Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1297

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biomedical and Biological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1297 A Study of Serum Beta 2-Microglobulin (β2M) and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) Levels in Oral Carcinoma Patients

Authors: Anurag Kapoor, Pradeep Sharma, Kailash K Mittal, Ajai Kumar, Jitendra Pratap Singh Chauhan, Nardev, Kalbe Jawad

Abstract:

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is the most prevalent malignant tumour on a global scale. Limited research has been conducted on tumour markers in oral cancer, and additional evaluation is required for several tumour producers that show clinical promise. The present study aimed to find out the correlation of β-2 Microglobulin and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid in oral carcinoma patients. Methodology: The present case-control study was carried out on 35 patients with histopathologically confirmed OSCC and 35 age-matched controls. Serum concentrations of 2-Microglobulin and Total Sialic Acid (TSA) in the participants were determined via ELISA and spectrophotometric techniques, respectively. Results: The OSCC group consisted of 20 males and 15 females, with an average age of 58 years, while the control group comprised 18 males and 17 females, with an average age of 55 years. Elevated levels of β2-microglobulin (3.87±0.12) and LSA (73.57±2.42) were observed in OSCC patients compared to controls (2.25±0.18; 65.21±2.06, respectively). Further examination based on smoking status revealed a significant increase in both β2-microglobulin and LSA levels among smokers compared to non-smokers (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study suggests a notable association between higher levels of β2-microglobulin and LSA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients who smoke compared to non-smokers. This observation leads to a hypothesis that this disparity could potentially serve as a significant contributing factor to the advancement of oral cancer.

Keywords: β2-microglobulin, lipid bound sialic acid, oral carcinoma patients, levels

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1296 Navigating the Complexity of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Miller Fisher Syndrome Overlap Syndrome: A Pediatric Case Report

Authors: Kamal Chafiq, Youssef Hadzine, Adel Elmekkaoui, Othmane Benlenda, Houssam Rajad, Soukaina Wakrim, Hicham Nassik

Abstract:

Guillain-Barré syndrome/Miller Fishe syndrome (GBS/MFS) overlap syndrome is an extremely rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in which Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) coexists with other characteristics of GBS, such as limb weakness, paresthesia, and facial paralysis. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old patient, with no pathological history, who acutely presents with ophthalmoplegia, areflexia, facial diplegia, and swallowing and phonation disorders, followed by progressive, descending, and symmetrical paresis affecting first the upper limbs and then the lower limbs. An albuminocytological dissociation was found in the cerebrospinal fluid study. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord showed enhancement and thickening of the cauda equina roots. The patient was treated with immunoglobulins with a favorable clinical outcome.

Keywords: Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome, overlap syndrome, anti-GQ1b antibodies

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1295 The Ethics of Jaw Wiring for Weight Loss by Dentists in South Africa: A Principlist Analysis

Authors: Jillian Gardner, Hilde D. Miniggio

Abstract:

The increasing prevalence of obesity has driven the pursuit of alternative weight loss strategies, such as jaw wiring (or ‘slimming wires’), a technique known in the medical community as maxillomandibular fixation, which has evolved beyond its original intention of treating temporomandibular joint disorders. Individuals have increasingly sought and utilized the procedure for weight loss purposes. Although legal in South Africa, this trend presents dentists with ethical dilemmas, as they face requests for interventions that prioritize aesthetic preferences over medical necessity. Drawing on scholarly literature and the four principles framework of Beauchamp and Childress, this ethical analysis offers guidance for dentists facing the ethical dilemma of patient requests for jaw wiring as a weight management intervention. The ethical analysis concludes that dentists who refuse autonomous requests to perform jaw wiring for purely weight loss purposes are ethically justified within the principlist framework in overriding these requests when the principles of non-maleficence and beneficence are at stake. The well-being and health of the patient, as well as societal and professional obligations, justify the refusal to perform jaw wiring purely for weight loss.

Keywords: ethics, jaw wiring, maxillomandibular fixation, principlism, weight loss

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1294 Human Par14 and Par17 Isomerases Bind Hepatitis B Virus Components Inside and Out

Authors: Umar Saeed

Abstract:

Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases Par14 and Par17 in humans play crucial roles in diverse cellular processes, including protein folding, chromatin remodeling, DNA binding, ribosome biogenesis, and cell cycle progression. However, the effects of Par14 and Par17 on viral replication have been explored to a limited extent. We first time discovered their influential roles in promoting Hepatitis B Virus replication. In this study, we observed that in the presence of HBx, either Par14 or Par17 could upregulate HBV replication. However, in the absence of HBx, neither Par14 nor Par17 had any effect on replication. Their mechanism of action involves binding to specific motifs within HBc and HBx proteins. Notably, they target the conserved 133Arg-Pro134 (RP) motif of HBc and the 19RP20-28RP29 motifs of HBx. This interaction is fundamental for the stability of HBx, core particles, and HBc. Par14 and Par17 exhibit versatility by binding both outside and inside core particles, thereby facilitating core particle assembly through their participation in HBc dimer-dimer interactions. NAGE and immunoblotting analyses unveiled the binding of Par14/Par17 to core particles. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments further demonstrated the interaction of Par14/Par17 with core particle assembly-defective and dimer-positive HBc-Y132A. It's essential to emphasize that R133 is the key residue in the HBc RP motif that governs their interaction with Par14/Par17. Chromatin immunoprecipitation conducted on HBV-infected cells elucidated the participation of residues S19 and E46/D74 in Par14 and S44 and E71/D99 in Par17 in the recruitment of 133RP134 motif-containing HBc into cccDNA. Depleting PIN4 in liver cell lines results in a significant reduction in cccDNA levels, pgRNA, sgRNAs, HBc, core particle assembly, and HBV DNA synthesis. Notably, parvulin inhibitors like juglone and PiB have proven to be effective in substantially reducing HBV replication. These inhibitors weaken the interaction between HBV core particles and Par14/Par17, underscoring the dynamic nature of this interaction. It's also worth noting that specific Par14/Par17 inhibitors hold promise as potential therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B.

