Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2090

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Metallurgical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2090 Die Design for Flashless Forging of a Polymer Insulator Fitting

Authors: Pedram Khazaie, Sajjad Moein


In the conventional hot forging of Tongue, which is a fitting for polymer insulator, the material wasted to flash accounts for 20-30% of workpiece. In order to reduce the cost of forged products, this waste material must be minimized. In this study, a flashless forging die is designed and simulated using the finite element method (FEM). A solution to avoid overloading the die with a simple preform is also presented. Moreover, since in flashless forging, burr is formed on the edge of workpiece, a controlled flash forging method is proposed to solve this problem. The simulation results have been validated by experiments; achieving close agreement between simulated and experimental data. It was shown that numerical modeling is helpful in reducing cost and time in the manufacturing process.

Keywords: burr formation, die design, finite element method, flashless forging

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2089 Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Hot Roller Grades

Authors: Majid Mokhtari, Masoud Bahrami Alamdarlo, Babak Nazari, Hossein Zakerinya


In this study, by sampling three grades of cast iron roller grade and Investigation, the chemical composition and microstructure using light microscope (OM) and electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure was investigated. Also, the macro and micro hardness of each phase was performed. Also, the percentage of residual austenite phase was determined with a ferrite scope magnetic device. Thermal susceptibility testing was performed in Cast Iron Manufacturing Company (CSROLL), and the results showed better oxidation resistance at high temperature by graphic white cast iron alloy graphite. In order to evaluate the final properties of these grades for optimal use in rolling lines, the results of Pin on Disk abrasion test showed the superiority of the abrasive behavior of the white chromium graphite cast iron alloy grade sample at the same hardness compared to conventional alloy grades.

Keywords: hot roller, wear, behavior, microstructure

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2088 High Quality Gallium Oxide Microstructures by Catalyst-Free Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Jiang-Bei Qin, Rui-Xia Miao, Wei Ren


In this study, high crystalline gallium oxide microstructures (wires, belts, and sheets) were synthesized by catalyst-free thermal oxidation. Structural studies such as X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations on the microstructures showed monoclinic phase of gallium oxide and single crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that a huge super microsheet even grows up to 450 µm in length and 206 µm in width. Gallium oxide microstructures exhibit high crystallinity along (002) and (401), respectively. The PL spectrum of these microstructures excites a blue light band centered at 441 and 489nm. The growth mechanism of gallium oxide microstructures is discussed. These gallium oxide microstructures have great potential in functional devices.

Keywords: catalyst-free, gallium oxide, microstructures, thermal oxide

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2087 The Investigation of Niobium Addition on Mechanical Properties of Al11Si alloy

Authors: Kerem Can Dizdar, Semih Ateş, Ozan Güler, Gökhan Basman, Derya Dışpınar, Cevat Fahir Arısoy


Grain refinement and obtaining homogeneous microstructure is the key parameter in casting of aluminum alloys. Ti has been traditionally used as grain refiner, however, inconsistency and heterogeneous dendrite arms, as well as fading efficiency, have been the drawbacks of Ti. Alternatively, Nb (Niobium) has gained attention. In this work, the effect of Nb was investigated in case of both as cast and T6 heat treated conditions. Different ratios of Nb (0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 weight%) were added to AlSi11 alloy, mechanical properties were examined statistically, and relationship was established between microstructure and mechanical properties by examining the grain size and dendrite characteristics before and after heat treatment. Results indicate that in the case of as cast state; with the increasing addition of Nb has no significant effect on yield strength, however, it increases the tensile strength and elongation starting with 0.05wt% ratio, and it remains constant up to 0.1wt%. For the heat-treated condition; Nb addition provides increment at yield strength and tensile strength up to 0.05wt%, but it leads to decrementfrom 0.05 to 0.1wt%. The opposite is valid for the elongation; It decreases in between 0-0.05wt% then rises in range of 0.05-0.1wt%. Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were found T6 heat treated 0.05wt% Nb addition. 0.05wt% was found as critical Nbaddition ratio for mechanical properties of Al-11Si alloys. Grain refinement and obtaining homogeneous microstructure is the key parameter in casting of aluminum alloys. Ti has been traditionally used as grain refiner, however, inconsistency and heterogeneous dendrite arms, as well as fading efficiency, have been the drawbacks of Ti. Alternatively, Nb (Niobium) has gained attention. In this work, the effect of Nb was investigated in case of both as cast and T6 heat treated conditions. Different ratios of Nb (0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 weight%) were added to AlSi11 alloy, mechanical properties were examined statistically, and relationship was established between microstructure and mechanical properties by examining the grain size and dendrite characteristics before and after heat treatment. Results indicate that in the case of as cast state; with the increasing addition of Nb has no significant effect on yield strength, however, it increases the tensile strength and elongation starting with 0.05wt% ratio, and it remains constant up to 0.1wt%. For the heat-treated condition; Nb addition provides increment at yield strength and tensile strength up to 0.05wt%, but it leads to decrement from 0.05 to 0.1wt%. The opposite is valid for the elongation; It decreases in between 0-0.05wt% then rises in range of 0.05-0.1wt%. Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were found T6 heat treated 0.05wt% Nb addition. 0.05wt% was found as critical Nbaddition ratio for mechanical properties of Al-11Si alloys.

