Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1975

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Metallurgical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1975 Synthesis and Optimization of Porous bio-Metal-organic frameworks of National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia – 1

Authors: Tia Kristian Tajnsek, Matjaz Mazaj, Natasa Zabukovec Logar

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with their specific properties and the possibility of tuning the structure represent excellent candidates for use in the biomedical field. Their advantage lies in large pore surfaces and volumes, as well as the possibility of using bio-friendly or bioactive constituents. So-called bioMOFs are representatives of MOFs which are constructed from at least one biomolecule (metal, a small bioactive molecule in metal clusters and/or linker) and are intended for bio-application (usually in the field of medicine; most commonly drug delivery). When designing a bioMOF for biomedical applications, we should adhere to some guidelines for an improved toxicological profile of the material. Such as (i) choosing an endogenous/nontoxic metal, (ii) GRAS (generally recognized as safe) linker, and (iii) nontoxic solvents. Design and synthesis of bioNICS-1 (bioMOF of National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia – 1) consider all these guidelines. Zinc (Zn) was chosen as an endogenous metal with an agreeable recommended daily intake (RDI) and LD50 value, and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was chosen as a GRAS and active linker. With these building blocks, we have synthesized a bioNICS-1 material. The synthesis was done in ethanol using a solvothermal method. The synthesis protocol was further optimized in three separate ways. Optimization of (i) synthesis parameters to improve the yield of the synthesis, (ii) input reactant ratio, and addition of specific modulators for production of larger crystals and (iii) differing of the heating source (conventional, microwave and ultrasound) to produce nano-crystals. With optimization strategies, the synthesis yield was increased. Larger crystals were prepared for structural analysis with the use of a proper species and amount of modulator. Synthesis protocol was adjusted to different heating sources, resulting in the production of nano-crystals of bioNICS-1 material. BioNICS-1 was further activated in ethanol and structurally characterized, resolving the crystal structure of new material.

Keywords: Optimization, Synthesis, MOF, ascorbic acid, bioMOF

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1974 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of the Surface Layer on Inconel 625 after Exposition in Molten Salt

Authors: Jana Petrů, Marie Kudrnova

Abstract:

This study is part of the international research - Materials for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) and addresses the part of the project dealing with the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials. Inconel 625 was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after high–temperature experiment in molten salt. The experiment was performed in a horizontal tube furnace molten salt reactor, at 450 °C in argon, at atmospheric pressure, for 150 hours. Industrially produced HITEC salt was used (NaNO3, KNO3, NaNO2). The XPS study was carried out using the ESCAProbe P apparatus (Omicron Nanotechnology Ltd.) equipped with a monochromatic Al Kα (1486.6 eV) X-ray source. The surface layer on alloy 625 after exposure contains only Na, C, O, and Ni (as NiOx) and Nb (as NbOx BE 206.8 eV). Ni was detected in the metallic state (Ni0 – Ni 2p BE-852.7 eV, NiOx - Ni 2p BE-854.7 eV) after a short Ar sputtering because the oxide layer on the surface was very thin. Nickel oxides can form a protective layer in the molten salt, but only future long-term exposures can determine the suitability of Inconel 625 for MSR.

Keywords: molten salt, XPS, oxide layer, Inconel 625

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1973 Experimental Device to Test Corrosion Behavior of Materials in the Molten Salt Reactor Environment

Authors: Jana Petrů, Marie Kudrnova

Abstract:

The use of technologies working with molten salts is conditioned by finding suitable construction materials that must meet several demanding criteria. In addition to temperature resistance, materials must also show corrosion resistance to salts; they must meet mechanical requirements and other requirements according to the area of use – for example, radiation resistance in Molten Salt Reactors. The present text describes an experimental device for studying the corrosion resistance of candidate materials in molten mixtures of salts and is a partial task of the international project ADAR, dealing with the evaluation of advanced nuclear reactors based on molten salts. The design of the device is based on a test exposure of Inconel 625 in the mixture of salts Hitec in a high temperature tube furnace. The result of the pre-exposure is, in addition to the metallographic evaluation of the behavior of material 625 in the mixture of nitrate salts, mainly a list of operational and construction problems that were essential for the construction of the new experimental equipment. The main output is a scheme of a newly designed gas-tight experimental apparatus capable of operating in an inert argon atmosphere, temperature up to 600 °C, pressure 3 bar, in the presence of a corrosive salt environment, with an exposure time of hundreds of hours. This device will enable the study of promising construction materials for nuclear energy.

Keywords: Corrosion, steel, molten salt, experimental device

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1972 Comparative Study on the Effect of Substitution of Li and Mg Instead of Ca on Structural and Biological Behaviors of Silicate Bioactive Glass

Authors: Alireza Arab, Morteza Elsa, Amirhossein Moghanian

Abstract:

In this study, experiments were carried out to achieve a promising multifunctional and modified silicate based bioactive glass (BG). As the main aim of the study, the fact that how the incorporation of lithium (Li) and magnesium (Mg), separately, influences the in vitro bioactivity of 58S bioactive glass (BG). Moreover, it in noteworthy to state that modified BGs were synthesized in 60SiO₂ –(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)Li₂O and 60SiO₂ –(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)MgO (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) quaternary systems, by sol-gel method. Their performance was investigated through different aspects such as biocompatibility, antibacterial activity as well as their effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and proliferation of MC3T3 cells. The antibacterial efficiency was evaluated against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To do so, CaO was substituted with Li₂O and MgO up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs and then samples were immersed in simulated body fluid up to 14 days and then, characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that this modification led to a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium revealed further pronounced effect. The MTT and ALP analysis illustrated that substitutions of both Li₂O and MgO, up to 5 mol %, had increasing effect on biocompatibility and stimulating proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells in comparison to the control specimen. Regarding to bactericidal efficiency, the substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition was considered statistically significant increasing To sum up, the sample containing 5 mol % CaO/Li₂O substitution (BG-5L) was selected as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration due to the improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity and antibacterial efficiency among all of the synthesized L-BGs and M-BGs.

