Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2249

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Metallurgical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2249 Iron Recovery from Red Mud as ZVI Iron Metal Powder Using Electrolysis Reduction Method

Authors: Franky Michael Hamonangan Siagian, Affan Maulana, Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrus, Panut Mulyono, Widi Astuti

Abstract:

In this study, the feasibility of the direct electrowinning method was used to produce zero-valent iron from red mud. The bauxite residue sample came from the Tayan mine, Indonesia, which contains high hematite (Fe₂O₃). Before electrolysis, the samples were characterized by various analytical techniques (ICP-AES, SEM, XRD) to determine their chemical composition and mineralogy. The direct electrowinning method of red mud suspended in NaOH was introduced at low temperatures ranging from 30 - 110 °C. Variations of current density, red mud: NaOH ratio and temperature were carried out to determine the optimum operation of the direct electrowinning process. Cathode deposits and residues in electrochemical cells were analyzed using XRD, XRF, and SEM to determine the chemical composition and current recovery. The low-temperature electrolysis current efficiency on Redmud can reach 20% recovery at a current density of 920,945 A/m². The moderate performance of the process was investigated with red mud, which was attributed to the troublesome adsorption of red mud particles on the cathode, making the reduction far less efficient than that with hematite.

Keywords: alumina, red mud, electrochemical reduction, iron production

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2248 The Durability of Reinforced Auto-Compacted Concrete

Authors: Pola Atef Wenged Gerges

Abstract:

For conventional concretes without steel fibres, although this aspect is still controversial, there are several commonly used indicators of durability. Therefore, as part of a recent study-project to update SFRSCC mixed panels, tensile-strength tests were done to compare the specification of SFRSCC concrete and self-compacting concrete (SCC) samples. Nine different tests were used for SFRSCC and SCC to characterize their mechanical properties, electrical strength, chloride diffusion through unstable migration, and carbonization. The results for different concretes and curing times up to 28 days were presented and analyzed. Durability is one of the most important aspects of concrete due to its fundamental impact on the lifespan of the concrete. Structures must withstand the mechanical, physical, and chemical damage they are subjected to during their intended lifetime. In this regard, cracking plays a key role in the durability of concrete structures. Measures must therefore be taken to ensure that cracks do not exceed limits that pose a negligible threat to the durability of the elements. Increasing the permeability of the concrete after crack formation and propagation allows water, chlorides, and other corrosive substances to penetrate and promote their degradation report studied the effect of different amounts of steel fibers (0%, 0.5%, 1%) in cracked concrete. The specimens were cracked with a specified crack initiation offset (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 µm). After the cracks were induced, the samples were unloaded, and the cracks relaxed. The ruptured samples were then tested for low pressure water permeability. Two main conclusions can be drawn from these studies: For larger crack widths, steel fibers can repair the cracks, shorten the crack length and reduce the permeability of the crack surface.

Keywords: durability, steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete, corrosion. impact of modular construction, construction practices, housing market, earnings and profits, construction decisions, big data projects, new trends, projecting value chain

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2247 Formation Of In-Situ Composite during Reactive Wetting And Imbibition Ta by Cu(B) Melt

Authors: Sergei Zhevnenko

Abstract:

Сontinuous layer of tantalum boride is formed on the surface as a result of reactive wetting of oxidized tantalum by copper melt with boron at a temperatures above 1150 °C. An increase in the wetting temperature above 1400 °C leads to a change in the formation mechanism of tantalum borides, they are formed in the nanosized flakes. In the presented work, we studied the process of copper-based in-situ composite formation, strengthened by the particles of tantalum borides. We investigated the structure of the formed particles, the conditions, and the kinetics of their formation. Dissolving boride particles do not have time to mix uniformly in the melt upon sufficiently rapid cooling and form a macrostructure, partly repeating the shape of the metallic tantalum. This allows to set different gradient structures in the copper alloy. Such macrostructures have been obtained. Boride particles and microstructures were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and regions with particles were investigated by nanoindentation. In this work, we also measured the kinetics of impregnation of porous tantalum with copper-boron melt and studied the structures of the composite, in which the melt filling the interpore space is saturated with boride particles.

Keywords: copper, tantalum borides, in-situ composites, wetting, imbibition

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2246 Dewatering Agents for Granular Bauxite

Authors: Bruno Diniz Fecchio

Abstract:

Operations have been demanding increasingly challenging operational targets for the dewatering process, requiring lower humidity for concentrates. Chemical dewatering agents are able to improve solid/liquid separation processes, allowing operations to deal with increased complexity caused by either mineralogical changes or seasonal events that present operations with challenging moisture requirements for transportation and downstream steps. These chemicals reduce water retention by reducing the capillary pressure of the mineral and contributing to improved water drainage. This current study addresses the reagent effects on pile dewatering for Bauxite. Such chemicals were able to decrease the moisture of granulated Bauxite (particle size of 5 – 50 mm). The results of the laboratory scale tests and industrial trials presented the obtention of up to 11% relative moisture reduction, which reinforced the strong interaction between dewatering agents and the particle surface of granulated Bauxite. The evaluated dewatering agents, however, did not present any negative impact on these operations.

