Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 256

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Textile Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

256 Modeling Of The Random Impingement Erosion Due To The Impact Of The Solid Particles

Authors: Siamack A. Shirazi, Farzin Darihaki

Abstract:

Solid particles could be found in many multiphase flows, including transport pipelines and pipe fittings. Such particles interact with the pipe material and cause erosion which threats the integrity of the system. Therefore, predicting the erosion rate is an important factor in the design and the monitor of such systems. Mechanistic models can provide reliable predictions for many conditions while demanding only relatively low computational cost. Mechanistic models utilize a representative particle trajectory to predict the impact characteristics of the majority of the particle impacts that cause maximum erosion rate in the domain. The erosion caused by particle impacts is not only due to the direct impacts but also random impingements. In the present study, an alternative model has been introduced to describe the erosion due to random impingement of particles. The present model provides a realistic trend for erosion with changes in the particle size and particle Stokes number. The present model is examined against the experimental data and CFD simulation results and indicates better agreement with the data incomparison to the available models in the literature.

Keywords: erosion, mechanistic modeling, particles, multiphase flow, gas-liquid-solid

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
255 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Electrospun Zinc and/or Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Degradation

Authors: Zainab Dahrouch, Beatrix Petrovičová, Claudia Triolo, Fabiola Pantò, Angela Malara, Salvatore Patanè, Maria Allegrini, Saveria Santangelo

Abstract:

Synthetic dyes dispersed in water cause environmental damage and have harmful effects on human health. Methylene blue (MB) is broadly used as a dye in the textile, pharmaceutical, printing, cosmetics, leather, and food industries. The complete removal of MB is difficult due to the presence of aromatic rings in its structure. The present study is focused on electrospun nanofibers (NFs) with engineered architecture and surface to be used as catalysts for the photodegradation of MB. Ti and/or Zn oxide NFs are produced by electrospinning precursor solutions with different Ti: Zn molar ratios (from 0:1 to 1:0). Subsequent calcination and cooling steps are operated at fast rates to generate porous NFs with capture centers to reduce the recombination rate of the photogenerated charges. The comparative evaluation of the NFs as photocatalysts for the removal of MB from an aqueous solution with a dye concentration of 15 µM under UV irradiation shows that the binary (wurtzite ZnO and anatase TiO₂) oxides exhibit higher catalytic activity compared to ternary (ZnTiO₃ and Zn₂TiO₄) oxides. The higher band gap and lower crystallinity of the ternary oxides are responsible for their lower photocatalytic activity. It has been found that the optimal load for the wurtzite ZnO is 0.66 mg mL⁻¹, obtaining a degradation rate of 7.94.10⁻² min⁻¹. The optimal load for anatase TiO₂ is lower (0.33 mg mL⁻¹) and the corresponding rate constant (1.12×10⁻¹ min⁻¹) is higher. This finding (higher activity with lower load) is of crucial importance for the scaling up of the process on an industrial scale. Indeed, the anatase NFs outperform even the commonly used P25-TiO₂ benchmark. Besides, they can be reused twice without any regeneration treatment, with 5.2% and 18.7% activity decrease after second and third use, respectively. Thanks to the scalability of the electrospinning technique, this laboratory-scale study provides a perspective towards the sustainable large-scale manufacture of photocatalysts for the treatment of industry effluents.

Keywords: anatase, capture centers, methylene blue dye, nanofibers, photodegradation, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
254 Dry Sliding Wear Boron Microalloyed Austempered Ductile Iron

Authors: S. Gvazava, N. Khidasheli, G. Gordeziani, A. DL. Batako

Abstract:

The work presented in this paper studied the tribological characteristics (wear resistance, friction coefficient) of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with different combinations of structural composition (upper bainite, lower bainite, retained austenite) in dry sliding friction. A range of structural states of the metal matrix was obtained by changing the regimes of isothermal quenching of high-strength cast iron. The tribological tests were carried out using two sets of isothermal quenched cast irons. After austenitization at 900°С for 60 minutes, the specimens from the first group were isothermally quenched at the 300°С temperature and the specimens from the second set – at 400°С. The investigations showed that the isothermal quenching increases the friction coefficient of high-strength cast irons. The friction coefficient was found to be in the range from 0.4 to 0.55 for cast irons, depending on the structures of the metal matrix. The quenched cast irons having lower bainite demonstrate higher wear resistance in dry friction conditions. The dependence of wear resistance on the amount of retained austenite in isothermal quenched cast irons has a nonlinear characteristic and reaches its maximum value when the content of retained austenite is about 15-22%. The boron micro-additives allowed to reduce the friction coefficient of ADI and increase their wear resistance by 1.5-1.7 times.

Keywords: wear resistance, dry sliding, austempering, ADI, friction coefficient, retained austenite, isothermal quenching

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
253 Gender Identity in the Fashion Industry in 21st Century in India

Authors: Priya Sharma

Abstract:

As one think of fashion, the only things that come to mind are feminine activities such as acquiring high-end bags, clothing, and shoes. A person's personal style is defined by their clothing. Fashion been more feminine over the centuries, but the masculine identity has also dwindled. Fashion has an impact on social status, trends, and the socio-economic and political environment. The major focus of this study is on how the most prominent fast fashion businesses establish their gender identities in order to achieve industry legitimacy. A questionnaire survey was conducted to understand the people prospection. It also helps in understanding the different driving factors which contribute collectively from the Doman from social and economic norms across the different reign in India. A conceptual module was made which help to understand the future scope of fashion with respect to gender identity in India. The ways there feel to create their own personal style and their feelings and how fashion can make more confident and authentic in their minds.