Keywords: Biomedical Applications, Bioactivity, alkaline, alkaline earth, sol-gel processes

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1971 Effect of Hot Extrusion on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn Alloys for Medical Application

Authors: V. E. Bazhenov, A. V. Li, A. A. Komissarov, A. V. Koltygin, S. A. Tavolzhanskii, O. O. Voropaeva, A. M. Mukhametshina, A. A. Tokar, V. A. Bautin

Abstract:

Magnesium-based alloys are considered as effective materials in the development of biodegradable implants. The magnesium alloys containing Mg, Zn, Ca as an alloying element are the subject of the particular interest. These elements are the nutrients for the human body, which provide their high biocompatibility. In this work, we investigated the effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn alloys containing from 2 to 4 wt.% Zn; 0.7 wt.% Ca and up to 1 wt.% Mn. Hot extrusion was used as a method of intensive plastic deformation. The temperature of hot extrusion was set to 220 °C and 300 °C. Metallographic analysis after hot extrusion shows that the grain size in the studied alloys depends on the deformation temperature. The grain size for all of investigated alloys is in the range from 3 to 7 microns, and 3 μm corresponds to the extrusion temperature of 220 °C. Analysis of mechanical properties after extrusion shows that extrusion at a temperature of 220 °C and alloying with Mn increase the strength characteristics and decrease the ductility of studied alloys. A slight anisotropy of properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions was also observed. Measurements of corrosion properties revealed that the addition of Mn to Mg-Zn-Ca alloys reduces the corrosion rate. On the other hand, increasing the Zn content in alloys increases the corrosion rate. The extrusion temperature practically does not affect the corrosion rate. Acknowledgement: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST «MISiS» (No K2-2019-008), implemented by a governmental decree dated 16th of March 2013, N 211.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Properties, Severe Plastic Deformation, Magnesium Alloys, hot extrusion

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1970 Short-Range and Long-Range Ferrimagnetic Order in Fe(Te₁.₅Se₀.₅)O₅Cl

Authors: S. Das, O. S. Volkova, A. N. Vasiliev, E. S. Kozlyakova, A. A. Eliseev, A. V. Moskin, A. Y. Akhrorov, P. S. Berdonosov, V. A. Dolgikh, K. N. Denisova, P. Lemmens, B. Rahaman, T. Saha-Dasgupta

Abstract:

Considerable attention has been paid recently to FeTe₂O₅Cl due to reduced dimensionality and frustration in the magnetic subsystem, succession of phase transitions, and multiferroicity. The efforts to grow its selenite sibling resulted in mixed halide compound, Fe(Te₁.₅Se₀.₅)O₅Cl, which was found crystallizing in a new structural type and possessing properties drastically different from those of a parent system. Hereby we report the studies of magnetization M and specific heat Cₚ, combined with Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations in Fe(Te₁.₅Se₀.₅)O₅Cl. Its magnetic subsystem features weakly coupled Fe³⁺ - Fe³⁺ dimers showing the regime of short-range correlations at TM ~ 70 K and long-range order at TN = 22 K. In a magnetically ordered state, sizable spin-orbital interactions lead to a small canting of Fe³⁺ moments. The density functional theory calculations of leading exchange interactions were found in agreement with measurements of thermodynamic properties and Raman spectroscopy. Besides, because of the relatively large magnetic moment of the Fe³⁺ ion, we found that magnetic dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to experimentally observed orientation of magnetization easy axis in ac-plane. As a conclusion, we suggest a model of magnetic subsystem in magnetically ordered state of Fe(Te₁.₅Se₀.₅)O₅Cl based on a model of interacting dimers.

Keywords: dipole-dipole interactions, selenite, low dimensional magnetism, spin canting

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1969 Inverted Umbrella-type Chiral Non-coplanar Ferrimagnetic Structure in Co(NO₃)₂

Authors: Y. C. Wang, O. Maximova, I. L. Danilovich, E. B. Deeva, K. Y. Bukhteev, A. A. Vorobyova, I. V. Morozov, O. S. Volkova, E. A. Zvereva, I. V. Solovyev, S. A. Nikolaev, D. Phuyal, M. Abdel-Hafiez, J. Y. Lin, J. M. Chen, D. I. Gorbunov, K. Puzniak, B. Lake, A. N. Vasiliev

Abstract:

The low-dimensional magnetic systems tend to reveal exotic spin liquid ground states or form peculiar types of long-range order. Among systems of vivid interest are those characterized by the triangular motif in two dimensions. The realization of either ordered or disordered ground state in a triangular, honeycomb, or kagome lattices is are dictated by the competition of exchange interactions, also being sensitive to anisotropy and the spin value of magnetic ions. While the low-spin Heisenberg systems may arrive at a spin liquid long-range entangled quantum state with emergent gauge structures, the high-spin Ising systems may establish the rigid non-collinear structures. This study presents the case of chiral non-coplanar inverted umbrella-type ferrimagnet formed in cobalt nitrate Co(NO₃)₂ below T

Keywords: chiral magnetic structures, low dimensional magnetic systems, umbrella-type ferrimagnets, chiral non-coplanar magnetic structures

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1968 Structural, Spectral and Optical Properties of Boron-Aluminosilicate Glasses with High Dy₂O₃ and Er₂O₃ Content for Faraday Rotator Operating at 2µm

Authors: Viktor D. Dubrovin, Masoud Mollaee, Jie Zong, Xiushan Zhu, Nasser Peyghambarian

Abstract:

Glasses doped with high rare-earth (RE) elements concentration attracted considerable attention since the middle of the 20th century due to their particular magneto-optical properties. Such glasses exhibit the Faraday effect in which the polarization plane of a linearly polarized light beam is rotated by the interaction between the incident light and the magneto-optical material. That effect found application in optical isolators that are useful for laser systems, which can prevent back reflection of light into lasers or optical amplifiers and reduce signal instability and noise. Glasses are of particular interest since they are cost-effective and can be formed into fibers, thus breaking the limits of traditional bulk optics requiring optical coupling for use with fiber-optic systems. The advent of high-power fiber lasers operating near 2µm revealed a necessity in the development of all fiber isolators for this region. Ce³⁺, Pr³⁺, Dy³⁺, and Tb³⁺ ions provide the biggest contribution to the Verdet constant value of optical materials among the RE. It is known that Pr³⁺ and Tb³⁺ ions have strong absorption bands near 2 µm, thus making Dy³⁺ and Ce³⁺ the only prospective candidates for fiber isolator operating in that region. Due to the high tendency of Ce³⁺ ions pass to Ce⁴⁺ during the synthesis, glasses with high cerium content usually suffers from Ce⁴⁺ ions absorption extending from visible to IR. Additionally, Dy³⁺ (₆H¹⁵/²) same as Ho³⁺ (⁵I₈) ions, have the largest effective magnetic moment (µeff = 10.6 µB) among the RE ions that starts to play the key role if the operating region is far from 4fⁿ→ 4fⁿ⁻¹5 d¹ electric-dipole transition relevant to the Faraday Effect. Considering the high effective magnetic moment value of Er³⁺ ions (µeff = 9.6 µB) that is 3rd after Dy³⁺/ Ho³⁺ and Tb³⁺, it is possible to assume that Er³⁺ doped glasses should exhibit Verdet constant value near 2µm that is comparable with one of Dy doped glasses. Thus, partial replacement of Dy³⁺ on Er³⁺ ions has been performed, keeping the overall concentration of Re₂O₃ equal to 70 wt.% (30.6 mol.%). Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ (RE= Er, Dy) glasses had been synthesized, and their thermal, spectral, optical, structural, and magneto-optical properties had been studied. Glasses synthesis had been conducted in Pt crucibles for 3h at 1500 °C. The obtained melt was poured into preheated up to 400 °C mold and annealed from 800 oC to room temperature for 12h with 1h dwell. The mass of obtained glass samples was about 200g. Shown that the difference between crystallization and glass transition temperature is about 150 oC, even taking into account the fact that high content of RE₂O₃ leads to glass network depolymerization. Verdet constant of Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ glasses for wavelength 1950 nm can reach more than 5.9 rad/(T*m), which is among the highest number reported for a paramagnetic glass at this wavelength. The refractive index value was found to be equal to 1.7545 at 633 nm. Our experimental results show that Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ glasses with high Dy₂O₃ content are expected to be promising material for use as highly effective Faraday isolators and modulators of electromagnetic radiation in the 2μm region.