Keywords: bauxite, dewatering agents, pile dewatering, moisture reduction

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2245 Effect of TERGITOL NP-9 and PEG-10 Oleyl Phosphate as Surfactant and Corrosion Inhibitor on Tribo-Corrosion Performance of Carbon Steel in Emulsion-Based Drilling Fluids

Authors: Mohammadjavad Palimi, D. Y. Li, E. Kuru

Abstract:

Emulsion-based drilling fluids containing mineral oil are commonly used for drilling operations, which generate a lubricating film to prevent direct contact between moving metal parts, thus reducing friction, wear, and corrosion. For long-lasting lubrication, the thin lubricating film formed on the metal surface should possess good anti-wear and anti-corrosion capabilities. This study aims to investigate the effects of two additives, TERGITOL NP-9 and PEG-10 oleyl phosphate, acting as surfactant and corrosion inhibitor, respectively, on the tribo-corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel immersed in 5% KCl solution at room temperature. A pin-on-disc tribometer attached to an electrochemical system was used to investigate the corrosive wear of the steel immersed in emulsion-based fluids containing the surfactant and corrosion inhibitor. The wear track, surface chemistry, and composition of the protective film formed on the steel surface were analyzed with an optical profilometer, SEM, and SEM-EDX. Results of the study demonstrate that the performance of the emulsion-based drilling fluids was significantly improved by the corrosion inhibitor by a remarkable reduction in corrosion, coefficient of friction (COF), and wear.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, emulsion-based drilling fluid, tribo-corrosion, friction, wear

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2244 Semi-pilot Biooxidation of Refractory Sulfide-Gold Ore Using Ferroplasma Acidophilum: D-(+)-Sucsore as a Booster and Columns Tests

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Karimi Darvanjooghi, Sara Magdouli, Satinder Kaur Brar

Abstract:

It has been reported that the microorganism’s attachment to the surfaces of ore samples is a key factor that influences the biooxidation in pretreatment for recovery of gold in sulfide-bearing ores. In this research, the implementation of D-(+)-Sucrose on the biooxidation of ore samples were studied in a semi-pilot experiment. The experiments were carried out in five separate jacketed columns (1 m height and 6 cm diameter) at a constant temperature of 37.5 ̊C and saturated humidity. The airflow rate and recycling solution flow rate were studied in the research and the optimum operating condition were reported. The ore sample (0.49 ppm gold grade) was obtained from the Hammond Reef mine site containing 15 wt.% of pyrite which included 98% of gold according to the results of micrograph images. The experiments were continued up to 100 days while air flow rates were chosen to be 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 lit/min and the recycling solution (Containing 9K media and 0.4 wt.% D-(+)-Sucrose) flow rates were kept 5, 8, 15 ml/hr. The results indicated that the addition of D-(+)-Sucrose increased the bacterial activity due to the overproduction of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) up to 95% and for the condition that the recycling solution and air flow rate were chosen to be 8 ml/hr and 2 lit/min, respectively, the maximum pyrite dissolution of 76% was obtained after 60 days. The results indicated that for the air flow rates of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 lit/min the ratio of daily pyrite dissolution per daily solution lost were found to be 0.025, 0.033, 0.031, 0.043, and 0.009 %-pyrite dissolution/ml-lost. The implementation of this microorganisms and the addition of D-(+)-Sucrose will enhance the efficiency of gold recovery through faster biooxidation process and leads to decrease in the time and energy of operation toward desired target; however, still other parameters including particle size distribution, agglomeration, aeration design, chemistry of recycling solution need to be controlled and monitored for reaching the optimum condition.

Keywords: column tests, biooxidation, gold recovery, Ferroplasma acidophilum, optimization

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2243 Effect of Modifiers (Sr/Sb) and Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and Wear Properties of Al-11Si-3Cu-0.5Mg Alloys

Authors: Sheng-Long Lee, Tse-An Pan

Abstract:

In this study, an optical microscope (OM), electron microscope (SEM), electrical conductivity meter (% IACS), hardness test, and wear test were subjected to analyze the microstructure of the wrought Al-11Si-3Cu-0.5Mg alloys. The effect of eutectic silicon morphology and alloy hardness on wear properties was investigated. The results showed that in the cast state, the morphology of eutectic silicon modified by strontium and antimony is lamellar and finer fibrous structure. After homogenization, the eutectic Si modified by Sr coarsened, and the eutectic Si modified by Sb refined due to fragmentation. The addition of modifiers, hot rolling, and solution aging treatment can control eutectic silicon morphology and hardness. The finer eutectic silicon and higher hardness have better wear resistance. During the wearing process, a protective oxide layer, also known as Mechanical Mixed Layer (MML), is formed on the surface of the alloy. The MML has higher stability and cracking resistance in Sr-modified alloys than in Sb-modified alloys. The study found that the wearing behavior of Al-11Si-3Cu-0.5Mg alloy was enhanced by the combination of adding Sr with lower solution time and T6 peak aging.

Keywords: Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy, eutectic silicon, heat treatment, wear property

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2242 Improvement of Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of AA7056 Aluminum Alloys by the Non-isothermal Aging Process

Authors: Tse-An Pan, Sheng-Long Lee

Abstract:

The effect of non-isothermal aging on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Al-9Zn-2.3Mg-1.9Cu (AA7056) alloys was investigated. The results revealed that thick materials were limited to retrogression and re-aging treatment (RRA). It could not reach the retrogression temperature in the RRA treatment. Compared with the RRA treatment, the non-isothermal aging (NIA) treatment produced discontinuous precipitates at grain boundaries, while the intragranular precipitates were fine and dense. The strength was similar to that of the RRA treatment; the corrosion resistance of the alloy was significantly improved by NIA aging. NIA treatment was less affected by the thickness of the alloy. The difference between the actual temperature and the setting temperature of the alloy is minimal during the aging process. The combination of properties could overcome the fact that RRA treatment cannot handle thick materials.