Keywords: fashion, gender, identity, feminism, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
252 Tribological Response of Self-Mated Zircaloy-4 under Varying Conditions

Authors: Bharat Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Vijay Chaudhry

Abstract:

Zirconium alloys are widely used for the core components of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) or Canada deuterium (CANDU) reactor due to their low neutron absorption cross-section and excellent mechanical properties. The components made of Zirconium alloys are subjected to flow-induced vibrations, resulting in fretting wear at the interface of; pressure tubes and bearing pads, pressure tubes and calandria tubes, and calandria tubes and Liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) nozzles. There is a need to explore the tribological response under such conditions. Present work simulates the contact between calandria tube and LISS nozzle of PHWR/CANDU reactor as cylinder-on-cylinder contact configuration. Reciprocating tribo-tests were conducted on Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under the self-mated condition at varying amplitude, frequency, and sliding time. To understand the active wear mechanism, worn surfaces were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The change in amplitude severely affects the wear than other factors. The wear mechanism transits from adhesion to abrasion with increasing test amplitude. The dominant wear mechanisms are micro-cutting and micro-plowing followed by delamination in some areas. However, the coefficient of friction has indifferent behaviors.

Keywords: zircaloy-4, tribology, calandria tube, LISS nozzle, PHWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
251 Microscopic Features Influences on Textile Fabrics Self-Cleaning Ability

Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah

Abstract:

Self-cleaning ability in textile fabrics was comprehensively investigated in the last decade. Most of these investigations have used surface roughness, and low surface energy features to establish a self-cleaning mechanism. Extensive research articles and reviews have been published to describe these processes along with their microscopic features. When these reviewed with a critical eye, it has been found that a comprehensive effort is still required to compile all these previous research, emphasizing how textile fabrics' microscopic features can influence their self-cleaning ability. No research has been conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level. Researchers used microscopic features to increase the mechanical strength of the fabric. However, they did not change the microscopic features at a woven level to evaluate the self-cleaning ability. In the existing literature, researchers have tried to develop self-cleaning textiles with the help of coatings on the fabric. These coatings are applied to the fabrics by using spray and nanoparticle processing. The coatings create a different surface on the fabric, and hence the changes in the microscopic features of this surface control the self-cleaning ability. Instead of using an additional coating, the microscopic features of the fabric itself can also influence the surface roughness and low surface energy and provide self-cleaning ability at the woven structural level. Key microscopic features like surface roughness, porosity, and wettability of a textile fabric are still not comprehensively investigated for their influence on fabric’s self-cleaning ability. Significantly, the interdependencies between these features with overall fabric geometry at the woven level have not been explored quantitatively. Qualitative observations have been made mainly in the past literature. However, fabrics with self-cleaning ability to be produced in mass production require extensive empirical studies. These studies must involve parametric analysis on varying values of the microscopic features and their quantitative influence on the desired self-cleaning feature.

Keywords: self-cleaning ability, influence, microscopic features, textile fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
250 Performance Evaluation of 3D Printed ZrO2 Ceramic Components by NanoParticle Jetting™

Authors: Shengping Zhong, Qimin Shi, Yaling Deng, Shoufeng Yang

Abstract:

Additive Manufacturing has exerted a tremendous fascination on the development of the manufacturing and materials industry in the past three decades. Zirconia-based advanced ceramic has been poured substantial attention in the interest of structural and functional ceramics. As a novel material jetting process for selectively depositing nanoparticles, nanoparticle Jetting™ is capable of fabricating dense Zirconia components with the high-detail surface, precisely controllable shrinkage, and remarkable mechanical properties. The presence of NPJ™ gave rise to a higher elevation regarding the printing process and printing accuracy. Emphasis is placed on the performance evaluation of NPJ™ printed ceramic components by which the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties are evaluated. The experimental results suggest the Y₂O₃-stabilized ZrO₂ boxes exhibit a high relative density of 99.5%, glossy surface of a minimum of 0.33 µm, general linear shrinkage factor of 17.47%, outstanding hardness and fracture toughness of 12. 43±0. 09 GPa and 7. 52±0. 34 MPa•m1/2, the comparable flexural strength of 699±104 MPa, and dense and homogeneous grain distribution of microstructure. This innovative NanoParticle Jetting system manifests an overwhelming potential in dental, medical, and electronic applications.

Keywords: nanoparticle jetting, ZrO₂ ceramic, materials jetting, performance evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
249 The Reuse of Household Waste in Natural Dyeing as a Tool for Upcycling

Authors: Juliana Bastos dos Santos, Francisca Dantas Mendes, Abdul Jabbar Mohammad Khatri, Adam Abdul Jabbar Khatri

Abstract:

This research aims to describe the experimentation of color extraction from household waste, for the application of the natural vegetable dyeing technique, as a more sustainable option for the upcycling process. Based on the research of the case study, this article intends to record the process of collecting the materials, extracting the colors and their applicability. The study aims to deepen the knowledge about possible alternatives that generate less impact on the environment throughout the process of plant stamping and, also, to spread the concepts of sustainability in fashion. Therefore, this content becomes relevant for valuing an artisanal production process, reconnecting with ancestral knowledge. This article also intends to serve as a record of ancestral artisanal processes, based on the indigenous and African matrices that are pillars of Brazilian culture.

