Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1868

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Materials and Metallurgical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1868 Application of Synthetic Monomers Grafted Xanthan Gum for Rhodamine B Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Tshepiso Moremedi, Lebogang Katata-Seru, Soumen Sardar, Abhijit Bandyopadhyay, Edwin Makhado, Mpitloane Joseph Hato

Abstract:

The rapid industrialisation and population growth have led to a steady fall in freshwater supplies worldwide. As a result, water systems are affected by modern methods upon use due to secondary contamination. The application of novel adsorbents derived from natural polymer holds a great promise in addressing challenges in water treatment. In this study, the UV irradiation technique was used to prepare acrylamide (AAm) monomer and acrylic acid (AAc) monomer grafted xanthan gum (XG) copolymer. Additionally, various factors affecting rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption from an aqueous medium such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, solution temperature and contact time were investigated. The FTIR results confirmed the formation of graft copolymer between AAm and AAc. The SEM showed some irregular, porous and wrinkled surface morphology of XG-g-pAAm-co-AAc indicating successful copolymerization of the reacting monomers. The optimum conditions for removing RhB dye with a maximum adsorption capacity of 313 mg/g at 25 oC and pH 5 was obtained. The adsorption of RhB followed Freundlich’s model in all cases. Kinetic studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model can be employed for describing the dynamics of the adsorption process. Therefore, grafted XG has tremendous potential to be used as an adsorbent to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: xanthan gum, adsorbents, rhodamine B, Freundlich

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1867 HPTLC Fingerprint Profiling of Protorhus longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extract and Qualitative Analysis of Common Biomarkers

Authors: P. S. Seboletswe, Z. Mkhize, L. M. Katata-Seru

Abstract:

Protorhus longifolia is known as a medicinal plant that has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as hemiplegic paralysis, blood clotting related diseases, diarrhoea, heartburn, etc. The study reports a High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile of Protorhus longifolia methanolic extract and its qualitative analysis of gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. HPTLC analysis was achieved using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, CAMAG Automatic Developing Chamber 2 (ADC2), CAMAG visualizer 2, CAMAG Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) scanner and visionCATS CAMAG HPTLC software. Mobile phase comprising toluene, ethyl acetate, formic acid (21:15:3) was used for qualitative analysis of gallic acid and revealed eight peaks while the mobile phase containing ethyl acetate, water, glacial acetic acid, formic acid (100:26:11:11) for qualitative analysis of rutin and quercetin revealed six peaks. HPTLC sillica gel 60 F254 glass plates (10 × 10) were used as the stationary phase. Gallic acid was detected at the Rf = 0.35; while rutin and quercetin were not evident in the extract. Further studies will be performed to quantify gallic acid in Protorhus longifolia leaves and also identify other biomarkers.

Keywords: biomarkers, fingerprint profiling, gallic acid, HPTLC, Protorhus longifolia

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1866 Biomimetic Strategies to Design Non-Toxic Antimicrobial Textiles

Authors: Isabel Gouveia

Abstract:

Antimicrobial textile materials may significantly reduce the risk of infections and because they are able to absorb substances from the skin and release therapeutic compounds to the skin, they can also find applications as complementary therapy of skin-diseases as part of standard management. Although functional textiles may be a promising area in skin disease/injury management, as part of standard management, few offer complementary treatment even though they are well known to reduce scratching and aiding emollient absorption, reducing infection, and alleviating pruritus. The reason for this may rely on the low quality of supporting evidence and negative effect that antimicrobial agents may exert on skin microbiome, as for example additional irritation of the vulnerable skin, and by causing resistant bacteria. Several antimicrobial agents have been tested in textiles: quaternary ammonium compounds, silver, polyhexamethylene-biguanides and triclosan have been used, with success. They have powerful bactericidal activity but the majority have a reduce spectrum of microbial inhibition and may cause skin irritation, ecotoxicity and bacteria resistance. Furthermore, the rising flow of strains resistant to last-resort antibiotics rekindles interest in alternative strategies. In this regard, new functional textiles incorporating highly specific antimicrobial agents towards pathogenic bacteria, are required. Recent research has been conducted on naturally occurring antimicrobials as novel alternatives to antibiotics. Conscious of this need our team firstly reported new approaches using L-cysteine and antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Briefly, we were able to develop different immobilization processes towards 6 Log Reduction against bacteria such as S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Therefore, here we present several innovative antimicrobial textiles incorporating AMP and L-Cysteine which may open new avenues for the medical textiles market and biomaterials in general. Team references will be discussed as an overview and for comparison purposes in terms of potential therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, Antimicrobial Textiles, Biomedical Textiles, Biomimetic surface functionalization

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1865 Solid Waste Management & Practise within the University Community: Case Study in Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu

Authors: J. Izan, E.I. Tengku Azmina, F. Pey Thing

Abstract:

Sustainability has been introduced globally since the emerging of the advancement of technology and product development in various aspects. This concept is regarded highly, listed among the seventeenth elements in Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially by developed countries in any of their development plans and being considered in the development of the developing countries. It is such as the concept of sustainability can undeniably provide a medium where the cost used by energy consumption and pollution problems can be greatly reduced. In Malaysia, many rules and policies had been advocated to achieve sustainability; however, the practice and implementation as well the enforcement to ensure its implementation are still not great. University, as an educational institution, shall practice and implement sustainability concepts in as much aspect as possible as a positive example for a wider community. University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) has already published a blueprint guide in 2015, aims to introduce and implement sustainable practice in the university, and solid waste is one of the key elements highlighted. This study was conducted to determine the status of solid waste management practice among the university community associated with several factors that facilitate the room for sustainable management, as drawn in the established blueprint document. The quantitative analysis was carried out via survey conducted online, acquired the questions on green campus concept and implementation in general and solid waste in particular. The results showed that community UMT showed a high level of awareness and knowledge on sustainable solid waste; however, low percentage in managing solid waste in a sustainable manner. Respondents suggested that stringent guidelines and the establishment of policy greatly help in the realization and enforcement of sustainable solid waste handling and management. Facilities such as waste collection centre with separation and segregation containers will motivate the community to practice 3Rs on a daily basis. This will eventually reduce the generation of waste need to be sent to landfill hence reduce the disposal cost. Prolong, and continuous campaign on sustainable solid waste management need to be carried out more frequently.

