Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1611

Search results for: pineapple leaf fiber

1611 Influence of Fiber Loading and Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Jain Jyoti, Jain Shorab, Sinha Shishir


In the current scenario, development of new biodegradable composites with the reinforcement of some plant derived natural fibers are in major research concern. Abundant quantity of these natural plant derived fibers including sisal, ramp, jute, wheat straw, pine, pineapple, bagasse, etc. can be used exclusively or in combination with other natural or synthetic fibers to augment their specific properties like chemical, mechanical or thermal properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes. Not much work has been carried out in this area. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of variation in fiber loading up to 20% in epoxy composites has been studied for mechanical properties like tensile strength and flexural strength. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. SEM micrographs have also been studied for fracture surface.

Keywords: composite, mechanical, natural fiber, pineapple leaf fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1610 Mechanical Analysis of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Jain Jyoti, Jain Shorab, Sinha Shishir


In the field of material engineering, composites are in great concern for their nonbiodegradability and their cost. In order to reduce its cost and weight, plant derived fibers witnessed miraculous triumph. Plant fibers can be of different types like seed fibers, blast fibers, leaf fibers, etc. Composites can be reinforced with exclusively one type of natural fiber or also can be combined with two or more different types of natural or synthetic fibers to boost up their specific properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes like HDPE, LDPE, PET, epoxy, etc. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its adhesion and compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix i.e. epoxy resin. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of fiber loading and surface treatments have been studied for different mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength, flexural strength and impact properties of pineapple leaf fiber composites. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. Scanning electron microscopy has also been used to study and compare the morphology of untreated and treated fibers. Also, the fracture surface has been reviewed comparing the reported literature of other eminent researchers of this field.

Keywords: composite, mechanical, natural fiber, pineapple leaf fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1609 Wettability Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fibers and Banana Pseudostem Fibers Treated by Cold Plasma

Authors: Tatiana Franco, Hugo A. Estupinan


Banana pseudostem fiber (BPF) and pineapple leaf fiber (PLF) for their excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability characteristics arouse interest in different areas of research. F In tropical regions, where the banana pseudostem and the pineapple leaf are transformed into hard-to-handle solid waste, they can be low-cost raw material and environmentally sustainable in research for composite materials. In terms of functionality of this type of fiber, an open structure would allow the adsorption and retention of organic, inorganic and metallic species. In general, natural fibers have closed structures on their surface with intricate internal arrangements that can be used for the solution of environmental problems and other technological uses, however it is not possible to access their internal structure and sublayers, exposing the fibers in the natural state. An alternative method to chemical and enzymatic treatment are the processes with the plasma treatments, which are known to be clean, economical and controlled. In this type of treatment, a gas contained in a reactor in the form of plasma acts on the fiber generating changes in its structure, morphology and topography. This work compares the effects on fibers of PLF and BPF treated with cold argon plasma, alternating time and current. These fibers are grown in the regions of Antioquia-Colombia. The morphological, compositional and wettability properties of the fibers were analyzed by Raman microscopy, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM). The treatment with cold plasma on PLF and BPF allowed increasing its wettability, the topography and the microstructural relationship between lignin and cellulose.

Keywords: cold plasma, contact angle, natural fibers, Raman, SEM, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
1608 Effects of Temperature and Enzyme Concentration on Quality of Pineapple and Pawpaw Blended Juice

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Calistus N. Ude, Patrick E. Amulu, Nneka N. Uchegbu


The effects of temperature and enzyme concentration on the quality of mixed pineapple and pawpaw blended fruits juice were studied. Extracts of the two fruit juices were separately treated at 70  for 15 min each so as to inactivate micro-organisms. They were analyzed and blended in different proportions of 70% pawpaw and 30% pineapple, 60% pawpaw and 40% pineapple, 50% pineapple and 50% pawpaw, 40% pawpaw and 60% pineapple. The characterization of the fresh pawpaw and pineapple juice before blending showed that the juices have good quality. The high water content of the product may have affected the viscosity, vitamin C content and total soluble solid of the blended juice to be low. The effects of the process parameters on the quality showed that better quality of the blended juice can be obtained within the optimum temperature range of (50-70 °C) and enzyme concentration range (0.12-0.18 w/v). The ratio of mix 60% pineapple juice: 40% pawpaw juice has better quality. This showed that pawpaw and pineapple juices can blend effectively to produce a quality juice.