Keywords: natural dyeing, sustainability, organic residue, fashion, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
248 In-situ Formation of Particle Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites by Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Fe2O3/AlSi12 Powder Mixture Using Consecutive Laser Melting+Remelting Strategy

Authors: Qimin Shi, Yi Sun, Constantinus Politis, Shoufeng Yang

Abstract:

In-situ preparation of particle reinforced Aluminium matrix composites (PRAMCs) by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing is a promising strategy to strengthen traditional Al-based alloys. The laser-driven thermite reaction can be a practical mechanism to in-situ synthesise PRAMCs. However, the introduction of elements oxygen by adding Fe₂O₃ makes the powder mixture highly sensitive to form porosity and Al₂O₃ film during LPBF, bringing challenges to the production of dense and good-quality Al-based materials. Therefore, this work develops an LPBF processing strategy combined with consecutive high-energy laser melting scanning and low-energy laser remelting scanning to prepare dense PRAMCs from a Fe₂O₃/AlSi12 powder mixture. The powder mixture is made up of 5 wt% Fe₂O₃ and the remainder AlSi12 powder. A comparatively low-content addition of Fe₂O₃ aims to avoid the excess loss of material ductility due to the crack initiation starting from ceramic particle clusters, thus achieving balanced strength and ductility. A high relative density (98.2 ± 0.55 %) was successfully obtained by optimizing laser melting (Emelting) and laser remelting surface energy density (Eremelting) to Emelting = 35 J/mm2 and Eremelting = 5 J/mm2. Results further reveal the necessity of increasing Smelting to improve metal liquid’s spreading/wetting by breaking up the Al₂O₃ films surrounding the molten pools; however, the high-energy laser melting produced much porosity, including H₂-, O₂- and keyhole-induced pores. The subsequent low-energy laser remelting could close the resulting internal pores, backfill open gaps and smoothen solidified surfaces. As a result, the material was densified by repeating laser melting and laser remelting processes layer by layer. Although with two-times laser scanning, the microstructure still shows fine cellular Si networks with Al grains inside (grain size 370 nm) and in-situ nano-precipitates (Al₂O₃, Si, and Al-Fe(-Si) intermetallics). Finally, the fine microstructure, nano-structured dispersion strengthening, and high-level densification strengthened the prepared in-situ PRAMCs, reaching yield strength of 426 ± 4 MPa and tensile strength of 473 ± 6 MPa. Furthermore, the results can expect to provide valuable information to process other powder mixtures with severe porosity/oxide-film formation potential, considering the evidenced contribution of laser melting/remelting strategy to densify material and obtain good mechanical properties during LPBF.

Keywords: densification, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), mechanical properties, metal matrix composites (MMCs), micro structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
247 Inkjet Printed Silver Nanowire Network as Semi-Transparent Electrode for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

Authors: Donia Fredj, Marie Parmentier, Florence Archet, Olivier Margeat, Sadok Ben Dkhil, Jorg Ackerman

Abstract:

Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) or transparent electrodes (TEs) are a crucial part of many electronic and optoelectronic devices such as touch panels, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells, and transparent heaters. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode is the most widely utilized transparent electrode due to its excellent optoelectrical properties. However, the drawbacks of ITO, such as the high cost of this material, scarcity of indium, and the fragile nature, limit the application in large-scale flexible electronic devices. Importantly, flexibility is becoming more and more attractive since flexible electrodes have the potential to open new applications which require transparent electrodes to be flexible, cheap, and compatible with large-scale manufacturing methods. So far, several materials as alternatives to ITO have been developed, including metal nanowires, conjugated polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, etc., which have been extensively investigated for use as flexible and low-cost electrodes. Among them, silver nanowires (AgNW) are one of the promising alternatives to ITO thanks to their excellent properties, high electrical conductivity as well as desirable light transmittance. In recent years, inkjet printing became a promising technique for large-scale printed flexible and stretchable electronics. However, inkjet printing of AgNWs still presents many challenges. In this study, a synthesis of stable AgNW that could compete with ITO was developed. This material was printed by inkjet technology directly on a flexible substrate. Additionally, we analyzed the surface microstructure, optical and electrical properties of the printed AgNW layers. Our further research focused on the study of all inkjet-printed organic modules with high efficiency.

Keywords: transparent electrodes, silver nanowires, inkjet printing, formulation of stable inks

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
246 Analysis of Key Factors Influencing Muslim Women’s Buying Intentions of Clothes: A Study of UK’s Ethnic Minorities and Modest Fashion Industry

Authors: Nargis Ali

Abstract:

Since the modest fashion market is growing in the UK, there is still little understanding and more concerns found among researchers and marketers about Muslim consumers. Therefore, the present study is designed to explore critical factors influencing Muslim women’s intention to purchase clothing and to identify the differences in the purchase intention of ethnic minority groups in the UK. The conceptual framework is designed using the theory of planned behavior and social identity theory. In order to satisfy the research objectives, a structured online questionnaire was published on Facebook from 20 November to 21 March. As a result, 1087 usable questionnaires were received and used to assess the proposed model fit through structural equation modeling. Results revealed that social media does influence the purchase intention of Muslim women. Muslim women search for stylish clothes that provide comfort during summer while they prefer soft and subdued colors. Furthermore, religious knowledge and religious practice, and fashion uniqueness strongly influence their purchase intention, while hybrid identity is negatively related to the purchase intention of Muslim women. This research contributes to the literature linked to Muslim consumers at a time when the UK's large retailers were seeking to attract Muslim consumers through modestly designed outfits. Besides, it will be helpful to formulate or revise product and marketing strategies according to UK’s Muslim women’s tastes and needs.

