Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2451

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Metallurgical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2451 Effect of Laminating Sequence of MWCNTs and Fe₂O₃ Filled Nanocomposites on Emi Shielding Effectiveness

Authors: Javeria Ahmad, Ayesha Maryam, Zahid Rizwan, Nadeem Nasir, Yasir Nawab, Hafiz Shehbaz Ahmad

Abstract:

Mitigation of electromagnetic interference (EMI) through thin, lightweight, and cost-effective materials is critical for electronic appliances as well as human health. The present research work discusses the design of composites that are suitable to minimize EMI through various stacking sequences. The carbon fibers reinforced composite structures impregnated with dielectric (MWCNTs) and magnetic nanofillers (Fe₂O₃) were developed to investigate their microwave absorption properties. The composite structure comprising a single type of nanofillers, each of MWCNTs & Fe₂O₃, was developed, and then their layers were stacked over each other with various stacking sequences to investigate the best stacking sequence, which presents good microwave absorption characteristics. A vector network analyzer (VNA) was used to analyze the microwave absorption properties of these developed composite structures. The composite structures impregnated with the layers of a dielectric nanofiller and sandwiched between the layers of a magnetic nanofiller show the highest EMI shielding value of 59 dB and a dielectric conductivity of 35 S/cm in the frequency range of 0.1 to 13.6 GHz. The results also demonstrate that the microwave absorption properties of the developed composite structures were dominant over reflection properties. The absence of an external peak in X-ray diffraction (XRD), marked the purity of the added nanofillers.

Keywords: nanocomposites, microwave absorption, EMI shielding, skin depth, reflection loss

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2450 Utilization of Manila Clam Shells (Venerupis Philippinarum) and Raffia Palm Fiber (Raphia Farinifera) as an Additive in Producing Concrete Roof Tiles

Authors: Sofina Faith C. Navarro, Luke V. Subala, Rica H. Gatus, Alfonzo Ramon DG. Burguete

Abstract:

Roof tiles, as integral components of buildings, play a crucial role in protecting structures from many things. The study focuses on the production of sustainable roof tiles that address the waste disposal challenges associated with Manila clam shells and mitigate the environmental impact of conventional roof tile materials. Various concentrations of roof tiles are developed, incorporating different proportions of powdered clam shell that contains calcium carbonate and shredded raffia palm fiber. Subsequently, the roof tiles are cast using standard methods and transported to the University of the Philippines Institute of Civil Engineering (UP-ICE) for flexural strength testing. In conclusion, the research aimed to assess the flexural durability of concrete roof tiles with varying concentrations of Raffia Palm Fiber and Manila Clam Shells additives. The findings indicate notable differences in maximum load capacities among the specimens, with C3.1 emerging as the concentration with the highest load-bearing capacity at 313.59729 N. This concentration, with a flexural strength of 2.15214, is identified as the most durable option, with a slightly heavier weight of 1.10 kg. On the other hand, C2.2, with a flexural strength of 0.366 and a weight of 0.80 kg, is highlighted for its impressive durability performance while maintaining a lighter composition. Therefore, for the production of concrete roof tile, C3.1 is recommended for optimal durability, while C2.2 is suggested as a preferable option considering both durability and lightweight characteristics.

Keywords: raffia palm fiber, flexural strength, lightweightness, Manila Clam Shells

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2449 Surface Segregation-Inspired Design for Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts

Authors: Yaxin Tang, Mingao Hou, Qian He, Guangfu Luo

Abstract:

Bimetallic nanoparticles serve as a promising class of catalysts with tunable properties suitable for diverse catalytic reactions, yet a comprehensive understanding of their actual structures under operating conditions and the optimal design principles remains largely elusive. In this study, we unveil a prevalent surface segregation phenomenon in nearly 100 platinum-group-element-based bimetallic nanoparticles through first principles-based molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings highlight that two components in a nanoparticle with relatively lower surface energy tend to segregate to the surface. Motivated by this discovery, we propose a deliberate exploitation of surface segregation in designing bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts, aiming for heightened stability and reduced consumption of precious metals. To validate this strategy, we further investigate 36 platinum-based bimetallic nanoparticles for propane dehydrogenation catalysis. Through a systematic examination of catalytic sites on nanoparticles, we identify several systems as top candidates with Pt-enriched surfaces, remarkable thermal stability, and superior catalytic activity for propane dehydrogenation. The insights gained garnered from this study are anticipated to provide a valuable framework for the optimal design of other bimetallic nanoparticles.

Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, platinum-group element, catalysis, surface segregation, first-principles calculations

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2448 2D titanium, vanadium carbide MXene, and Polyaniline heterostructures for electrochemical energy storage

Authors: Ayomide A Sijuade, Nafiza Anjum

Abstract:

The rising demand to meet the need for clean and sustainable energy solutions has led the market to create effective energy storage technologies. In this study, we look at the possibility of using a heterostructure made of polyaniline (PANI), titanium carbide (Ti₃C₂), and vanadium carbide (V₂C) for energy storage devices. V₂C is a two-dimensional transition metal carbide with remarkable mechanical and electrical conductivity. Ti₃C2 has solid thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. PANI, on the other hand, is a conducting polymer with customizable electrical characteristics and environmental stability. Layer-by-layer assembly creates the heterostructure of V₂C, Ti₃C₂, and PANI, allowing for precise film thickness and interface quality control. Structural and morphological characterization is carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. For energy storage applications, the heterostructure’s electrochemical performance is assessed. Electrochemical experiments, such as cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, examine the heterostructure’s charge storage capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance. Comparing the heterostructure to the individual components reveals better energy storage capabilities. V₂C, Ti₃C₂, and PANI synergize to increase specific capacitance, boost charge storage, and prolong cycling stability. The heterostructure’s unique arrangement of 2D materials and conducting polymers promotes effective ion diffusion and charge transfer processes, improving the effectiveness of energy storage. The heterostructure also exhibits remarkable electrochemical stability, which minimizes capacity loss after repeated cycling. The longevity and long-term dependability of energy storage systems depend on this quality. By examining the potential of V₂C, Ti₃C₂, and PANI heterostructures, the results of this study expand energy storage technology. These materials’ specialized integration and design show potential for use in hybrid energy storage systems, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Overall, the development of high-performance energy storage devices utilizing V₂C, Ti₃C₂, and PANI heterostructures is clarified by this research, opening the door to the realization of effective, long-lasting, and eco-friendly energy storage solutions to satisfy the demands of the modern world.