Keywords: management, solid waste, sustainability, university

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1864 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

Present study reports the synthesis, characterization, and application of nano sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of nanoparticle. With the conformation of nano formation the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli), which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder

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1863 Fabricating an Infrared-Radar Compatible Stealth Surface with Frequency Selective Surface and Structured Radar-Absorbing Material

Authors: Qingtao Yu, Guojia Ma

Abstract:

Approaches to microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity are often conflicting, as the low-emissivity layer, usually consisting of metals, increases the reflection of microwaves, especially in high frequency. In this study, an infrared-radar compatible stealth surface was fabricated by first depositing a layer of low-emissivity metal film on the surface of a layer of radar-absorbing material. Then, ultrafast laser was used to generate patterns on the metal film, forming a frequency selective surface. With proper pattern design, while the majority of the frequency selective surface is covered by the metal film, it has relatively little influence on the reflection of microwaves between 2 to 18 GHz. At last, structures on the radar-absorbing layer were fabricated by ultra-fast laser to further improve the absorbing bandwidth of the microwave. This study demonstrates that the compatibility between microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity can be achieved by properly designing patterns and structures on the metal film and the radar-absorbing layer accordingly.

Keywords: frequency selective surface, infrared-radar compatible, low infrared emissivity, radar-absorbing material, patterns, structures

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1862 Sustainable Hydrogels Nanocomposites Based on Grafted Chitosan and Clay for Effective Adsorption of Cationic Dye

Authors: Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Tayeb Benhalima, Djahida Lerari

Abstract:

Contamination of water, due to the discharge of untreated industrial wastewaters into the ecosystem, has become a serious problem for many countries. In this study, bioadsorbents based on chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide) and montmorillonite clay (CTS-g-PAAm/MMt) hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared via free‐radical grafting copolymerization and crosslinking of acrylamide monomer (AAm) onto natural polysaccharide chitosan (CTS) as backbone, in the presence of various contents of montmorillonite clay (MMt) as nanofiller. Then, they were hydrolyzed to obtain highly functionalized pH‐sensitive nanomaterials with uppermost swelling properties. Their structure characterization was conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. The adsorption performances of the developed nanohybrids were examined for the removal of methylene blue (MB) cationic dye from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting the removal of MB, such as clay content, pH medium, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and temperature, were explored. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH-dependent. From adsorption kinetic results, the prepared adsorbents showed remarkable adsorption capacity, and fast adsorption rate, mainly more than 88% of MB removal efficiency was reached after 50 min in 200 mg L⁻¹ of dye solution. In addition, the incorporating of various content of clay has enhanced adsorption capacity of CTS-g-PAAm matrix from 1685 to a highest value of 1749 mg g⁻¹ for the optimized nanocomposite containing 2 wt.% of MMt. The experimental kinetic data were well described by the pseudo-second-order model, while the equilibrium data were represented perfectly by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Langmuir equilibrium adsorption capacity (qm) was found to increase from 2173 mg g⁻¹ until 2221 mg g⁻¹ by adding 2 wt.% of clay nanofiller. Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. In addition, the reusability study revealed that these bioadsorbents could be well regenerated with desorption efficiency overhead 87% and without any obvious decrease of removal efficiency as compared to starting ones even after four consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles, which exceeded 64%. These results suggest that the optimized nanocomposites are promising as low-cost bioadsorbents.

Keywords: chitosan, clay, dye adsorption, hydrogels nanocomposites

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1861 Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Processed Biodegradable Zn-Based Alloy for Biomedical Application

Authors: Maruf Yinka Kolawole, Jacob Olayiwola Aweda, Farasat Iqbal, Asif Ali, Sulaiman Abdulkareem

Abstract:

Zinc is a non-ferrous metal with potential application in orthopaedic implant materials. However, its poor mechanical properties were major challenge to its application. Therefore, this paper studies the mechanical properties of biodegradable Zn-based alloy for biomedical application. Pure zinc powder with varying (0, 1, 2, 3 & 6) wt% of magnesium powders were ball milled using ball-to-powder ratio (B:P) of 10:1 at 350 rpm for 4 hours. The resulting milled powders were compacted and sintered at 300 MPa and 350 °C respectively. Microstructural, phase and mechanical properties analyses were performed following American standard of testing and measurement. The results show that magnesium has influence on the mechanical properties of zinc. The compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus of 210 ± 8.878 MPa, 76 ± 5.707 HV and 45 ± 11.616 GPa respectively as obtained in Zn-2Mg alloy were optimum and meet the minimum requirement of biodegradable metal for orthopaedics application. These results indicate an increase of 111, 93 and 93% in compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus respectively as compared to pure zinc. The increase in mechanical properties was adduced to effectiveness of compaction pressure and intermetallic phase formation within the matrix resulting in high dislocation density for improving strength. The study concluded that, Zn-2Mg alloy with optimum mechanical properties can therefore be considered a potential candidate for orthopaedic application.