Keywords: erbium, dysprosium, magneto-optical, oxide glass, Faraday rotator, boron-aluminosilicate system

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1967 Light Weight Fly Ash Based Composite Material for Thermal Insulation Applications

Authors: Bharath Kenchappa, Kunigal Shivakumar

Abstract:

Lightweight, low thermal conductivity and high temperature resistant materials or the system with moderate mechanical properties and capable of taking high heating rates are needed in both commercial and military applications. A single material with these attributes is very difficult to find and one needs to come with innovative ideas to make such material system using what is available. To bring down the cost of the system, one has to be conscious about the cost of basic materials. Such a material system can be called as the thermal barrier system. This paper focuses on developing, testing and characterization of material system for thermal barrier applications. The material developed is porous, low density, low thermal conductivity of 0.1062 W/m C and glass transition temperature about 310 C. Also, the thermal properties of the developed material was measured in both longitudinal and thickness direction to highlight the fact that the material shows isotropic behavior. The material is called modified Eco-Core which uses only less than 9% weight of high-char resin in the composite. The filler (reinforcing material) is a component of fly ash called Cenosphere, they are hollow micro-bubbles made of ceramic materials. Special mixing-technique is used to surface coat the fillers with a thin layer of resin to develop a point-to-point contact of particles. One could use commercial ceramic micro-bubbles instead of Cenospheres, but it is expensive. The bulk density of Cenospheres is about 0.35 g/cc and we could accomplish the composite density of about 0.4 g/cc. One percent filler weight of 3mm length standard drywall grade fibers was used to bring the added toughness. Both thermal and mechanical characterization was performed and properties are documented. For higher temperature applications (up to 1,000 C), a hybrid system was developed using an aerogel mat. Properties of combined material was characterized and documented. Thermal tests were conducted on both the bare modified Eco-Core and hybrid materials to assess the suitability of the material to a thermal barrier application. The hybrid material system was found to meet the requirement of the application.

Keywords: fly ash, Aerogel, porous material, thermal barrier

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1966 Defect Correlation of Computed Tomography and Serial Sectioning in Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Bryce R. Jolley, Michael Uchic

Abstract:

This study presents initial results toward the correlative characterization of inherent defects of Ti-6Al-4V additive manufacture (AM). X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) defect data are compared and correlated with microscopic photographs obtained via automated serial sectioning. The metal AM specimen was manufactured out of Ti-6Al-4V virgin powder to specified dimensions. A post-contour was applied during the fabrication process with a speed of 1050 mm/s, power of 260 W, and a width of 140 µm. The specimen was stress relief heat-treated at 16°F for 3 hours. Microfocus CT imaging was accomplished on the specimen within a predetermined region of the build. Microfocus CT imaging was conducted with parameters optimized for Ti-6Al-4V additive manufacture. After CT imaging, a modified RoboMet. 3D version 2 was employed for serial sectioning and optical microscopy characterization of the same predetermined region. Automated montage capture with sub-micron resolution, bright-field reflection, 12-bit monochrome optical images were performed in an automated fashion. These optical images were post-processed to produce 2D and 3D data sets. This processing included thresholding and segmentation to improve visualization of defect features. The defects observed from optical imaging were compared and correlated with the defects observed from CT imaging over the same predetermined region of the specimen. Quantitative results of area fraction and equivalent pore diameters obtained via each method are presented for this correlation. It is shown that Microfocus CT imaging does not capture all inherent defects within this Ti-6Al-4V AM sample. Best practices for this correlative effort are also presented as well as the future direction of research resultant from this current study.

Keywords: Nondestructive Evaluation, Computed Tomography, Additive Manufacture, automated serial sectioning

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1965 Suitability of Wood Sawdust Waste Reinforced Polymer Composite for Fireproof Doors

Authors: Timine Suoware, Charles Amgbari, Sylvester Edelugo

Abstract:

The susceptibility of natural fibre polymer composites to flame has necessitated research to improve and develop flame retardant (FR) to delay the escape of combustible volatiles. Previous approaches relied mostly on FR such as aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) to improve fire performances of wood sawdust polymer composites (WSPC) with emphasis on non-structural building applications. In this paper, APP was modified with gum Arabic powder (GAP) and then hybridized with ATH at 0, 12 and 18% loading ratio to form new FR species; WSPC12%APP-GAP and WSPC18%ATH/APP-GAP. The FR species were incorporated in wood sawdust waste reinforced in polyester resin to form panels for fireproof doors. The panels were produced using hand lay compression moulding technique and cured at room temperature. Specimen cut from panels were then tested for tensile strength (TS), flexural strength (FS) and impact strength (IS) using universal testing machine and impact tester; thermal stability using (TGA/DSC 1: Metler Toledo); time-to-ignition (Tig), heat release rates (HRR); peak HRR (HRRp), average HRR (HRRavg), total HRR (THR), peak mass loss rate (MLRp), average smoke production rate (SPRavg) and carbon monoxide production (COP ) were obtained using the cone calorimeter apparatus. From the mechanical properties obtained, improvements of IS for the panels were not noticeable whereas TS and FS for WSPC12%APP-GAP respectively stood at 12.44 MPa and 85.58 MPa more than those without FR (WSPC0%). For WSC18%ATH/APP-GAP TS and FS respectively stood at 16.45 MPa and 50.49 MPa more compared to (WSPC0%). From the thermal analysis, the panels did not exhibit any significant change as early degradation was observed. At 900 OC, the char residues improved by 15% for WSPC12%APP-GAP and 19% for WSPC18%ATH/APP-GAP more than (WSC0%) at 5%, confirming the APP-GAP to be a good FR. At 50 kW/m2 heat flux (HF), WSPC12%APP-GAP improved better the fire behaviour of the panels when compared to WSC0% as follows; Tig = 46 s, HRRp = 56.1 kW/2, HRRavg = 32.8 kW/m2, THR = 66.6 MJ/m2, MLRp = 0.103 g/s, TSR = 0.04 m2/s and COP = 0.051 kg/kg. These were respectively more than WSC0%. It can be concluded that the new concept of modifying FR with GAP in WSC could meet the requirement of a fireproof door for building applications.