Keywords: MXenes, energy storage materials, conductive polymers, composites

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2447 Strengthening of Electrospun Polymer Microfibers with Boron Nitride Nanotubes

Authors: Nasim Anjum, Changhong Ke

Abstract:

Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) possess many extraordinary structural and physical properties and are promising fillers for light and strong polymer nanocomposite materials. The bulk mechanical property enhancement of nanotube-polymer nanocomposites critically depends on effective interfacial load transfer, which, however, is difficult to quantify in experiments. This is in part because the added nanotubes tend to aggregate and bundle because of strong inter-nanotube van der Waals interactions. These hard-to-avoid processing defects disrupt the intimate nanotube-polymer interfacial contact as well as nanotube alignment inside the composite, leading to lower reinforcement efficiencies. In this work, the mechanical properties of BNNT-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposite microfibers are investigated with a focus on understanding how effective interfacial load transfer translates to bulk property enhancement. The BNNT-PMMA nanocomposite microfiber is manufactured with superior nanotube alignment using electrospinning techniques. The local interfacial load transfer characteristics are characterized based on in situ Raman micromechanical measurements. The effective interfacial shear strengths of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 0.65% BNNT-PMMA microfibers are found to be about 78.4 MPa, 60.9 MPa, and 50.7MPa, respectively, which commensurate with substantial improvements in Young’s modulus and tensile strength. The study reveals the constitutive contribution of the nanotube-polymer interfacial strength to the composite’s mechanical properties. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the process-structure-property relationship and the reinforcing mechanism of nanotube-based nanocomposites.

Keywords: boron nitride nanotubes, interfacial load transfer, mechanical enhancement, polymer nanocomposites

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2446 Advancements in Laser Welding Process: A Comprehensive Model for Predictive Geometrical, Metallurgical, and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Seyedeh Fatemeh Nabavi, Hamid Dalir, Anooshiravan Farshidianfar

Abstract:

Laser welding is pivotal in modern manufacturing, offering unmatched precision, speed, and efficiency. Its versatility in minimizing heat-affected zones, seamlessly joining dissimilar materials, and working with various metals makes it indispensable for crafting intricate automotive components. Integration into automated systems ensures consistent delivery of high-quality welds, thereby enhancing overall production efficiency. Noteworthy are the safety benefits of laser welding, including reduced fumes and consumable materials, which align with industry standards and environmental sustainability goals. As the automotive sector increasingly demands advanced materials and stringent safety and quality standards, laser welding emerges as a cornerstone technology. A comprehensive model encompassing thermal dynamic and characteristics models accurately predicts geometrical, metallurgical, and mechanical aspects of the laser beam welding process. Notably, Model 2 showcases exceptional accuracy, achieving remarkably low error rates in predicting primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS and SDAS). These findings underscore the model's reliability and effectiveness, providing invaluable insights and predictive capabilities crucial for optimizing welding processes and ensuring superior productivity, efficiency, and quality in the automotive industry.

Keywords: laser welding process, geometrical characteristics, mechanical characteristics, metallurgical characteristics, comprehensive model, thermal dynamic

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2445 Enhancement in the Absorption Efficiency of GaAs/InAs Nanowire Solar Cells through a Decrease in Light Reflection

Authors: Latef M. Ali, Farah A. Abed, Zheen L. Mohammed

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the Barium fluoride (BaF2) layer on the absorption efficiency of GaAs/InAs nanowire solar cells was investigated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. By inserting the BaF2 as antireflection with the dominant size of 10 nm to fill the space between the shells of wires on the Si (111) substrate. The absorption is significantly improved due to the strong reabsorption of light reflected at the shells and compared with the reference cells. The present simulation leads to a higher absorption efficiency (Qabs) and reaches a value of 97%, and the external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) above 92% are observed. The current density (Jsc) increases by 0.22 mA/cm2 and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is enhanced by 0.11 mV. it explore the design and optimization of high-efficiency solar cells on low-reflective absorption efficiency of GaAs/InAs using simulation software tool. The changes in the core and shell diameters profoundly affects the generation and recombination process, thus affecting the conversion efficiency of solar cells.

Keywords: nanowire solar cells, absorption efficiency, photovoltaic, band structures, FDTD simulation

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2444 Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Monitor the Steel/Soil Interface During Cathodic Protection of Steel in Simulated Soil Solution

Authors: Mandlenkosi George Robert Mahlobo, Tumelo Seadira, Major Melusi Mabuza, Peter Apata Olubambi

Abstract:

Cathodic protection (CP) has been widely considered a suitable technique for mitigating corrosion of buried metal structures. Plenty of efforts have been made in developing techniques, in particular non-destructive techniques, for monitoring and quantifying the effectiveness of CP to ensure the sustainability and performance of buried steel structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the electrochemical processes at the steel/soil interface during the application of CP on steel in simulated soil. Carbon steel was subjected to electrochemical tests with NS4 solution used as simulated soil conditions for 4 days before applying CP for a further 11 days. A previously modified non-destructive voltammetry technique was applied before and after the application of CP to measure the corrosion rate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in combination with mathematical modeling through equivalent electric circuits, was applied to determine the electrochemical behavior at the steel/soil interface. The measured corrosion rate was found to have decreased from 410 µm/yr to 8 µm/yr between days 5 and 14 because of the applied CP. Equivalent electrical circuits were successfully constructed and used to adequately model the EIS results. The modeling of the obtained EIS results revealed the formation of corrosion products via a mixed activation-diffusion mechanism during the first 4 days, while the activation mechanism prevailed in the presence of CP, resulting in a protective film. The x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of corrosion products and the predominant protective film corresponding to the calcareous deposit.

