect data and send it to a data collection unit on membrane structures, wire sensors had to be put as part of the SHM process. However, this study recommends using wireless sensors instead of traditional wire ones to construct an economical, useful, and easy-to-install membrane structure health monitoring system. Every wireless sensor uses a software translation program that is connected to the monitoring server. Operational neural networks (ONNs) have recently been developed to solve the shortcomings of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), such as the network's resemblance to the linear neuron model. The results of using ONNs for monitoring to evaluate the structural health of a membrane are presented in this work.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, non-destructive testing, operational neural networks, membrane structures, dynamic monitoring

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351 Investigation of Physical Performance of Denim Fabrics Washed with Sustainable Foam Washing Process

Authors: Hazal Yılmaz, Hale Karakaş


In the scope of the study, it is aimed to investigate and review the performance of denim fabrics that are foam washed. Foam washing was compared as an alternative to stone washing in terms of sustainability and performance parameters. For this purpose, seven different denim fabrics, which are both stone washed and foam washed separately in 3 different washing durations (30-60-90 mins), were compared. In the study, the same fabrics were processed with both foam and stone separately. The washing process steps were reviewed, and their water consumption values were compared. After washing, a total of 42 fabric samples were obtained, and tensile strength, tear strength, abrasion, weight loss after abrasion, rubbing fastness, color fastness tests were carried out on the fabric samples. The obtained test results were reviewed and evaluated. As a result of tests, it has been observed that the performance of foam washed fabrics in terms of tensile, tear strength and rubbing fastness test results are better than stone washed fabrics, and it has been seen that foam washed fabrics' color fastness test results are as stone washed. As a result of all these tests, it can be seen that foam washing is an alternative to stone washing due to its performance parameters and its sustainability performance with less water usage.

Keywords: denim fabrics, denim washing, foam washing, performance properties, stone washing, sustainability

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350 Application of Nanofibers in Heavy Metal (HM) Filtration

Authors: Abhijeet Kumar, Palaniswamy N. K.


Heavy metal contamination in water sources endangers both the environment and human health. Various water filtration techniques have been employed till now for purification and removal of hazardous metals from water. Among all the existing methods, nanofibres have emerged as a viable alternative for effective heavy metal removal in recent years because of their unique qualities, such as large surface area, interconnected porous structure, and customizable surface chemistry. Among the numerous manufacturing techniques, solution blow spinning has gained popularity as a versatile process for producing nanofibers with customized properties. This paper seeks to offer a complete overview of the use of nanofibers for heavy metal filtration, particularly those produced using solution blow spinning. The review discusses current advances in nanofiber materials, production processes, and heavy metal removal performance. Furthermore, the field's difficulties and future opportunities are examined in order to direct future research and development activities.

Keywords: heavy metals, nanofiber composite, filter membranes, adsorption, impaction

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349 Natural Dyes: A Global Perspective on Commercial Solutions and Industry Players

Authors: Laura Seppälä, Ana Nuutinen


Environmental concerns are increasing the interest in the potential uses of natural dyes. Natural dyes are more safe and environmentally friendly option than synthetic dyes. However, one must be also cautious with natural dyes, because, for example, some dyestuff such as plants or mushrooms, as well as some mordants are poisonous. By natural dyes we mean dyes that are derived from plants, fungi, bark, lichens, algae, insects, and minerals. Different plant parts, such as stems, leaves, flowers, roots, bark, berries, fruits, and cones, can be utilized for textile dyeing and printing, pigment manufacture, and other processes depending on the season. They may be utilized to produce distinctive colour tones that are challenging to do with synthetic dyes. This adds value to textiles and makes them stand out. Synthetic dyes quickly replaced natural dyes, after being developed in the middle of the 19th century, but natural dyes have remained the dyeing method of crafters until recently. This research examines the commercial solutions for natural dyes in many parts of the world, such as Europe, the United States, South America, Africa, Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. This study aims to determine the commercial status of natural dyes. Each continent has its own traditions and specific dyestuffs. The availability of natural dyes can vary depending on several aspects, including plant species, temperature, and harvesting techniques, which poses a challenge to the work of designers and crafters. While certain plants may only provide dyes during specific seasons, others may do so continuously. To find the ideal time to collect natural dyes, it is critical to research various plant species and their harvesting techniques. Furthermore, to guarantee the quality and colour of the dye, plant material must be handled and processed properly. This research was conducted via an internet search, and results were searched systematically for commercial stakeholders in the field. The research question looked at commercial players in the field of natural dyes. This qualitative case study interpreted the data using thematic analysis. Each webpage was screenshotted and analyzed in reflection on to research question. Online content analysis means systematically coding and analyzing qualitative data. The most evident result was that the natural dyes interest in different parts of the World. There are clothing collections dyed with natural dyes, dyestuff stores, and courses for natural dyeing. This article presents the designers who work with natural dyes and actors who are involved with the natural dye industry. Several websites emphasized the safety and environmental benefits of natural dyes. Many of them included eye-catching images of textiles dyed naturally, and the colours of such dyes are thought to be attractive since they are beautiful and natural hues. The search did not find big-scale industrial solutions for natural dyes, but there were several instances of dyeing with natural dyes. Understanding the players, designers, and stakeholders in the natural dye business is the purpose of this article. The comprehension of the current state of the art illustrates the direction that the natural dye business is currently taking.

Keywords: commercial solutions, environmental issues, key stakeholders, natural dyes, sustainability, textile dyeing

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348 Designing and Making Sustainable Architectural Clothing Inspired by Reconstruction of Bam’s Bazaar

Authors: Marzieh Khaleghi Baygi, Maryam Khaleghy Baygy


The main aim of this project was designing and making sustainable architectural wearable dress inspired by reconstruction project of Bam’s Bazar in Iran. To achieve the goals of this project, Bam Bazar became the architectural reference. A mixed research method (including applied, qualitative and case studies methods) was used. After research, data gathering and considering related intellectual, mental and cultural background, the garment was modeled by using 3ds Max's modeling tools and Marvelous. After making the pattern, the wearable architecture was built and an architectural and historical building converted to a clothing. The implementation of sustainable architectural clothing, took seventeen months. The result of this project was a cloth in a new form that had been worn on its architect body. The comparison between present project and previous research were focusing on the same subjects (architectural clothing) shows some dramatic differentiations, including, the architect, designer and executive of this project was the same person who was the main researcher. Also, in this research, special attention was paid to the sustainability, volume and forms. Most projects in this subject (especially pervious related Iranian research) relied on painting and not on the volumes and forms. The sustainable immovable architecture had worn on its architect, became a cloth on a human's body that was moving.

Keywords: wearable architecture, clothing, bam bazar, space, sustainability

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