Keywords: Composite, flame retardant, wood sawdust, fireproof doors

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1964 Characterization of the Ignitability and Flame Regression Behaviour of Flame Retarded Natural Fibre Composite Panel

Authors: Timine Suoware, Sylvester Edelugo, Charles Amgbari

Abstract:

Natural fibre composites (NFC) are becoming very attractive especially for automotive interior and non-structural building applications because they are biodegradable, low cost, lightweight and environmentally friendly. NFC are known to release high combustible products during exposure to heat atmosphere and this behaviour has raised concerns to end users. To improve on their fire response, flame retardants (FR) such as aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) are incorporated during processing to delay the start and spread of fire. In this paper, APP was modified with Gum Arabic powder (GAP) and synergized with carbon black (CB) to form new FR species. Four FR species at 0, 12, 15 and 18% loading ratio were added to oil palm fibre polyester composite (OPFC) panels as follows; OPFC12%APP-GAP, OPFC15%APP-GAP/CB, OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP and OPFC18%ATH/APPGAP/CB. The panels were produced using hand lay-up compression moulding and cured at room temperature. Specimens were cut from the panels and these were tested for ignition time (Tig), peak heat released rate (HRRp), average heat release rate (HRRavg), peak mass loss rate (MLRp), residual mass (Rm) and average smoke production rate (SPRavg) using cone calorimeter apparatus as well as the available flame energy (ɸ) in driving the flame using radiant panel flame spread apparatus. From the ignitability data obtained at 50 kW/m2 heat flux (HF), it shows that the hybrid FR modified with APP that is OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP exhibited superior flame retardancy and the improvement was based on comparison with those without FR which stood at Tig = 20 s, HRRp = 86.6 kW/m2, HRRavg = 55.8 kW/m2, MLRp =0.131 g/s, Rm = 54.6% and SPRavg = 0.05 m2/s representing respectively 17.6%, 67.4%, 62.8%, 50.9%, 565% and 62.5% improvements less than those without FR (OPFC0%). In terms of flame spread, the least flame energy (ɸ) of 0.49 kW2/s3 for OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP caused early flame regression. This was less than 39.6 kW2/s3 compared to those without FR (OPFC0%). It can be concluded that hybrid FR modified with APP could be useful in the automotive and building industries to delay the start and spread of fire.

Keywords: flame retardant, composite panel, oil palm fibre, flame regression

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1963 Preparation of Carbon Monoliths from PET Waste and Their Use in Solar Interfacial Water Evaporation

Authors: Andrea Alfaro Barajas, Arturo I. Martinez

Abstract:

3D photothermal structure of carbon was synthesized using PET bottles waste and sodium chloride through controlled carbonization. Characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and mechanical compression were carried out. The carbon showed physical integrity > 90%, an absorbance > 90% between 300-1000nm of the solar spectrum, and a high specific surface area from 450 to 620 m2/g. The X-ray was employed to examine the phase structure; the obtained pattern shows an amorphous material. A higher intensity of band D with respect to band G was confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy. C-OH, COOH, C-O, and C-C bonds were obtained from the deconvolution of the high-resolution C1s orbital. Macropores of 160 to 180µm and micropores of 0.5 to 2nm were observed by SEM and TEM images, respectively. Such combined characteristics of carbon confer efficient evaporation of water under 1 sun irradiation > 60%.

Keywords: Interfacial, Carbon, solar-absorber, water-evaporation

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1962 Effect of Rubber Pretreatment on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Self Compacting Rubberized Concrete

Authors: Ivana Milicevic, Marijana Hadzima Nyarko, Robert Busic, Jasna Simonovic Radosavljevic, Milos Prokopijevic, Danijela Djikanovic

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of different rubber aggregate pretreatment methods on self-compacting concrete’s (SCC) compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. 10% replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber by total aggregate volume and different aggregate pretreatment methods were investigated. Rubber aggregate was pretreated with 3 different methods: dry process, water soaking, and combination of NaOH and water soaking method. Properties of SCC in a fresh and hardened state were tested and evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of three different self-compacting rubberized concrete (SCRC) patches were made and discussed. Rubber pretreatment with NaOH and water soaking resulted in the improvement of fresh and hardened SCC properties in terms of a more uniform distribution of rubber particles in a cement matrix, better bond between rubber particles and cement matrix, i.e., better interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and higher compressive strength of SCRC.

Keywords: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, NaOH treatment, rubber aggregate, self-compacting rubberized concrete, scanning electron microscope analysis

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1961 Ex-vivo Bio-distribution Studies of a Potential Lung Perfusion Agent

Authors: Shabnam Sarwar, Franck Lacoeuille, Nadia Withofs, Roland Hustinx

Abstract:

After the development of a potential surrogate of MAA, and its successful application for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in artificially embolized rats’ lungs, this microparticulate system were radiolabelled with gallium-68 to synthesize 68Ga-SBMP with high radiochemical purity >99%. As a prerequisite step of clinical trials, 68Ga- labelled starch based microparticles (SBMP) were analysed for their in-vivo behavior in small animals. The purpose of the presented work includes the ex-vivo biodistribution studies of 68Ga-SBMP in order to assess the activity uptake in target organs with respect to time, excretion pathways of the radiopharmaceutical, %ID/g in major organs, T/NT ratios, in-vivo stability of the radiotracer and subsequently the microparticles in the target organs. Radiolabelling of starch based microparticles was performed by incubating it with 68Ga generator eluate (430±26 MBq) at room temperature and pressure without using any harsh reaction condition. For Ex-vivo biodistribution studies healthy White Wistar rats weighing between 345-460 g were injected intravenously 68Ga-SBMP 20±8 MBq, containing about 2,00,000-6,00,000 SBMP particles in a volume of 700µL. The rats were euthanized at predefined time intervals (5min, 30min, 60min and 120min) and their organ parts were cut, washed, and put in the pre-weighed tubes and measured for radioactivity counts through automatic Gamma counter. The 68Ga-SBMP produced >99% RCP just after 10-20 min incubation through a simple and robust procedure. Biodistribution of 68Ga-SBMP showed that initially just after 5 min post injection major uptake was observed in the lungs following by blood, heart, liver, kidneys, bladder, urine, spleen, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin and skeleton, thymus and at last the smallest activity was found in brain. Radioactivity counts stayed stable in lungs with gradual decrease with the passage of time, and after 2h post injection, almost half of the activity were seen in lungs. This is a sufficient time to perform PET/CT lungs scanning in humans while activity in the liver, spleen, gut and urinary system decreased with time. The results showed that urinary system is the excretion pathways instead of hepatobiliary excretion. There was a high value of T/NT ratios which suggest fine tune images for PET/CT lung perfusion studies henceforth further pre-clinical studies and then clinical trials should be planned in order to utilize this potential lung perfusion agent.