Keywords: al-si alloy, grain refinement, heat treatment, mechanical properties, microstructure, niobium, sand casting

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2086 High Pressure Torsion Deformation Behavior of a Low-SFE FCC Ternary Medium Entropy Alloy

Authors: Saumya R. Jha, Krishanu Biswas, Nilesh P. Gurao


Several recent investigations have revealed medium entropy alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties than their high entropy counterparts. This clearly establishes that although a higher entropy plays a vital role in stabilization of particular phase over complex intermetallic phases, configurational entropy is not the primary factor responsible for the high inherent strengthening in these systems. Above and beyond a high contribution from friction stresses and solid solution strengthening, strain hardening is an important contributor to the strengthening in these systems. In this regard, researchers have developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques like High Pressure Torsion (HPT) to incorporate very high shear strain in the material, thereby leading to ultrafine grained (UFG) microstructures, which cause manifold increase in the strength. The presented work demonstrates a meticulous study of the variation in mechanical properties at different radial displacements from the center of HPT tested equiatomic ternary FeMnNi synthesized by casting route, which is a low stacking fault energy FCC alloy that shows significantly higher toughness than its high entropy counterparts like Cantor alloy. The gradient in grain sizes along the radial direction of these specimens has been modeled using microstructure entropy for predicting the mechanical properties, which has also been validated by indentation tests. The dislocation density is computed by FEM simulations for varying strains and validated by analyzing synchrotron diffraction data. Thus, the proposed model can be utilized to predict the strengthening behavior of similar systems deformed by HPT subjected to varying loading conditions.

Keywords: high pressure torsion, severe plastic deformation, configurational entropy, dislocation density, FEM simulation

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2085 Thermochemical Modelling for Extraction of Lithium from Spodumene and Prediction of Promising Reagents for the Roasting Process

Authors: Allen Yushark Fosu, Ndue Kanari, James Vaughan, Alexandre Changes


Spodumene is a lithium-bearing mineral of great interest due to increasing demand of lithium in emerging electric and hybrid vehicles. The conventional method of processing the mineral for the metal requires inevitable thermal transformation of α-phase to the β-phase followed by roasting with suitable reagents to produce lithium salts for downstream processes. The selection of appropriate reagent for roasting is key for the success of the process and overall lithium recovery. Several researches have been conducted to identify good reagents for the process efficiency, leading to sulfation, alkaline, chlorination, fluorination, and carbonizing as the methods of lithium recovery from the mineral.HSC Chemistry is a thermochemical software that can be used to model metallurgical process feasibility and predict possible reaction products prior to experimental investigation. The software was employed to investigate and explain the various reagent characteristics as employed in literature during spodumene roasting up to 1200°C. The simulation indicated that all used reagents for sulfation and alkaline were feasible in the direction of lithium salt production. Chlorination was only feasible when Cl2 and CaCl2 were used as chlorination agents but not NaCl nor KCl. Depending on the kind of lithium salt formed during carbonizing and fluorination, the process was either spontaneous or nonspontaneous throughout the temperature range investigated. The HSC software was further used to simulate and predict some promising reagents which may be equally good for roasting the mineral for efficient lithium extraction but have not yet been considered by researchers.

Keywords: thermochemical modelling, HSC chemistry software, lithium, spodumene, roasting

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2084 Model Based Improvement of Ultrasound Assisted Transport of Cohesive Dry Powders

Authors: Paul Dunst, Ing. Tobias Hemsel, Ing. Habil. Walter Sextro


The use of fine powders with high cohesive and adhesive properties leads to challenges during transport, mixing and dosing in industrial processes, which have not been satisfactorily solved so far. Due to the increased contact forces at the transporting parts (e. g. pipe-wall and transport screws), conventional transport systems and also vibratory conveyors reach their limits. Often, flowability increasing additives that need to be removed again in later process steps are the only option to achieve wanted transport results. A rather new ultrasound-assisted powder transport system showed to overcome some of the issues by manipulating the effective friction between powder and transport pipe. Within this contribution, the transport mechanism will be introduced shortly, together with preliminary transport results. As the tangential force of the transport pipe and the powder is the main influencing factor within the transport process, a test stand for measuring tangential forces of a powder-wall contact in the presence of an ultrasonic vibration orthogonal to the contact plane was built. Measurements for a sample powder show that the effective tangential force can already be significantly reduced at very low ultrasonic amplitude. As a result of the measurements, an empirical model for the relationship of tangential force, contact parameters and ultrasonic excitation is presented. This model was used to adjust the driving parameters of the powder transport system, resulting in better performance.

Keywords: powder transport, ultrasound, friction, friction manipulation, vibratory conveyor

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2083 Evaluation of the UV Stability of Unidirectional Crossply Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene Composite

Authors: Jonmichael Weaver, David Miller


Dyneema is an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber created by DSM. This fiber has many applications due to the high tensile strength, low weight, and inability to absorb water. DSM manufactures a non-woven unidirectional cross-ply [0,90]2 lamina, using the Dyneema fiber. Using this lamina system, various thickness panels are created for a 40% lighter weight alternative to Kevlar for the same ballistics protection. Environmental effects on the ply/laminate system alter the material properties, resulting in diminished ultimate performance. Understanding the specific environmental parameters and characterizing the resulting material property degradation is essential for determining the safety and reliability of Dyneema in service. Two laminas were contrasted for their response to accelerated aging by UV, humidity, and temperature cycling. Both lamina contain the same fiber, SK-99, but differ in matrix composition, Dyneema HB-210 employs a polyurethane (PUR) based matrix, and HB-212 contains a rubber-based matrix. Each system was inspected using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to characterize the material property changes alongside the corresponding composite damage and matrix failure mode over the aging parameters. Overall, resulting in the HB-212 degrading faster compared with the HB-210.