Keywords: Par14Par17, HBx, HBc, cccDNA, HBV

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1293 Evaluation of Forensic Pathology Practice Outside Germany – Experiences From 20 Years of Second Look Autopsies in Cooperation with the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich

Authors: Michael Josef Schwerer, Oliver Peschel

Abstract:

Background: The sense and purpose of forensic postmortem examinations are undoubtedly the same in Institutes of Legal Medicine all over the world. Cause and manner of death must be determined, persons responsible for unnatural death must be brought to justice, and accidents demand changes in the respective scenarios to avoid future mishaps. The latter particularly concerns aircraft accidents, not only regarding consequences from criminal or civil law but also in pursuance of the International Civil Aviation Authority’s regulations, which demand lessons from mishap investigations to improve flight safety. Irrespective of the distinct circumstances of a given casualty or the respective questions in subsequent death investigations, a forensic autopsy is the basis for all further casework, the clue to otherwise hidden solutions, and the crucial limitation for final success when not all possible findings have been properly collected. This also implies that the targeted work of police forces and expert witnesses strongly depends on the quality of forensic pathology practice. Deadly events in foreign countries, which lead to investigations not only abroad but also in Germany, can be challenging in this context. Frequently, second-look autopsies after the repatriation of the deceased to Germany are requested by the legal authorities to ensure proper and profound documentation of all relevant findings. Aims and Methods: To validate forensic postmortem practice abroad, a retrospective study using the findings in the corresponding second-look autopsies in the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich over the last 20 years was carried out. New findings unreported in the previous autopsy were recorded and judged for their relevance to solving the respective case. Further, the condition of the corpse at the time of the second autopsy was rated to discuss artifacts mimicking evidence or the possibility of lost findings resulting from, e.g., decomposition. Recommendations for future handling of death cases abroad and efficient autopsy practice were pursued. Results and Discussion: Our re-evaluation confirmed a high quality of autopsy practice abroad in the vast majority of cases. However, in some casework, incomplete documentation of pathology findings was revealed along with either insufficient or misconducted dissection of organs. Further, some of the bodies showed missing parts of some organs, most probably resulting from sampling for histology studies during the first postmortem. For the aeromedical evaluation of a decedent’s health status prior to an aviation mishap, particularly lost or obscured findings in the heart, lungs, and brain impeded expert testimony. Moreover, incomplete fixation of the body or body parts for repatriation was seen in several cases. This particularly involved previously dissected organs deposited back into the body cavities at the end of the first autopsy. Conclusions and Recommendations: Detailed preparation in the first forensic autopsy avoids the necessity of a second-look postmortem in the majority of cases. To limit decomposition changes during repatriation from abroad, special care must be taken to include pre-dissected organs in the chemical fixation process, particularly when they are separated from the blood vessels and just deposited back into the body cavities.

Keywords: autopsy practice, second-look autopsy, retrospective study, quality standards, decomposition changes, repatriation

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1292 Central Nervous System Lesion Differentiation in the Emergency Radiology Department

Authors: Angelis P. Barlampas

Abstract:

An 89 years old woman came to the emergency department complaining of long-lasting headaches and nausea. A CT examination was performed, and a homogeneous midline anterior cranial fossa lesion was revealed, which was situated near the base and measured 2,4 cm in diameter. The patient was allergic, and an i.v.c injection could not be done on the spot, and neither could an MRI exam because of metallic implants. How could someone narrow down the differential diagnosis? The interhemispheric meningioma is usually a silent midline lesion with no edema, and most often presents as a homogeneous, solid type, isodense, or slightly hyperdense mass ( usually the smallest lesions as this one ). Of them, 20-30% have some calcifications. Hyperostosis is typical for meningiomas that abut the base of the skull but is absent in the current case, presumably of a more cephalad location that is borderline away from the bone. Because further investigation could not be done, as the patient was allergic to the contrast media, some other differential options should be considered. Regarding the site of the lesion, the most common other entities to keep in mind are the following: Metastasis, tumor of skull base, abscess, primary brain tumors, meningioma, giant aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery, olfactory neuroblastoma, interhemispheric meningioma, giant aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery, midline lesion. Appearance will depend on whether the aneurysm is non-thrombosed, or partially, or completely thrombosed. Non-contrast: slightly hyperdense, well-defined round extra-axial mass, may demonstrate a peripheral calcified rim, olfactory neuroblastoma, midline lesion. The mass is of soft tissue attenuation and is relatively homogeneous. Focal calcifications are occasionally present. When an intracranial extension is present, peritumoral cysts between it and the overlying brain are often present. Final diagnosis interhemispheric meningioma (Known from the previous patient’s history). Meningiomas come from the meningocytes or the arachnoid cells of the meninges. They are usually found incidentally, have an indolent course, and their most common location is extra-axial, parasagittal, and supratentorial. Other locations include the sphenoid ridge, olfactory groove, juxtasellar, infratentorial, intraventricular, pineal gland area, and optic nerve meningioma. They are clinically silent entities, except for large ones, which can present with headaches, changes in personality status, paresis, or symptomatology according to their specific site and may cause edema of the surrounding brain tissue. Imaging findings include the presence of calcifications, the CSF cleft sign, hyperostosis of adjacent bone, dural tail, and white matter buckling sign. After i.v.c. injection, they enhance brightly and homogenously, except for large ones, which may exhibit necrotic areas or may be heavily calcified. Malignant or cystic variants demonstrate more heterogeneity and less intense enhancement. Sometimes, it is inevitable that the needed CT protocol cannot be performed, especially in the emergency department. In these cases, the radiologist must focus on the characteristic imaging features of the unenhanced lesion, as well as in previous examinations or a known lesion history, in order to come to the right report conclusion.