Keywords: Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, corrosion, retrogression, re-aging, non-isothermal aging

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2241 Iron Recovery from Red Mud as Zero-Valent Iron Metal Powder Using Direct Electrochemical Reduction Method

Authors: Franky Michael Hamonangan Siagian, Affan Maulana, Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrus, Widi Astuti

Abstract:

In this study, the feasibility of the direct electrowinning method was used to produce zero-valent iron from red mud. The bauxite residue sample came from the Tayan mine, Indonesia, which contains high hematite (Fe₂O₃). Before electrolysis, the samples were characterized by various analytical techniques (ICP-AES, SEM, XRD) to determine their chemical composition and mineralogy. The direct electrowinning method of red mud suspended in NaOH was introduced at low temperatures ranging from 30 - 110 °C. Variations of current density, red mud: NaOH ratio and temperature were carried out to determine the optimum operation of the direct electrowinning process. Cathode deposits and residues in electrochemical cells were analyzed using XRD, XRF, and SEM to determine the chemical composition and current recovery. The low-temperature electrolysis current efficiency on Redmud can reach 20% recovery at a current density of 920,945 A/m². The moderate performance of the process was investigated with red mud, which was attributed to the troublesome adsorption of red mud particles on the cathode, making the reduction far less efficient than that with hematite.

Keywords: red mud, electrochemical reduction, Iron production, hematite

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2240 X Ray Analysis of InAs-CrAs Eutectic Systems

Authors: Mobil Kazimov, Guseyn İbragimov

Abstract:

InAs-CrAs systems are synthesized by the vertical Bridgman–Stockbarger method. XRD analysis and microstructural study of InAs-CrAs composites show that CrAs metallic inclusions are uniformly distributed in the InAs matrices.

Keywords: XRD, eutectic alloy, SEM, EDX

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2239 Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a 16MND5 Steel Manufactured by Innovative WAAM SAW Process

Authors: F. Villaret, I. Jacot, Y. Shen, Z. Kong, T. XU, Y. Wang, D. Lu

Abstract:

Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) allows the rapid production of large, homogeneous parts with complex geometry. However, in the nuclear field, parts can reach dimensions of ten to a hundred tons. In this case, the usual WAAM TIG or CMT processes do not have sufficient deposition rates to consider the manufacture of parts of such dimensions within a reasonable time. The submerged arc welding process (SAW, Submerged Arc Welding) allows much higher deposition rates. Although there are very few references to this process for additive manufacturing in the literature, it has been used for a long time for the welding and coating of nuclear power plant vessels, so this process is well-known and mastered as a welding process. This study proposes to evaluate the SAW process as an additive manufacturing technique by taking as an example a low-alloy steel of type 16MND5. In the first step, a parametric study allowed the evaluation of the effect of the different parameters and the deposition rate on the geometry of the beads and their microstructure. Larger parts were also fabricated and characterized by metallography and mechanical tests (tensile, impact, toughness). The effect of different heat treatments on the microstructure is also studied.

Keywords: WAAM, low alloy steel, submerged arc, caracterization

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2238 An in Situ Dna Content Detection Enabled by Organic Long-persistent Luminescence Materials with Tunable Afterglow-time in Water and Air

Authors: Desissa Yadeta Muleta

Abstract:

Purely organic long-persistent luminescence materials (OLPLMs) have been developed as emerging organic materials due to their simple production process, low preparation cost and better biocompatibilities. Notably, OLPLMs with afterglow-time-tunable long-persistent luminescence (LPL) characteristics enable higher-level protection applications and have great prospects in biological applications. The realization of these advanced performances depends on our ability to gradually tune LPL duration under ambient conditions, however, the strategies to achieve this are few due to the lack of unambiguous mechanisms. Here, we propose a two-step strategy to gradually tune LPL duration of OLPLMs over a wide range of seconds in water and air, by using derivatives as the guest and introducing a third-party material into the host-immobilized host–guest doping system. Based on this strategy, we develop an analysis method for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content detection without DNA separation in aqueous samples, which circumvents the influence of the chromophore, fluorophore and other interferents in vivo, enabling a certain degree of in situ detection that is difficult to achieve using today’s methods. This work will expedite the development of afterglow-time-tunable OLPLMs and expand new horizons for their applications in data protection, bio-detection, and bio-sensing

Keywords: deoxyribonucliec acid, long persistent luminescent materials, water, air

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2237 Potential Application Of Modified Diglycolamide Resin For Rare Earth Element Extraction

Authors: Junnile Romero, Ilhwan Park, Vannie Joy Resabal, Carlito Tabelin, Richard Alorro, Leaniel Silva, Joshua Zoleta, Takunda Mandu, Kosei Aikawa, Mayumi Ito, Naoki Hiroyoshi

Abstract:

Rare earth elements (REE) play a vital role in technological advancement due to their unique physical and chemical properties essential for various renewable energy applications. However, this increasing demand represents a challenging task for sustainability that corresponds to various research interests relating to the development of various extraction techniques, particularly on the extractant being used. In this study, TK221 (a modified polymer resin containing diglycolamide, carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), and diglycolamide (DGA-N)) has been investigated as a conjugate extractant. FTIR and SEM analysis results confirmed the presence of CMPO and DGA-N being coated onto the PS-DVB support of TK221. Moreover, the kinetic rate law and adsorption isotherm batch test was investigated to understand the corresponding adsorption mechanism. The results show that REEs’ (Nd, Y, Ce, and Er) obtained pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm, suggesting that the adsorption mechanism undergoes a single monolayer adsorption site via a chemisorption process. The Qmax values of Nd, Ce, Er, Y, and Fe were 45.249 mg/g, 43.103 mg/g, 35.088 mg/g, 15.552 mg/g, and 12.315 mg/g, respectively. This research further suggests that TK221 polymer resin can be used as an alternative absorbent material for an effective REE extraction.

Keywords: rare earth element, diglycolamide, characterization, extraction resin

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2236 Investigation of Conversion of High Carbon Ferrochrome Metal Powders to Mass Ferrochrome Product

Authors: Gökhan Başman, Hande ArdiçoğLu

Abstract:

In this study, melting of high carbon ferrochrome metal powder that produced in Eti Krom Inc. facilities with using induction melting technology was investigated. High carbon ferrochrome is obtained by melting chromite ore of certain grades together with metallurgical coke and auxiliary raw materials in electric arc furnaces (EAF) with submersion. Coke is used as a reductant to convert chromite ore, which is oxidized during production, into metallic form. Metal powder (0-1 mm) generated in the related processes cannot be fed back to the electric arc furnaces (EAF). For this reason, the necessity of evaluating high grade metal powders has emerged. In this scope, 0-1 mm metal powder was melted using induction furnaces that have 25 and 500 kg capacity in the R&D Metallurgy Laboratory. At the first phase of study, 0-1 mm metal powder was tried to be melted by using 10-50 mm metal and steel scrap. In the next phases, for melting metal powder, ladle bottom metal that remains from EAF ladle bottom was used. Depending on these three variables, more than one melting was taken. In conclusion, ferrochrome product with chromium grade above 62% and Sulphur value below the reference value of 0.05% was obtained.

Keywords: pyrometallurgy, high carbon ferrochrome, electric arc furnace, induction furnace

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2235 Utilization of Solid Waste Materials to Produce Glass-Ceramic Tiles

Authors: Sonjida Mustafia

Abstract:

Glass-ceramic is a material that contains both the properties of glass and ceramic within. They always contain a residual glassy phase and one or more embedded crystalline phases. Ceramic tiles are very popular in the world because of their high structural strength, low absorption, increased hygiene, and hot and cold insulation. Glass-ceramic materials are used to produce marble-like floor and wall tiles. There are a huge amount of waste materials like rice husk ash (RHA), waste iron, waste glass, and other industrial solid waste in Bangladesh, which can be used to produce glass-ceramic floor and wall tiles. The raw materials (rice husk ash, waste glass, and k-feldspar) are a mixture, and the mixture is melted to form glass frit at 1175°C. The frits are grained to require fine particle size. The powder is moistened in 7-8% water with sodium silicate. The green glass-ceramic tiles were fired at different temperatures (800–1100°C) for a soaking time of 1 hour to form glass-ceramic tiles and to study the sintering-crystallization process. The results reveal that the modulus of rupture increases with increasing sintering temperature and reaches the highest value (95.25Mpa) at 925°C. Glossiness and linear shrinkage increase with increasing temperature.

Keywords: rice husk ash, waste glass, glass-ceramic, modulus of rupture, glossiness, linear shrinkage, micro-structure

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2234 Effects of Climatic Aging on the Performance of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Used in Power Cables Insulation

Authors: Djaffar Bouguedad, Sarah Tagzirt, Abdelouahab Mekhaldi, Issouf Fofana

Abstract:

This work is performed to better understand the weathering degradation of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) properties used in medium voltage power cable insulation. The climatic aging time acted as a parameter to help design more efficient materials. The samples were exposed to extreme weathering for approximately six months in the city of Tizi-Ouzou in northern Algeria. The electrical and mechanical tests matrix include transverse resistivity, dielectric strength, dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, as well as tensile strength and elongation at break. The results show that after this period of exposure to the weathering conditions, the transverse resistivity and elongation at break were significantly affected, while the other properties were only slightly affected. Exposure to weathering also caused changes in the color of the material. Stiffening of its surface led to an increase in surface cracks. The oxidation phenomenon, which is accompanied by chain scissions, would probably be responsible for these macroscopic signs of degradation. Since the obtained results showed that some properties were affected more than others, it is therefore desirable to extend the accelerated aging times, representative to the lifetime, and deduce the optimal time to achieve a consequent degradation of the studied material. More studies are therefore needed to predict the true behavior of this polymer in order to design a more efficient material. These anticipated tests will determine the service life of the material.