Keywords: Biodegradable metal, Biomedical application, Mechanical properties, Powder Metallurgy, Zinc

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1860 Investigation on Reducing the Bandgap in Nanocomposite Polymers by Doping

Authors: Sharvare Palwai, Padmaja Guggilla

Abstract:

Smart materials, also called as responsive materials, undergo reversible physical or chemical changes in their properties as a consequence of small environmental variations. They can respond to a single or multiple stimuli such as stress, temperature, moist, electric or magnetic fields, light, or chemical compounds. Hence smart materials are the basis of many applications, including biosensors and transducers, particularly electroactive polymers. As the polymers exhibit good flexibility, high transparency, easy processing, and low cost, they would be promising for the sensor material. Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), being a ferroelectric polymer, exhibits piezoelectric and pyro electric properties. Pyroelectric materials convert heat directly into electricity, while piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy into electricity. These characteristics of PVDF make it useful in biosensor devices and batteries. However, the influence of nanoparticle fillers such as Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO₃/LT), Potassium Niobate (KNbO₃/PN), and Zinc Titanate (ZnTiO₃/ZT) in polymer films will be studied comprehensively. Developing advanced and cost-effective biosensors is pivotal to foresee the fullest potential of polymer based wireless sensor networks, which will further enable new types of self-powered applications. Finally, nanocomposites films with best set of properties; the sensory elements will be designed and tested for their performance as electric generators under laboratory conditions. By characterizing the materials for their optical properties and investigate the effects of doping on the bandgap energies, the science in the next-generation biosensor technologies can be advanced.

Keywords: polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF, lithium tantalate, potassium niobate, zinc titanate

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1859 Synthesis, Structure and Some Properties of NZP/NASICON Structured Materials

Authors: Elena Asabina, Vladimir Pet'kov, Pavel Mayorov, Aleksey Markin, Nataliya Smirnova, Andrey Kovalsky

Abstract:

Phosphates with NaZr₂(PO₄)₃ (NZP/NASICON) structure are proposed as solid ionic conductors that may well be exploited in a wide range of temperatures, thermal shock resistant ceramics, and host matrices for immobilization of toxic or radioactive elements into stable insoluble structure. Earlier, we have studied solid solutions in the systems M₀.₅₊ₓM'ₓZr₂₋ₓ(PO₄)₃ (M – Co, Mn, Ca, Ba; M' – Ni, Mg, Cu, Co, Mn). The purpose of this work was to investigate experimentally phase formation, structure, and thermophysical properties of the phosphates M₀.₅₊ₓM'ₓZr₂₋ₓ(PO₄)₃ (M – Cd, Sr, Pb; M' – Mg, Co, Mn). The compounds were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The obtained samples were white or colored polycrystalline powders. Their chemical composition and homogeneity were checked with the aid of a CamScan MV-2300 microprobe. Phase purity was confirmed with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) at Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The functional composition of the samples was confirmed by IR spectroscopy on Shimadzu FTIR 8400S spectrometer. The results of the study of the phosphates M₀.₅₊ₓM'ₓZr₂₋ₓ(PO₄)₃ (M – Cd, Sr, Pb; M' – Mg, Co, Mn) showed the formation of limited solid solutions of NZP/NASICON type. X-ray patterns of the phosphates were indexed in hexagonal symmetry. The dependencies of lattice parameters on the phosphates’ compositions were analyzed. With the aim of making distribution of metals M, M' in the crystallographic sites (framework and cavities) clear, we refined the crystal structures of triple phosphates with x = 0.5 of the compositions MMg₀.₅Zr₁.₅(PO₄)₃ by the Rietveld method using X-ray powder diffraction data. There are two types of framework-forming cationic sites in their structure. In the Sr- and Pb-compounds, these positions are occupied by Zr⁴⁺ and Mg²⁺/Zr⁴⁺ ions, and M²⁺ cations are situated in the framework cavities. Unusual cationic distribution was discovered for the structure of Cd-compound; its framework is built up from polyhedra formed by Zr⁴⁺ and Cd²⁺/Zr⁴⁺ ions (together with PO₄), while its cavities were filled with Cd²⁺ and Mg²⁺ cations. Heat capacity of the phosphates Pb₀.₅₊ₓMgₓZr₂₋ₓ(PO₄)₃ (x = 0,0.5) was measured in the temperature interval 8–660 K. Reversible polymorphic transitions were found at temperatures, close to the room temperature. The results of Rietveld structure refinement performed at 173 and 473 K showed that the transitions are caused by the disordering of lead cations in the cavities of the NZP/NASICON structure. From DSC results, other compounds didn’t exhibit phase transitions. Thermal expansion of the phosphates MMg₀.₅Zr₁.₅(PO₄)₃ was studied by the XRD method in the range 298−1073 K. The temperature dependencies of their lattice parameters were described by linear polynomials. The studied compounds were found to belong to middle and low-expanding materials. Thermal diffusivity of the ceramic samples of phosphates was measured in the interval 298–573 K. It slightly decreased with the growth of temperature. From the results, the studied phosphates are characterized by better thermophysical characteristics than the used fire-resistant materials, such as zirconia, etc. The results on the phosphates M₀.₅₊ₓM'ₓZr₂₋ₓ(PO₄)₃ were discussed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Projects no. 19-33-90075, 18-29-12063.