Keywords: carbon steel, cathodic protection, NS4 solution, voltammetry, EIS

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2443 Horn Snail (Telescopium Telescopium) Shells Waste as an Alternative for Ceramic Tile Manufacturing

Authors: Patricia N. Baguio, Angel Amy M. Bunag, Paul Bryan E. Ornopia, John Paul C. Suel

Abstract:

This research investigates the viability and efficiency of employing ceramic tile additives derived from horn snail shell material, specifically calcium carbonate (CaCO₃). The study aims to evaluate the mechanical properties of ceramic tiles with Calcium Carbonate with varying amounts of CaCO₃, focusing on breaking and flexural strength. The research employs a comprehensive methodology, including material collection, slurry forming, shaping, drying, firing, and statistical analysis using paired sample T-tests. The result indicates a positive correlation between calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) application and ceramic tile strength, revealing increased breaking strength from 29.41 N (non-calcium Carbonate) to 46.02 N (70g CaCO3) and a substantial enhancement to 82.61 N with 150g CaCO₃. Comparative analyses show higher breaking and flexural strength in tiles with Calcium Carbonate with 150g CaCO₃ analysis (p = 0.011), indicating its feasibility for ceramic tile manufacturing, while 70g CaCO₃ shows no significant difference from non-calcium Carbonate tiles (p = 0.135). The addition of horn snail shells shows potential for improving ceramic tile quality and contributes positively to waste management in standard tile production processes.

Keywords: Horn snail shell, calcium carbonate, breaking strength, flexural strength

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2442 Influence of Molecular and Supramolecular Structure on Thermally Stimulated Short-Circuit Currents in Polyvinylidene Fluoride Films

Authors: Temnov D., Volgina E., Gerasimov D.

Abstract:

Relaxation processes in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films were studied by the method of thermally stimulated fractional polarization currents (TSTF). The films were obtained by extrusion of a polymer melt followed by isometric annealing. PVDF granules of the Kynar-720 brand (Atofina Chemicals, USA) with a molecular weight of Mw=190,000 g•mol-1 were used for the manufacture of films. The annealing temperature was varied in the range from 120 °C to 170 °C in increments of 10 °C. The dependences of the degree of crystallinity of films (χ) and the intensity of thermally stimulated depolarization currents on the annealing temperature (Toc) are investigated. The TSTF spectra were obtained at the TSC II facility (Setaram, France). Measurements were carried out in a helium atmosphere, and the values of currents were determined by a Keithley electrometer. The annealed PVDF films were polarized at an electric field strength of 100 V/mm at a temperature of 31°C, after which they were cooled to 26°C, at which they were kept for 1 minute. During depolarization, the external field was removed, and the short-circuit sample was cooled to 0°C. The thermally stimulated short-circuit current was recorded during linear heating. Relaxation processes in PVDF films were studied in the temperature range from 0 – 70 °C. It is shown that the intensity curve of the peaks of TST FP has a course that is the reverse of the dependence of the degree of crystallinity on the annealing temperature. This allows us to conclude that the relaxation processes occurring in PVDF in the 35°C region are associated with the amorphous part of the structure of PVDF films between the layers of the spherulite crystalline phase.

Keywords: molecular and supramolecular structure, thermally stimulated currents, polyvinylidene fluoride films, relaxation processes

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2441 Effect of Ba Addition on the Dielectric Properties and Microstructure of (Ca₀.₆Sr₀.₄)ZrO₃

Authors: Ying-Chieh Lee, Huei-Jyun Shih, Ting-Yang Wang, Christian Pithan

Abstract:

This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of Ca₀.₆Sr₀.₄₋ₓBaₓZrO₃ (x = 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.10) ceramics prepared via the solid-state method and sintered at 1450 °C. The impact of Sr substitution by Ba at the A-site of the perovskite structure on crystalline properties and microwave dielectric performance was investigated. The experimental results show the formation of a single-phase structure, Ca₀.₆₁₂Sr₀.₃₈₈ZrO₃(CSZ), across the entire range of x values. It is evident that the Ca₀.₆Sr₀.₃₉Ba₀.₀₁ZrO₃ ceramics exhibit the highest sintering density and the lowest porosity. These ceramics exhibit impressive dielectric properties, including a high permittivity of 28.38, low dielectric loss of 4.0×10⁻⁴, and a Q factor value of 22988 at 9~10GHz. The research reveals that the influences of Sr substitution by Ba in enhancing the microwave dielectric properties of Ca₀.₆₁₂Sr₀.₃₈₈ZrO₃ ceramics and the impedance curves clearly showed effects on the electrical properties.

Keywords: NPO dielectric material, (Ca₀.₆Sr₀.₄)ZrO₃, microwave dielectric properties

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2440 The Effect of Rice Husk Cellulose Nanocrystal for Edible Packaging Application

Authors: E. C. Nwanna, J. T. Nwabanne, L. C. Orakwe, E. C. Chukwuma, H. C. Oyeoka, C. E. Okafor, C. D. Okpala

Abstract:

The high-value application of rice husk, a renewable, easily accessible, and plentiful agricultural waste, demands further study. The goal of this research is to create rice husk cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) reinforced carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC)-gelatin film using a solution casting method for use in edible packaging. CMC-gelatin nanocomposites reinforced with CNC through a solution casting technique were successfully fabricated. Investigations were conducted into how CNC content affected the x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mechanical properties, total dissolved solids (TDS) of gelatin/carboxyl methylcellulose/CNC films. The result of the investigation showed that the produced gelatin/carboxyl methylcellulose/CNC films, when seen using scanning electron microscopy, showed needle-like forms with dimensions of 81 to 286 nm in length, 8 to 21 nm in diameter, aspect ratio of 17, and crystallinity index of 0.83. The CNC was equally dispersed throughout the matrix to create homogeneous films with the addition of 5 wt% and 10 wt% CNC, indicating that CNC had good compatibility with CMC/gelatin. The tensile strength of the nanocomposite films increased from 6.83 MPa to 7.80 MPa, elongation at break reduced from 81.50% to 63.75%, while thickness increased from 0.13 um to 0.25 um by CNC incorporation. The TDS of the nanocomposite films also reduced from 72% to 65%. The results obtained indicate clearly the advantages of the use of gelatin/CMC reinforced with CNC as it was a natural, cheap, and abundant material to replace the extensive use of synthetic and petroleum-based materials.