Keywords: chain scissions, climatic aging, electrical properties, EPDM, mechanical properties

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2233 Correlation Between Ore Mineralogy and the Dissolution Behavior of K-Feldspar

Authors: Adrian Keith Caamino, Sina Shakibania, Lena Sunqvist-Öqvist, Jan Rosenkranz, Yousef Ghorbani

Abstract:

Feldspar minerals are one of the main components of the earth’s crust. They are tectosilicate, meaning that they mainly contain aluminum and silicon. Besides aluminum and silicon, they contain either potassium, sodium, or calcium. Accordingly, feldspar minerals are categorized into three main groups: K-feldspar, Na-feldspar, and Ca-feldspar. In recent years, the trend to use K-feldspar has grown tremendously, considering its potential to produce potash and alumina. However, the feldspar minerals, in general, are difficult to decompose for the dissolution of their metallic components. Several methods, including intensive milling, leaching under elevated pressure and temperature, thermal pretreatment, and the use of corrosive leaching reagents, have been proposed to improve its low dissolving efficiency. In this study, as part of the POTASSIAL EU project, to overcome the low dissolution efficiency of the K-feldspar components, mechanical activation using intensive milling followed by leaching using hydrochloric acid (HCl) was practiced. Grinding operational parameters, namely time, rotational speed, and ball-to-sample weight ratio, were studied using the Taguchi optimization method. Then, the mineralogy of the grinded samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with automated quantitative mineralogy. After grinding, the prepared samples were subjected to HCl leaching. In the end, the dissolution efficiency of the main elements and impurities of different samples were correlated to the mineralogical characterization results. K-feldspar component dissolution is correlated with ore mineralogy, which provides insight into how to best optimize leaching conditions for selective dissolution. Further, it will have an effect on purifying steps taken afterward and the final value recovery procedures

Keywords: K-feldspar, grinding, automated mineralogy, impurity, leaching

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2232 Low-Density Nanocellular Foam Based on PMMA/PEBAX Blend for Thermal Insulation Application

Authors: Nigus Maregu Demewoz, Shu-Kai Yeh

Abstract:

Low-density nano cellular foam is a fascinating new-generation advanced material due to its mechanical strength and thermal insulation properties. In nano cellular foam, reducing the density increases the insulation ability. However, producing a nano cellular foam of densities less than 0.3 with a cell size of less than 100 nm is very challenging. In this study, we added 2 wt% of PEBAX with a PMMA matrix, and the PEBAX nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PMMA matrix. The result showed that we successfully produced a nano cellular foam of cell size less than 100 nm with a relative density of 0.2. A new generation special, bouquet-like nano cellular structure was able to produce for the second time. In addition to thermal insulation applications, the bouquet-like nano cellular foam may apply for filtration.

Keywords: nano cellular foam, low-density, cell size, relative density

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2231 Non-Homogeneity in a Thick Walled Rotating Circular Cylinder under Varying Pressure

Authors: Jatinder Kaur, Pankaj Thakur

Abstract:

The effect of pressure and temperature in non-homogeneous circular cylinder by taking non-homogeneity of material in terms of compressibility c=c₀r⁻ᵏ has been observed. From the results, it could be seen that for K<0, high pressure is required in the initial yielding state than for the case K >0. Under thermal conditions for value K<0, lesser amount of pressure is required for initial yielding, and further, the amount keeps on decreasing with an increase in temperature. Curves are drawn between pressure and radii ratio for initial and fully plastic state with and without temperature conditions. Further graphs between stresses (hoop and radial) and radii ratio for fully plastic state with and without temperature conditions are also drawn and concluded that hoop stresses become minimum with the increase in temperature as compared to radial stresses.

Keywords: cylinder, elastic, plastic, copper, steel, stresses, pressure, load

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2230 The Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Fly Ash Concrete

Authors: Mustafa H. Omar

Abstract:

Researchers have been working to find ways to reduce the detrimental effects of Hydrocarbon Solutions on concrete and increase the serviceability of oil concrete buildings by modifying the characteristics of concrete when exposed to hydrocarbon solutions. The goal of this effort is to improve concrete structures that come into direct contact with hydrocarbon solutions, such as oil storage tanks and oil pipelines. In the current study, the behavior of plain and fly ash concretes after exposure to various hydrocarbon exposure liquids (gasoline, gas oil, and kerosene) is investigated. The findings are then compared with reference concrete that is left in the open atmosphere. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests will be used to evaluate the most critical attributes of these concretes.

Keywords: cconcrete, fly ash, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties

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2229 Performance of HVOF Sprayed Ni-20CR and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Fe-Based Superalloy in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler

Authors: Tejinder Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

Hot corrosion has been recognized as a severe problem in steam-powered electricity generation plants and industrial waste incinerators as it consumes the material at an unpredictably rapid rate. Consequently, the load-carrying ability of the components reduces quickly, eventually leading to catastrophic failure. The inability to either totally prevent hot corrosion or at least detect it at an early stage has resulted in several accidents, leading to loss of life and/or destruction of infrastructures. A number of countermeasures are currently in use or under investigation to combat hot corrosion, such as using inhibitors, controlling the process parameters, designing a suitable industrial alloy, and depositing protective coatings. However, the protection system to be selected for a particular application must be practical, reliable, and economically viable. Due to the continuously rising cost of the materials as well as increased material requirements, the coating techniques have been given much more importance in recent times. Coatings can add value to products up to 10 times the cost of the coating. Among the different coating techniques, thermal spraying has grown into a well-accepted industrial technology for applying overlay coatings onto the surfaces of engineering components to allow them to function under extreme conditions of wear, erosion-corrosion, high-temperature oxidation, and hot corrosion. In this study, the hot corrosion performances of Ni-20Cr and Cr₃C₂-NiCr coatings developed by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) process have been studied. The coatings were developed on a Fe-based superalloy, and experiments were performed in an actual industrial environment of a coal-fired boiler. The cyclic study was carried out around the platen superheater zone where the temperature was around 1000°C. The study was conducted for 10 cycles, and one cycle was consisting of 100 hours of heating followed by 1 hour of cooling at ambient temperature. Both the coatings deposited on Fe-based superalloy imparted better hot corrosion resistance than the uncoated one. The Ni-20Cr coated superalloy performed better than the Cr₃C₂-NiCr coated in the actual working conditions of the coal fired boiler. It is found that the formation of chromium oxide at the boundaries of Ni-rich splats of the coating blocks the inward permeation of oxygen and other corrosive species to the substrate.