Keywords: NASICON, NZP, phosphate, structure, synthesis, thermophysical properties

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1858 Smart Material for Bacterial Detection Based on Polydiacetylene/Polyvinyl Butyrate Fiber Composites

Authors: Pablo Vidal, Misael Martinez, Carlos Hernandez, Ananta R. Adhikari, Luis Materon, Yuanbing Mao, Karen Lozano

Abstract:

Conjugated polymers are smart materials that show tremendous practical applications in diverse subjects. Polydiacetylenes are conjugated polymers with special optical properties. In response to the environmental changes such as pH and molecular binding, it changes its color. Such an interesting chromic and emissive behavior of polydiacetylenes make them a highly popular polymer in wide areas, including biomedicine such as a biosensor. In this research, we used polyvinyl butyrate as a matrix to fibrillate polydiacetylenes. We initially prepared polyvinyl butyrate/diacetylene matrix using forcespinning technique. They were then polymerized to form polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene (PVB/PDA). These matrices then studied for their bio-sensing response to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The sensing ability of the PVB/PDA biosensor was observed as early as 30 min in the presence of bacteria at 37°C. Now our effort is to decrease this effective temperature to room temperature to make this device applicable in the general daily life. These chromic biosensors will find extensive application not only alert the infection but also find other promising applications such as wearable sensors and diagnostic systems.

Keywords: smart material, conjugated polymers, biosensor, polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene

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1857 Impact of Welding Distortion on the Design of Fabricated T-Girders Using Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Ahmed Hammad, Yehia Abdel-Nasser, Mohamed Shamma

Abstract:

The main configuration of ship construction consists of standard and fabricated stiffening members which are commonly used in shipbuilding such as fabricated T-sections. During the welding process, the non-uniform heating and rapid cooling lead to the inevitable presence of out-of-plane distortion and welding induced residual stresses. Because of these imperfections, the fabricated structural members may not attain their design load to be carried. The removal of these imperfections will require extra man-hours. In the present work, controlling these imperfections has been investigated at both design and fabrication stages. A typical fabricated T-girder is selected to investigate the problem of these imperfections using double-side welding. A numerical simulation based on finite element (FE) modeling has been used to investigate the effect of different parameters of the selected fabricated T-girder such as geometrical properties and welding sequences on the magnitude of welding imperfections. FE results were compared with the results of experimental model of a double-side fillet weld. The present work concludes that: Firstly, in the design stage, the optimum geometry of the fabricated T- girder is determined based on minimum steel weight and out- of- plane distortion. Secondly, in the fabrication stage, the best welding sequence is determined on the basis of minimum welding out- of- plane distortion.

Keywords: fabricated T-girder, FEM, out-of-plane distortion, section modulus, welding residual stresses

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1856 Tensile and Direct Shear Responses of Basalt-Fibre Reinforced Composite Using Alkali Activate Binder

Authors: S. Candamano, A. Iorfida, L. Pagnotta, F. Crea

Abstract:

Basalt fabric reinforced cementitious composites (FRCM) have attracted great attention because they result in being effective in structural strengthening and eco-efficient. In this study, authors investigate their mechanical behavior when an alkali-activated binder, with tuned properties and containing high amounts of industrial by-products, such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, is used. Reinforcement is made up of a balanced, coated bidirectional fabric made out of basalt fibres and stainless steel micro-wire, with a mesh size of 8x8 mm and an equivalent design thickness equal to 0.064 mm. Mortars mixes have been prepared by maintaining constant the water/(reactive powders) and sand/(reactive powders) ratios at 0.53 and 2.7 respectively. Tensile tests were carried out on composite specimens of nominal dimensions equal to 500 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm, with 6 embedded rovings in the loading direction. Direct shear tests (DST), aimed to the stress-transfer mechanism and failure modes of basalt-FRCM composites, were carried out on brickwork substrate using an externally bonded basalt-FRCM composite strip 10 mm thick, 50 mm wide and a bonded length of 300 mm. Mortars exhibit, after 28 days of curing, a compressive strength of 32 MPa and a flexural strength of 5.5 MPa. Main hydration product is a poorly crystalline CASH gel. The constitutive behavior of the composite has been identified by means of direct tensile tests, with response curves showing a tri-linear behavior. The first linear phase represents the uncracked (I) stage, the second (II) is identified by crack development and the third (III) corresponds to cracked stage, completely developed up to failure. All specimens exhibit a crack pattern throughout the gauge length and failure occurred as a result of sequential tensile failure of the fibre bundles, after reaching the ultimate tensile strength. The behavior is mainly governed by cracks development (II) and widening (III) up to failure. The main average values related to the stages are σI= 173 MPa and εI= 0.026% that are the stress and strain of the transition point between stages I and II, corresponding to the first mortar cracking; σu = 456 MPa and εu= 2.20% that are the ultimate tensile strength and strain, respectively. The tensile modulus of elasticity in stage III is EIII= 41 GPa. All single-lap shear test specimens failed due to composite debonding. It occurred at the internal fabric-to-matrix interface, and it was the result of fracture of the matrix between the fibre bundles. For all specimens, transversal cracks were visible on the external surface of the composite and involved only the external matrix layer. This cracking appears when the interfacial shear stresses increase and slippage of the fabric at the internal matrix layer interface occurs. Since the external matrix layer is bonded to the reinforcement fabric, it translates with the slipped fabric. Average peak load around 945 N, peak stress around 308 MPa, and global slip around 6 mm were measured. The preliminary test results allow affirming that Alkali Activated Binders can be considered a potentially valid alternative to traditional mortars in designing FRCM composites.

Keywords: alkali activated binders, basalt-FRCM composites, direct shear tests, structural strengthening

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1855 Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface

Authors: Pujan Sarkar

Abstract:

Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.