Keywords: dyneema, accelerated aging, polymers, ballistics protection, armor, DSM, kevlar, composites

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2082 A Microwave Heating Model for Endothermic Reaction in the Cement Industry

Authors: Sofia N. Gonçalves, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


Microwave technology has been gaining importance in contributing to decarbonization processes in high energy demand industries. Despite the several numerical models presented in the literature, a proper Verification and Validation exercise is still lacking. This is important and required to evaluate the physical process model accuracy and adequacy. Another issue addresses impedance matching, which is an important mechanism used in microwave experiments to increase electromagnetic efficiency. Such mechanism is not available in current computational tools, thus requiring an external numerical procedure. A numerical model was implemented to study the continuous processing of limestone with microwave heating. This process requires the material to be heated until a certain temperature that will prompt a highly endothermic reaction. Both a 2D and 3D model were built in COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the two-way coupling between Maxwell and Energy equations, along with the coupling between both heat transfer phenomena and limestone endothermic reaction. The 2D model was used to study and evaluate the required numerical procedure, being also a benchmark test, allowing other authors to implement impedance matching procedures. To achieve this goal, a controller built in MATLAB was used to continuously matching the cavity impedance and predicting the required energy for the system, thus successfully avoiding energy inefficiencies. The 3D model reproduces realistic results and therefore supports the main conclusions of this work. Limestone was modeled as a continuous flow under the transport of concentrated species, whose material and kinetics properties were taken from literature. Verification and Validation of the coupled model was taken separately from the chemical kinetic model. The chemical kinetic model was found to correctly describe the chosen kinetic equation by comparing numerical results with experimental data. A solution verification was made for the electromagnetic interface, where second order and fourth order accurate schemes were found for linear and quadratic elements, respectively, with numerical uncertainty lower than 0.03%. Regarding the coupled model, it was demonstrated that the numerical error would diverge for the heat transfer interface with the mapped mesh. Results showed numerical stability for the triangular mesh, and the numerical uncertainty was less than 0.1%. This study evaluated limestone velocity, heat transfer, and load influence on thermal decomposition and overall process efficiency. The velocity and heat transfer coefficient were studied with the 2D model, while different loads of material were studied with the 3D model. Both models demonstrated to be highly unstable when solving non-linear temperature distributions. High velocity flows exhibited propensity to thermal runways, and the thermal efficiency showed the tendency to stabilize for the higher velocities and higher filling ratio. Microwave efficiency denoted an optimal velocity for each heat transfer coefficient, pointing out that electromagnetic efficiency is a consequence of energy distribution uniformity. The 3D results indicated the inefficient development of the electric field for low filling ratios. Thermal efficiencies higher than 90% were found for the higher loads and microwave efficiencies up to 75% were accomplished. The 80% fill ratio was demonstrated to be the optimal load with an associated global efficiency of 70%.

Keywords: multiphysics modeling, microwave heating, verification and validation, endothermic reactions modeling, impedance matching, limestone continuous processing

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2081 Modeling and Energy Analysis of Limestone Decomposition with Microwave Heating

Authors: Sofia N. Gonçalves, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


The energy transition is spurred by structural changes in energy demand, supply, and prices. Microwave technology was first proposed as a faster alternative for cooking food. It was found that food heated instantly when interacting with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The dielectric properties account for a material’s ability to absorb electromagnetic energy and dissipate this energy in the form of heat. Many energy-intense industries could benefit from electromagnetic heating since many of the raw materials are dielectric at high temperatures. Limestone sedimentary rock is a dielectric material intensively used in the cement industry to produce unslaked lime. A numerical 3D model was implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics to study the limestone continuous processing under microwave heating. The model solves the two-way coupling between the Energy equation and Maxwell’s equations as well as the coupling between heat transfer and chemical interfaces. Complementary, a controller was implemented to optimize the overall heating efficiency and control the numerical model stability. This was done by continuously matching the cavity impedance and predicting the required energy for the system, avoiding energy inefficiencies. This controller was developed in MATLAB and successfully fulfilled all these goals. The limestone load influence on thermal decomposition and overall process efficiency was the main object of this study. The procedure considered the Verification and Validation of the chemical kinetics model separately from the coupled model. The chemical model was found to correctly describe the chosen kinetic equation, and the coupled model successfully solved the equations describing the numerical model. The interaction between flow of material and electric field Poynting vector revealed to influence limestone decomposition, as a result from the low dielectric properties of limestone. The numerical model considered this effect and took advantage from this interaction. The model was demonstrated to be highly unstable when solving non-linear temperature distributions. Limestone has a dielectric loss response that increases with temperature and has low thermal conductivity. For this reason, limestone is prone to produce thermal runaway under electromagnetic heating, as well as numerical model instabilities. Five different scenarios were tested by considering a material fill ratio of 30%, 50%, 65%, 80%, and 100%. Simulating the tube rotation for mixing enhancement was proven to be beneficial and crucial for all loads considered. When uniform temperature distribution is accomplished, the electromagnetic field and material interaction is facilitated. The results pointed out the inefficient development of the electric field within the bed for 30% fill ratio. The thermal efficiency showed the propensity to stabilize around 90%for loads higher than 50%. The process accomplished a maximum microwave efficiency of 75% for the 80% fill ratio, sustaining that the tube has an optimal fill of material. Electric field peak detachment was observed for the case with 100% fill ratio, justifying the lower efficiencies compared to 80%. Microwave technology has been demonstrated to be an important ally for the decarbonization of the cement industry.

Keywords: CFD numerical simulations, efficiency optimization, electromagnetic heating, impedance matching, limestone continuous processing

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2080 Trions in Semiconductor Quantum Dot System

Authors: Jayden Leonard, Nguyen Que Huong


In this work, we study the Trion state in a spherical quantum dot of a direct band gap semiconductor with a shell of organic material. The electronic structure of the Trion due to degenerate valence band will be considered. The coupling between the wannier exciton inside the dot and the Frenkel exciton in the shell will make the Trion state become hybrid. The competition between “semiconductor” and “organic” phases of the Trion and the transitions between them depend on Parameters of the system such as the materials, the size of the dot and the thickness of the shell, etc… and could be manipulated using those parameters.