Keywords: fashion uniqueness, hybrid identity, religiosity, social media, social identity theory, structural equation modeling, theory of planned behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
245 Mapping of Textile Waste Generation across the Value Chains Operating in the Textile Industry

Authors: Veena Nair, Srikanth Prakash, Mayuri Wijayasundara

Abstract:

Globally, the textile industry is a key contributor to the generation of solid waste which gets landfilled. Textile waste generation generally occurs in three stages, namely: producer waste, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. However, the different processes adopted in textile material extraction, manufacturing, and use have their respective impact in terms of the quantity of waste being diverted to landfills. The study is focused on assessing the value chains of the two most common textile fibres: cotton and polyester, catering to a broad categories of apparel products. This study attempts to identify and evaluate the key processes adopted by the textile industry at each of the stages in their value chain in terms of waste generation. The different processes identified in each of the stages in the textile value chains are mapped to their respective contribution in generating fibre waste which eventually gets diverted to landfill. The results of the study are beneficial for the overall industry in terms of improving the traceability of waste in the value chains and the selection of processes and behaviours facilitating the reduction of environmental impacts associated with landfills.

Keywords: textile waste, textile value chains, landfill waste, waste mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
244 Proposing Smart Clothing for Addressing Criminal Acts Against Women in South Africa

Authors: Anne Mastamet-Mason

Abstract:

Crimes against women is a global concern, and South Africa, in particular, is in a dilemma of dealing with constant criminal acts that face the country. Debates on violence against women in South Africa cannot be overemphasised any longer as crimes continue to rise year by year. The recent death of a university student at the University of Cape Town, as well as many other cases, continues to strengthen the need to find solutions from all the spheres of South African society. The advanced textiles market contains a high number and variety of technologies, many of which have protected status and constitute a relatively small portion of the textiles used for the consumer market. Examples of advanced textiles include nanomaterials, such as silver, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, designed to create an anti-microbial and self-cleaning layer on top of the fibers, thereby reducing body smell and soiling. Smart textiles propose materials and fabrics versatile and adaptive to different situations and functions. Integrating textiles and computing technologies offer an opportunity to come up with differentiated characteristics and functionality. This paper presents a proposal to design a smart camisole/Yoga sports brazier and a smart Yoga sports pant garment to be worn by women while alone and while in purported danger zones. The smart garments are to be worn under normal clothing and cannot be detected or seen, or suspected by perpetrators. The garments are imbued with devices to sense any physical aggression and any abnormal or accelerated heartbeat that may be exhibited by the victim of violence. The signals created during the attack can be transmitted to the police and family members who own a mobile application system that accepts signals emitted. The signals direct the receiver to the exact location of the offence, and the victim can be rescued before major violations are committed. The design of the Yoga sports garments will be done by Professor Mason, who is a fashion designer by profession, while the mobile phone application system will be developed by Mr. Amos Yegon, who is an independent software developer.

Keywords: smart clothing, wearable technology, south africa, 4th industrial revolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
243 COVID-19 Impact: How the Pandemic Changed the Fashion Industry

Authors: Akshata Patel, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

This paper focuses on current and upcoming fashion trends and global impact on the fashion industry due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has had a major impact on the fashion industry worldwide. At the same time, the fashion market also faces challenges in consumer demand. As the supply chain and distribution channels are interconnected, this outbreak has a global impact due to travel restrictions and raw materials shortages. Given that this particular period represents an unprecedented market situation with almost no prior research on how the industry will recover from such a crisis and mold back to its original form, this research aims to propose new possibilities by evaluating the framework of specific segments. Based on the analysis and extensive literature review, the study develops a conceptual model that will illustrate the various connections among the different segments of the fashion industry. The findings provide actionable considerations for fashion industry pupils when implementing appropriate strategies to prevent unfavourable outcomes during times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19, fashion industry, global impact, new possibilities, pandemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
242 Sub-Saharan Africa: Role of Global Fashion System in Turbo-Charging Growth of Apparel Industry

Authors: Rajkishore Nayak, Tarun Panwar, Majo George

Abstract:

The study focuses on investigating the factors that influence the growth of fashion and textile manufacturing in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. This paper endeavours to identify, analyse and evaluate the critical factors associated with the growth of fashion and textile manufacturing in SSA countries. This research has done a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis based on the available literature and the knowledge of authors in garment manufacturing and export. It was found that the SSA countries have shown little growth in fashion and textile manufacturing and export from the starting of the year 2000. Unlike the developing countries such as Vietnam and Bangladesh, the total export to the US, the EU and other parts of the world has declined. On the other hand, the total supply of fashion and textiles to the domestic market has been in rise. However, the local communities still need to rely on other countries to meet their demand. Availability of cheaper imported clothes from other countries such as Bangladesh, China and Vietnam have made it difficult for the local manufacturers to produce at a cheaper price.