Keywords: hot corrosion, coating, HVOF, oxidation

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2228 Identification and Characterization of Corona Microbes Using Single Layer Graphene

Authors: Manisha Makwana, Ajay M. Patel

Abstract:

Tiny microbes called airborne pathogens can lead to a range of diseases. There is a high need to precisely monitor pathogen presence and behaviour since they can spread from infected hosts through a variety of mechanisms. The objective of this study is to create a sensor by investigating the vibration responses of cantilever and bridged boundary conditioned single layer graphene sheets with attached microorganisms on the tip and at the centre of the sheet. The biological substance used for investigation is Coronaviridae. The atomistic finite element method (AFEM) has been used to carry out the dynamic analysis of SLG with various boundary conditions and lengths. Simulations have been performed to see how SLG behaves when employed as sensors for biological entities. By altering the length and applied mass of a biological object, the difference in frequency is observed. The detection of viruses that might be linked to graphene will be facilitated with the use of this sensor.

Keywords: zigzag, armchair, chiral, SLG, virus, mass sensor, frequency

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2227 Stress Corrosion Crackings Test of Candidate Materials in Support of the Development of the European Small Modular Supercritical Water Cooled Rector Concept

Authors: Radek Novotny, Michal Novak, Daniela Marusakova, Monika Sipova, Hugo Fuentes, Peter Borst

Abstract:

This research has been conducted within the European HORIZON 2020 project ECC-SMART. The main objective is to assess whether it is feasible to design and develop a small modular reactor (SMR) that would be cooled by supercritical water (SCW). One of the main objectives for material research concerns the corrosion of the candidate cladding materials. The experimental part has been conducted in support of the qualification procedure of the future SCW-SMR constructional materials. The last objective was to identify the gaps in current norms and guidelines. Apart from corrosion, resistance testing of candidate materials stresses corrosion cracking susceptibility tests have been performed in supercritical water. This paper describes part of these tests, in particular, those slow strain rate tensile loading applied for tangential ring shape specimens of two candidate materials, Alloy 800H and 310S stainless steel. These ring tensile tests are one the methods used for tensile testing of nuclear cladding. Here full circular heads with dimensions roughly equal to the inner diameter of the sample and the gage sections are placed in the parallel direction to the applied load. Slow strain rate tensile tests have been conducted in 380 or 500oC supercritical water applying two different elongation rates, 1x10-6 and 1x10-7 s-1. The effect of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on the SCC susceptibility of Alloy 800H and 310S stainless steel was investigated when two different temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen were applied in supercritical water. The post-fracture analysis includes fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces using SEM as well as cross-sectional analysis on the occurrence of secondary cracks. Assessment of the effect of environment and dissolved oxygen content was by comparing to the results of the reference tests performed in air and N2 gas overpressure. The effect of high temperature on creep and its role in the initiation of SCC was assessed as well. It has been concluded that the applied test method could be very useful for the investigation of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of candidate cladding materials in supercritical water.

Keywords: stress corrosion cracking, ring tensile tests, super-critical water, alloy 800H, 310S stainless steel

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2226 Bifunctional Electrospun Fibers Based on Poly(Lactic Acid)/Calcium Oxide Nanocomposites as a Potential Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Daniel Canales, Fabián Alvarez, Pablo Varela, Marcela Saavedra, Claudio García, Paula Zapata

Abstract:

Calcium oxide nanoparticles (n-CaO) ca. 8 nm were obtained from eggshell waste. The n-CaO was incorporated into Poly(lactic acid) PLA matrix in 10 and 20 wt.% of filler content by electrospinning process to obtain PLA/n-CaO nanocomposite fibers as a potential use in scaffold for bone tissue regeneration. The fibers morphology and diameter were homogeneity, the PLA had a diameter of 2.2 ± 0.8 µm and, with the nanoparticles incorporation (20wt.%), reached ca. 2.9 ± 0.9 µm. The PLA/n-CaO nanocomposites fibers showed in vitro bioactivity, capable of inducing the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) layer in the fiber surface after 7 days in Simulated Body Solution (SBF). The biocidal and biological properties of PLA/n-Cao with 20 wt.% were evaluated, showing a 30% reduction in bacterial viability against S. aureus and 11% for E. coli after 6 hours of bacterial suspensions exposure. Furthermore, the fibers did not show a cytotoxic effect on the bone marrow ST-2 cell line, permitting the cell adhesion and proliferation in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI). The PLA/n-CaO with 20 wt.% of nanoparticles showed a higher capacity to promote the osteogenic differentiation, significantly increasing the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression after 7 days compared to PLA and cell control. The in vivo analysis corroborated the biocompatibility of scaffolds prepared, the presence of n-CaO in PLA reduced the formation of fibrous encapsulation of the material improve the healing process.