Keywords: computed tomography, emergency radiology, metastasis, tumor of skull base, abscess, primary brain tumors, meningioma, giant aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery, olfactory neuroblastoma, interhemispheric meningioma

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1291 Absorbed Dose Measurements for Teletherapy Prediction of Superficial Dose Using Halcyon Linear Accelerator

Authors: Raymond Limen Njinga, Adeneye Samuel Olaolu, Akinyode Ojumoola Ajimo

Abstract:

Introduction: Measurement of entrance dose and dose at different depths is essential to avoid overdose and underdose of patients. The aim of this study is to verify the variation in the absorbed dose using a water-equivalent material. Materials and Methods: The plastic phantom was arranged on the couch of the halcyon linear accelerator by Varian, with the farmer ionization chamber inserted and connected to the electrometer. The image of the setup was taken using the High-Quality Single 1280x1280x16 higher on the service mode to check the alignment with the isocenter. The beam quality TPR₂₀,₁₀ (Tissue phantom ratio) was done to check the beam quality of the machine at a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. The calibration was done using SAD type set-up at a depth of 5 cm. This process was repeated for ten consecutive weeks, and the values were recorded. Results: The results of the beam output for the teletherapy machine were satisfactory and accepted in comparison with the commissioned measurement of 0.62. The beam quality TPR₂₀,₁₀ (Tissue phantom ratio) was reasonable with respect to the beam quality of the machine at a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Conclusion: The results of the beam quality and the absorbed dose rate showed a good consistency over the period of ten weeks with the commissioned measurement value.

Keywords: linear accelerator, absorbed dose rate, isocenter, phantom, ionization chamber

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1290 Cervical Cerclage and Neonatal Death

Authors: Zinah Jabbar Mohammed Alrubaye

Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of prophylactic and rescue cervical cerclages for pregnant patients with an incompetent cervix, and to assess the neonatal outcomes of both clinical conditions. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of all women who had an elective or rescue cerclage between January 2008 and December 2016 in our hospital .Prophylactic cerclage was defined as a cerclage before 16 weeks of gestation, while rescue cerclages were performed between 16 and 23 weeks of gestation. Results: In total, we analyzed the outcomes of 212 cervical interventions; 71% of the recruited patients experienced prophylactic cerclage, while 29% underwent rescue cerclage. Most of the patients delivered vaginally (70%) and were able to leave the hospital with a healthy newborn (78%). The mean pregnancy prolongation time after cerclage in the prophylactic and rescue groups were 21 weeks and 10 weeks, respectively. Conclusion: Prophylactic cerclage interventions are most likely to be associated with a reduction of fetal demise because of the correlation between fetal prognosis and the gestational age at which cerclage is performed. Once the diagnosis of cervical insufficiency is confirmed, cerclage should be recommended as this will help to prolong the pregnancy.

Keywords: cervical, neonate, cerclage, Cervix

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1289 Enabling Non-invasive Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules with High Specificity and Sensitivity

Authors: Sai Maniveer Adapa, Sai Guptha Perla, Adithya Reddy P.

Abstract:

Thyroid nodules can often be diagnosed with ultrasound imaging, although differentiating between benign and malignant nodules can be challenging for medical professionals. This work suggests a novel approach to increase the precision of thyroid nodule identification by combining machine learning and deep learning. The new approach first extracts information from the ultrasound pictures using a deep learning method known as a convolutional autoencoder. A support vector machine, a type of machine learning model, is then trained using these features. With an accuracy of 92.52%, the support vector machine can differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. This innovative technique may decrease the need for pointless biopsies and increase the accuracy of thyroid nodule detection.

Keywords: thyroid tumor diagnosis, ultrasound images, deep learning, machine learning, convolutional auto-encoder, support vector machine

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1288 Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Thermal Effects Created by High-Intensity, Ultra-Short Pulses Induced Cell Membrane Electroporation

Authors: Jiahui Song

Abstract:

The use of electric fields with high intensity (~ 100kV/cm or higher) and ultra short pulse durations (nanosecond range) has been a recent development. Most of the studies of electroporation have ignored possible thermal effects because of the small duration of the applied voltage pulses. However, it has been predicted membrane temperature gradients ranging from 0.2×109 to 109 K/m. This research focuses on thermal effects that drive for electroporative enhancements, even though the actual temperature values might not have changed appreciably from their equilibrium levels. The dynamics of pore formation with the application of an externally applied electric field is studied on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the GROMACS package. MD simulations of a lipid layer with constant electric field strength of 0.5 V/nm at 25 °C and 47 °C are implemented to simulate the appropriate thermal effects. The GROMACS provides the force fields for the lipid membranes, which is taken to comprise of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) molecules. The water model mimicks the aqueous environment surrounding the membrane. Velocities of water and membrane molecules are generated randomly at each simulation run according to a Maxwellian distribution. The high background electric field is typically used in MD simulations to probe electroporation. It serves as an accelerated test of the pore formation process since low electric fields would take inordinately long simulation time. MD simulation shows no pore is formed in a 1-ns snapshot for a DPPC membrane set at a temperature of 25°C after a 0.5 V/nm electric field is applied. A nano-sized pore is clearly seen in a 0.75-ns snapshot on the same geometry, but with the membrane surfaces kept at temperatures of 47°C. And the pore increases at 1 ns. The MD simulation results suggest the possibility that the increase in temperature can result in different degrees of electrically stimulated bio-effects. The results points to the role of thermal effects in facilitating and accelerating the electroporation process.

Keywords: high-intensity, ultra-short, electroporation, thermal effects, molecular dynamics

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1287 Feasibility of Voluntary Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiotherapy Technique Implementation without Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold-Assisting Device

Authors: Auwal Abubakar, Shazril Imran Shaukat, Noor Khairiah A. Karim, Mohammed Zakir Kassim, Gokula Kumar Appalanaido, Hafiz Mohd Zin

Abstract:

Background: Voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy (vDIBH-RT) is an effective cardiac dose reduction technique during left breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the implementation of the vDIBH technique among left breast cancer patients without the use of a special device such as a surface-guided imaging system. Methods: The vDIBH-RT technique was implemented among thirteen (13) left breast cancer patients at the Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI), Universiti Sains Malaysia. Breath-hold monitoring was performed based on breath-hold skin marks and laser light congruence observed on zoomed CCTV images from the control console during each delivery. The initial setup was verified using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during breath-hold. Each field was delivered using multiple beam segments to allow a delivery time of 20 seconds, which can be tolerated by patients in breath-hold. The data were analysed using an in-house developed MATLAB algorithm. PTV margin was computed based on van Herk's margin recipe. Results: The setup error analysed from CBCT shows that the population systematic error in lateral (x), longitudinal (y), and vertical (z) axes was 2.28 mm, 3.35 mm, and 3.10 mm, respectively. Based on the CBCT image guidance, the Planning target volume (PTV) margin that would be required for vDIBH-RT using CCTV/Laser monitoring technique is 7.77 mm, 10.85 mm, and 10.93 mm in x, y, and z axes, respectively. Conclusion: It is feasible to safely implement vDIBH-RT among left breast cancer patients without special equipment. The breath-hold monitoring technique is cost-effective, radiation-free, easy to implement, and allows real-time breath-hold monitoring.