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, developing countries, apparel industry, fashion and textile, sustainable fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
241 Strain Sensing Seams for Monitoring Body Movement

Authors: Sheilla Atieno Odhiambo, Simona Vasile, Alexandra De Raeve, Ann Schwarz

Abstract:

Strain sensing seams have been developed by integrating conductive sewing threads in different types of seams design on a fabric typical for sports clothing using sewing technology. The aim is to have a simple integrated textile strain sensor that can be applied to sports clothing to monitor the movements of the upper body parts of the user during sports. Different types of commercially available sewing threads were used as the bobbin thread in the production of different architectural seam sensors. These conductive sewing threads have been integrated into seams in particular designs using specific seam types. Some of the threads are delicate and needed to be laid into the seam with as little friction as possible and less tension; thus, they could only be sewn in as the bobbin thread and not the needle thread. Stitch type 304; 406; 506; 601;602; 605. were produced. The seams were made on a fabric of 80% polyamide 6.6 and 20% elastane. The seams were cycled(stretch-release-stretch) for five cycles and up to 44 cycles following EN ISO 14704-1: 2005 (modified), using a tensile instrument and the changes in the resistance of the seams with time were recorded using Agilent meter U1273A. Both experiments were conducted simultaneously on the same seam sample. Sensing functionality, among which is sensor gauge and reliability, were evaluated on the promising sensor seams. The results show that the sensor seams made from HC Madeira 40 conductive yarns performed better inseam stitch 304 and 602 compared to the other combination of stitch type and conductive sewing threads. These sensing seams 304, 406 and 602 will further be interconnected to our developed processing and communicating unit and further integrated into a sports clothing prototype that can track body posture. This research is done within the framework of the project SmartSeam.

Keywords: conductive sewing thread, sensing seams, smart seam, sewing technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
240 Structuring of Multilayer Aluminum Nickel by Lift-off Process Using Cheap Negative Resist

Authors: Muhammad Talal Asghar

Abstract:

The lift-off technique of the photoresist for metal patterning in integrated circuit (IC) packaging has been widely utilized in the field of microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor component manufacturing. The main advantage lies in cost-saving, reduction in complexity, and maturity of the process. The selection of photoresist depends upon many factors such as cost, the thickness of the resist, comfortable and valuable parameters extraction. In the present study, an extremely cheap dry film photoresist E8015 of thickness 38-micrometer is processed for the first time for edge profiling, according to the author's best knowledge. Successful extraction of the helpful parameter range for resist processing is performed. An undercut angle of 66 to 73 degrees is realized by parameter variation like exposure energy and development time. Finally, 10-micrometer thick metallic multilayer aluminum nickel is lifted off on the plain silicon wafer. Possible applications lie in controlled self-propagating reactions within structured metallic multilayer that may be utilized for IC packaging in the future.

Keywords: lift-off, IC packaging, photoresist, multilayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
239 Dyeing of Polyester/Cotton Blends with Reverse-Micelle Encapsulated High Energy Disperse/Reactive Dye Mixture

Authors: Chi-Wai Kan, Yanming Wang, Alan Yiu-Lun Tang, Cheng-Hao Lee Lee

Abstract:

Dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabrics in various polyester/cotton percentages (32/68, 40/60 and 65/35) was investigated using (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG) based reverse-micelle. High energy disperse dyes and warm type reactive dyes were encapsulated and applied on polyester/cotton blend fabrics in a one bath one step dyeing process. Comparison of reverse micellar-based and aqueous-based (water-based) dyeing was conducted in terms of colour reflectance. Experimental findings revealed that the colour shade of the dyed fabrics in reverse micellar non-aqueous dyeing system at a lower dyeing temperature of 98°C is slightly lighter than that of conventional aqueous dyeing system in two-step process (130oC for disperse dyeing and 70°C for reactive dyeing). The exhaustion of dye in polyester-cotton blend fabrics, in terms of colour reflectance, were found to be highly fluctuated at dyeing temperature of 98°C.

Keywords: one-bath dyeing, polyester/cotton blends, disperse/reactive dyes, reverse micelle

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
238 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Prepared From Nostoc Commune Cyanobacteria Exopolysaccharides

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Omar P. Troncoso

Abstract:

A wide range of bacteria synthesizes and secretes polymeric substances composed of a mixture of high-molecular-mass heteropolysaccharides. Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in colonial spherules of 10-20 mm in diameter. These spherules are filled with an internal gel made from a variety of polysaccharides known as Nostoc commune exopolysaccharides (NCE). In this paper, we report the use of these exopolysaccharides as a raw material for the preparation of a solid polymer electrolyte. Ammonium iodide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) salts were used to provide NCE films with ionic conductivity. In addition, a carboxymethylation treatment was used to further increase the conductivity of NCE films. The structural characterization of the NCE films was assessed by FTIR, XRD, and DSC tests. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and dielectric thermal analysis (DETA) were used to evaluate the ionic conductivity of the samples. The results showed that NCE can be used to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films and that carboxymethylation improves their ionic conductivity. These NCE films can be used in the development of novel energy storage devices such as flat batteries or supercapacitors.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, Nostoc commune, cyanobacteria, exopolysaccharides