Keywords: rice husk, cellulose nanocrystal, nanocomposite, packaging

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2439 Experimental Investigation of Physical Properties of Bambusa Oldhamii and Yushania Alpina on the Influence of Age and Harvesting Season

Authors: Tigist Girma Kedane

Abstract:

The purpose of the current research work is to measure the physical properties of bamboo species in Ethiopia on the impact of age, harvesting seasons and culm height. Three representatives of bamboo plants are harvested in three groups of ages, 2 harvesting months, and 3 regions of Ethiopia. Research has not been done on the physical properties of bamboo species in Ethiopia so far. Moisture content and shrinkage of bamboo culm increase when the culm ages younger and moves from top to bottom position. The harvesting month of November has a higher moisture content and shrinkage compared to February. One year old of Injibara, Kombolcha, and Mekaneselam bamboo culm has 40%, 30%, and 33% higher moisture content, 29%, 24%, and 28% higher radial shrinkage, 32%, 37%, and 32% higher tangential shrinkage compared to 3 years old respectively. The bottom position of Injibara, Kombolcha, and Mekaneselam in November have 45%, 28%, and 25% higher moisture content, 41%, 29%, and 34% radial shrinkage, 29%, 28%, and 42% tangential shrinkage than the top position, respectively. The basic density increases as the age of the bamboo becomes older and moves from the bottom to the top position. November has the lowest basic density compared to February. 3 years old of Injibara, Kombolcha, and Mekaneselam at the age of 3 years have 32%, 50%, and 24% higher basic density compared to 1 year, whereas the top position has 35%, 26%, and 22% higher than the bottom position in February, respectively. The current research proposed that 3 years and February are suited for structural purposes and furniture making, but 1 year and November are suited for fiber extraction in the composite industry. The existence of water in the culm improves an easy extraction of the fibers without damage from the culm.

Keywords: bamboo age, bamboo height, harvesting seasons, physical properties

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2438 Development and Characterization of Ethiopian Bamboo Fiber Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Tigist Girma Kedane

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the properties of Ethiopian bamboo fiber polymer composites for headliner materials in the automobile industry. Accurate evaluation of its mechanical properties is thus critical for predicting its behavior during a vehicle's interior impact assessment. Conventional headliner materials are higher in weight, nonbiodegradable, expensive in cost, and unecofriendly during processing compared to the current researched materials. Three representatives of bamboo plants are harvested in three regions of bamboo species, three groups of ages, and two harvesting months. The statistical analysis was performed to validate the significant difference between the mean strength of bamboo ages, harvesting seasons, and bamboo species. Two-year-old bamboo fibers have the highest mechanical properties in all ages and November has higher mechanical properties compared to February. Injibara and Kombolcha have the highest and the lowest mechanical properties of bamboo fibers, respectively. Bamboo fiber epoxy composites have higher mechanical properties compared to bamboo fiber polypropylene composites. The flexural strength of bamboo fibre polymer composites has higher properties compared to tensile strength. Ethiopian bamboo fibers and their polymer composites have the best mechanical properties for the composite industry, which is used for headliner materials in the automobile industry compared to conventional headliner materials.

Keywords: bampoo species, culm age, harvesting seasons, mechanical properties, polymer composite

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2437 Mathematical Analysis of Matrix and Filler Formulation in Composite Materials

Authors: Olusegun A. Afolabi, Ndivhuwo Ndou

Abstract:

Composite material is an important area that has gained global visibility in many research fields in recent years. Composite material is the combination of separate materials with different properties to form a single material having different properties from the parent materials. Material composition and combination is an important aspect of composite material. The focus of this study is to provide insight into an easy way of calculating the compositions and formulations of constituent materials that make up any composite material. The compositions of the matrix and filler used for fabricating composite materials are taken into consideration. From the composite fabricated, data can be collected and analyzed based on the test and characterizations such as tensile, flexural, compression, impact, hardness, etc. Also, the densities of the matrix and the filler with regard to their constituent materials are discussed.

Keywords: composite material, density, filler, matrix, percentage weight, volume fraction

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2436 Environmentally Sustainable Transparent Wood: A Fully Green Approach from Bleaching to Impregnation for Energy-Efficient Engineered Wood Components

Authors: Francesca Gullo, Paola Palmero, Massimo Messori

Abstract:

Transparent wood is considered a promising structural material for the development of environmentally friendly, energy-efficient engineered components. To obtain transparent wood from natural wood materials two approaches can be used: i) bottom-up and ii) top-down. Through the second method, the color of natural wood samples is lightened through a chemical bleaching process that acts on chromophore groups of lignin, such as the benzene ring, quinonoid, vinyl, phenolics, and carbonyl groups. These chromophoric units form complex conjugate systems responsible for the brown color of wood. There are two strategies to remove color and increase the whiteness of wood: i) lignin removal and ii) lignin bleaching. In the lignin removal strategy, strong chemicals containing chlorine (chlorine, hypochlorite, and chlorine dioxide) and oxidizers (oxygen, ozone, and peroxide) are used to completely destroy and dissolve the lignin. In lignin bleaching methods, a moderate reductive (hydrosulfite) or oxidative (hydrogen peroxide) is commonly used to alter or remove the groups and chromophore systems of lignin, selectively discoloring the lignin while keeping the macrostructure intact. It is, therefore, essential to manipulate nanostructured wood by precisely controlling the nanopores in the cell walls by monitoring both chemical treatments and process conditions, for instance, the treatment time, the concentration of chemical solutions, the pH value, and the temperature. The elimination of wood light scattering is the second step in the fabrication of transparent wood materials, which can be achieved through two-step approaches: i) the polymer impregnation method and ii) the densification method. For the polymer impregnation method, the wood scaffold is treated with polymers having a corresponding refractive index (e.g., PMMA and epoxy resins) under vacuum to obtain the transparent composite material, which can finally be pressed to align the cellulose fibers and reduce interfacial defects in order to have a finished product with high transmittance (>90%) and excellent light-guiding. However, both the solution-based bleaching and the impregnation processes used to produce transparent wood generally consume large amounts of energy and chemicals, including some toxic or pollutant agents, and are difficult to scale up industrially. Here, we report a method to produce optically transparent wood by modifying the lignin structure with a chemical reaction at room temperature using small amounts of hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline environment. This method preserves the lignin, which results only deconjugated and acts as a binder, providing both a strong wood scaffold and suitable porosity for infiltration of biobased polymers while reducing chemical consumption, the toxicity of the reagents used, polluting waste, petroleum by-products, energy and processing time. The resulting transparent wood demonstrates high transmittance and low thermal conductivity. Through the combination of process efficiency and scalability, the obtained materials are promising candidates for application in the field of construction for modern energy-efficient buildings.