Keywords: vDIBH, cone beam computed tomography, radiotherapy, left breast cancer

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1286 A Review of Accuracy Optical Surface Imaging Systems for Setup Verification During Breast Radiotherapy Treatment

Authors: Auwal Abubakar, Ahmed Ahidjo, Shazril Imran Shaukat, Noor Khairiah A. Karim, Gokula Kumar Appalanaido, Hafiz Mohd Zin

Abstract:

Background: The use of optical surface imaging systems (OSISs) is increasingly becoming popular in radiotherapy practice, especially during breast cancer treatment. This study reviews the accuracy of the available commercial OSISs for breast radiotherapy. Method: A literature search was conducted and identified the available commercial OSISs from different manufacturers that are integrated into radiotherapy practice for setup verification during breast radiotherapy. Studies that evaluated the accuracy of the OSISs during breast radiotherapy using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a reference were retrieved and analyzed. The physics and working principles of the systems from each manufacturer were discussed together with their respective strength and limitations. Results: A total of five (5) different commercially available OSISs from four (4) manufacturers were identified, each with a different working principle. Six (6) studies were found to evaluate the accuracy of the systems during breast radiotherapy in conjunction with CBCT as a goal standard. The studies revealed that the accuracy of the system in terms of mean difference ranges from 0.1 to 2.1 mm. The correlation between CBCT and OSIS ranges between 0.4 and 0.9. The limit of agreements obtained using bland Altman analysis in the studies was also within an acceptable range. Conclusion: The OSISs have an acceptable level of accuracy and could be used safely during breast radiotherapy. The systems are non-invasive, ionizing radiation-free, and provide real-time imaging of the target surface at no extra concomitant imaging dose. However, the system should only be used to complement rather than replace x-ray-based image guidance techniques such as CBCT.

Keywords: optical surface imaging system, Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), surface guided radiotherapy, Breast radiotherapy

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1285 The Perceptions of Patients with Osteoarthritis at a Public Community Rehabilitation Centre in the Cape Metropole for Using Digital Technology in Rehabilitation

Authors: Gabriela Prins, Quinette Louw, Dawn Ernstzen

Abstract:

Background: Access to rehabilitation services is a major challenge globally, especially in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs) where resources and infrastructure are extremely limited. Telerehabilitation (TR) has emerged in recent decades as a highly promising method to dramatically expand accessibility to rehabilitation services globally. TR provides rehabilitation care remotely using communication technologies such as video conferencing, smartphones, and internet-connected devices. This boosts accessibility to underprivileged regions and allows for greater flexibility for patients. Despite this, TR is hindered by several factors, including limited technological resources, high costs, lack of digital access, and the unavailability of healthcare systems, which are major barriers to widespread adoption among LMIC patients. These barriers have collectively hindered the potential implementation and adoption of TR services in LMICs healthcare settings. Adoption of TR will also require the buy-in of end users and limited information is known on the perspectives of the SA population. Aim: The study aimed to understand patients' perspectives regarding the use of digital technology as part of their OA rehabilitation at a public community healthcare centre in the Cape Metropole Area. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study design was used on 10 OA patients from a public community rehabilitation centre in South Africa. Data collection included semi-structured interviews and patient-reported outcome measures (PSFS, ASES-8, and EuroQol EQ-5D-5L) on functioning and quality of life. Transcribed interview data were coded in Atlas.ti. 22.2 and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results were narratively documented. Results: Four themes arose from the interviews. The themes were Telerehabilitation awareness (Use of Digital Technology Information Sources and Prior Experience with Technology /TR), Telerehabilitation Benefits (Access to healthcare providers, Access to educational information, Convenience, Time and Resource Efficiency and Facilitating Family Involvement), Telerehabilitation Implementation Considerations (Openness towards TR Implementation, Learning about TR and Technology, Therapeutic relationship, and Privacy) and Future use of Telerehabilitation (Personal Preference and TR for the next generation). The ten participants demonstrated limited awareness and exposure to TR, as well as minimal digital literacy and skills. Skepticism was shown when comparing the effectiveness of TR to in-person rehabilitation and valued physical interactions with health professionals. However, some recognized potential benefits of TR for accessibility, convenience, family involvement and improving community health in the long term. Willingness existed to try TR with sufficient training. Conclusion: With targeted efforts addressing identified barriers around awareness, technological literacy, clinician readiness and resource availability, perspectives on TR may shift positively from uncertainty towards endorsement of this expanding approach for simpler rehabilitation access in LMICs.

Keywords: digital technology, osteoarthritis, primary health care, telerehabilitation

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1284 Physical Activity Patterns during Inpatient Rehabilitation in Patients with Recent Brain Injury

Authors: Nikita Pasricha, Karen Smith, Simone Marshall, Vincent DePaul, Jessica Trier

Abstract:

Understanding that physical activity in rehabilitation programs shapes outcomes in acquired brain injury (ABI) populations is not a new concept. However, there is a void in understanding the physical activity patterns of inpatients in ABI rehabilitation, the trajectory of physical activity recovery, and factors that contribute to the recovery of physical activity over the initial months post-ABI. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity patterns vary in people with recent ABI in inpatient rehabilitation. The study also investigated differences in physical activity patterns in ABI patients compared to age-related healthy participants. Results revealed that ABI patients spent approximately 6.7 times longer per day in sedentary postures than in active positions. In comparison, the control group spent only 2.8 times longer in sedentary postures compared to active positions. Patients with ABI took significantly fewer steps than age-matched health control participants. Within the ABI population, patients took 0.78 times fewer steps on weekends compared to weekdays. Participants with greater mobility limitations had a greater difference in WD to WE steps taken. Potential reasons could be from no structured weekend rehabilitation programs, lower availability of staff, or varying schedules. Given that the rehabilitation program is only structured on weekdays, further research to investigate the benefits of structured physical activities like group walking programs on weekends for ABI patients in inpatient rehabilitation programs is warranted.