Keywords: trion, exciton, quantum dot, heterostructure

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2079 Static Characterization of a Bio-Based Sandwich in a Humid Environment

Authors: Zeineb Kesentini, Abderrahim El Mahi, Jean Luc Rebiere, Rachid El Guerjouma, Moez Beyaoui, Mohamed Haddar


Industries’ attention has been drawn to green and sustainable materials as a result of the present energy deficit and environmental damage. Sandwiches formed of auxetic structures made up of periodic cells are also being investigated by industry. Several tests have emphasized the exceptional properties of these materials. In this study, the sandwich's core is a one-cell auxetic core. Among plant fibers, flax fibers are chosen because of their good mechanical properties comparable to those of glass fibers. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), as a green material, is available from starch, and its production process requires fewer fossil resources than petroleum-based plastics. A polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with flax fiber filament was employed in this study. The manufacturing process used to manufacture the test specimens is 3D printing. The major drawback of a 100% bio-based material is its low resistance to moisture absorption. In this study, a sandwich based on PLA / flax with an auxetic core is characterized statically for different period of immersion in water. Bending tests are carried out on the composite sandwich for three immersion time. Results are compared to those of non immersed specimens. It is found that non aged sandwich has the ultimate bending stiffness.

Keywords: auxetic, bending tests, biobased composite, sandwich structure, 3D printing

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2078 Wear Resistance in Dry and Lubricated Conditions of Hard-anodized EN AW-4006 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: C. Soffritti, A. Fortini, E. Baroni, M. Merlin, G. L. Garagnani


Aluminum alloys are widely used in many engineering applications due to their advantages such ashigh electrical and thermal conductivities, low density, high strength to weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance. However, their low hardness and poor tribological properties still limit their use in industrial fields requiring sliding contacts. Hard anodizing is one of the most common solution for overcoming issues concerning the insufficient friction resistance of aluminum alloys. In this work, the tribological behavior ofhard-anodized AW-4006 aluminum alloys in dry and lubricated conditions was evaluated. Three different hard-anodizing treatments were selected: a conventional one (HA) and two innovative golden hard-anodizing treatments (named G and GP, respectively), which involve the sealing of the porosity of anodic aluminum oxides (AAO) with silver ions at different temperatures. Before wear tests, all AAO layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM/EDS), X-ray diffractometry, roughness (Ra and Rz), microhardness (HV0.01), nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Wear tests were carried out according to the ASTM G99-17 standard using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The tests were performed in triplicate under a 2 Hz constant frequency oscillatory motion, a maximum linear speed of 0.1 m/s, normal loads of 5, 10, and 15 N, and a sliding distance of 200 m. A 100Cr6 steel ball10 mm in diameter was used as counterpart material. All tests were conducted at room temperature, in dry and lubricated conditions. Considering the more recent regulations about the environmental hazard, four bio-lubricants were considered after assessing their chemical composition (in terms of Unsaturation Number, UN) and viscosity: olive, peanut, sunflower, and soybean oils. The friction coefficient was provided by the equipment. The wear rate of anodized surfaces was evaluated by measuring the cross-section area of the wear track with a non-contact 3D profilometer. Each area value, obtained as an average of four measurements of cross-section areas along the track, was used to determine the wear volume. The worn surfaces were analyzed by VPSEM/EDS. Finally, in agreement with DoE methodology, a statistical analysis was carried out to identify the most influencing factors on the friction coefficients and wear rates. In all conditions, results show that the friction coefficient increased with raising the normal load. Considering the wear tests in dry sliding conditions, irrespective of the type of anodizing treatments, metal transfer between the mating materials was observed over the anodic aluminum oxides. During sliding at higher loads, the detachment of the metallic film also caused the delamination of some regions of the wear track. For the wear tests in lubricated conditions, the natural oils with high percentages of oleic acid (i.e., olive and peanut oils) maintained high friction coefficients and low wear rates. Irrespective of the type of oil, smallmicrocraks were visible over the AAO layers. Based on the statistical analysis, the type of anodizing treatment and magnitude of applied load were the main factors of influence on the friction coefficient and wear rate values. Nevertheless, an interaction between bio-lubricants and load magnitude could occur during the tests.

Keywords: hard anodizing treatment, silver ions, bio-lubricants, sliding wear, statistical analysis

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2077 Improvement of Fatigue and Fatigue Corrosion Resistances of Turbine Blades Using Laser Cladding

Authors: Sami I. Jafar, Sami A. Ajeel, Zaman A. Abdulwahab


The turbine blades used in electric power plants are made of low alloy steel type 52. These blades will be subjected to fatigue and also at other times to fatigue corrosion with aging time. Due to their continuous exposure to cyclic rotational stresses in corrosive steam environments, The current research aims to deal with this problem using the laser cladding method for low alloy steel type 52, which works to re-compose the metallurgical structure and improve the mechanical properties by strengthening the resulting structure, which leads to an increase in fatigue and wears resistance, therefore, an increase in the life of these blades is observed.