Keywords: biodistribution, starch based microparticles, gallium-68, target organs, excretion pathways

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1960 In-Process Integration of Resistance-Based, Fiber Sensors during the Braiding Process for Strain Monitoring of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Thomas Gries, Oscar Bareiro, Johannes Sackmann

Abstract:

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) are used in a wide variety of applications due to its advantageous properties and design versatility. The braiding process enables the manufacture of components with good toughness and fatigue strength. However, failure mechanisms of CFRPs are complex and still present challenges associated with their maintenance and repair. Within the broad scope of structural health monitoring (SHM), strain monitoring can be applied to composite materials to improve reliability, reduce maintenance costs and safely exhaust service life. Traditional SHM systems employ e.g. fiber optics, piezoelectrics as sensors, which are often expensive, time consuming and complicated to implement. A cost-efficient alternative can be the exploitation of the conductive properties of fiber-based sensors such as carbon, copper, or constantan - a copper-nickel alloy – that can be utilized as sensors within composite structures to achieve strain monitoring. This allows the structure to provide feedback via electrical signals to a user which are essential for evaluating the structural condition of the structure. This work presents a strategy for the in-process integration of resistance-based sensors (Elektrisola Feindraht AG, CuNi23Mn, Ø = 0.05 mm) into textile preforms during its manufacture via the braiding process (Herzog RF-64/120) to achieve strain monitoring of braided composites. For this, flat samples of instrumented composite laminates of carbon fibers (Toho Tenax HTS40 F13 24K, 1600 tex) and epoxy resin (Epikote RIMR 426) were manufactured via vacuum-assisted resin infusion. These flat samples were later cut out into test specimens and the integrated sensors were wired to the measurement equipment (National Instruments, VB-8012) for data acquisition during the execution of mechanical tests. Quasi-static tests were performed (tensile, 3-point bending tests) following standard protocols (DIN EN ISO 527-1 & 4, DIN EN ISO 14132); additionally, dynamic tensile tests were executed. These tests were executed to assess the sensor response under different loading conditions and to evaluate the influence of the sensor presence on the mechanical properties of the material. Several orientations of the sensor with regards to the applied loading and sensor placements inside the laminate were tested. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were made by programming a data acquisition code (LabView) written for the measurement equipment. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were then correlated to the strain/stress state for the tested samples. From the assessment of the sensor integration approach it can be concluded that it allows for a seamless sensor integration into the textile preform. No damage to the sensor or negative effect on its electrical properties was detected during inspection after integration. From the assessment of the mechanical tests of instrumented samples it can be concluded that the presence of the sensors does not alter significantly the mechanical properties of the material. It was found that there is a good correlation between resistance measurements from the integrated sensors and the applied strain. It can be concluded that the correlation is of sufficient accuracy to determinate the strain state of a composite laminate based solely on the resistance measurements from the integrated sensors.

Keywords: strain monitoring, braiding process, in-process sensor integration, instrumented composite material, resistance-based sensor

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1959 Characterization of Alloyed Grey Cast Iron Quenched and Tempered for a Smooth Roll Application

Authors: Mohamed Habireche, Nacer E. Bacha, Mohamed Djeghdjough

Abstract:

In the brick industry, smooth double roll crusher is used for medium and fine crushing of soft to medium hard material. Due to opposite inward rotation of the rolls, the feed material is nipped between the rolls and crushed by compression. They are subject to intense wear, known as three-body abrasion, due to the action of abrasive products. The production downtime affecting productivity stems from two sources: the bi-monthly rectification of the roll crushers and their replacement when they are completely worn out. Choosing the right material for the roll crushers should result in longer machine cycles, and reduced repair and maintenance costs. All roll crushers are imported from outside Algeria. This results in sometimes very long delivery times which handicap the brickyards, in particular in respecting delivery times and honored the orders made by customers. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of alloying additions on microstructure and wear behavior of grey lamellar cast iron for smooth roll crushers in brick industry. The base gray iron was melted in an induction furnace with low frequency at a temperature of 1500 °C, in which return cast iron scrap, new cast iron ingot, and steel scrap were added to the melt to generate the desired composition. The chemical analysis of the bar samples was carried out using Emission Spectrometer Systems PV 8050 Series (Philips) except for the carbon, for which a carbon/sulphur analyser Elementrac CS-i was used. Unetched microstructure was used to evaluate the graphite flake morphology using the image comparison measurement method. At least five different fields were selected for quantitative estimation of phase constituents. The samples were observed under X100 magnification with a Zeiss Axiover T40 MAT optical microscope equipped with a digital camera. SEM microscope equipped with EDS was used to characterize the phases present in the microstructure. The hardness (750 kg load, 5mm diameter ball) was measured with a Brinell testing machine for both treated and as-solidified condition test pieces. The test bars were used for tensile strength and metallographic evaluations. Mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile specimens made as per ASTM E8 standards. Two specimens were tested for each alloy. From each rod, a test piece was made for the tensile test. The results showed that the quenched and tempered alloys had best wear resistance at 400 °C for alloyed grey cast iron (containing 0.62%Mn, 0.68%Cr, and 1.09% Cu) due to fine carbides in the tempered matrix. In quenched and tempered condition, increasing Cu content in cast irons improved its wear resistance moderately. Combined addition of Cu and Cr increases hardness and wear resistance for a quenched and tempered hypoeutectic grey cast iron.

Keywords: Microstructure, Casting, Cast Iron, heat treating

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1958 Undercooling of Refractory High-Entropy Alloy

Authors: Liang Hu

Abstract:

The innovation of refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) formed from refractory metals W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Hf, V, and Zr was firstly implemented in 2010 to obtain better strength at high temperature than conventional HEAs based on Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni. Due to the refractory characteristic and high chemical activity at elevated temperature, electrostatic levitation technique has been utilized to fulfill the rapid solidification of RHEA. Several RHEAs consisting W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Zr have been selected to perform the undercooling and rapid solidification by ESL. They are substantially undercooled by up to 0.2TL. The evolution of as-solidified microstructure and component redistribution with undercooling have been investigated by SEM, EBSD, and EPMA analysis. According to the EPMA results of composing elements at different undercooling levels, the chemical distribution relevant to undercooling was also analyzed.