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
237 Effect of Mercerization on Coconut Fiber Surface Condition

Authors: Sphiwe Simelane, Daniel Madyira

Abstract:

The use of natural fibers requires that they should be treated in preparation for their use in Natural Fiber-reinforced polymer composites. This paper reports on the effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment on the surface of coconut fibers. The fibers were subjected to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% NaOH concentrations and soaked for 4 hours and thoroughly rinsed and allowed to dry in the open air for seven days, after which time they were dried in an oven for 30 minutes. Untreated and treated coconut fibers were observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope and it was noted that the surface structure of the fibers was modified differently by the different NaOH concentrations, and the resultant colour of the treated fibers got darker as the solution concentration increased, and the texture felt rougher to the touch as a result of the erosion of the fiber surface. Further, the increase in alkali concentration striped the surface of more constituents, thus exposing “pits” and other surface components rendering the surface rough.

Keywords: coconut fiber, scanning electron microscope, sodium hydroxide, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
236 The Grit in the Glamour: A Qualitative Study of the Well-Being of Fashion Models

Authors: Emily Fortune Super, Ameerah Khadaroo, Aurore Bardey

Abstract:

Fashion models are often assumed to have a glamorous job with limited consideration for their well-being. This study aims to assess the well-being of models through semi-structured interviews with six professional fashion models and six industry professionals. Thematic analysis revealed that although models experienced improved self-confidence, they also reported heightened anxiety levels, body image issues, and the negative influence of modelling on their self-esteem. By contrast, industry professionals reported no or minimum concerns about anxious behaviours or the general well-being of fashion models. Being resilient as a model was perceived as an essential attribute to have by both models and industry professionals as they face recurrent rejection in this industry. These results demonstrate a significant gap in the current understanding of the well-being of fashion models between industry professionals and the models themselves. Findings imply that there is an inherent need for change in the modelling industry to promote and enhance their well-being.

Keywords: body image, fashion industry, modelling, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
235 The Illustrated Affair of Art and Fashion

Authors: Prabhdip Brar

Abstract:

Art and Fashion are coupled by a common bridge which is ‘Creativity.’ For centuries, art has influenced fashion and has been inspirational for modern-day national as well as international designers. Italian artists during the renaissance period were highly influenced by art. 20th and 21st-century artists have often found themselves the muses of major fashion houses. Many times artists and designers like Andy Warhol, Damien Hirst and Dior, Prada, respectively, have collaborated and successfully created prints, textiles and silhouettes that have dazzled the art and fashion world. This paper nudges deeper and discourses the statement pieces of remarkable designers that have been influenced by art and adorned by international celebrities. Indian designer Manish Arora has been able to design a remarkable position for himself in the international fashion world. His clothes are avant-garde and favored the choice of celebrities like Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. The in-depth discussion of how Manish Arora’s collaboration with Berlin-based artist Amrie Hoffstater has led to a construction that is a real feast for the eyes. The latest collaboration despite being in the pandemic, is between Sabyasachi(India) and Bergdorfs Goodman(New York. It boasts of the traditional Colonial Indian sensibility juxtaposed with the eclectic western American mix for the new age wearer. A Qualitative and exploratory Research design is steered towards both art and fashion as they reflect the social, economic and political changes. Social issues are highlighted through these platforms. Secondary data has been used for this paper to explain how designers have bridged the way for how one could wear fashion as a piece of art in and of itself. Conclusively this paper's findings reach the perfect marriage between Art & Fashion. A live and active project in terms of Interdisciplinary Learning.

Keywords: art, artist, collaboration, designer, fashion, relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
234 Traditional Dyeing of Silk with Natural Dyes by Eco-Friendly Method

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar

Abstract:

In traditional dyeing of natural fibers with natural dyes, metal salts are commonly used to increase color stability. This method always carries the risk of environmental pollution (contamination of arable soils and fresh groundwater) due to the release of dyeing effluents containing large amounts of metal. Therefore, researchers are always looking for new methods to obtain a green dyeing system. In this research, the use of the enzymatic dyeing method to prevent environmental pollution with metals and reduce production costs has been proposed. After degumming and bleaching, raw silk fabrics were dyed with natural dyes (Madder and Sumac) by three methods (pre-mordanting with a metal salt, one-step enzymatic dyeing, and two-step enzymatic dyeing). Results show that silk dyed with natural dyes by the enzymatic method has higher color strength and colorfastness than the pretreated with a metal salt. Also, the amount of remained dyes in the dyeing wastewater is significantly reduced by the enzymatic method. It is found that the enzymatic dyeing method leads to improvement of dye absorption, color strength, soft hand, no change in color shade, low production costs (due to low dyeing temperature), and a significant reduction in environmental pollution.