Keywords: bleached wood, energy-efficient components, hydrogen peroxide, transparent wood, wood composites

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2435 Corrosion Analysis of Brazed Copper-Based Conducts in Particle Accelerator Water Cooling Circuits

Authors: A. T. Perez Fontenla, S. Sgobba, A. Bartkowska, Y. Askar, M. Dalemir Celuch, A. Newborough, M. Karppinen, H. Haalien, S. Deleval, S. Larcher, C. Charvet, L. Bruno, R. Trant

Abstract:

The present study investigates the corrosion behavior of copper (Cu) based conducts predominantly brazed with Sil-Fos (self-fluxing copper-based filler with silver and phosphorus) within various cooling circuits of demineralized water across different particle accelerator components at CERN. The study covers a range of sample service time, from a few months to fifty years, and includes various accelerator components such as quadrupoles, dipoles, and bending magnets. The investigation comprises the established sample extraction procedure, examination methodology including non-destructive testing, evaluation of the corrosion phenomena, and identification of commonalities across the studied components as well as analysis of the environmental influence. The systematic analysis included computed microtomography (CT) of the joints that revealed distributed defects across all brazing interfaces. Some defects appeared to result from areas not wetted by the filler during the brazing operation, displaying round shapes, while others exhibited irregular contours and radial alignment, indicative of a network or interconnection. The subsequent dry cutting performed facilitated access to the conduct's inner surface and the brazed joints for further inspection through light and electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis via Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Brazing analysis away from affected areas identified the expected phases for a Sil-Fos alloy. In contrast, the affected locations displayed micrometric cavities propagating into the material, along with selective corrosion of the bulk Cu initiated at the conductor-braze interface. Corrosion product analysis highlighted the consistent presence of sulfur (up to 6 % in weight), whose origin and role in the corrosion initiation and extension is being further investigated. The importance of this study is paramount as it plays a crucial role in comprehending the underlying factors contributing to recently identified water leaks and evaluating the extent of the issue. Its primary objective is to provide essential insights for the repair of impacted brazed joints when accessibility permits. Moreover, the study seeks to contribute to the improvement of design and manufacturing practices for future components, ultimately enhancing the overall reliability and performance of magnet systems within CERN accelerator facilities.

Keywords: accelerator facilities, brazed copper conducts, demineralized water, magnets

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2434 Understanding the Excited State Dynamics of a Phase Transformable Photo-Active Metal-Organic Framework MIP 177 through Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Aneek Kuila, Yaron Paz

Abstract:

MIP 177 LT and HT are two-phase transformable metal organic frameworks consisting of a Ti12O15 oxocluster and a tetracarboxylate ligand that exhibits robust chemical stability and improved photoactivity. LT to HT only shows the changes in dimensionality from 0D to 1D without any change in the overall chemical structure. In terms of chemical and photoactivity MIP 177 LT is found to perform better than the MIP 177HT. Step-scan Fourier transform absorption difference time-resolved spectroscopy has been used to collect mid-IR time-resolved infrared spectra of the transient electronic excited states of a nano-porous metal–organic framework MIP 177-LT and HT with 2.5 ns time resolution. Analyzing the time-resolved vibrational data after 355nm LASER excitation reveals the presence of the temporal changes of ν (O-Ti-O) of Ti-O metal cluster and ν (-COO) of the ligand concluding the fact that these moieties are the ultimate acceptors of the excited charges which are localized over those regions on the nanosecond timescale. A direct negative correlation between the differential absorbance (Δ Absorbance) reveals the charge transfer relation among these two moieties. A longer-lived transient signal up to 180ns for MIP 177 LT compared to the 100 ns of MIP 177 HT shows the extended lifetime of the reactive charges over the surface that exerts in their effectivity. An ultrafast change of bidentate to monodentate bridging in the -COO-Ti-O ligand-metal coordination environment was observed after the photoexcitation of MIP 177 LT which remains and lives with for seconds after photoexcitation is halted. This phenomenon is very unique to MIP 177 LT but not observed with HT. This in-situ change in the coordination denticity during the photoexcitation was not observed previously which can rationalize the reason behind the ability of MIP 177 LT to accumulate electrons during continuous photoexcitation leading to a superior photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: time resolved FTIR, metal organic framework, denticity, photoacatalysis

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2433 Functional Surfaces and Edges for Cutting and Forming Tools Created Using Directed Energy Deposition

Authors: Michal Brazda, Miroslav Urbanek, Martina Koukolikova

Abstract:

This work focuses on the development of functional surfaces and edges for cutting and forming tools created through the Directed Energy Deposition (DED) technology. In the context of growing challenges in modern engineering, additive technologies, especially DED, present an innovative approach to manufacturing tools for forming and cutting. One of the key features of DED is its ability to precisely and efficiently deposit Fully dense metals from powder feedstock, enabling the creation of complex geometries and optimized designs. Gradually, it becomes an increasingly attractive choice for tool production due to its ability to achieve high precision while simultaneously minimizing waste and material costs. Tools created using DED technology gain significant durability through the utilization of high-performance materials such as nickel alloys and tool steels. For high-temperature applications, Nimonic 80A alloy is applied, while for cold applications, M2 tool steel is used. The addition of ceramic materials, such as tungsten carbide, can significantly increase the tool's resistance. The introduction of functionally graded materials is a significant contribution, opening up new possibilities for gradual changes in the mechanical properties of the tool and optimizing its performance in different sections according to specific requirements. In this work, you will find an overview of individual applications and their utilization in the industry. Microstructural analyses have been conducted, providing detailed insights into the structure of individual components alongside examinations of the mechanical properties and tool life. These analyses offer a deeper understanding of the efficiency and reliability of the created tools, which is a key element for successful development in the field of cutting and forming tools. The production of functional surfaces and edges using DED technology can result in financial savings, as the entire tool doesn't have to be manufactured from expensive special alloys. The tool can be made from common steel, onto which a functional surface from special materials can be applied. Additionally, it allows for tool repairs after wear and tear, eliminating the need for producing a new part and contributing to an overall cost while reducing the environmental footprint. Overall, the combination of DED technology, functionally graded materials, and verified technologies collectively set a new standard for innovative and efficient development of cutting and forming tools in the modern industrial environment.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, directed energy deposition, DED, laser, cutting tools, forming tools, steel, nickel alloy