Keywords: Rapid Solidification, chemical distribution, high-entropy alloy, undercooling

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1957 The Effect of Composite Hybridization on the Back Face Deformation of Armor Plates

Authors: Attef Kouadria, Yehya Bouteghrine, Amar Manaa, Tarek Mouats, Djalel Eddine Tria, Hamid Abdelhafid Ghouti

Abstract:

Personal protection systems have been used in several forms for centuries. The need for light-weight composite structures has been in great demand due to their weight and high mechanical properties ratios in comparison to heavy and cumbersome steel plates. In this regard, lighter ceramic plates with a backing plate made of high strength polymeric fibers, mostly aramids, are widely used for protection against ballistic threats. This study aims to improve the ballistic performance of ceramic/composite plates subjected to ballistic impact by reducing the back face deformation (BFD) measured after each test. A new hybridization technique was developed in this investigation to increase the energy absorption capabilities of the backing plates. The hybridization consists of combining different types of aramid fabrics with different linear densities of aramid fibers (Dtex) and areal densities with an epoxy resin to form the backing plate. Therefore, several composite structures architectures were prepared and tested. For better understanding the effect of the hybridization, a serial of tensile, compression, and shear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the homogeneous composite materials prepared from different fabrics. It was found that the hybridization allows the backing plate to combine between the mechanical properties of the used fabrics. Aramid fabrics with higher Dtex were found to increase the mechanical strength of the backing plate, while those with lower Dtex found to enhance the lateral wave dispersion ratio due to their lower areal density. Therefore, the back face deformation was significantly reduced in comparison to a homogeneous composite plate.

Keywords: Composite, Mechanical testing, Ballistic Impact, aramid fabric, body armor, back face deformation

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1956 The shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Water Vapor Adsorption

Authors: Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Jiun-Jen Chen, Yuhao Kang

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn scientists’ attention for decades due to its high specific surface area, tunable pore size, and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Bearing with those mentioned properties, MOFs has been widely used in various applications, such as adsorption/separation and catalysis. However, the current challenge for practical use of MOFs is to effectively shape these crystalline powder material into controllable forms such as pellets, granules, and monoliths with sufficient mechanical and chemical stability, while maintaining the excellent properties of MOFs powders. Herein, we have successfully synthesized an Al-based MOF powder which exhibits a high water capacity at relatively low humidity conditions and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Then the synthesized Al-MOF was shaped into granules with particle size of 2-4 mm by (1) tumbling granulation, (2) High shear mixing granulation, and (3) Extrusion techniques. Finally, the water vapor adsorption rate and crush strength of Al-MOF granules by different shaping techniques were measured and compared.

Keywords: Metal-Organic Frameworks, granules, granulation, water vapor adsorption

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1955 Vibration Analysis of Magnetostrictive Nano-Plate by Using Modified Couple Stress and Nonlocal Elasticity Theories

Authors: Hamed Khani Arani, Mohammad Shariyat, Armaghan Mohammadian

Abstract:

In the present study, the free vibration of magnetostrictive nano-plate (MsNP) resting on the Pasternak foundation is investigated. Firstly, the modified couple stress (MCS) and nonlocal elasticity theories are compared together and taken into account to consider the small scale effects; in this paper not only two theories are analyzed but also it improves the MCS theory is more accurate than nonlocal elasticity theory in such problems. A feedback control system is utilized to investigate the effects of a magnetic field. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), Hamilton’s principle and energy method are utilized in order to drive the equations of motion and these equations are solved by differential quadrature method (DQM) for simply supported boundary conditions. The MsNP undergoes in-plane forces in x and y directions. In this regard, the dimensionless frequency is plotted to study the effects of small scale parameter, magnetic field, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and compression and tension loads. Results indicate that these parameters play a key role on the natural frequency. According to the above results, MsNP can be used in the communications equipment, smart control vibration of nanostructure especially in sensor and actuators such as wireless linear micro motor and smart nano valves in injectors.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, nonlocal elasticity theory, modified couple stress theory, feedback control system, magnetostrictive nano-plate

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1954 Preparation and Properties of Self-Healing Polyurethanes Utilizing the Host-Guest Interaction between Cyclodextrin and Adamantane Moieties

Authors: Kaito Sugane, Mitsuhiro Shibata

Abstract:

Self-healing polymers have attracted attention because their physical damage and cracks can be effectively repaired, thereby extending the lifetime of the materials. Self-healing polymers using host-guest interaction have the advantage that they are quickly repaired under mild temperature conditions when compared with self-healing polymer using dynamic covalent bonds such as Diels-Alder (DA)/retro-DA and disulfide metathesis reactions. Especially, it is known that hydrogels utilizing the host-guest interaction between cyclodextrin and various guest molecules are repeatedly self-repaired at room temperature. However, most of the works deal with hydrogels, and little attention has been paid for thermosetting resins as polyurethane, epoxy and unsaturated polyester resins. In this study, polyetherurethane networks (PUN-CD-Ads) incorporating cyclodextrin and adamantane moieties were prepared by the crosslinking reactions of β-cyclodextrin (CD), 1-adamantanol (AdOH), glycerol ethoxylate (GCE) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and thermal, mechanical and self-healing properties of the polymer network films were investigated. Our attention was focused on the influences of molar ratio of CD/AdOH, GCE/CD and OH/NCO on the properties. The FT-IR, and gel fraction analysis revealed that the urethanization reaction smoothly progress to form polyurethane networks. When two cut pieces of the films were contacted at the cross-section at room temperature for 30 seconds, the two pieces adhered to produce a self-healed film. Especially, the PUN-CD-Ad prepared at GCE/CD = 5/1, CD/AdOH = 1/1, and OH/NCO = 1/1 film exhibited the highest healing efficiency for tensile strength. Most of the PUN-CD-Ads were successfully self-healed at room temperature.