Keywords: Al powder, composite, epoxy, friction, glass fiber

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1854 Effects of Different Thermal Processing Routes and Their Parameters on the Formation of Voids in PA6 Bonded Aluminum Joints

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Guillermo Requena, Jan Haubrich

Abstract:

Adhesively bonded aluminum joints are common in automotive and aircraft industries and are one of the enablers of lightweight construction to minimize the carbon emissions during transportation for a sustainable life. This study is focused on the effects of two thermal processing routes, i.e., by direct and induction heating, and their parameters on void formation in PA6 bonded aluminum EN-AW6082 joints. The joints were characterized microanalytically as well as by lap shear experiments. The aging resistance of the joints was studied by accelerated aging tests at 80°C hot water. It was found that the processing of single lap joints by direct heating in a convection oven causes the formation of a large number of voids in the bond line. The formation of voids in the convection oven was due to longer processing times and was independent of any surface pretreatments of the metal as well as the processing temperature. However, when processing at low temperatures, a large number of small-sized voids were observed under the optical microscope, and they were larger in size but reduced in numbers at higher temperatures. An induction heating process was developed, which not only successfully reduced or eliminated the voids in PA6 bonded joints but also reduced the processing times for joining significantly. Consistent with the trend in direct heating, longer processing times and higher temperatures in induction heating also led to an increased formation of voids in the bond line. Subsequent single lap shear tests revealed that the increasing void contents led to a 21% reduction in lap shear strengths (i.e., from ~47 MPa for induction heating to ~37 MPa for direct heating). Also, there was a 17% reduction in lap shear strengths when the consolidation temperature was raised from 220˚C to 300˚C during induction heating. However, below a certain threshold of void contents, there was no observable effect on the lap shear strengths as well as on hydrothermal aging resistance of the joints consolidated by the induction heating process.

Keywords: adhesive, aluminium, convection oven, induction heating, mechanical properties, nylon6 (PA6), pretreatment, void

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1853 Investigation of the Properties of Epoxy Modified Binders Based on Epoxy Oligomer with Improved Deformation and Strength Properties

Authors: Hlaing Zaw Oo, N. Kostromina, V. Osipchik, T. Kravchenko, K. Yakovleva

Abstract:

The process of modification of ed-20 epoxy resin synthesized by vinyl-containing compounds is considered. It is shown that the introduction of vinyl-containing compounds into the composition based on epoxy resin ED-20 allows adjusting the technological and operational characteristics of the binder. For improvement of the properties of epoxy resin, following modifiers were selected: polyvinylformalethyl, polyvinyl butyral and composition of linear and aromatic amines (Аramine) as a hardener. Now the big range of hardeners of epoxy resins exists that allows varying technological properties of compositions, and also thermophysical and strength indicators. The nature of the aramin type hardener has a significant impact on the spatial parameters of the mesh, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics. Epoxy composite materials based on ED-20 modified with polyvinyl butyral were obtained and investigated. It is shown that the composition of resins based on derivatives of polyvinyl butyral and ED-20 allows obtaining composite materials with a higher complex of deformation-strength, adhesion and thermal properties, better water resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, and impact strength. The magnitude of the effect depends on the chemical structure, temperature and curing time. In the area of concentrations, where the effect of composite synergy is appearing, the values of strength and stiffness significantly exceed the similar parameters of the individual components of the mixture. The polymer-polymer compositions form their class of materials with diverse specific properties that ensure their competitive application. Coatings with high performance under cyclic loading have been obtained based on epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl-containing compounds.

Keywords: epoxy resins, modification, vinyl-containing compounds, deformation, strength properties

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1852 Light-Weight Network for Real-Time Pose Estimation

Authors: Jianghao Hu, Hongyu Wang

Abstract:

The effective and efficient human pose estimation algorithm is an important task for real-time human pose estimation on mobile devices. This paper proposes a light-weight human key points detection algorithm, Light-Weight Network for Real-Time Pose Estimation (LWPE). LWPE uses light-weight backbone network and depthwise separable convolutions to reduce parameters and lower latency. LWPE uses the feature pyramid network (FPN) to fuse the high-resolution, semantically weak features with the low-resolution, semantically strong features. In the meantime, with multi-scale prediction, the predicted result by the low-resolution feature map is stacked to the adjacent higher-resolution feature map to intermediately monitor the network and continuously refine the results. At the last step, the key point coordinates predicted in the highest-resolution are used as the final output of the network. For the key-points that are difficult to predict, LWPE adopts the online hard key points mining strategy to focus on the key points that hard predicting. The proposed algorithm achieves excellent performance in the single-person dataset selected in the AI (artificial intelligence) challenge dataset. The algorithm maintains high-precision performance even though the model only contains 3.9M parameters, and it can run at 225 frames per second (FPS) on the generic graphics processing unit (GPU).

Keywords: depthwise separable convolutions, feature pyramid network, human pose estimation, light-weight backbone

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1851 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Linear Motor Based on Rigid Clamping

Authors: Chao Yi, Cunyue Lu, Lingwei Quan

Abstract:

Piezoelectric linear motors have the characteristics of great electromagnetic compatibility, high positioning accuracy, compact structure and no deceleration mechanism, which make it promising to applicate in micro-miniature precision drive systems. However, most piezoelectric motors are employed by flexible clamping, which has insufficient rigidity and is difficult to use in rapid positioning. Another problem is that this clamping method seriously affects the vibration efficiency of the vibrating unit. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a piezoelectric stack linear motor based on double-end rigid clamping. First, a piezoelectric linear motor with a length of only 35.5 mm is designed. This motor is mainly composed of a motor stator, a driving foot, a ceramic friction strip, a linear guide, a pre-tightening mechanism and a base. This structure is much simpler and smaller than most similar motors, and it is easy to assemble as well as to realize precise control. In addition, the properties of piezoelectric stack are reviewed and in order to obtain the elliptic motion trajectory of the driving head, a driving scheme of the longitudinal-shear composite stack is innovatively proposed. Finally, impedance analysis and speed performance testing were performed on the piezoelectric linear motor prototype. The motor can measure speed up to 25.5 mm/s under the excitation of signal voltage of 120 V and frequency of 390 Hz. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric stacked linear motor obtains great performance. It can run smoothly in a large speed range, which is suitable for various precision control in medical images, aerospace, precision machinery and many other fields.