Keywords: eco-friendly, natural dyes, silk, traditional dyeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
233 A Gap Analysis of Attitude Towards Sustainable Sportswear Product Development between Consumers and Suppliers

Authors: Y. N. Fung, R. Liu, T. M. Choi

Abstract:

Over the past decades, previous studies have explored different consumers’ attitudes towards sustainable fashion and how these attitudes affect consumer behaviors. Researchers have attempted to provide solutions for product suppliers (e.g., retailers, designers, developers, and manufacturers) through studying consumers’ attitudes towards sustainable fashion. However, based on the studies of consumer attitudes, investigations on the sales and market share of sustainable sportswear products remain under-explored. Gaps may exist between the consumers’ expectations and the developed sustainable sportswear products. In this study, a novel study has been carried out to examine the attitude gaps existing between the sustainable sportswear suppliers’ (SSSs) and the sustainable sportswear consumers (SSCs). This study firstly identifies the key attitudes towards sustainable sportswear product development. It analyses how sustainable attitudes affect the products being developed, as well as the effects of the attitude’s difference between the SSSs and the SSCs on the consumers’ satisfaction towards sportswear product consumption. A gap analysis research framework is adopted with the use of collected questionnaire survey data. The results indicate that a significant difference exists between SSSs and SSCs’ attitudes towards sustainable design, manufacture, product features, and branding. Based on in-depth interviews, the major causes of the difference in attitudes are studied to provide managerial insights for sustainable sportswear product management and business development.

Keywords: sustainability, sportswear, attitude, gap analysis, suppliers, consumers

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
232 A Three-Dimensional Assessment Approach on Sustainable Development Process of Sportswear Products

Authors: Y. N. Fung, R. Liu, T. M. Choi

Abstract:

The life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely applied in the study of the sustainable fashion industry. Through the LCA, the social, environmental, and economic performances of the fashion industry can be assessed, which helps sustainable product developers (designers, retailers, and manufacturers) to address problems in product development. In prior studies, environmental impact, economic performance, and social responsibility are commonly considered separately. Inter-relations between dimensions of sustainability and LCA are rarely reported. The development process of sustainable sportswear products is complicated. Changes in the product components (e.g., materials, manufacturing methods, and product design) of sportswear will correspondingly influence supply chain activities and meanwhile affect environmental, economic, and social performances. In this study, the interrelations between different LCAs and how the interrelated LCAs can help product developers to strike a balance among environmental, economic, and social performances are explored. Based on the findings, a three-dimensional assessment framework on the sustainability life cycle is introduced. To examine the applicability of the developed framework, proof-of-concept sportswear legging products were developed. The developed sportswear legging products were assessed in terms of the interrelated dimensions of environmental, economic, and social performances. The results demonstrate the effects of shifting in desig¬n details and product functions on the environmental, social, and economic performances of sportswear products. The outcome of this study provides insights on the approach to balance sustainability and the development of cost-effective and sustainable sportswear products for sportswear developers.

Keywords: sustainable development, sports fashion, life cycle assessment, indicators for sustainability, sustainability impacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
231 Sustainable Design through up-Cycling Crafts in the Mainstream Fashion Industry of India

Authors: Avani Chhajlani

Abstract:

Fashion is considered to be the most destructive industry, second only to the oil rigging industry, which has a greater impact on the environment. While fashion today banks upon fast fashion to generate a higher turnover of designs and patterns in apparel and related accessories, crafts push us towards a more slow and thoughtful approach with culturally identifiably unique work and slow community-centered production. Despite this strong link between indigenous crafts and sustainability, it has not been extensively researched and explored upon. In the forthcoming years, the fashion industry will have to reinvent itself to move towards a more holistic and sustainable circular model to balance the harm already caused. And closed loops of the circular economy will help the integration of indigenous craft knowledge, which is regenerative. Though sustainability and crafts of a region go hand-in-hand, the craft still have to find its standing in the mainstream fashion world; craft practices have a strong local congruence and knowledge that has been passed down generation-to-generation through oration or written materials. This paper aims to explore ways a circular economy can be created by amalgamating fashion and craft while creating a sustainable business model and how this is slowly being created today through brands like – RaasLeela, Pero, and KaSha, to name a few.

Keywords: circular economy, fashion, India, indigenous crafts, slow fashion, sustainability, up-cycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
230 Effect of Bulk Density and Fiber Blend Content of Nonwoven Textiles on Flammability Properties

Authors: Klara Masnicova, Jiri Chaloupek

Abstract:

Flammability plays an important role in applications such as thermal and acoustic insulation and other technical nonwoven textiles. The study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the flammability behavior of nonwoven textiles in relation to their structural and material characteristics, with emphasis given to the blending ratios of flammable and non-flammable fibers or fibers with reduced flammability. Nonwoven structures made of blends of viscose/oxidized polyacrylonitrile (VS/oxidized PAN fibers and polyethylene terephthalate/oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PET/oxidized PAN) fibers in several bulk densities are evaluated. The VS/oxidized PAN blend is model material. The flammability was studied using a cone calorimeter. Reaction to fire was observed using the small flame test method. Interestingly, the results show some of the blending ratios do not react to the heat in linear response to bulk density. This outcome can have a huge impact on future product development in fire safety and for the general understanding of flammability behavior of nonwovens made of staple fibers.