Keywords: clarification, pawpaw, pineapple, viscosity, vitamin C

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1607 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud


Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk, green technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1606 Study on the Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Pineapple Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan


Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, PALF composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-50% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the PALF/PP composites, untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact and bending properties were observed precisely. It was found that 45wt% of fiber composites showed better mechanical properties than others. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) was observed, 65 MPa and 50 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 1.7 GPa and 0.85 GPa respectively. The PALF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The values of TS, BS, TM, and BM of the irradiated (5.0 kGy) composites were found to improve by 19%, 23%, 17% and 25 % over non-irradiated composites. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated PALF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated PALF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: PALF, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
1605 Improving the Quality of Casava Peel-Leaf Mixture through Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas Poultry Ration

Authors: Mirnawati, G. Ciptaan, Ferawati


This study aims to improve the quality of the cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) through fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas poultry ration. This research is an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. The treatments were a combination of cassava peel and leaves with the ratio of; A (9:1), B (8:2), C (7:3), and D (6:4). The observed variables were protease enzyme activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and metabolic energy. The results of the diversity analysis showed that there was a very significant (p < 0.01) effect on protease activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and energy metabolism of fermented CPLM. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that CPLM (6:4) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus gave the best results seen from protease activity 7,25 U/ml, 21.23% crude protein, 19.80% crude fiber, 59.65% nitrogen retention, 62.99% crude fiber digestibility and metabolic energy 2671 Kcal/kg.

Keywords: quality, Casava peel-leaf mixture, fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1604 Pineapple Waste Valorization through Biogas Production: Effect of Substrate Concentration and Microwave Pretreatment

Authors: Khamdan Cahyari, Pratikno Hidayat


Indonesia has produced more than 1.8 million ton pineapple fruit in 2013 of which turned into waste due to industrial processing, deterioration and low qualities. It was estimated that this waste accounted for more than 40 percent of harvested fruits. In addition, pineapple leaves were one of biomass waste from pineapple farming land, which contributed even higher percentages. Most of the waste was only dumped into landfill area without proper pretreatment causing severe environmental problem. This research was meant to valorize the pineapple waste for producing renewable energy source of biogas through mesophilic (30℃) anaerobic digestion process. Especially, it was aimed to investigate effect of substrate concentration of pineapple fruit waste i.e. peel, core as well as effect of microwave pretreatment of pineapple leaves waste. The concentration of substrate was set at value 12, 24 and 36 g VS/liter culture whereas 800-Watt microwave pretreatment conducted at 2 and 5 minutes. It was noticed that optimum biogas production obtained at concentration 24 g VS/l with biogas yield 0.649 liter/g VS (45%v CH4) whereas microwave pretreatment at 2 minutes duration performed better compare to 5 minutes due to shorter exposure of microwave heat. This results suggested that valorization of pineapple waste could be carried out through biogas production at the aforementioned process condition. Application of this method is able to both reduce the environmental problem of the waste and produce renewable energy source of biogas to fulfill local energy demand of pineapple farming areas.

Keywords: pineapple waste, substrate concentration, microwave pretreatment, biogas, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1603 Eco-Nanofiltration Membranes: Nanofiltration Membrane Technology Utilization-Based Fiber Pineapple Leaves Waste as Solutions for Industrial Rubber Liquid Waste Processing and Fertilizer Crisis in Indonesia