Keywords: piezoelectric stack, linear motor, rigid clamping, elliptical trajectory

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1850 Online Pose Estimation and Tracking Approach with Siamese Region Proposal Network

Authors: Cheng Fang, Lingwei Quan, Cunyue Lu

Abstract:

Human pose estimation and tracking are to accurately identify and locate the positions of human joints in the video. It is a computer vision task which is of great significance for human motion recognition, behavior understanding and scene analysis. There has been remarkable progress on human pose estimation in recent years. However, more researches are needed for human pose tracking especially for online tracking. In this paper, a framework, called PoseSRPN, is proposed for online single-person pose estimation and tracking. We use Siamese network attaching a pose estimation branch to incorporate Single-person Pose Tracking (SPT) and Visual Object Tracking (VOT) into one framework. The pose estimation branch has a simple network structure that replaces the complex upsampling and convolution network structure with deconvolution. By augmenting the loss of fully convolutional Siamese network with the pose estimation task, pose estimation and tracking can be trained in one stage. Once trained, PoseSRPN only relies on a single bounding box initialization and producing human joints location. The experimental results show that while maintaining the good accuracy of pose estimation on COCO and PoseTrack datasets, the proposed method achieves a speed of 59 frame/s, which is superior to other pose tracking frameworks.

Keywords: computer vision, pose estimation, pose tracking, Siamese network

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1849 Effect of BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ Glass Additive on Structural and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO₃ Ceramics

Authors: El Mehdi Haily, Lahcen Bih, Mohammed Azrour, Bouchaib Manoun

Abstract:

The effects of xBi₂O₃-yBaO-zP₂O₅ (BBP) glass addition on the sintering, structural, and dielectric properties of BaTiO₃ ceramic (BT) are studied. The BT ceramic was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method while the glasses BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ (BBP) were elaborated by melting and quenching process. Different composites BT-xBBP were formed by mixing the BBP glasses with BT ceramic. For each glass composition, where the ratio (x:y:z) is maintained constant, we have developed three composites with different glass weight percentage (x = 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt %). Addition of the glass helps in better sintering at lower temperatures with the presence of liquid phase at the respective sintering temperatures. The results showed that the sintering temperature decreased from more than 1300°C to 900°C. Density measurements of the composites are performed using the standard Archimedean method with water as medium liquid. It is found that their density and molar volume decrease and increase with glass content, respectively. Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize their structural approach. This technique has allowed the identification of different structural units of phosphate and the characteristic vibration modes of the BT. The electrical properties of the composite samples are carried out by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz under various temperatures from 300 to 473 K. The obtained results show that their dielectric properties depend both on the content of the glass in the composite and the Bi/P ratio in the glasses.

Keywords: phosphate, glasses, composite, Raman spectroscopy, dielectric properties

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1848 Studies on Separation of Scandium from Sulfate Environment Using Ion Exchange Technique

Authors: H. Hajmohammadi , A. H. Jafari, M. Eskandari Nasab

Abstract:

The ion exchange method was used to assess the absorption of sulfate media from laboratory-grade materials. The Taguchi method was employed for determining the optimum conditions for scandium adsorption. Results show that optimum conditions for scandium adsorption from sulfate were obtained by Purolite C100 cationic resin in 0.1 g/l sulfuric acid and scandium concentration of 2 g/l at 25 °C. Studies also showed that lowering H₂SO₄ concentration and aqueous phase temperature leads to an increase in Sc adsorption. Visual Minteq software was used to ascertain the various possible cation types and the effect of concentration of scandium ion species on scandium adsorption by cationic resins. The simulation results of the above software show that scandium ion species are often cationic species that are consistent with experimental data.

Keywords: scandium, ion exchange resin, simulation, leach copper

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1847 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji

Abstract:

Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: HEAs, phases model, aluminium, silicon, tensile strength, model

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1846 Effect of Self-Lubricating Carbon Materials on the Tribological Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Authors: Nayeli Camacho, Fernanda Lara-Perez, Carolina Ortega-Portilla, Diego G. Espinosa-Arbelaez, Juan M. Alvarado-Orozco, Guillermo C. Mondragon-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the gold standard material for total knee replacements for almost five decades. Wear damage to UHMWPE articulating surface is inevitable due to the natural sliding and rolling movements of the knee. This generates a considerable amount of wear debris, which results in mechanical instability of the joint, reduces joint mobility, increases pain with detrimental biologic responses, and causes component loosening. The presence of wear particles has been closely related to adverse reactions in the knee joint surrounding tissue, especially for particles in the range of 0.3 to 2 μm. Carbon-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and have shown great promise in tribological applications. In this study, diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to decrease the wear rate of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. A titanium doped DLC (Ti-DLC) was deposited by magnetron sputtering on stainless steel precision spheres while CNTs were used as a second phase reinforcement in UHMWPE at a concentration of 1.25 wt.%. A comparative tribological analysis of the wear of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-CNTs with a stainless steel counterpart with and without Ti-DLC coating is presented. The experimental wear testing was performed on a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry conditions, using a reciprocating movement with a load of 1 N at a frequency of 2 Hz for 100,000 and 200,000 cycles. The wear tracks were analyzed with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to determine wear modes and observe the size and shape of the wear debris. Furthermore, profilometry was used to study the depth of the wear tracks and to map the wear of the articulating surface. The wear tracks at 100,000 and 200,000 cycles on all samples were relatively shallow, and they were in the range of average roughness. It was observed that the Ti-DLC coating decreases the mass loss in the UHMWPE and the depth of the wear track. The combination of both carbon-based materials decreased the material loss compared to the system of stainless steel and UHMWPE. Burnishing of the surface was the predominant wear mode observed with all the systems, more subtle for the systems with Ti-DLC coatings. Meanwhile, in the system composed of stainless steel-UHMWPE, the intrinsic surface roughness of the material was completely replaced by the wear tracks.