Keywords: bulk density, cone calorimetry, flammability, nonwoven textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
229 In vitro Skin Model for Enhanced Testing of Antimicrobial Textiles

Authors: Steven Arcidiacono, Robert Stote, Erin Anderson, Molly Richards

Abstract:

There are numerous standard test methods for antimicrobial textiles that measure activity against specific microorganisms. However, many times these results do not translate to the performance of treated textiles when worn by individuals. Standard test methods apply a single target organism grown under optimal conditions to a textile, then recover the organism to quantitate and determine activity; this does not reflect the actual performance environment that consists of polymicrobial communities in less than optimal conditions or interaction of the textile with the skin substrate. Here we propose the development of in vitro skin model method to bridge the gap between lab testing and wear studies. The model will consist of a defined polymicrobial community of 5-7 commensal microbes simulating the skin microbiome, seeded onto a solid tissue platform to represent the skin. The protocol would entail adding a non-commensal test organism of interest to the defined community and applying a textile sample to the solid substrate. Following incubation, the textile would be removed and the organisms recovered, which would then be quantitated to determine antimicrobial activity. Important parameters to consider include identification and assembly of the defined polymicrobial community, growth conditions to allow the establishment of a stable community, and choice of skin surrogate. This model could answer the following questions: 1) is the treated textile effective against the target organism? 2) How is the defined community affected? And 3) does the textile cause unwanted effects toward the skin simulant? The proposed model would determine activity under conditions comparable to the intended application and provide expanded knowledge relative to current test methods.

Keywords: antimicrobial textiles, defined polymicrobial community, in vitro skin model, skin microbiome

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
228 Examining Pre-Consumer Textile Waste Recycling, Barriers to Implementation, and Participant Demographics: A Review of Literature

Authors: Madeline W. Miller

Abstract:

The global textile industry produces pollutants in the form of liquid discharge, solid waste, and emissions into the natural environment. Textile waste resulting from garment production and other manufacturing processes makes a significant contribution to the amount of waste landfilled globally. While the majority of curbside and other convenient recycling methods cater to post-consumer paper and plastics, pre-consumer textile waste is often discarded with trash and is commonly classified as ‘other’ in municipal solid waste breakdowns. On a larger scale, many clothing manufacturers and other companies utilizing textiles have not yet identified or began using the most sustainable methods for discarding their post-industrial, pre-consumer waste. To lessen the amount of waste sent to landfills, there are post-industrial, pre-consumer textile waste recycling methods that can be used to give textiles a new life. This process requires that textile and garment manufacturers redirect their waste to companies that use industrial machinery to shred or fiberize these materials in preparation for their second life. The goal of this literature review is to identify the recycling and reuse challenges faced by producers within the clothing and textile industry that prevent these companies from utilizing the described recycling methods, causing them to opt for landfill. The literature analyzed in this review reflects manufacturer sentiments toward waste disposal and recycling. The results of this review indicate that the cost of logistics is the determining factor when it comes to companies recycling their pre-consumer textile waste and that the most applicable and successful textile waste recycling methods require a company separate from the manufacturer to account for waste production, provide receptacles for waste, arrange waste transport, and identify a secondary use for the material at a price-point below that of traditional waste disposal service.

Keywords: leadership demographics, post-industrial textile waste, pre-consumer textile waste, industrial shoddy

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
227 Development of a Novel Ankle-Foot Orthotic Using a User Centered Approach for Improved Satisfaction

Authors: Ahlad Neti, Elisa Arch, Martha Hall

Abstract:

Studies have shown that individuals who use Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (AFOs) have a high level of dissatisfaction regarding their current AFOs. Studies point to the focus on technical design with little attention given to the user perspective as a source of AFO designs that leave users dissatisfied. To design a new AFO that satisfies users and thereby improves their quality of life, the reasons for their dissatisfaction and their wants and needs for an improved AFO design must be identified. There has been little research into the user perspective on AFO use and desired improvements, so the relationship between AFO design and satisfaction in daily use must be assessed to develop appropriate metrics and constraints prior to designing a novel AFO. To assess the user perspective on AFO design, structured interviews were conducted with 7 individuals (average age of 64.29±8.81 years) who use AFOs. All interviews were transcribed and coded to identify common themes using Grounded Theory Method in NVivo 12. Qualitative analysis of these results identified sources of user dissatisfaction such as heaviness, bulk, and uncomfortable material and overall needs and wants for an AFO. Beyond the user perspective, certain objective factors must be considered in the construction of metrics and constraints to ensure that the AFO fulfills its medical purpose. These more objective metrics are rooted in a common medical device market and technical standards. Given the large body of research concerning these standards, these objective metrics and constraints were derived through a literature review. Through these two methods, a comprehensive list of metrics and constraints accounting for both the user perspective on AFO design and the AFO’s medical purpose was compiled. These metrics and constraints will establish the framework for designing a new AFO that carries out its medical purpose while also improving the user experience. The metrics can be categorized into several overarching areas for AFO improvement. Categories of user perspective related metrics include comfort, discreteness, aesthetics, ease of use, and compatibility with clothing. Categories of medical purpose related metrics include biomechanical functionality, durability, and affordability. These metrics were used to guide an iterative prototyping process. Six concepts were ideated and compared using system-level analysis. From these six concepts, two concepts – the piano wire model and the segmented model – were selected to move forward into prototyping. Evaluation of non-functional prototypes of the piano wire and segmented models determined that the piano wire model better fulfilled the metrics by offering increased stability, longer durability, fewer points for failure, and a strong enough core component to allow a sock to cover over the AFO while maintaining the overall structure. As such, the piano wire AFO has moved forward into the functional prototyping phase, and healthy subject testing is being designed and recruited to conduct design validation and verification.

Keywords: ankle-foot orthotic, assistive technology, human centered design, medical devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 29