Authors: Andi Setiawan, Annisa Ulfah Pristya


Indonesian rubber plant area reached 2.9 million hectares with productivity reached 1.38 million. High rubber productivity is directly proportional to the amount of waste produced rubber processing industry. Rubber industry would produce a negative impact on the rubber industry in the form of environmental pollution caused by waste that has not been treated optimally. Rubber industrial wastewater containing high-nitrogen compounds (nitrate and ammonia) and phosphate compounds which cause water pollution and odor problems due to the high ammonia content. On the other hand, demand for NPK fertilizers in Indonesia continues to increase from year to year and in need of ammonia and phosphate as raw material. Based on domestic demand, it takes a year to 400,000 tons of ammonia and Indonesia imports 200,000 tons of ammonia per year valued at IDR 4.2 trillion. As well, the lack of phosphoric acid to be imported from Jordan, Morocco, South Africa, the Philippines, and India as many as 225 thousand tons per year. During this time, the process of wastewater treatment is generally done with a rubber on the tank to contain the waste and then precipitated, filtered and the rest released into the environment. However, this method is inefficient and thus require high energy costs because through many stages before producing clean water that can be discharged into the river. On the other hand, Indonesia has the potential of pineapple fruit can be harvested throughout the year in all of Indonesia. In 2010, production reached 1,406,445 tons of pineapple in Indonesia or about 9.36 percent of the total fruit production in Indonesia. Increased productivity is directly proportional to the amount of pineapple waste pineapple leaves are kept continuous and usually just dumped in the ground or disposed of with other waste at the final disposal. Through Eco-Nanofiltration Membrane-Based Fiber Pineapple leaves Waste so that environmental problems can be solved efficiently. Nanofiltration is a process that uses pressure as a driving force that can be either convection or diffusion of each molecule. Nanofiltration membranes that can split water to nano size so as to separate the waste processed residual economic value that N and P were higher as a raw material for the manufacture of NPK fertilizer to overcome the crisis in Indonesia. The raw materials were used to manufacture Eco-Nanofiltration Membrane is cellulose from pineapple fiber which processed into cellulose acetate which is biodegradable and only requires a change of the membrane every 6 months. Expected output target is Green eco-technology so with nanofiltration membranes not only treat waste rubber industry in an effective, efficient and environmentally friendly but also lowers the cost of waste treatment compared to conventional methods.

Keywords: biodegradable, cellulose diacetate, fertilizers, pineapple, rubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1602 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar


This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: detect, leaf mustard, non-destructive, pesticide residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1601 Flexural Properties of Typha Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composite

Authors: Sana Rezig, Yosr Ben Mlik, Mounir Jaouadi, Foued Khoffi, Slah Msahli, Bernard Durand


Increasing interest in environmental concerns, natural fibers are once again being considered as reinforcements for polymer composites. The main objective of this study is to explore another natural resource, Typha fiber; which is renewable without production cost and available abundantly in nature. The aim of this study was to study the flexural properties of composite resin with and without reinforcing Typha leaf and stem fibers. The specimens were made by the hand-lay-up process using polyester matrix. In our work, we focused on the effect of various treatment conditions (sea water, alkali treatment and a combination of the two treatments), as a surface modifier, on the flexural properties of the Typha fibers reinforced polyester composites. Moreover, weight ratio of Typha leaf or stem fibers was investigated. Besides, both fibers from leaf and stem of Typha plant were used to evaluate the reinforcing effect. Another parameter, which is reinforcement structure, was investigated. In fact, a first composite was made with air-laid nonwoven structure of fibers. A second composite was with a mixture of fibers and resin for each kind of treatment. Results show that alkali treatment and combined process provided better mechanical properties of composites in comparison with fiber treated by sea water. The fiber weight ratio influenced the flexural properties of composites. Indeed, a maximum value of flexural strength of 69.8 and 62,32 MPa with flexural modulus of 6.16 and 6.34 GPawas observed respectively for composite reinforced with leaf and stem fibers for 12.6 % fiber weight ratio. For the different treatments carried out, the treatment using caustic soda, whether alone or after retting seawater, show the best results because it improves adhesion between the polyester matrix and the fibers of reinforcement. SEM photographs were made to ascertain the effects of the surface treatment of the fibers. By varying the structure of the fibers of Typha, the reinforcement used in bulk shows more effective results as that used in the non-woven structure. In addition, flexural strength rises with about (65.32 %) in the case of composite reinforced with a mixture of 12.6% leaf fibers and (27.45 %) in the case of a composite reinforced with a nonwoven structure of 12.6 % of leaf fibers. Thus, to better evaluate the effect of the fiber origin, the reinforcing structure, the processing performed and the reinforcement factor on the performance of composite materials, a statistical study was performed using Minitab. Thus, ANOVA was used, and the patterns of the main effects of these parameters and interaction between them were established. Statistical analysis, the fiber treatment and reinforcement structure seem to be the most significant parameters.