Keywords: electrospun scaffolds, PLA based nanocomposites, calcium oxide nanoparticles, bioactive materials, tissue engineering

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2225 Evaluation of Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Steel 08Cr18Ni10Ti Exposed to Supercritical Water

Authors: Monika Šípová, Daniela Marušáková, Claudia Aparicio

Abstract:

New sources and ways of producing energy are still seeking, and one of the sustainable ways is Generation IV nuclear reactors. The supercritical water-cooled reactor is one of the six nuclear reactors of Generation IV, and as a consequence of the development of light water, reactors seem to be the most perspective. Thus, materials usually used in light water reactors are also tested under the expected operating conditions of the supercritical water-cooled reactor. Austenitic stainless steel 08Cr18Ni10Ti is widely used in the eastern types of light water nuclear power plants. Therefore, specimens of 08Cr18Ni10Ti were exposed to conditions close to the pseudo-critical point of water and high-temperature supercritical water. The description and evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel have been done based on the results of X-ray diffraction in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Thus, significant differences have been found in the structure and composition of oxides formed depending on the temperature of exposure. The high temperature of supercritical water resulted in localised form of corrosion in contrast to the thin oxide layer of 1 µm present on the surface of specimens exposed close to the pseudo-critical point of water. The obtained results are important for further research as the supercritical water can be successfully used as a coolant for small modular reactors, which are currently of interest.

Keywords: localised corrosion, supercritical water, stainless steel, electron backscatter diffraction

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2224 Elaborating Composite Materials Manufactured with Recycled Concrete Aggregates and Porous Carbon for Capture and Storage of Atmospheric CO₂

Authors: Matthieu Mesnage, Rachelle Omnée, Johan Colin, Jena Jeong, Encarnacion Raymundo-Piñero

Abstract:

Our world is now facing climatic and sanitary challenges caused by increases at the world scale of anthropogenic Green House Gases emissions, mainly represented by CO₂. At a local scale, those emissions increases result in growing CO₂ concentrations in the air, especially in urban areas. Therefore, the manufacture of new materials used in an urban environment with CO₂ adsorption capacities could represent a major achievement in the construction-engineering field. In this optic, we developed new concrete composite materials incorporating recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and porous carbon grains prepared from biomass, with enhanced CO₂ capture and storage from improved cement carbonation and from CO₂ adsorption into the porosity for the carbon grains themselves. Experiments focused on the first step to perform carbonations of the composite materials in various conditions to better understand the synergistic effect of the porous carbon grains on carbonation kinetics and the influence of environmental conditions. For this purpose, samples were carbonated in accelerated conditions in a climatic chamber for one month with constant temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), and it was then followed by natural carbonations in external as well as internal environments for periods ranging from three to twelve months. CO₂ uptake quantifications were performed on the samples along carbonation using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and mass spectrometry (MS). Characterisations on the carbonation depth were also performed from the phenolphthalein test and optical microscopy. Results compared to control samples without carbon showed a synergistic effect of carbons on carbonation with enhanced results in accelerated as well as natural conditions. This effect of carbons was also confirmed by carbonation depth characterizations showing highly carbonated areas surrounding the carbons. The results led to the investigation of the composition of the carbons before and after carbonation by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TGA, revealing the presence of hydrated and carbonated products into their porosity which strongly emphasises the role of carbons in the mass transfer of species inside the cement matrix. This property of the carbons was furtherly investigated regarding CO₂ diffusion from measurements with a gas diffusion cell specifically designed for this study. The synergistic effect on the carbonation degree of the cement matrix was also studied through pore size evolutions between uncarbonated and carbonated samples by mercury intrusion and gas adsorption porosimetry. The results showed a more marked pore size decrease after carbonation in the presence of the carbons compared to the control samples. Through the different investigations performed, the final goal is to provide formulations of usable concrete materials for construction works with enhanced carbonation properties allowing them to combine depolluting capacities to a significantly reduced carbon footprint by mitigating CO₂ emissions from manufacture.

Keywords: concrete, carbonation, CO₂, porous carbon, biomass, recycling

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2223 Alternative Coating Compositions by Thermal Arc Spraying to Improve the Contact Heat Treatment in Press Hardening

Authors: Philipp Burger, Jonas Sommer, Haneen Daoud, Franz Hilmer, Uwe Glatzel

Abstract:

Press-hardened structural components made of coated high-strength steel are an essential part of the automotive industry when it comes to weight reduction, safety, and durability. Alternative heat treatment processes, such as contact heating, have been developed to improve the efficiency of this process. However, contact heating of the steel sheets often results in cracking within the Al-Si-coated layer. Therefore, this paper will address the development of alternative coating compositions based on Al-Si-X, suitable for contact heating. For this purpose, robot-assisted thermal arc spray was applied to coat the high-strength steel sheets. This ensured high reproducibility as well as effectiveness. The influence of the coating parameters and the variation of the nozzle geometry on the microstructure of the developed coatings will be discussed. Finally, the surface and mechanical properties after contact heating and press hardening will be presented.