Keywords: fatigue, fatigue corrosion, turbine blades, laser cladding

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2076 Mechanical Characterization and CNC Rotary Ultrasonic Grinding of Crystal Glass

Authors: Ricardo Torcato, Helder Morais


The manufacture of crystal glass parts is based on obtaining the rough geometry by blowing and/or injection, generally followed by a set of manual finishing operations using cutting and grinding tools. The forming techniques used do not allow the obtainment, with repeatability, of parts with complex shapes and the finishing operations use intensive specialized labor resulting in high cycle times and production costs. This work aims to explore the digital manufacture of crystal glass parts by investigating new subtractive techniques for the automated, flexible finishing of these parts. Finishing operations are essential to respond to customer demands in terms of crystal feel and shine. It is intended to investigate the applicability of different computerized finishing technologies, namely milling and grinding in a CNC machining center with or without ultrasonic assistance, to crystal processing. Research in the field of grinding hard and brittle materials, despite not being extensive, has increased in recent years, and scientific knowledge about the machinability of crystal glass is still very limited. However, it can be said that the unique properties of glass, such as high hardness and very low toughness, make any glass machining technology a very challenging process. This work will measure the performance improvement brought about by the use of ultrasound compared to conventional crystal grinding. This presentation is focused on the mechanical characterization and analysis of the cutting forces in CNC machining of superior crystal glass (Pb ≥ 30%). For the mechanical characterization, the Vickers hardness test provides an estimate of the material hardness (Hv) and the fracture toughness based on cracks that appear in the indentation. Mechanical impulse excitation test estimates the Young’s Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio of the material. For the cutting forces, it a dynamometer was used to measure the forces in the face grinding process. The tests were made based on the Taguchi method to correlate the input parameters (feed rate, tool rotation speed and depth of cut) with the output parameters (surface roughness and cutting forces) to optimize the process (better roughness using the cutting forces that do not compromise the material structure and the tool life) using ANOVA. This study was conducted for conventional grinding and for the ultrasonic grinding process with the same cutting tools. It was possible to determine the optimum cutting parameters for minimum cutting forces and for minimum surface roughness in both grinding processes. Ultrasonic-assisted grinding provides a better surface roughness than conventional grinding.

Keywords: CNC machining, crystal glass, cutting forces, hardness

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2075 Ion Beam Induced 2D Mesophase Patterning of Nanocrystallites in Polymer

Authors: Srutirekha Giri, Manoranjan Sahoo, Anuradha Das, Pravanjan Mallick, Biswajit Mallick


Ion Beam (IB) technique is a very powerful experimental technique for both material synthesis and material modifications. In this work, 3MeV proton beam was generated using the 3MV Tandem machine of the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar and extracted into air for the irradiation-induced modification purpose[1]. The polymeric material can be modeled for a three-phase system viz. crystalline(I), amorphous(II) and mesomorphic(III). So far, our knowledge is concerned. There are only few techniques reported for the synthesis of this third-phase(III) of polymer. The IB induced technique is one of them and has been reported very recently [2-4]. It was observed that by irradiating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber at very low proton fluence, 10¹⁰ - 10¹² p/s, possess 2D mesophase structure. This was confirmed using X-ray diffraction technique. A low-intensity broad peak was observed at small angle of about 2θ =6º, when the fiber axis was mounted parallel to the X-ray direction. Such peak vanished in the diffraction spectrum when the fiber axis was mounted perpendicular to the beam direction. The appearance of this extra peak in a particular orientation confirms that the phase is 2-dimensionally oriented (mesophase). It is well known that the mesophase is a 2-dimensionally ordered structure but 3-dimensionally disordered. Again, the crystallite of the mesophase peak particle was measured about 3nm. The MeV proton-induced 2D mesophase patterning of nanocrystallites (3nm) of PET due to irradiation was observed within the above low fluence range and failed in high proton fluence. This is mainly due to the breaking of crystallites, radiation-induced thermal degradation, etc.

Keywords: Ion irradiation, mesophase, nanocrystallites, polymer

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2074 Numerical Simulation of the Production of Ceramic Pigments Using Microwave Radiation: An Energy Efficiency Study Towards the Decarbonization of the Pigment Sector

Authors: Pedro A. V. Ramos, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


Global warming mitigation is one of the main challenges of this century, having the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be null or negative in 2050. Industry electrification is one of the main paths to achieving carbon neutrality within the goals of the Paris Agreement. Microwave heating is becoming a popular industrial heating mechanism due to the absence of direct GHG emissions, but also the rapid, volumetric, and efficient heating. In the present study, a mathematical model is used to simulate the production using microwave heating of two ceramic pigments, at high temperatures (above 1200 Celsius degrees). The two pigments studied were the yellow (Pr, Zr)SiO₂ and the brown (Ti, Sb, Cr)O₂. The chemical conversion of reactants into products was included in the model by using the kinetic triplet obtained with the model-fitting method and experimental data present in the Literature. The coupling between the electromagnetic, thermal, and chemical interfaces was also included. The simulations were computed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The geometry includes a moving plunger to allow for the cavity impedance matching and thus maximize the electromagnetic efficiency. To accomplish this goal, a MATLAB controller was developed to automatically search the position of the moving plunger that guarantees the maximum efficiency. The power is automatically and permanently adjusted during the transient simulation to impose stationary regime and total conversion, the two requisites of every converged solution. Both 2D and 3D geometries were used and a parametric study regarding the axial bed velocity and the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries was performed. Moreover, a Verification and Validation study was carried out by comparing the conversion profiles obtained numerically with the experimental data available in the Literature; the numerical uncertainty was also estimated to attest to the result's reliability. The results show that the model-fitting method employed in this work is a suitable tool to predict the chemical conversion of reactants into the pigment, showing excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher velocities lead to higher thermal efficiencies and thus lower energy consumption during the process. This work concludes that the electromagnetic heating of materials having high loss tangent and low thermal conductivity, like ceramic materials, maybe a challenge due to the presence of hot spots, which may jeopardize the product quality or even the experimental apparatus. The MATLAB controller increased the electromagnetic efficiency by 25% and global efficiency of 54% was obtained for the titanate brown pigment. This work shows that electromagnetic heating will be a key technology in the decarbonization of the ceramic sector as reductions up to 98% in the specific GHG emissions were obtained when compared to the conventional process. Furthermore, numerical simulations appear as a suitable technique to be used in the design and optimization of microwave applicators, showing high agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: automatic impedance matching, ceramic pigments, efficiency maximization, high-temperature microwave heating, input power control, numerical simulation

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2073 In-Situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag

Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers


Among the reaction products in the alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that use the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide-activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS was increased by the aluminate dosages.

Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorption

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2072 3D Printed and Spin Coated (0-3) Piezocomposite Materials for Low-Cost Sensing and Transducer Applications

Authors: R. Mansour, A. Reid , O. A. Omoniyi, R. O’Leary, J. F. C. Windmill


The desire for highly sensitive, miniature sensors has grown in recent years. This desire has led to the recent development of 3D- printed sensors using piezocomposites materials. A novel 0-3 piezocomposite material using 3D technique and spin coating method for transducer applications is presented. The piezoelectric composite material was made using a photopolymer, grey resin, and lead magnesium niobate, and lead titanate (PMN-PT) with particles sizes 5 nm. The 3D printed parts were fabricated through bottom-up digital light processing. CAD models were prepared and slices by the manufacturer’s in-house software. Samples were polarized using the direct method. The samples were placed in silicon oil heated to a constant temperature of 140 oC under a constant electric field of up to 9 kV for 4 h. Experimental Results and discussions: A laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec MSA100-3D, Waldbronn, Germany) is used to determine the longitudinal piezoelectric properties d33of the thin film piezocomposite. The piezocomposite responded at a frequency of 19.159 kHz under the sweep as shown in Fig. 1a, although the sample also responded across most frequencies, single point scans were obtained below the resonant frequency at 19 kHz to obtain a d33coefficient of 74and 174 pm/V. Conclusion: The 3d ldv experiments showed the piezoelectric nature of the composite materials. The sample responded across all frequencies ranging from 1 khz to 20 khz, with its resonant frequency at 19.159 khz. The sample had an average d33of 174 pm/V which is higher than some reported 3d printable piezocomposite material. The thin and flexible structure of this piezocomposite coupled with the piezoelectric properties and good print resolution shows that this material offers promise as a functional material which can be used in printing sensors and actuators. The spin coating enabled morphology of the piezoelectric array can lend itself to a range of potential applications in the medical transducer, composite design, and wearable and implantable electronics. Discussion: Thin and flexible structures of this piezocomposite coupled with the piezoelectric properties and good print resolution shows that this material offers promise as a functional material, which can be used in printing sensors. Sample average d33 of 74 and 174 pm/V.

Keywords: 3D printing, piezocomposite, polymer, ceramic, spin coating

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2071 Electrospun Conducting Polymer/Graphene Composite Nanofibers for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Aliaa M. S. Salem, Soliman I. El-Hout, Amira Gaber, Hassan Nageh


Nowadays, the development of poisonous gas detectors is considered to be an urgent matter to secure human health and the environment from poisonous gases, in view of the fact that even a minimal amount of poisonous gas can be fatal. Of these concerns, various inorganic or organic sensing materials have been used. Among these are conducting polymers, have been used as the active material in the gassensorsdue to their low-cost,easy-controllable molding, good electrochemical properties including facile fabrication process, inherent physical properties, biocompatibility, and optical properties. Moreover, conducting polymer-based chemical sensors have an amazing advantage compared to the conventional one as structural diversity, facile functionalization, room temperature operation, and easy fabrication. However, the low selectivity and conductivity of conducting polymers motivated the doping of it with varied materials, especially graphene, to enhance the gas-sensing performance under ambient conditions. There were a number of approaches proposed for producing polymer/ graphene nanocomposites, including template-free self-assembly, hard physical template-guided synthesis, chemical, electrochemical, and electrospinning...etc. In this work, we aim to prepare a novel gas sensordepending on Electrospun nanofibers of conducting polymer/RGO composite that is the effective and efficient expectation of poisonous gases like ammonia, in different application areas such as environmental gas analysis, chemical-,automotive- and medical industries. Moreover, our ultimate objective is to maximize the sensing performance of the prepared sensor and to check its recovery properties.

Keywords: electro spinning process, conducting polymer, polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized reduced graphene oxide, spin coating technique, gas sensors

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2070 Structure and Optical Properties of Potassium Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Lila A. Alkhattaby, Norah A. Alsayegh, Mohammad S. Ansari, Mohammad O. Ansari


In this work, we doped zinc oxide ZnO with potassium K we have synthesized using the sol-gel method. Structural properties were depicted by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy distribution spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies confirm the nanosized of the particles and favored orientations along the (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (112) planes confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The optical properties study using the UV-Vis spectroscopy. The band gap decreases from 4.05 eV to 3.88 eV, the lowest band gap at 10% doped concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy results show two main peaks, a sharp peak at ≈ 384 nm in the UV region and a broad peak around 479 nm in the visible region. The highest intensity of the band-edge luminescence was for 2% doped concentration because of the combined effect of the decreased probability of nonradiative recombination and has better crystallinity.