Keywords: brain, ABI, TBI, rehabilitation

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1283 Comparative Study of the Sensitivity of Two Freshwater Gastropods, Lymnaea Stagnalis and Planorbarius Corneus, to Silver Nanoparticles: Bioaccumulation and Toxicity

Authors: Ting Wang, Pierre Marle, Vera I. Slaveykova, Kristin Schirmer, Wei Liu

Abstract:

Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are considered detrimental to aquatic organisms due to their potential accumulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects and their species-specificity. Here, we used stable silver (Ag) NPs (20 nm, from 10 to 500 μg/L) with a low dissolution rate (≤2.4%) to study the bioaccumulation and biological impacts in two freshwater gastropods: Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus. No mortality was detected during the experiments. Ag bioaccumulation showed a dose-related increase with an enhanced concentration in both species after 7d exposure. L. stagnalis displayed a higher accumulation for AgNPs than P. corneus (e.g., up to 18- and 15-fold in hepatopancreas and hemolymph, respectively), which could be due to the more active L. stagnalis having greater contact with suspended AgNPs. Furthermore, the hepatopancreas and stomach were preferred organs for bioaccumulation compared to the kidney, mantle and foot. Regarding biological responses, the hemolymph rather than hepatopancreas appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress elicited by AgNPs, as shown by significantly increasing lipid peroxidation (i.e., formation of malondialdehyde). Neurotoxicity was detected in L. stagnalis when exposed to high concentrations (500 μg/L). Comparison with impacts elicited by dissolved Ag revealed that the effects observed on AgNPs exposure were mainly attributable to NPs. These results highlighted the relationship between the physiological traits, bioaccumulation, and toxicity responses of these two species to AgNPs and demonstrated the necessity of species-specificity considerations when assessing the toxicity of NPs.

Keywords: nanotoxicity, freshwater gastropods, species-specificity, metals, physiological traits

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1282 The Three-dimensional Response of Mussel Plaque Anchoring to Wet Substrates under Directional Tensions

Authors: Yingwei Hou, Tao Liu, Yong Pang

Abstract:

The paper explored the three-dimensional deformation of mussel plaques anchor to wet polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates under tension stress with different angles. Mussel plaques exhibiting natural adhesive structures, have attracted significant attention for their remarkable adhesion properties. Understanding their behavior under mechanical stress, particularly in a three-dimensional context, holds immense relevance for biomimetic material design and bio-inspired adhesive development. This study employed a novel approach to investigate the 3D deformation of the PDMS substrates anchored by mussel plaques subjected to controlled tension. Utilizing our customized stereo digital image correlation technique and mechanical mechanics analyses, we found the distributions of the displacement and resultant force on the substrate became concentrated under the plaque. Adhesion and sucking mechanisms were analyzed for the mussel plaque-substrate system under tension until detachment. The experimental findings were compared with a developed model using finite element analysis and the results provide new insights into mussels’ attachment mechanism. This research not only contributes to the fundamental understanding of biological adhesion but also holds promising implications for the design of innovative adhesive materials with applications in fields such as medical adhesives, underwater technologies, and industrial bonding. The comprehensive exploration of mussel plaque behavior in three dimensions is important for advancements in biomimicry and materials science, fostering the development of adhesives that emulate nature's efficiency.

Keywords: adhesion mechanism, mytilus edulis, mussel plaque, stereo digital image correlation

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1281 3D Printing of Polycaprolactone Scaffold with Multiscale Porosity Via Incorporation of Sacrificial Sucrose Particles

Authors: Mikaela Kutrolli, Noah S. Pereira, Vanessa Scanlon, Mohamadmahdi Samandari, Ali Tamayol

Abstract:

Bone tissue engineering has drawn significant attention and various biomaterials have been tested. Polymers such as polycaprolactone (PCL) offer excellent biocompatibility, reasonable mechanical properties, and biodegradability. However, PCL scaffolds suffer a critical drawback: a lack of micro/mesoporosity, affecting cell attachment, tissue integration, and mineralization. It also results in a slow degradation rate. While 3D-printing has addressed the issue of macroporosity through CAD-guided fabrication, PCL scaffolds still exhibit poor smaller-scale porosity. To overcome this, we generated composites of PCL, hydroxyapatite (HA), and powdered sucrose (PS). The latter serves as a sacrificial material to generate porous particles after sucrose dissolution. Additionally, we have incorporated dexamethasone (DEX) to boost the PCL osteogenic properties. The resulting scaffolds maintain controlled macroporosity from the lattice print structure but also develop micro/mesoporosity within PCL fibers when exposed to aqueous environments. The study involved mixing PS into solvent-dissolved PCL in different weight ratios of PS to PCL (70:30, 50:50, and 30:70 wt%). The resulting composite was used for 3D printing of scaffolds at room temperature. Printability was optimized by adjusting pressure, speed, and layer height through filament collapse and fusion test. Enzymatic degradation, porogen leaching, and DEX release profiles were characterized. Physical properties were assessed using wettability, SEM, and micro-CT to quantify the porosity (percentage, pore size, and interconnectivity). Raman spectroscopy was used to verify the absence of sugar after leaching. Mechanical characteristics were evaluated via compression testing before and after porogen leaching. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) behavior in the printed scaffolds was studied by assessing viability, metabolic activity, osteo-differentiation, and mineralization. The scaffolds with a 70% sugar concentration exhibited superior printability and reached the highest porosity of 80%, but performed poorly during mechanical testing. A 50% PS concentration demonstrated a 70% porosity, with an average pore size of 25 µm, favoring cell attachment. No trace of sucrose was found in Raman after leaching the sugar for 8 hours. Water contact angle results show improved hydrophilicity as the sugar concentration increased, making the scaffolds more conductive to cell adhesion. The behavior of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) showed positive viability and proliferation results with an increasing trend of mineralization and osteo-differentiation as the sucrose concentration increased. The addition of HA and DEX also promoted mineralization and osteo-differentiation in the cultures. The integration of PS as porogen at a concentration of 50%wt within PCL scaffolds presents a promising approach to address the poor cell attachment and tissue integration issues of PCL in bone tissue engineering. The method allows for the fabrication of scaffolds with tunable porosity and mechanical properties, suitable for various applications. The addition of HA and DEX further enhanced the scaffolds. Future studies will apply the scaffolds in an in-vivo model to thoroughly investigate their performance.