Keywords: flexural properties, fiber treatment, structure and weight ratio, SEM photographs, Typha leaf and stem fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1600 Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize as Affected by Nitrogen Rates with Varying Harvesting under Semi-Arid Condition of Pakistan

Authors: Athar Mahmood, Asad Ali


Management considerations including harvesting time and nitrogen application considerably influence the biomass yield, quality and biogas production. Therefore, a field study was conducted to determine the effect of various harvesting times and nitrogen rates on the biomass yield, quality and biogas yield of maize crop. This experiment was consisted of various harvesting times i.e., harvesting after 45, 55 and 65 days of sowing (DAS) and nitrogen rates i.e., 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 respectively. The data indicated that maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter (DM) yield, protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and biogas yield were recorded 65 days after sowing while lowest was recorded 45 days after sowing. In contrary to that significantly higher chlorophyll contents were observed at 45 DAS. In case of nitrogen rates maximum plant height, leaf area, and DM yield, protein contents, ash contents, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and chlorophyll contents were determined with nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg ha-1, while minimum was observed when no N was applied. Therefore, harvesting 65 DAS and N application @ 200 kg ha-1 can be suitable for getting the higher biomass and biogas production.

Keywords: chemical composition, fiber contents, biogas, nitrogen, harvesting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1599 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted, and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M. L. Aggarwal


The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted, and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von-Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, leaf spring, standard, casted, riveted eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1598 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
1597 Molecular Diagnosis of a Virus Associated with Red Tip Disease and Its Detection by Non Destructive Sensor in Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

Authors: A. K. Faizah, G. Vadamalai, S. K. Balasundram, W. L. Lim


Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a common crop in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Malaysia once ranked as one of the top 3 pineapple producers in the world in the 60's and early 70's, after Hawaii and Brazil. Moreover, government’s recognition of the pineapple crop as one of priority commodities to be developed for the domestics and international markets in the National Agriculture Policy. However, pineapple industry in Malaysia still faces numerous challenges, one of which is the management of disease and pest. Red tip disease on pineapple was first recognized about 20 years ago in a commercial pineapple stand located in Simpang Renggam, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Since its discovery, there has been no confirmation on its causal agent of this disease. The epidemiology of red tip disease is still not fully understood. Nevertheless, the disease symptoms and the spread within the field seem to point toward viral infection. Bioassay test on nucleic acid extracted from the red tip-affected pineapple was done on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Coker by rubbing the extracted sap. Localised lesions were observed 3 weeks after inoculation. Negative staining of the fresh inoculated Nicotiana tabacum cv. Coker showed the presence of membrane-bound spherical particles with an average diameter of 94.25nm under transmission electron microscope. The shape and size of the particles were similar to tospovirus. SDS-PAGE analysis of partial purified virions from inoculated N. tabacum produced a strong and a faint protein bands with molecular mass of approximately 29 kDa and 55 kDa. Partial purified virions of symptomatic pineapple leaves from field showed bands with molecular mass of approximately 29 kDa, 39 kDa and 55kDa. These bands may indicate the nucleocapsid protein identity of tospovirus. Furthermore, a handheld sensor, Greenseeker, was used to detect red tip symptoms on pineapple non-destructively based on spectral reflectance, measured as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Red tip severity was estimated and correlated with NDVI. Linear regression models were calibrated and tested developed in order to estimate red tip disease severity based on NDVI. Results showed a strong positive relationship between red tip disease severity and NDVI (r= 0.84).