Keywords: CNT reinforcement, self-lubricating materials, Ti-DLC, UHMWPE tribological performance

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1845 Analysis of Structural and Photocatalytical Properties of Anatase, Rutile and Mixed Phase TiO2 Films Deposited by Pulsed-Direct Current and Radio Frequency Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: S. Varnagiris, M. Urbonavicius, S. Tuckute, M. Lelis, K. Bockute

Abstract:

Amongst many water purification techniques, TiO2 photocatalysis is recognized as one of the most promising sustainable methods. It is known that for photocatalytical applications anatase is the most suitable TiO2 phase, however heterojunction of anatase/rutile phases could improve the photocatalytical activity of TiO2 even further. Despite the relative simplicity of TiO2 different synthesis methods lead to the highly dispersed crystal phases and photocatalytic activity of the corresponding samples. Accordingly, suggestions and investigations of various innovative methods of TiO2 synthesis are still needed. In this work structural and photocatalytical properties of TiO2 films deposited by the unconventional method of simultaneous co-sputtering from two magnetrons powered by pulsed-Direct Current (pDC) and Radio Frequency (RF) power sources with negative bias voltage have been studied. More specifically, TiO2 film thickness, microstructure, surface roughness, crystal structure, optical transmittance and photocatalytical properties were investigated by profilometer, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The proposed unconventional two magnetron co-sputtering based TiO2 film formation method showed very promising results for crystalline TiO2 film formation while keeping process temperatures below 100 °C. XRD analysis revealed that by using proper combination of power source type and bias voltage various TiO2 phases (amorphous, anatase, rutile or their mixture) can be synthesized selectively. Moreover, strong dependency between power source type and surface roughness, as well as between the bias voltage and band gap value of TiO2 films was observed. Interestingly, TiO2 films deposited by two magnetron co-sputtering without bias voltage had one of the highest band gap values between the investigated films but its photocatalytic activity was superior compared to all other samples. It is suggested that this is due to the dominating nanocrystalline anatase phase with various exposed surfaces including photocatalytically the most active {001}.

Keywords: films, magnetron co-sputtering, photocatalysis, TiO₂

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1844 Prototype Development of Dual Function Sustainable Sewing Machine

Authors: D. Samuel Wesley, P. Gowtham

Abstract:

Sewing industry is one of the highly labor-intensive industry, and till date, a huge effort is on but with very little success in reducing the same. An attempt made in the direction of sustainability in garment manufacturing in terms of labor-saving and reducing the requirement of multiple machines in sewing is explained in this paper. Sewing machines are broadly classified into lock stitch and chain stitch. The machine which can make lock stitch cannot do a chain stitch and vice versa. In this study, a prototype sewing machine is developed, which can make both lock and chain stitch. This attempt is aimed at sustainability in the sewing process. To perform both types of stitches in the same garment, the operator has to shift from one machine to the other, which is tedious and result in the loss of efficiency. Also, it can save the investment and space required for two different machines along with saving the number of operators. In principle, the lock and chain stitch machines follow different sewing cycles. In the modified sewing machine, the drive shaft is common for both, but the stitch forming components of lock and chain stitches are different and are modified and fitted accordingly. The timing of take-up levers, shuttle hook, looper and needle bars are adjusted to suit the respective sewing cycles. The power transmission gear arrangements also dismantled and modified accordingly. At a time, one type of stitch can be made, and the other will be in the disabled condition. The stitch formation results were found to be good and meeting the apparel industry manufacturing requirements.

Keywords: lock stitch, chain stitch, looper, shuttle hook, drive shaft, sewing cycle

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1843 The Design of a Die for the Processing of Aluminum through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: Paulo Guilherme F. Siqueira, Natanael G. S. Almeida, Pedro M. A. Stemler, Paulo Roberto Cetlin, Maria Teresa P. Aguilar

Abstract:

The processing of metals through Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) leads to their remarkable strengthening. The ECAP dies control the amount of strain imposed on the material through its geometry, especially through the angle between the die channels, and thus the microstructural and mechanical properties evolution of the material. The present study describes the design of an ECAP die whose utilization and maintenance are facilitated, and that also controls the eventual undesired flow of the material during processing. The proposed design was validated through numerical simulations procedures using commercial software. The die was manufactured according to the present design and tested. Tests using aluminum alloys also indicated to be suitable for the processing of higher strength alloys.