Keywords: bone, PCL, 3D printing, tissue engineering

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1280 Harnessing Deep-Level Metagenomics to Explore the Three Dynamic One Health Areas: Healthcare, Domiciliary and Veterinary

Authors: Christina Killian, Katie Wall, Séamus Fanning, Guerrino Macori

Abstract:

Deep-level metagenomics offers a useful technical approach to explore the three dynamic One Health axes: healthcare, domiciliary and veterinary. There is currently limited understanding of the composition of complex biofilms, natural abundance of AMR genes and gene transfer occurrence in these ecological niches. By using a newly established small-scale complex biofilm model, COMBAT has the potential to provide new information on microbial diversity, antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-encoding gene abundance, and their transfer in complex biofilms of importance to these three One Health axes. Shotgun metagenomics has been used to sample the genomes of all microbes comprising the complex communities found in each biofilm source. A comparative analysis between untreated and biocide-treated biofilms is described. The basic steps include the purification of genomic DNA, followed by library preparation, sequencing, and finally, data analysis. The use of long-read sequencing facilitates the completion of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG). Samples were sequenced using a PromethION platform, and following quality checks, binning methods, and bespoke bioinformatics pipelines, we describe the recovery of individual MAGs to identify mobile gene elements (MGE) and the corresponding AMR genotypes that map to these structures. High-throughput sequencing strategies have been deployed to characterize these communities. Accurately defining the profiles of these niches is an essential step towards elucidating the impact of the microbiota on each niche biofilm environment and their evolution.

Keywords: COMBAT, biofilm, metagenomics, high-throughput sequencing

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1279 Identifying the True Extend of Glioblastoma Based on Preoperative FLAIR Images

Authors: Bayan Shukir, Laszlo Szivos, David Kis, Pal Barzo

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (GB) is the most malignant brain tumor. In general, the survival rate varies between (14-18) months. GB consists of a solid and infiltrative part. The standard imaging modality to define the extension of GB is CE-T1; however, it’s limited to identify the solid part only, not the infiltrative one, making it less effective for such a purpose. It’s hypothesized that the hyperintense region in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is thought to include both the solid and infiltrative part associated with edema. In our study, we aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of hyperintense FLAIR images preoperatively to examine how well they can define the true extent of GB. (16) GB patients have been included in this study. Hyperintense FLAIR regions were delineated preoperatively as tumor masks, which also included the infiltrated tumor cells as well. The infiltrative part of the GB was considered to be the region where the tumor recurred on the follow-up MRI. The recurrence on the CE-T1 images was marked as the recurrence masks. According to (AAL3) and (JHU white matter labels) atlas, the brain is divided into cortical and subcortical regions, respectively. For calculating specificity and sensitivity, the FLAIR and the recurrence masks were transferred to standard space, counting how many regions were affected by both. The average sensitivity and specificity were (0.83)% and (0.85)%, respectively. Individually, the sensitivity and specificity varied between (0.31-1)% and (1-0.58)%, respectively. These results suggest that despite FLAIR being an effective radiologic imaging tool, its prognostic value remains controversial, and probabilistic tractography remains a more reliable available method than using FLAIR images for identifying the true extent of GB.

Keywords: brain tumors, FLAIR, glioblastoma, MRI

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1278 The Role of Homocysteine in Bone and Cartilage Regeneration

Authors: Arif İsmailov, Naila Hasanova, Gunay Orujalieva

Abstract:

Homocysteine (HCY) is an indicator of prognostic value in monitoring regenerative processes in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. The osteoporosis is known to be a serious health and economic problem, especially for women in the postmenopausal period. The study was carried out on patients 45-83 years old divided into 3 groups: group I – 14 patients with osteoporosis , group II – 15 patients with non-osteoporotic fractures, group III – 25 patients with osteoporotic fractures. The control group consisted of practically healthy 14 people. A blood sample was taken at 3 stages to monitor the dynamics of HCY level: on the 1st day before treatment, on the 10th day of treatment and 1 month after it. Blood levels of Hcy were determined at a wavelength of 450 nm by the ELİSA(Cloud Clone Corp.Elisa kits,USA). The statistical evaluation was performed by using SPSS 26.0 program (IBM SPSS Inc., USA).The results showed that on the 1st day before the treatment HCY concentration was statistically increased 2.7 times(PU = 0.108) in group I, 5.6 times (PU <0.001) in group II and 6.5 times (PU <0.001) in group III compared to the control group. Thus, the average value of HCY in group I was 1.76 ± 0.56 μg/ml; in group II – 3.57 ± 0.62 μg/ml; in group III – 4.2 ± 0.50 μg/ml. HCY level increases more sharply after fractures,especially in osteoporotic patients. In treatment period Vitamin D plays an important role in synthesis of the Cystathionine β‐synthase enzyme, which regulates HCY metabolism. Increased Hcy levels could lead to an increase in the risk of fracture through the interference in collagen cross-linking.