Keywords: pineapple, diagnosis, virus, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 679
1596 Application of Medium High Hydrostatic Pressure in Preserving Textural Quality and Safety of Pineapple Compote

Authors: Nazim Uddin, Yohiko Nakaura, Kazutaka Yamamoto


Compote (fruit in syrup) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill) is expected to have a high market potential as one of convenient ready-to-eat (RTE) foods worldwide. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in combination with low temperature (LT) was applied to the processing of pineapple compote as well as medium HHP (MHHP) in combination with medium-high temperature (MHT) since both processes can enhance liquid impregnation and inactivate microbes. MHHP+MHT (55 or 65 °C) process, as well as the HHP+LT process, has successfully inactivated the microbes in the compote to a non-detectable level. Although the compotes processed by MHHP+MHT or HHP+LT have lost the fresh texture as in a similar manner as those processed solely by heat, it was indicated that the texture degradations by heat were suppressed under MHHP. Degassing process reduced the hardness, while calcium (Ca) contributed to be retained hardness in MHT and MHHP+MHT processes. Electrical impedance measurement supported the damage due to degassing and heat. The color, Brix, and appearance were not affected by the processing methods significantly. MHHP+MHT and HHP+LT processes may be applicable to produce high-quality, safe RTE pineapple compotes. Further studies on the optimization of packaging and storage condition will be indispensable for commercialization.

Keywords: compote of pineapple, RTE, medium high hydrostatic pressure, postharvest loss, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1595 Entrepreneurship Development for Socio-Economic Prosperity of Pineapple Growers in Nagaland

Authors: Kaushal Jha


India is one of the major producers of pineapple contributing a significant part in terms of total world production of pineapple. It has spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions as a commercial fruit crop. In India, the cultivation of pineapple is confined to high rainfall and humid coastal region in the peninsular India and hilly areas of Northeastern region of India. Nagaland, one of the potential states of North-East India is basically an agrarian state having been endowed with favourable agro climatic conditions and a rich bio-diversity of flora and fauna. Agriculture contributes significantly to the state’s economy. Pineapple is an important fruit crop grown in Nagaland and has a very high potential for doubling the income of farmers in comparison to the traditional practices of rice cultivation. This requires improved farm management practices as well as a genre of entrepreneurial intentions and capabilities. The present study aimed at analysing the dimensions of entrepreneurial skill development among the pineapple growers of Nagaland. Medziphema block under Dimapur district is considered as the pineapple valley of Nagaland. Pineapple grown in this area is considered as one of the best in Nagaland in terms of its sweetness as well as quality. A multistage sampling was undertaken for conducting the present study. Medziphema rural development block was selected purposively for this purpose. The sample was drawn from three leading pineapple producing villages under Medziphema block. The respondents were selected based on random sampling procedure. Data were collected from the respondents using a pre-tested structured schedule. Major findings revealed that entrepreneurial skill development was one of the important factors to augment the increase in the sustained flow of income among the target farmers. Development of farm leadership, improving self esteem, innovativeness, economic motivation, orientation towards management of farm resources and value addition were identified as important dimensions for promoting entrepreneurial skill development and bringing prosperity to the farmers.

Keywords: skill development, entrepreneurial attributes, pineapple growers, Nagaland

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
1594 In vitro Environmental Factors Controlling Root Morphological Traits of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr)

Authors: S. Mohajer , R. M. Taha, M. Adel


Developing our knowledge of when pineapple roots grow can lead to improved water, fertilizer applications, and more precise culture management. This paper presents current understanding of morphological traits in pineapple roots, highlighting studies using incubation periods and various solid MS media treated with different sucrose concentrations and pH, which directly assess in vitro environmental factors. Rooting parameters had different optimal sucrose concentrations and incubation periods. All shoots failed to root in medium supplemented with sucrose at 5 g/L and no roots formed within the first 45 days in medium enriched with sucrose at 10 g/L. After 75 days, all shoots rooted in medium enriched with 10 and 20 g/L sucrose. Moreover, MS medium supplied with 20 g/L sucrose resulted in the longest and the highest number of roots with 27.3 mm and 4.7, respectively. Root function, such as capacity for P and N uptake, declined rapidly with root length. As a result, the longer the incubation period, the better the rooting responses would be.