Keywords: press hardening, hot stamping, thermal spraying, arc spraying, coating compositions

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2222 Prediction of Springback in U-bending of W-Temper AA6082 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Jemal Ebrahim Dessie, Lukács Zsolt

Abstract:

High-strength aluminum alloys have drawn a lot of attention because of the expanding demand for lightweight vehicle design in the automotive sector. Due to poor formability at room temperature, warm and hot forming have been advised. However, warm and hot forming methods need more steps in the production process and an advanced tooling system. In contrast, since ordinary tools can be used, forming sheets at room temperature in the W temper condition is advantageous. However, springback of supersaturated sheets and their thinning are critical challenges and must be resolved during the use of this technique. In this study, AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy was solution heat treated at different oven temperatures and times using a specially designed and developed furnace in order to optimize the W-temper heat treatment temperature. A U-shaped bending test was carried out at different time periods between W-temper heat treatment and forming operation. Finite element analysis (FEA) of U-bending was conducted using AutoForm aiming to validate the experimental result. The uniaxial tensile and unload test was performed in order to determine the kinematic hardening behavior of the material and has been optimized in the Finite element code using systematic process improvement (SPI). In the simulation, the effect of friction coefficient & blank holder force was considered. Springback parameters were evaluated by the geometry adopted from the NUMISHEET ’93 benchmark problem. It is noted that the change of shape was higher at the more extended time periods between W-temper heat treatment and forming operation. Die radius was the most influential parameter at the flange springback. However, the change of shape shows an overall increasing tendency on the sidewall as the increase of radius of the punch than the radius of the die. The springback angles on the flange and sidewall seem to be highly influenced by the coefficient of friction than blank holding force, and the effect becomes increases as increasing the blank holding force.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, FEA, springback, SPI, U-bending, W-temper

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2221 Improved Benzene Selctivity for Methane Dehydroaromatization via Modifying the Zeolitic Pores by Dual Templating Approach

Authors: Deepti Mishra, K. K Pant, Xiu Song Zhao, Muxina Konarova

Abstract:

Catalytic transformation of simplest hydrocarbon methane into benzene and valuable chemicals over Mo/HZSM-5 has a great economic potential, however, it suffers serious hurdles due to the blockage in the micropores because of extensive coking at high temperature during methane dehydroaromatization (MDA). Under such conditions, it necessitates the design of micro/mesoporous ZSM-5, which has the advantages viz. uniform dispersibility of MoOx species, consequently the formation of active Mo sites in the micro/mesoporous channel and lower carbon deposition because of improved mass transfer rate within the hierarchical pores. In this study, we report a unique strategy to control the porous structures of ZSM-5 through a dual templating approach, utilizing C6 and C12 -surfactants as porogen. DFT studies were carried out to correlate the ZSM-5 framework development using the C6 and C12 surfactants with structure directing agent. The structural and morphological parameters of the synthesized ZSM-5 were explored in detail to determine the crystallinity, porosity, Si/Al ratio, particle shape, size, and acidic strength, which were further correlated with the physicochemical and catalytic properties of Mo modified HZSM-5 catalysts. After Mo incorporation, all the catalysts were tested for MDA reaction. From the activity test, it was observed that C6 surfactant-modified hierarchically porous Mo/HZSM-5(H) showed the highest benzene formation rate (1.5 μmol/gcat. s) and longer catalytic stability up to 270 min of reaction as compared to the conventional microporous Mo/HZSM-5(C). In contrary, C12 surfactant modified Mo/HZSM-5(D) is inferior towards MDA reaction (benzene formation rate: 0.5 μmol/gcat. s). We ascribed that the difference in MDA activity could be due to the hierarchically interconnected meso/microporous feature of Mo/HZSM-5(H) that precludes secondary reaction of coking from benzene and hence contributing substantial stability towards MDA reaction.

Keywords: hierarchical pores, Mo/HZSM-5, methane dehydroaromatization, coke deposition

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2220 Novel Anticorrosion Epoxy Reinforced Graphitic Nanocomposite as a Durable Surface

Authors: Shimaa A. Higazy, Mohamed S. Selim, Olfat E. El-Azabawy, Abeer A. Hassan

Abstract:

We designed novel epoxy/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C₃N₄) nanocomposite materials as suitable surface coatings. g-C₃N₄ nanosheets were facilely prepared and dispersed in the epoxy resin via solution casting. This research focuses on the mechanical and anticorrosion properties of g-C₃N₄ nanofiller reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. The structures, sizes, and morphologies of designed polymeric nanocomposites and nanofillers were elucidated using various techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, FE-TEM, FE-SEM. The developed nanocomposite was applied as a surface coating by air-assisted spray method. The structure-property relationship was studied for different concentrations of nanofiller in the epoxy matrix. The anticorrosive properties were studied via electrochemical experiments, including potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance, and open-circuit potential analyses, as well as salt spray test. Mechanical durability was assessed by various methods, such as impact, T-bending, and crosscut tests. Surface heterogeneity, elasticity, and corrosion-resistance features are among the merits of developed composite. The highest improvement was achieved with well dispersion of g-C₃N₄ sheets fillers. This fascinating epoxy nanostructured coating provides a promising anticorrosive coatings for a sustainable future environment.

Keywords: epoxy, nanocomposite, surface coating, anticorrosive properties, mechanical durability

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