Keywords: homocysteine, osteoporosis, osteoporotic fractures, Vitamin D

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1277 Sustainable Production of Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: Exploring Synthesis Techniques, Formation Mechanisms, and Versatile Applications

Authors: Yemane Tadesse Gebreslassie, Henok Gidey Gebretnsae

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has emerged as a highly promising field of research with wide-ranging applications across various scientific disciplines. In recent years, tin oxide has garnered significant attention due to its intriguing properties, particularly when synthesized in the nanoscale range. While numerous physical and chemical methods exist for producing tin oxide nanoparticles, these approaches tend to be costly, energy-intensive, and involve the use of toxic chemicals. Given the growing concerns regarding human health and environmental impact, there has been a shift towards developing cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes for tin oxide nanoparticle synthesis. Green synthesis methods utilizing biological entities such as plant extracts, bacteria, and natural biomolecules have shown promise in successfully producing tin oxide nanoparticles. However, scaling up the production to an industrial level using green synthesis approaches remains challenging due to the complexity of biological substrates, which hinders the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and formation processes. Thus, this review aims to provide an overview of the various sources of biological entities and methodologies employed in the green synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles, as well as their impact on nanoparticle properties. Furthermore, this research delves into the strides made in comprehending the mechanisms behind the formation of nanoparticles as documented in existing literature. It also sheds light on the array of analytical techniques employed to investigate and elucidate the characteristics of these minuscule particles.

Keywords: nanotechnology, tin oxide, green synthesis, formation mechanisms

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1276 Benefits of PRP in Third Molar Surgery - A Review of the Literature

Authors: Nitesh Kumar, Adel Elrasheed, Antonio Gagliardilugo

Abstract:

Introduction and aims: PRP has been increasing in popularity over the past decade. It is used in many facets of medicine and dentistry such as osteoarthritis, hair loss, skin rejunavation, healing of tendons after injury. Due to the increasing popularity of PRP in third molar surgery in dentistry, this study aims to identify the role of platelet rich plasma and its function in third molar surgery. Methodology: Three databases were chosen to source the articles for review: pubmed, science direct, and Cochrane. The keywords “platelet rich plasma”, “third molar extraction” and “wisdom tooth extraction” and literature review were used to search for relevant articles. Articles that were not in English were omitted and only systematic reviews relevant to the study were collected. All systematic reviews abstracts pertinent to the study were read by two reviewers to avoid bias. Results/statistics: 20 review articles were obtained of which 13 fulfilled the criteria. The Amstar tool validified the strength of these review articles. There is strong evidence in the literature that PRP in third molar surgery decreases post op pain, swelling and recovery time. 20 review articles were obtained of which 13 fulfilled the criteria. The Amstar tool validified the strength of these review articles. There is strong evidence in the literature that PRP in third molar surgery decreases post op pain, swelling and recovery time. Conclusions/clinical relevance: Platelet rich plasma plays a crucial role in patient recovery following the extraction of third molars and should be considered and offered as a routine part of third molar therapy.

Keywords: PRP, third molar, extractions, wisdom teeth

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1275 Urea and Starch Detection on a Paper-Based Microfluidic Device Enabled on a Smartphone

Authors: Shashank Kumar, Mansi Chandra, Ujjawal Singh, Parth Gupta, Rishi Ram, Arnab Sarkar

Abstract:

Milk is one of the basic and primary sources of food and energy as we start consuming milk from birth. Hence, milk quality and purity and checking the concentration of its constituents become necessary steps. Considering the importance of the purity of milk for human health, the following study has been carried out to simultaneously detect and quantify the different adulterants like urea and starch in milk with the help of a paper-based microfluidic device integrated with a smartphone. The detection of the concentration of urea and starch is based on the principle of colorimetry. In contrast, the fluid flow in the device is based on the capillary action of porous media. The microfluidic channel proposed in the study is equipped with a specialized detection zone, and it employs a colorimetric indicator undergoing a visible color change when the milk gets in touch or reacts with a set of reagents which confirms the presence of different adulterants in the milk. In our proposed work, we have used iodine to detect the percentage of starch in the milk, whereas, in the case of urea, we have used the p-DMAB. A direct correlation has been found between the color change intensity and the concentration of adulterants. A calibration curve was constructed to find color intensity and subsequent starch and urea concentration. The device has low-cost production and easy disposability, which make it highly suitable for widespread adoption, especially in resource-constrained settings. Moreover, a smartphone application has been developed to detect, capture, and analyze the change in color intensity due to the presence of adulterants in the milk. The low-cost nature of the smartphone-integrated paper-based sensor, coupled with its integration with smartphones, makes it an attractive solution for widespread use. They are affordable, simple to use, and do not require specialized training, making them ideal tools for regulatory bodies and concerned consumers.

Keywords: paper based microfluidic device, milk adulteration, urea detection, starch detection, smartphone application

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1274 An EEG-Based Scale for Comatose Patients' Vigilance State

Authors: Bechir Hbibi, Lamine Mili

Abstract:

Understanding the condition of comatose patients can be difficult, but it is crucial to their optimal treatment. Consequently, numerous scoring systems have been developed around the world to categorize patient states based on physiological assessments. Although validated and widely adopted by medical communities, these scores still present numerous limitations and obstacles. Even with the addition of additional tests and extensions, these scoring systems have not been able to overcome certain limitations, and it appears unlikely that they will be able to do so in the future. On the other hand, physiological tests are not the only way to extract ideas about comatose patients. EEG signal analysis has helped extensively to understand the human brain and human consciousness and has been used by researchers in the classification of different levels of disease. The use of EEG in the ICU has become an urgent matter in several cases and has been recommended by medical organizations. In this field, the EEG is used to investigate epilepsy, dementia, brain injuries, and many other neurological disorders. It has recently also been used to detect pain activity in some regions of the brain, for the detection of stress levels, and to evaluate sleep quality. In our recent findings, our aim was to use multifractal analysis, a very successful method of handling multifractal signals and feature extraction, to establish a state of awareness scale for comatose patients based on their electrical brain activity. The results show that this score could be instantaneous and could overcome many limitations with which the physiological scales stock. On the contrary, multifractal analysis stands out as a highly effective tool for characterizing non-stationary and self-similar signals. It demonstrates strong performance in extracting the properties of fractal and multifractal data, including signals and images. As such, we leverage this method, along with other features derived from EEG signal recordings from comatose patients, to develop a scale. This scale aims to accurately depict the vigilance state of patients in intensive care units and to address many of the limitations inherent in physiological scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the FOUR score. The results of applying version V0 of this approach to 30 patients with known GCS showed that the EEG-based score similarly describes the states of vigilance but distinguishes between the states of 8 sedated patients where the GCS could not be applied. Therefore, our approach could show promising results with patients with disabilities, injected with painkillers, and other categories where physiological scores could not be applied.