Keywords: environmental factors, in vitro rooting, pineapple, tissue culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
1593 Fracture and Dynamic Behavior of Leaf Spring Suspension

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, S. Attou, H. Kebir


Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components they are still frequently used, especially in commercial vehicles. Being able to capture the leaf spring characteristics is of significant importance for vehicle handling dynamics studies. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. It needs to have excellent fatigue life. The objective of this work is its use of Abaqus software to locate the most stressed areas and predict the areas in which it occurs in fatigue and crack of leaf spring and calculate the stress and frequencies of this model.

Keywords: leaf spring, crack, stress, natural frequencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1592 Hemp Defoliation Technology and Management before Harvesting

Authors: Rataya Yanaphan, Saksiri Kuppatarat, Sarita Pinmanee


Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. Sativa) cultivation for fiber is limited by extremely high labor cost, especially for the removal of the leaves before harvest. This study evaluated chemical defoliants as a means to remove the leaves of hemp before harvest, in an effort to reduce labor expenditures in the production on hemp fiber. This study was conducted by spraying the leaves of hemp with five different treatments: saline solution, Urea (CH4N2O), Ethephon, copper Sulphate (CuSO4) and water (control) before harvesting. The largest percentage of leaf loss 6 days after spraying was with saline solution (43%), followed by Ethephon (32%). However, saline solution also caused drying of the stems but Ethephon did not. Thus, Ethephon was evaluated in the second experiment by spraying with Ethephon concentrations of 0, 10, 15 and 20 ml per 1 liter of water at 7 days before harvest. Spraying with 0.5% Ethephon resulted in 13.6% leaf fall. Spraying with 1.5% and 2% Ethephon resulted in 82.2% and 82.3 % leaf fall, respectively. In addition, using Ethephon to defoliate hemp had no detrimental effect the yield. Therefore, Ethephon concentration at 15 ml per 1 liter of water will be recommended for use in removing hemp leaves by spraying at 7 days before harvest to lower labor cost.

Keywords: defoliation technology, ethephon, hemp cultivation, saline solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
1591 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park


With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1590 Surface Modification of Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites

Authors: Januar Parlaungan Siregar, Davindra Brabu Mathivanan, Dandi Bachtiar, Mohd Ruzaimi Mat Rejab, Tezara Cionita


Natural fibres play a significant role in mass industries such as automotive, construction and sports. Many researchers have found that the natural fibres are the best replacement for the synthetic fibres in terms of cost, safety, and degradability due to the shortage of landfill and ingestion of non biodegradable plastic by animals. This study mainly revolved around pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) which is available abundantly in tropical countries and with excellent mechanical properties. The composite formed in this study is highly biodegradable as both fibre and matrix are both derived from natural based products. The matrix which is polylactic acid (PLA) is made from corn starch which gives the upper hand as both material are renewable resources are easier to degrade by bacteria or enzyme. The PALF is treated with different alkaline solution to remove excessive moisture in the fibre to provide better interfacial bonding with PLA. Thereafter the PALF is washed with distilled water several times before placing in vacuum oven at 80°C for 48 hours. The dried PALF later were mixed with PLA using extrusion method using fibre in percentage of 30 by weight. The temperature for all zone were maintained at 160°C with the screw speed of 50 rpm for better bonding and afterwards the products of the mixture were pelletized using pelletizer. The pellets were placed in the specimen-sized mould for hot compression under the temperature of 170°C at 5 MPa for 5 min and subsequently were cold pressed under room temperature at 5 MPa for 5 min. The specimen were tested for tensile and flexure strength according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D638 and D790 respectively. The effect of surface modification on PALF with different alkali solution will be investigated and compared.