Keywords: K doped ZnO, photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy

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2069 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach


The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were: water, SBF, and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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2068 Algorithmic Generation of Carbon Nanochimneys

Authors: Sorin Muraru


Computational generation of carbon nanostructures is still a very demanding process. This work provides an alternative to manual molecular modeling through an algorithm meant to automate the design of such structures. Specifically, carbon nanochimneys are obtained through the bonding of a carbon nanotube with the smaller edge of an open carbon nanocone. The methods of connection rely on mathematical, geometrical and chemical properties. Non-hexagonal rings are used in order to perform the correct bonding of dangling bonds. Once obtained, they are useful for thermal transport, gas storage, or other applications such as gas separation. The carbon nanochimneys are meant to produce a less steep connection between structures such as the carbon nanotube and graphene sheet, as in the pillared graphene, but can also provide functionality on their own. The method relies on connecting dangling bonds at the edges of the two carbon nanostructures, employing the use of two different types of auxiliary structures on a case-by-case basis. The code is implemented in Python 3.7 and generates an output file in the .pdb format containing all the system’s coordinates. Acknowledgment- This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of Research and Innovation, Operational Program Competitiveness Axis 1 Section E, Program co-financed from European Regional Development Fund “Investments for your future” under the project number 154/25.11.2016, P_37_221/2015, “A novel graphene biosensor testing osteogenic potency; capturing best stem cell performance for regenerative medicine” (GRABTOP).

Keywords: carbon nanochimney, computational, carbon nanostructures, carbon nanotube, carbon nanocone

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2067 Comparison of Homogeneous and Micro-Mechanical Modelling Approach for Paper Honeycomb Materials

Authors: Yiğit Gürler, Berkay Türkcan İmrağ, Taylan Güçkıran, İbrahim Şimşek, Alper Taşdemirci


Paper honeycombs, which is a sandwich structure, consists of two liner faces and one paper honeycomb core. These materials are widely used in the packaging industry due to their low cost, low weight, good energy absorption capabilities and easy recycling properties. However, to provide maximum protection to the products in cases such as the drop of the packaged products, the mechanical behavior of these materials should be well known at the packaging design stage. In this study, the necessary input parameters for the modeling study were obtained by performing compression tests in the through-thickness and in-plane directions of paper-based honeycomb sandwich structures. With the obtained parameters, homogeneous and micro-mechanical numerical models were developed in the Ls-Dyna environment. The material card used for the homogeneous model is MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB, and the material card used for the micromechanical model is MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY. As a result, the effectiveness of homogeneous and micromechanical modeling approaches for paper-based honeycomb sandwich structure was investigated using force-displacement curves. Densification points and peak points on these curves will be compared.

Keywords: environmental packaging, mechanical characterization, Ls-Dyna, sandwich structure

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2066 Comparison of Johnson-Cook and Barlat Material Model for 316L Stainless Steel

Authors: Yiğit Gürler, İbrahim Şimşek, Müge Savaştaer, Ayberk Karakuş, Alper Taşdemirci


316L steel is frequently used in the industry due to its easy formability and accessibility in sheet metal forming processes. Numerical and experimental studies are frequently encountered in the literature to examine the mechanical behavior of 316L stainless steel during the forming process. 316L stainless steel is the most common material used in the production of plate heat exchangers and plate heat exchangers are produced by plastic deformation of the stainless steel. The motivation in this study is to determine the appropriate material model during the simulation of the sheet metal forming process. For this reason, two different material models were examined and Ls-Dyna material cards were created using material test data. These are MAT133_BARLAT_YLD2000 and MAT093_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK. In order to compare results of the tensile test & hydraulic bulge test performed both numerically and experimentally. The obtained results were evaluated comparatively and the most suitable material model was selected for the forming simulation. In future studies, this material model will be used in the numerical modeling of the sheet metal forming process.

Keywords: 316L, mechanical characterization, metal forming, Ls-Dyna

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2065 Design and Characterization of a Smart Composite Fabric for Knee Brace

Authors: Rohith J. K., Amir Nazemi, Abbas S. Milani


In Paralympic sports, athletes often depend on some form of equipment to enable competitive sporting, where most of this equipment would only allow passive physiological supports and discrete physiological measurements. Active feedback physiological support and continuous detection of performance indicators, without time or space constraints, would be beneficial in more effective training and performance measures of Paralympic athletes. Moreover, occasionally the athletes suffer from fatigue and muscular stains due to improper monitoring systems. The latter challenges can be overcome by using Smart Composites technology when manufacturing, e.g., knee brace and other sports wearables utilities, where the sensors can be fused together into the fabric and an assisted system actively support the athlete. This paper shows how different sensing functionality may be created by intrinsic and extrinsic modifications onto different types of composite fabrics, depending on the level of integration and the employed functional elements. Results demonstrate that fabric sensors can be well-tailored to measure muscular strain and be used in the fabrication of a smart knee brace as a sample potential application. Materials, connectors, fabric circuits, interconnects, encapsulation and fabrication methods associated with such smart fabric technologies prove to be customizable and versatile.

Keywords: smart composites, sensors, smart fabrics, knee brace

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2064 Development and Characterization of Expandable TPEs Compounds for Footwear Applications

Authors: Ana Elisa Ribeiro Costa, Sónia Daniela Ferreira Miranda, João Pedro De Carvalho Pereira, João Carlos Simões Bernardo