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2432 Graphene-reinforced Metal-organic Framework Derived Cobalt Sulfide/Carbon Nanocomposites as Efficient Multifunctional Electrocatalysts

Authors: Yongde Xia, Laicong Deng, Zhuxian Yang

Abstract:

Developing cost-effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is vital in energy conversion and storage applications. Herein, we report a simple method for the synthesis of graphene-reinforced cobalt sulfide/carbon nanocomposites and the evaluation of their electrocatalytic performance for typical electrocatalytic reactions. Nanocomposites of cobalt sulfide embedded in N, S co-doped porous carbon and graphene (CoS@C/Graphene) were generated via simultaneous sulfurization and carbonization of one-pot synthesized graphite oxide-ZIF-67 precursors. The obtained CoS@C/Graphene nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis-Mass spectroscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy, Transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and gas sorption. It was found that cobalt sulfide nanoparticles were homogenously dispersed in the in-situ formed N, S co-doped porous carbon/Graphene matrix. The CoS@C/10Graphene composite not only shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward ORR with high onset potential of 0.89 V, four-electron pathway and superior durability of maintaining 98% current after continuously running for around 5 hours, but also exhibits good performance for OER and HER, due to the improved electrical conductivity, increased catalytic active sites and connectivity between the electrocatalytic active cobalt sulfide and the carbon matrix. This work offers a new approach for the development of novel multifunctional nanocomposites for the next generation of energy conversion and storage applications.

Keywords: MOF derivative, graphene, electrocatalyst, oxygen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction

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2431 Revolutionary Microfluidic Immunosensor with Magnetofluidic and Capacitive Technologies for Real-Time Proinflammatory Pathology Monitoring

Authors: Nessrine Jebari, Elisabeth Dufour-Gergam, Mehdi Ammar

Abstract:

This research introduces an integrative microfluidic immunosensor, ingeniously conceived for the real-time surveillance of proinflammatory conditions. By harnessing the potential of COMSOL Multiphysics for intricate 3D modelling, this study signifies a notable leap in the domain of biomedical diagnostics. Our development, akin to a patch, fulfills the growing demand for non-intrusive monitoring apparatuses, and inaugurates innovative approaches for the identification and quantification of biomarkers in sweat. This is achieved through a synergistic approach of magnetofluidic manipulation and capacitive detection methodologies. Central to the device’s architecture is the employment of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) tagged with biomarkers. The apparatus is composed of two fundamental segments: the primary segment includes a series of microcoils for enhanced MNP entrapment and microfluidic blending, while the secondary segment comprises a stratified arrangement of a microcoil alongside copper electrodes, serving as a capacitor for capacitive measurement. Our findings reveal the immunosensor's formidable detection capabilities, exhibiting a sensitivity scope of 60% to 75% with 70% MNP saturation. These results underscore its potential to surpass the boundaries of traditional biosensors, offering improved consistency and precision. Moreover, the immunosensor is adept at identifying a wide array of pathogens, encompassing bacteria, and is compatible with other diagnostic methods for concurrent detection of multiple biomarkers. This versatility renders it an invaluable asset in both clinical and research environments.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics 3d simulation, microfluidic immunosensor, magnetofluidic manipulation, magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)trapping, laboratory-on-patch technology

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2430 Corrosion Protection and Failure Mechanism of ZrO₂ Coating on Zirconium Alloy Zry-4 under Varied LiOH Concentrations in Lithiated Water at 360°C and 18.5 MPa

Authors: Guanyu Jiang, Donghai Xu, Huanteng Liu

Abstract:

After the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the development of accident tolerant fuel cladding materials to improve reactor safety has become a hot topic in the field of nuclear industry. ZrO₂ has a satisfactory neutron economy and can guarantee the fission chain reaction process, which enables it to be a promising coating for zirconium alloy cladding. Maintaining a good corrosion resistance in primary coolant loop during normal operations of Pressurized Water Reactors is a prerequisite for ZrO₂ as a protective coating on zirconium alloy cladding. Research on the corrosion performance of ZrO₂ coating in nuclear water chemistry is relatively scarce, and existing reports failed to provide an in-depth explanation for the failure causes of ZrO₂ coating. Herein, a detailed corrosion process of ZrO₂ coating in lithiated water at 360 °C and 18.5 MPa was proposed based on experimental research and molecular dynamics simulation. Lithiated water with different LiOH solutions in the present work was deaerated and had a dissolved oxygen concentration of < 10 ppb. The concentration of Li (as LiOH) was determined to be 2.3 ppm, 70 ppm, and 500 ppm, respectively. Corrosion tests were conducted in a static autoclave. Modeling and corresponding calculations were operated on Materials Studio software. The calculation of adsorption energy and dynamics parameters were undertaken by the Energy task and Dynamics task of the Forcite module, respectively. The protective effect and failure mechanism of ZrO₂ coating on Zry-4 under varied LiOH concentrations was further revealed by comparison with the coating corrosion performance in pure water (namely 0 ppm Li). ZrO₂ coating provided a favorable corrosion protection with the occurrence of localized corrosion at low LiOH concentrations. Factors influencing corrosion resistance mainly include pitting corrosion extension, enhanced Li+ permeation, short-circuit diffusion of O²⁻ and ZrO₂ phase transformation. In highly-concentrated LiOH solutions, intergranular corrosion, internal oxidation, and perforation resulted in coating failure. Zr ions were released to coating surface to form flocculent ZrO₂ and ZrO₂ clusters due to the strong diffusion and dissolution tendency of α-Zr in the Zry-4 substrate. Considering that primary water of Pressurized Water Reactors usually includes 2.3 ppm Li, the stability of ZrO₂ make itself a candidate fuel cladding coating material. Under unfavorable conditions with high Li concentrations, more boric acid should be added to alleviate caustic corrosion of ZrO₂ coating once it is used. This work can provide some references to understand the service behavior of nuclear coatings under variable water chemistry conditions and promote the in-pile application of ZrO₂ coating.