Keywords: ECAP, mechanical design, numerical methods, SPD

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1842 Hydrothermal Aging Behavior of Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites

Authors: Jifeng Zhang , Yongpeng Lei

Abstract:

Continuous carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 (CF/PA6) composites are potential for application in the automotive industry due to their high specific strength and stiffness. However, PA6 resin is sensitive to the moisture in the hydrothermal environment and CF/PA6 composites might undergo several physical and chemical changes, such as plasticization, swelling, and hydrolysis, which induces a reduction of mechanical properties. So far, little research has been reported on the assessment of the effects of hydrothermal aging on the mechanical properties of continuous CF/PA6 composite. This study deals with the effects of hydrothermal aging on moisture absorption and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyamide 6 reinforced with continuous carbon fibers composites (CF/PA6) by immersion in distilled water at 30 ℃, 50 ℃, 70 ℃, and 90 ℃. Degradation of mechanical performance has been monitored, depending on the water absorption content and the aging temperature. The experimental results reveal that under the same aging condition, the PA6 resin absorbs more water than the CF/PA6 composite, while the water diffusion coefficient of CF/PA6 composite is higher than that of PA6 resin because of interfacial diffusion channel. In mechanical properties degradation process, an exponential reduction in tensile strength and elastic modulus are observed in PA6 resin as aging temperature and water absorption content increases. The degradation trend of flexural properties of CF/PA6 is the same as that of tensile properties of PA6 resin. Moreover, the water content plays a decisive role in mechanical degradation compared with aging temperature. In contrast, hydrothermal environment has mild effect on the tensile properties of CF/PA6 composites. The elongation at breakage of PA6 resin and CF/PA6 reaches the highest value when their water content reaches 6% and 4%, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also used to explain the mechanism of mechanical properties alteration. After exposed to the hydrothermal environment, the Tg (glass transition temperature) of samples decreases dramatically with water content increase. This reduction can be ascribed to the plasticization effect of water. For the unaged specimens, the fibers surface is coated with resin and the main fracture mode is fiber breakage, indicating that a good adhesion between fiber and matrix. However, with absorbed water content increasing, the fracture mode transforms to fiber pullout. Finally, based on Arrhenius methodology, a predictive model with relate to the temperature and water content has been presented to estimate the retention of mechanical properties for PA6 and CF/PA6.

Keywords: continuous carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composite, hydrothermal aging, Arrhenius methodology, interface

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1841 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Ultraviolet and Immersion Stability of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Coating

Authors: Artemova Anastasiia, Shen Zexiang, Savilov Serguei

Abstract:

The marine environment is very aggressive for a number of factors, such as moisture, temperature, winds, ultraviolet radiation, chloride ion concentration, oxygen concentration, pollution, and biofouling, all contributing to marine corrosion. Protective organic coatings provide protection either by a barrier action from the layer, which is limited due to permeability to water and oxygen or from active corrosion inhibition and cathodic protection due to the pigments in the coating. Carbon nanotubes can play not only barrier effect but also passivation effect via adsorbing molecular species of oxygen, hydroxyl, chloride and sulphate anions. Multiwall carbon nanotubes composite provide very important properties such as mechanical strength, non-cytotoxicity, outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity, and very strong absorption of ultraviolet radiation. The samples of stainless steel (316L) coated by epoxy resin with carbon nanotubes-based pigments were exposed to UV irradiation (340nm), and immersion to the sodium chloride solution for 1000h and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was investigated. Experimental results showed that corrosion current significantly decreased in the presence of carbon nanotube-based materials, especially nitrogen-doped ones, in the composite coating. Importance of the structure and composition of the pigment materials and its composition was established, and the mechanism of the protection was described. Finally, the effect of nitrogen doping on the corrosion behavior was investigated. The pigment-polymer crosslinking improves the coating performance and the corrosion rate decreases in comparison with pure epoxy coating from 5.7E-05 to 1.4E-05mm/yr for the coating without any degradation; in more than 6 times for the coating after ultraviolet degradation; and more than 16% for the coatings after immersion degradation.

Keywords: corrosion, coating, carbon nanotubes, degradation

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1840 Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan

Abstract:

Sugarcane bagasse (SCB)-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) Based matrix composites (25-45 wt% fiber) were fabricated by a compression molding technique. The SCB surface was chemically modified using 5%-10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and after that, mechanical properties, water uptake, and soil degradation of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM) and elongation at break (Eb%) of the 30wt% composites were found to be 35.6 MPa, 10.2 GPa, 56 MPa, 5.6 GPa, and 11%, respectively. The SCB/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The results revealed that the combination of the chemical modification of the SCB fibers and irradiation of the composites were more effective in compatibility improvement than chemical modification alone. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated SCB/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion than untreated SCB/PP based composites. However, it was found that the treated SCB/PP composite has better mechanical strength, durability, and more receptivity than untreated SCB/PP based composite.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse (SCB), polypropylene (PP), mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope (SEM), gamma radiation, water uptake tests and soil degradation

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1839 The Potential of Recycling Burnt Clay as a Replacement of Portland Limestone Cement

Authors: Martinson Addo Nartey, Robert Bofah-Buoh, Emmanuel Amankwah

Abstract:

This paper presents the result of a study investigating the possible use of waste generated from clay pozzolana-cement plant as a partial replacement for cement. Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) was replaced with the waste (over-burnt clay nodules) generated from the processing plant at different percentages (5% to 30%). Some physical and chemical analyses were determined on the waste product. Other studies which included setting times and compressive strength were determined. The initial and final setting times performed in this work conformed to the set EN 197-1 standards of setting time determination. The compressive strengths obtained at 28 days of water curing were below standard values with 5% replacement recording 25.12 MPa. It was observed that the over-burnt clay powder served as a filler material than a pozzolan since an increase in its content led to a corresponding decrease in compressive strength at the ultimate period, 28 days of water curing.

Keywords: Pozzolana, Portland limestone cement, cement, compressive strength

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