Elastomeric thermoplastics (TPEs) have been widely used in the footwear industry over the years. Recently this industry has been requesting materials that can combine lightweight and high abrasion resistance. Although there are blowing agents on the market to improve the lightweight, when these are incorporated into molten polymers during the extrusion or injection molding, it is necessary to have some specific processing conditions (e.g. effect of temperature and hydrodynamic stresses) to obtain good properties and acceptable surface appearance on the final products. Therefore, it is a great advantage for the compounder industry to acquire compounds that already include the blowing agents. In this way, they can be handled and processed under the same conditions as a conventional raw material. In this work, the expandable TPEs compounds, namely a TPU and a SEBS, with the incorporation of blowing agents, have been developed through a co-rotating modular twin-screw parallel extruder. Different blowing agents such as thermo-expandable microspheres and an azodicarbonamide were selected and different screw configurations and temperature profiles were evaluated since these parameters have a particular influence on the expansion inhibition of the blowing agents. Furthermore, percentages of incorporation were varied in order to investigate their influence on the final product properties. After the extrusion of these compounds, expansion was tested by the injection process. The mechanical and physical properties were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and abrasive tests, determination of hardness and density measurement. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. It was observed that it is possible to incorporate the blowing agents on the TPEs without their expansion on the extrusion process. Only with reprocessing (injection molding) did the expansion of the agents occur. These results are corroborated by SEM micrographs, which show a good distribution of blowing agents in the polymeric matrices. The other experimental results showed a good mechanical performance and its density decrease (30% for SEBS and 35% for TPU). This study suggested that it is possible to develop optimized compounds for footwear applications (e.g., sole shoes), which only will be able to expand during the injection process.

Keywords: blowing agents, expandable thermoplastic elastomeric compounds, low density, footwear applications

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2063 Reducing Friction Associated with Commercial Use of Biomimetics While Increasing the Potential for Using Eco Materials and Design in Industry

Authors: John P. Ulhøi


Firms are faced with pressure to stay innovative and entrepreneurial while at the same time leaving lighter ecological footprints. Traditionally inspiration for new product development (NPD) has come from the creative in-house staff and from the marketplace. Often NPD offered by this approach has proven to be (far from) optimal for its purpose or highly (resource and energy) efficient. More recently, a bio-inspired NPD approach has surfaced under the banner of biomimetics. Biomimetics refers to inspiration from and translations of designs, systems, processes, and or specific properties that exist in nature. The principles and structures working in nature have evolved over a long period of time enable them to be optimized for the purpose and resource and energy-efficient. These characteristics reflect the raison d'être behind the field of biomimetics. While biological expertise is required to understand and explain such natural and biological principles and structures, engineers are needed to translate biological design and processes into synthetic applications. It can, therefore, hardly be surprising, biomimetics long has gained a solid foothold in both biology and engineering. The commercial adoption of biomimetic applications in new production development (NDP) in industry, however, does not quite reflect a similar growth. Differently put, this situation suggests that something is missing in the biomimetic-NPD-equation, thus acting as a brake towards the wider commercial application of biomimetics and thus the use of eco-materials and design in the industry. This paper closes some of that gap. Before concluding, avenues for future research and implications for practice will be briefly sketched out.

Keywords: biomimetics, eco-materials, NPD, commercialization

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2062 Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel Surface by Phosphonic Acid Nano-Layers

Authors: T. Abohalkuma, J. Telegdi


Preparation, characterization, and application of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) formed by fluorophosphonic and undecenyl phosphonic acids on carbon steel surfaces as anticorrosive nanocoatings were demonstrated. The anticorrosive efficacy of these SAM layers was followed by atomic force microscopy, as the change in the surface morphology caused by layer deposition and corrosion processes was monitored. The corrosion process was determined by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization, whereas the surface wettability of the carbon steel samples was tested with the use of static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Results showed that both chemicals produced good protection against corrosion as they performed as anodic inhibitors, especially with increasing the time of layer formation, which results in a more compact molecular film. According to the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, the fluoro-phosphonic acid self-assembled molecular layer can control the general as well as the pitting corrosion, but the SAM layers of the undecenyl-phosphonic acid cannot inhibit the pitting corrosion. The AFM and the contact angle measurements confirmed the results achieved by electrochemical measurements.

Keywords: nanolayers, corrosion, phosphonic acids, coatings

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2061 Composite Materials from Epoxidized Linseed Oil and Lignin

Authors: R. S. Komartin, B. Balanuca, R. Stan


the last decades, studies about the use of polymeric materials of plant origin, considering environmental concerns, have captured the interest of researchers because these represent an alternative to petroleum-derived materials. Vegetable oils are one of the preferred alternatives for petroleum-based raw materials having long aliphatic chains similar to hydrocarbons which means that can be processed using conventional chemistry. Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) are among the most interesting products derived from oil both for their high reactivity (epoxy group) and for the potential to react with compounds from various classes. As in the case of epoxy resins starting from petrochemical raw materials, those obtained from EVO can be crosslinked with different agents to build polymeric networks and can also be reinforced with various additives to improve their thermal and mechanical performances. Among the multitude of known EVO, the most common in industrial practice are epoxidized linseed oils (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oils (ESO), the first with an iodine index over 180, the second having a lower iodine index but being cheaper. On the other hand, lignin (Ln) is the second natural organic material as a spread, whose use has long been hampered because of the high costs associated with its isolation and purification. In this context, our goal was to obtain new composite materials with satisfactory intermediate properties in terms of stiffness and elasticity using the characteristics of ELO and Ln and choosing the proper curing procedure. In the present study linseed oil (LO) epoxidation was performed using peracetic acid generated in situ. The obtained bio-based epoxy resin derived from linseed oil was used further to produce the new composites byloading Ln in various mass ratios. The resulted ELO-Ln blends were subjected to a dual-curing protocol, namely photochemical and thermal. The new ELO-Ln composites were investigated by FTIR spectrometry, thermal stability, water affinity, and morphology. The positive effect of lignin regarding the thermal stability of the composites could be proved. The results highlight again the still largely unexplored potential of lignin in industrial applications.

Keywords: composite materials, dual curing, epoxidized linseed oil, lignin

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