Keywords: natural fibre, PALF, PLA, composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1589 Effect of Processing Parameters on the Physical Properties of Pineapple Pomace Based Aquafeed

Authors: Oluwafemi Babatunde Oduntan, Isaac A. Bamgboye


The solid waste disposal and its management from pineapple juice processing constitute environmental contamination affecting public health. The use of this by-product called pomace has potentials to reduce cost of aquafeed. Pineapple pomace collected after juice extraction was dried and milled. The interactive effects of feeding rate (1.28, 1.44 and 1.60kg/min), screw speed (305, 355 and 405rpm), moisture content (16, 19 and 22%), temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120°C), cutting speed (1300, 1400 and 1500rpm), pomace inclusion ratio (5, 10, 15, 20%) and open surface die (50, 75 and 100%) on the extrudate physical properties (bulk density, unit density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability) were investigated using optimal custom design (OCD) matrix and response surface methodology. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values for, expansion ratio, durability and floatability (R2 = 0.7970; 0.9264; 0.9098 respectively) with the exceptions of unit density and bulk density (R2 = 0.1639; 0.2768 respectively). All the extrudates showed relatively high floatability, durability. The inclusion of pineapple pomace produced less expanded and more compact textured extrudates. Results indicated that increased in the value of pineapple pomace, screw speed, feeding rate decreased unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability of the extrudate. However, increasing moisture content of feed mash resulted in increase unit density and bulk density. Addition of extrusion temperature and cutting speed increased the floatability and durability of extrudate. The proportion of pineapple pomace in aquafeed extruded product was observed to have significantly lower effect on the selected responses.

Keywords: aquafeed, extrusion, physical properties, pineapple pomace, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1588 Image-Based (RBG) Technique for Estimating Phosphorus Levels of Different Crops

Authors: M. M. Ali, Ahmed Al- Ani, Derek Eamus, Daniel K. Y. Tan


In this glasshouse study, we developed the new image-based non-destructive technique for detecting leaf P status of different crops such as cotton, tomato and lettuce. Plants were allowed to grow on nutrient media containing different P concentrations, i.e. 0%, 50% and 100% of recommended P concentration (P0 = no P, L; P1 = 2.5 mL 10 L-1 of P and P2 = 5 mL 10 L-1 of P as NaH2PO4). After 10 weeks of growth, plants were harvested and data on leaf P contents were collected using the standard destructive laboratory method and at the same time leaf images were collected by a handheld crop image sensor. We calculated leaf area, leaf perimeter and RGB (red, green and blue) values of these images. This data was further used in the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to estimate leaf P contents, which successfully classified these plants on the basis of leaf P contents. The data indicated that P deficiency in crop plants can be predicted using the image and morphological data. Our proposed non-destructive imaging method is precise in estimating P requirements of different crop species.

Keywords: image-based techniques, leaf area, leaf P contents, linear discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1587 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: basil leaves, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, plant extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
1586 Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kulig, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet


Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data are known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber has the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the higher load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increase in the top to bottom gradient, whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus, and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11 ± 181.86 MPa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04 ± 0.02 mm/mm, respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana, and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Chemical treatment, Fiber characteristics, Natural fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1585 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse


The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1584 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park


This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1583 Effect of Lime and Leaf Ash on Engineering Properties of Red Mud

Authors: Pawandeep Kaur, Prashant Garg


Red mud is a byproduct of aluminum extraction from Bauxite industry. It is dumped in a pond which not only uses thousands of acres of land but having very high pH, it pollutes the ground water and the soil also. Leaves are yet another big waste especially during autumn when they contribute immensely to the blockage of drains and can easily catch fire, among other risks hence also needs to be utilized effectively. The use of leaf ash and red mud in highway construction as a filling material may be an efficient way to dispose of leaf ash and red mud. In this study, leaf ash and lime were used as admixtures to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of red mud. The red mud was taken from National Aluminum Company Limited, Odisha, and leaf ash was locally collected. The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of lime and leaf ash on compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of red mud. California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compression Strength tests were performed on red mud by varying different percentages of lime and leaf ash. Leaf ash was added in proportion 2%,4%,6%,8% and 10% whereas lime was added in proportions of 5% to 15%. Optimized value of lime was decided with respect to maximum CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of red mud mixed with different proportions of lime. An increase of 300% in California Bearing ratio of red mud and an increase of 125% in Unconfined Compression Strength values were observed. It may, therefore, be concluded that red mud may be effectively utilized in the highway industry as a filler material.

Keywords: stabilization, lime, red mud, leaf ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1582 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Varun Mittal, Shishir Sinha


The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: bagasse fiber, composite, hardness, sodium hydroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 163