Keywords: ZrO₂ coating, Zry-4, corrosion behavior, failure mechanism, LiOH concentration

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2429 Characterization of the Worn Surfaces of Brake Discs and Friction Materials after Dynobench Tests

Authors: Ana Paula Gomes Nogueira, Pietro Tonolini, Andrea Bonfanti

Abstract:

Automotive braking systems must convert kinetic into thermal energy by friction. Nowadays, the disc brake system is the most widespread configuration on the automotive market, which its specific configuration provides a very efficient heat dissipation. At the same time, both discs and pads wear out. Different wear mechanisms can act during the braking, which makes the understanding of the phenomenon essential for the strategies to be applied when an increased lifetime of the components is required. In this study, a specific characterization approach was conducted to analyze the worn surfaces of commercial pad friction materials and its conterface cast iron disc after dynobench tests. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), confocal microscope, and focus ion beam microscope (FIB) were used as the main tools of the analysis, and they allowed imaging of the footprint of the different wear mechanisms presenting on the worn surfaces. Aspects such as the temperature and specific ingredients of the pad friction materials are discussed since they play an important role in the wear mechanisms.

Keywords: wear mechanism, surface characterization, brake tests, friction materials, disc brake

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2428 Advancing Environmental Remediation Through the Production of Functional Porous Materials from Phosphorite Residue Tailings

Authors: Ali Mohammed Yimer, Ayalew Assen, Youssef Belmabkhout

Abstract:

Environmental remediation is a pressing global concern, necessitating innovative strategies to address the challenges posed by industrial waste and pollution. This study aims to advance environmental remediation by developing cutting-edge functional porous materials from phosphorite residue tailings. Phosphorite mining activities generate vast amounts of waste, which pose significant environmental risks due to their contaminants. The proposed approach involved transforming these phosphorite residue tailings into valuable porous materials through a series of physico-chemical processes including milling, acid-base leaching, designing or templating as well as formation processes. The key components of the tailings were extracted and processed to produce porous arrays with high surface area and porosity. These materials were engineered to possess specific properties suitable for environmental remediation applications, such as enhanced adsorption capacity and selectivity for target contaminants. The synthesized porous materials were thoroughly characterized using advanced analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, N2 sorption, TGA, FTIR) to assess their structural, morphological, and chemical properties. The performance of the materials in removing various pollutants, including heavy metals and organic compounds, were evaluated through batch adsorption experiments. Additionally, the potential for material regeneration and reusability was investigated to enhance the sustainability of the proposed remediation approach. The outdoors of this research holds significant promise for addressing the environmental challenges associated with phosphorite residue tailings. By valorizing these waste materials into porous materials with exceptional remediation capabilities, this study contributes to the development of sustainable and cost-effective solutions for environmental cleanup. Furthermore, the utilization of phosphorite residue tailings in this manner offers a potential avenue for the remediation of other contaminated sites, thereby fostering a circular economy approach to waste management.

Keywords: functional porous materials, phosphorite residue tailings, adsorption, environmental remediation, sustainable solutions

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2427 A Comparative Analysis of Traditional and Advanced Methods in Evaluating Anti-corrosion Performance of Sacrificial and Barrier Coatings

Authors: Kazem Sabet-Bokati, Ilia Rodionov, Marciel Gaier, Kevin Plucknett

Abstract:

Protective coatings play a pivotal role in mitigating corrosion and preserving the integrity of metallic structures exposed to harsh environmental conditions. The diversity of corrosive environments necessitates the development of protective coatings suitable for various conditions. Accurately selecting and interpreting analysis methods is crucial in identifying the most suitable protective coatings for the various corrosive environments. This study conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis of traditional and advanced methods to assess the anti-corrosion performance of sacrificial and barrier coatings. The protective performance of pure epoxy, zinc-rich epoxy, and cold galvanizing coatings was evaluated using salt spray tests, together with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The performance of each coating was thoroughly differentiated under both atmospheric and immersion conditions. The distinct protective performance of each coating against atmospheric corrosion was assessed using traditional standard methods. Additionally, the electrochemical responses of these coatings in immersion conditions were systematically studied, and a detailed discussion on interpreting the electrochemical responses is provided. Zinc-rich epoxy and cold galvanizing coatings offer superior anti-corrosion performance against atmospheric corrosion, while the pure epoxy coating excels in immersion conditions.

Keywords: corrosion, barrier coatings, sacrificial coatings, salt-spray, EIS, polarization

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2426 Molecular Simulation Study on the Catalytic Role of Silicon-Doped Graphene in Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

Authors: Wilmer Esteban Vallejo Narváez, Serguei Fomine

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation of Si-doped graphene nanoflakes (NFs) was conducted to understand their catalytic impact on CO₂ reduction using molecular hydrogen at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level. The introduction of silicon by substituting carbon induces defects in the NF structure, resulting in a polyradical ground state. This silicon defect significantly boosts reactivity towards substrates, making Si-doped graphene NFs more catalytically active in CO₂ reduction to formic acid compared to silicene. Notably, Si-doped graphene demonstrates a preference for formic acid over carbon monoxide, mirroring the behavior of silicene. Furthermore, investigations into formic acid-to-formaldehyde and formaldehyde-to-methanol conversions reveal instances where Si-doped graphene outperforms silicene in terms of efficacy. In the final reduction step, the methanol-to-methane reaction unfolds in four stages, with the rate-determining step involving hydrogen transfer from silicon to methyl. Notably, the activation energy for this step is lower in Si-doped graphene compared to silicene. Consequently, Si-doped graphene NFs emerge as superior catalysts with lower activation energies overall. Remarkably, throughout these catalytic processes, Si-doped graphene maintains environmental stability, further highlighting its enhanced catalytic activity without compromising graphene's inherent stability.

Keywords: silicon-doped graphene, CO₂ reduction, DFT, catalysis

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2425 Influence of the 3D Printing Parameters on the Dynamic Characteristics of Composite Structures

Authors: Ali Raza, Rūta Rimašauskienė

Abstract:

In the current work, the fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique is used to manufacture PLA reinforced with carbon fibre composite structures with two unique layer patterns, 0°\0° and 0°\90°. The purpose of the study is to investigate the dynamic characteristics of each fabricated composite structure. The Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) is embedded with 0°/0° and 0°/90° structures to investigate the effect of an MFC (M8507-P2 type) patch on vibration amplitude suppression under dynamic loading circumstances. First, modal analysis testing was performed using a Polytec 3D laser vibrometer to identify bending mode shapes, natural frequencies, and vibration amplitudes at the corresponding natural frequencies. To determine the stiffness of each structure, several loads were applied at the free end of the structure, and the deformation was recorded using a laser displacement sensor. The findings confirm that a structure with 0°\0° layers pattern was found to have more stiffness compared to a 0°\90° structure. The maximum amplitude suppression in each structure was measured using a laser displacement sensor at the first resonant frequency when the control voltage signal with optimal phase was applied to the MFC. The results confirm that the 0°/0° pattern's structure exhibits a higher displacement reduction than the 0°/90° pattern. Moreover, stiffer structures have been found to perform amplitude suppression more effectively.