Keywords: Self-Healing, polyurethane, host-guest interaction, network polymer

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1953 3D Printing of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treated Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone) for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Dong Nyoung Heo, Il Keun Kwon

Abstract:

Three-dimensional (3D) technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering. In order to enhance bone tissue regeneration, it is important to have ideal 3D constructs with biomimetic mechanical strength, structure interconnectivity, roughened surface, and the presence of chemical functionality. In this respect, a 3D printing system combined with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was developed to fabricate a 3D construct that has a rough surface with polar functional chemical groups. The CAP-etching process leads to oxidation of chemical groups existing on the polycaprolactone (PCL) surface without conformational change. The surface morphology, chemical composition, mean roughness of the CAP-treated PCL surfaces were evaluated. 3D printed constructs composed of CAP-treated PCL showed an effective increment in the hydrophilicity and roughness of the PCL surface. Also, an in vitro study revealed that CAP-treated 3D PCL constructs had higher cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, a 3D printing system with CAP can be a highly useful fabrication method for bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, PCL, cold atmospheric plasma

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1952 Dielectric Study of Lead-Free Double Perovskite Structured Polycrystalline BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Material

Authors: Vijay Khopkar, Balaram Sahoo

Abstract:

Material with high value of dielectric constant has application in the electronics devices. Existing lead based materials have issues such as toxicity and problem with synthesis procedure. Double perovskite structured barium iron niobate (BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3, BFN) is the lead-free material, showing a high value of dielectric constant. Origin of high value of the dielectric constant in BFN is not clear. We studied the dielectric behavior of polycrystalline BFN sample over wide temperature and frequency range. A BFN sample synthesis by conventional solid states reaction method and phase pure dens pellet was used for dielectric study. The SEM and TEM study shows the presence of grain and grain boundary region. The dielectric measurement was done between frequency range of 40 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature between 20 K to 500 K. At 500 K temperature and lower frequency, there observed high value of dielectric constant which decreases with increase in frequency. The dipolar relaxation follows non-Debye type polarization with relaxation straight of 3560 at room temperature (300 K). Activation energy calculated from the dielectric and modulus formalism found to be 17.26 meV and 2.74 meV corresponds to the energy required for the motion of Fe3+ and Nb5+ ions within the oxygen octahedra. Our study shows that BFN is the order disorder type ferroelectric material.

Keywords: Ferroelectric, dielectric, barium iron niobate, non-Debye

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1951 The Effect of Volume Fraction of Nano-Alumina Strengthening on AC4B Composite Characteristics through the Stir Casting Method as a Material Brake Shoe

Authors: Benny Alexander, Ikhlashia N. Fadhilah, Muhammad R. Pasha, Michelle Julia, Anne Z. Syahrial

Abstract:

Brake shoe is a component that serves to reduce speed or stop the train's speed by utilizing the friction force. Generally, the material used as a brake shoe is cast iron, where cast iron itself is a heavy, expensive, and easily worn material. Aluminum matrix composites are one of candidates for the cast iron replacement material as the basic material for brake shoe. The matrix in the composite used is Aluminum AC4B. Reinforcement used in aluminum matrix composites is nano-alumina, where the use of nano-alumina of 0.25%, 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, and 0.5% volume fraction will be tested. The sample is made using the stir casting method; then, it will be tested mechanically. The use of nano-alumina as a reinforcement will increase the strength of the matrix. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing is used to test the distribution of reinforcing particles due to stirring. Therefore, the addition of nano-alumina will improve AC4B aluminum matrix composites.

Keywords: Nano-Alumina, stir casting, aluminium matrix composites, brake shoe application

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1950 Investigation of the Carbon Dots Optical Properties Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and TimE-resolved Fluorescence Microscopy

Authors: M. S. Stepanova, V. V. Zakharov, P. D. Khavlyuk, I. D. Skurlov, A. Y. Dubovik, A. L. Rogach

Abstract:

Carbon dots are small carbon-based spherical nanoparticles, which are typically less than 10 nm in size that can be modified with surface passivation and heteroatoms doping. The light-absorbing ability of carbon dots has attracted a significant amount of attention in photoluminescence for bioimaging and fluorescence sensing applications owing to their advantages, such as tunable fluorescence emission, photo- and thermostability and low toxicity. In this study, carbon dots were synthesized by the solvothermal method from citric acid and ethylenediamine dissolved in water. The solution was heated for 5 hours at 200°C and then cooled down to room temperature. The carbon dots films were obtained by evaporation from a high-concentration aqueous solution. The increase of both luminescence intensity and light transmission was obtained as a result of a 405 nm laser exposure to a part of the carbon dots film, which was detected using a confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM 710, Zeiss). Blueshift up to 35 nm of the luminescence spectrum is observed as luminescence intensity, which is increased more than twofold. The exact value of the shift depends on the time of the laser exposure. This shift can be caused by the modification of surface groups at the carbon dots, which are responsible for long-wavelength luminescence. In addition, a shift of the absorption peak by 10 nm and a decrease in the optical density at the wavelength of 350 nm is detected, which is responsible for the absorption of surface groups. The obtained sample was also studied with time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscope (MicroTime 100, PicoQuant), which made it possible to receive a time-resolved photoluminescence image and construct emission decays of the laser-exposed and non-exposed areas. 5 MHz pulse rate impulse laser has been used as a photoluminescence excitation source. Photoluminescence decay was approximated by two exhibitors. The laser-exposed area has the amplitude of the first-lifetime component (A1) twice as much as before, with increasing τ1. At the same time, the second-lifetime component (A2) decreases. These changes evidence a modification of the surface groups of carbon dots. The detected effect can be used to create thermostable fluorescent marks, the physical size of which is bounded by the diffraction limit of the optics (~ 200-300 nm) used for exposure and to improve the optical properties of carbon dots or in the field of optical encryption. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation, goszadanie no. 2019-1080 and financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08.

Keywords: Optical Properties, carbon dots, photoactivation, photoluminescence and absorption spectra

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1949 Magneto-Luminescent Biocompatible Complexes Based on Alloyed Quantum Dots and Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Matiushkina, A. Bazhenova, I. Litvinov, E. Kornilova, A. Dubavik, A. Orlova

Abstract:

Magnetic-luminescent complexes based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been recognized as a new class of materials that have high potential in modern medicine. These materials can serve for theranostics of oncological diseases, and also as a target agent for drug delivery. They combine the qualities characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles, that is, magneto-controllability and the ability to local heating under the influence of an external magnetic field, as well as phosphors, due to luminescence of which, for example, early tumor imaging is possible. The complexity of creating complexes is the energy transfer between particles, which quenches the luminescence of QDs in complexes with SPIONs. In this regard, a relatively new type of alloyed (CdₓZn₁₋ₓSeᵧS₁₋ᵧ)-ZnS QDs is used in our work. The presence of a sufficiently thick gradient semiconductor shell in alloyed QDs makes it possible to reduce the probability of energy transfer from QDs to SPIONs in complexes. At the same time, Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a perfect instrument to confirm the formation of complexes based on QDs and different-type energy acceptors. The formation of complexes in the aprotic bipolar solvent dimethyl sulfoxide is ensured by the coordination of the carboxyl group of the stabilizing QD molecule (L-cysteine) on the surface iron atoms of the SPIONs. An analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra has shown that a sequential increase in the SPIONs concentration in the samples is accompanied by effective quenching of the luminescence of QDs. However, it has not confirmed the formation of complexes yet, because of a decrease in the PL intensity of QDs due to reabsorption of light by SPIONs. Therefore, a study of the PL kinetics of QDs at different SPIONs concentrations was made, which demonstrates that an increase in the SPIONs concentration is accompanied by a symbatic reduction in all characteristic PL decay times. It confirms the FRET from QDs to SPIONs, which indicates the QDs/SPIONs complex formation, rather than a spontaneous aggregation of QDs, which is usually accompanied by a sharp increase in the percentage of the QD fraction with the shortest characteristic PL decay time. The complexes have been studied by the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy that allows one to estimate the response of magnetic material to the applied magnetic field and also can be useful to check SPIONs aggregation. An analysis of the MCD spectra has shown that the complexes have zero residual magnetization, which is an important factor for using in biomedical applications, and don't contain SPIONs aggregates. Cell penetration, biocompatibility, and stability of QDs/SPIONs complexes in cancer cells have been studied using HeLa cell line. We have found that the complexes penetrate in HeLa cell and don't demonstrate cytotoxic effect up to 25 nM concentration. Our results clearly demonstrate that alloyed (CdₓZn₁₋ₓSeᵧS₁₋ᵧ)-ZnS QDs can be successfully used in complexes with SPIONs reached new hybrid nanostructures, which combine bright luminescence for tumor imaging and magnetic properties for targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia of tumors. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation, goszadanie no. 2019-1080 and was financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08.

Keywords: alloyed quantum dots, magnetic circular dichroism, magneto-luminescent complexes, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

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1948 Application of Genetic Algorithm Optimization in Analysis of Variable Stiffness Composites

Authors: Nasim Fallahi, Erasmo Carrera, Alfonso Pagani

Abstract:

Variable angle tow describes the fibres which are curvilinearly steered in a composite lamina. Significantly, stiffness tailoring freedom of VAT composite laminate can be enlarged and enabled. Composite structures with curvilinear fibres have been shown to improve the buckling load carrying capability in contrast with the straight laminate composites. However, the optimal design and analysis of VAT are faced with high computational efforts due to the increasing number of variables. In this article, an efficient optimum solution has been used in combination with 1D Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF) to investigate the optimum fibre orientation angles for buckling analysis. The particular emphasis is on the LE-based CUF models, which provide a Lagrange Expansions to address a layerwise description of the problem unknowns. The first critical buckling load has been considered under simply supported boundary conditions. Special attention is lead to the sensitivity of buckling load corresponding to the fibre orientation angle in comparison with the results which obtain through the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization frame, and then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is applied to investigate the accuracy of the optimized model. As a result, numerical CUF approach with an optimal solution demonstrates the robustness and computational efficiency of proposed optimum methodology.

Keywords: Optimization, variable stiffness, beam structures, layerwise

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1947 On a Determination of Residual Stresses and Wear Resistance of Thermally Sprayed Stainless Steel Coating

Authors: Merzak Laribi, Abdelmadjid Kasser

Abstract:

Thermal spraying processes are widely used to produce coatings on original constructions as well as in repair and maintenance of long standing structures. A lot of efforts forwarding to develop thermal spray coatings technology have been focused on improving mechanical characteristics, minimizing residual stress level and reducing porosity of the coatings. The specific aim of this paper is to determine either residual stresses distribution or wear resistance of stainless steel coating thermally sprayed on a carbon steel substrate. Internal stresses determination was performed using an extensometric method in combination with a simultaneous progressive electrolytic polishing. The procedure consists of measuring micro-deformations using a bi-directional extensometric gauges glued on the substrate side of the materials. Very thin layers of the deposits are removed by electrochemical polishing across the sample surface. Micro-deformations are instantaneously measured, leading to residual stresses calculation after each removal. Wear resistance of the coating has been determined using a ball-on-plate tribometer. Friction coefficient is instantaneously measured during the tribological test. Attention was particularly focused on the influence of a post-annealing at 850 °C for one hour in vacuum either on the residual stresses distribution or on the wear resistance behavior under specific wear and lubrication conditions. The obtained results showed that the microstructure of the obtained arc sprayed stainless steel coating is classical. It is homogeneous and contains un-melted particles, metallic oxides and also pores and micro-cracks. The internal stresses are in compression in the coating. They are more or less scattered between -50 and -270 MPa on the surface and decreased more at the interface. The value at the surface of the substrate is about –700 MPa, partially due to the molten particles impact with the substrate. The post annealing has reduced the residual stresses in both coating and surface of the steel substrate so that the hole material becomes more relaxed. Friction coefficient has an average value of 0.3 and 0.4 respectively for non annealed and annealed specimen. It is rather oil lubrication which is really benefit so that friction coefficient is decreased to about 0.06.

Keywords: Coating, Residual Stresses, Wear Resistance, Lubrication, annealing, stainless steel, thermal spraying

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1946 Blend of Polyamide 6 with Polybutylene Terephthalate Compatibilized with Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR-25) and N Butyl Acrylate Glycidyl Methacrylate Ethylene (EBa-GMA)

Authors: Manit Nithitanakul, Ramita Vongrat, Pornsri Sapsrithong

Abstract:

In this work, blends of polyamide 6 (PA6) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were successfully prepared. The effect of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-25) and n butyl acrylate glycidyl methacrylate ethylene (EBa-GMA) as a compatibilizer on properties of PA6/PBT blends was also investigated by varying amount of ENR-50 and EBa-GMA, i.e., 0, 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 10 phr. All blends were prepared and shaped by using twin-screw extruder at 230 °C and injection molding machine, respectively. All test specimens were characterized by phase morphology, impact strength, tensile, flexural properties, and hardness. The results exhibited that phase morphology of PA6/PBT blend without compatibilizer was incompatible. This could be attributed to poor interfacial adhesion between the two polymers. SEM micrographs showed that the addition of ENR-25 and EBa-GMA improved the compatibility of PA6/PBT blends. With the addition of ENR-50 as a compatibilizer, the uniformity and the maximum reduction of dispersed phase size were observed. Additionally, the results indicate that, as the amount of ENR-25 increased, and EBa-GMA increased, the mechanical properties, including stress at the peak, tensile modulus, and izod impact strength, were also improved.

Keywords: polyamide 6, EBa-GMA, epoxidized natural rubber-25, polybutylene terephthalate

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