Keywords: carbon fibre composite, MFC, modal analysis stiffness, stiffness

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2424 The Microstructure Development Behavior of Mg-Ag Alloy during High-Temperature Plane Strain Deformation

Authors: Jimin Yun, Yebeen Ji, Kwonhoo Kim

Abstract:

Magnesium and Mg-Ag system alloys are known to be promising biomaterials due to their high specific strengths and biocompatibility. Because the limited numbers of slip systems were activated in the HCP structure at room temperature, their formability was low. To solve these problems, much research about the improvement of room-temperature formability has been studied, but the microstructure development behaviors of Mg-Ag alloys were still limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the texture development behaviors of Mg-Ag alloy during high-temperature plane strain deformation. The Ag content of the Mg-Ag alloy used in this study was 3.0, 5.0, and 9.0 wt%. Hot rolling was performed at a temperature of 673K with a reduction ratio of 25%, and these specimens were annealed for 1H at 773K, followed by water quenching at room temperature. High-temperature plane strain deformation was performed under temperatures of 623K and 723K, with strain rates from 0.1/s to 0.05/s and strain from -0.4 to –1.0. As a result, it showed a microstructure and texture similar to the AZ61 alloy, which had been studied previously. It was confirmed that the basal texture became stronger with increasing strains at high-temperature plane strain deformation.

Keywords: Mg-Ag, texture, microstructure development behavior, AZ61

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2423 Deregulation of Thorium for Room Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: Dong Zhao

Abstract:

Abstract—Extensive research on obtaining applicable room temperature superconductors meets the major barrier, and the record Tc of 135 K achieved via cuprate has been idling for decades. Even though, the accomplishment of higher Tc than the cuprate was made through pressurizing certain compounds composed of light elements, such as for the LaH10 and for the metallic hydrogen. Room temperature superconductivity under ambient pressure is still the preferred approach and is believed to be the ultimate solution for many applications. While racing to find the breakthrough method to achieve this room temperature Tc milestone in superconducting research, a report stated a discovery of a possible high-temperature superconductor, i.e., the thorium sulfide ThS. Apparently, ThS’s Tc can be at room temperature or even higher. This is because ThS revealed an unusual property of the ‘coexistence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism’. Noticed that this property of coexistence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism is in line with superconductors, meaning ThS is also at its superconducting state. Surprisingly, ThS owns the property of superconductivity at least at room temperature and under atmosphere pressure. Further study of the ThS’s electrical and magnetic properties in comparison with thorium di-iodide ThI2 concluded its molecular configuration as [Th4+(e-)2]S. This means the ThS’s cation is composed of a [Th4+(e-)2]2+ cation core. It is noticed that this cation core is built by an oxidation state +4 of thorium atom plus an electron pair on this thorium atom that resulted in an oxidation state +2 of this [Th4+(e-)2]2+ cation core. This special construction of [Th4+(e-)2]2+ cation core may lead to the ThS’s room temperature superconductivity because of this characteristic electron lone pair residing on the thorium atom. Since the study of thorium chemistry was carried out in the period of before 1970s. the exploration about ThS’s possible room temperature superconductivity would require resynthesizing ThS. This re-preparation of ThS will provide the sample and enable professionals to verify the ThS’s room temperature superconductivity. Regrettably, the current regulation prevents almost everyone from getting access to thorium metal or thorium compounds due to the radioactive nature of thorium-232 (Th-232), even though the radioactive level of Th-232 is extremely low with its half-life of 14.05 billion years. Consequently, further confirmation of ThS’s high-temperature superconductivity through experiments will be impossible unless the use of corresponding thorium metal and related thorium compounds can be deregulated. This deregulation would allow researchers to obtain the necessary starting materials for the study of ThS. Hopefully, the confirmation of ThS’s room temperature superconductivity can not only establish a method to obtain applicable superconductors but also to pave the way for fully understanding the mechanism of superconductivity.

Keywords: co-existence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism, electron pairing and electron lone pair, room temperature superconductivity, the special molecular configuration of thorium sulfide ThS

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2422 Effect of Microstructure and Texture of Magnesium Alloy Due to Addition of Pb

Authors: Yebeen Ji, Jimin Yun, Kwonhoo Kim

Abstract:

Magnesium alloys were limited for industrial applications due to having a limited slip system and high plastic anisotropy. It has been known that specific textures were formed during processing (rolling, etc.), and These textures cause poor formability. To solve these problems, many researchers have studied controlling texture by adding rare-earth elements. However, the high cost limits their use; therefore, alternatives are needed to replace them. Although Pb addition doesn’t directly improve magnesium properties, it has been known to suppress the diffusion of other alloying elements and reduce grain boundary energy. These characteristics are similar to the additions of rare-earth elements, and a similar texture behavior is expected as well. However, there is insufficient research on this. Therefore, this study investigates the behavior of texture and microstructure development after adding Pb to magnesium. This study compared and analyzed AZ61 alloy and Mg-15wt%Pb alloy to determine the effect of adding solute elements. The alloy was hot rolled and annealed to form a single phase and initial texture. Afterward, the specimen was set to contraction and elongate parallel to the rolling surface and the rolling direction and then subjected to high-temperature plane strain compression under the conditions of 723K and 0.05/s. Microstructural analysis and texture measurements were performed by SEM-EBSD. The peak stress in the true strain-stress curve after compression was higher in AZ61, but the shape of the flow curve was similar for both alloys. For both alloys, continuous dynamic recrystallization was confirmed to occur during the compression process. The basal texture developed parallel to the compressed surface, and the pole density was lower in the Mg-15wt%Pb alloy. It is confirmed that this change in behavior is because the orientation distribution of recrystallized grains has a more random orientation compared to the parent grains when Pb is added.

Keywords: Mg, texture, Pb, DRX

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