Keywords: coma, vigilance state, EEG, multifractal analysis, feature extraction

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1273 An Automated R-Peak Detection Method Using Common Vector Approach

Authors: Ali Kirkbas

Abstract:

R peaks in an electrocardiogram (ECG) are signs of cardiac activity in individuals that reveal valuable information about cardiac abnormalities, which can lead to mortalities in some cases. This paper examines the problem of detecting R-peaks in ECG signals, which is a two-class pattern classification problem in fact. To handle this problem with a reliable high accuracy, we propose to use the common vector approach which is a successful machine learning algorithm. The dataset used in the proposed method is obtained from MIT-BIH, which is publicly available. The results are compared with the other popular methods under the performance metrics. The obtained results show that the proposed method shows good performance than that of the other. methods compared in the meaning of diagnosis accuracy and simplicity which can be operated on wearable devices.

Keywords: ECG, R-peak classification, common vector approach, machine learning

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1272 Cognitive Performance Post Stroke Is Affected by the Timing of Evaluation

Authors: Ayelet Hersch, Corrine Serfaty, Sigal Portnoy

Abstract:

Stroke survivors commonly report persistent fatigue and sleep disruptions during rehabilitation and post-recovery. While limited research has explored the impact of stroke on a patient's chronotype, there is a gap in understanding the differences in cognitive performance based on treatment timing. Study objectives: (a) To characterize the sleep chronotype in sub-acute post-stroke individuals. (b) Explore cognitive task performance differences during preferred and non-preferred hours. (c) Examine the relationships between sleep quality and cognitive performance. For this intra-subject study, twenty participants (mean age 60.2±8.6) post-first stroke (6-12 weeks post stroke) underwent assessments at preferred and non-preferred chronotypic times. The assessment included demographic surveys, the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), a fatigue questionnaire, and 4-5 days of actigraphy (wrist-worn wGT3X-BT, ActiGraph) to record sleep characteristics. Four sleep quality indices were extracted from actigraphy wristwatch recordings: The average of total sleep time per day (minutes), the average number of awakenings during the sleep period per day, the efficiency of sleep (total hours of sleep per day divided by hours spent in bed per day, averaged across the days and presented as percentage), and the Wake after Sleep Onset (WASO) index, indicating the average number of minutes elapsed from the onset of sleep to the first awakening. Stroke survivors exhibited an earlier sleep chronotype post-injury compared to pre-injury. Enhanced attention, as indicated by higher RBMT scores, occurred during preferred hours. Specifically, 30% of the study participants demonstrated an elevation in their final scores during their preferred hours, transitioning from the category of "mild memory impairment" to "normal memory." However, no significant differences emerged in executive functions, attention tasks, and MoCA scores between preferred and non-preferred hours. The Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO) index correlated with MoCA/RBMT scores during preferred hours (r=0.53/0.51, p=0.021/0.027, respectively). The number of awakenings correlated with MoCA letter task performance during non-preferred hours (r=0.45, p=0.044). Enhanced attention during preferred hours suggests a potential relationship between chronotype and cognitive performance, highlighting the importance of personalized rehabilitation strategies in stroke care. Further exploration of these relationships could contribute to optimizing the timing of cognitive interventions for stroke survivors.

Keywords: sleep chronotype, chronobiology, circadian rhythm, rehabilitation timing

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1271 Optimization of Geometric Parameters of Microfluidic Channels for Flow-Based Studies

Authors: Parth Gupta, Ujjawal Singh, Shashank Kumar, Mansi Chandra, Arnab Sarkar

Abstract:

Microfluidic devices have emerged as indispensable tools across various scientific disciplines, offering precise control and manipulation of fluids at the microscale. Their efficacy in flow-based research, spanning engineering, chemistry, and biology, relies heavily on the geometric design of microfluidic channels. This work introduces a novel approach to optimise these channels through Response Surface Methodology (RSM), departing from the conventional practice of addressing one parameter at a time. Traditionally, optimising microfluidic channels involved isolated adjustments to individual parameters, limiting the comprehensive understanding of their combined effects. In contrast, our approach considers the simultaneous impact of multiple parameters, employing RSM to efficiently explore the complex design space. The outcome is an innovative microfluidic channel that consumes an optimal sample volume and minimises flow time, enhancing overall efficiency. The relevance of geometric parameter optimization in microfluidic channels extends significantly in biomedical engineering. The flow characteristics of porous materials within these channels depend on many factors, including fluid viscosity, environmental conditions (such as temperature and humidity), and specific design parameters like sample volume, channel width, channel length, and substrate porosity. This intricate interplay directly influences the performance and efficacy of microfluidic devices, which, if not optimized, can lead to increased costs and errors in disease testing and analysis. In the context of biomedical applications, the proposed approach addresses the critical need for precision in fluid flow. it mitigate manufacturing costs associated with trial-and-error methodologies by optimising multiple geometric parameters concurrently. The resulting microfluidic channels offer enhanced performance and contribute to a streamlined, cost-effective process for testing and analyzing diseases. A key highlight of our methodology is its consideration of the interconnected nature of geometric parameters. For instance, the volume of the sample, when optimized alongside channel width, length, and substrate porosity, creates a synergistic effect that minimizes errors and maximizes efficiency. This holistic optimization approach ensures that microfluidic devices operate at their peak performance, delivering reliable results in disease testing. A key highlight of our methodology is its consideration of the interconnected nature of geometric parameters. For instance, the volume of the sample, when optimized alongside channel width, length, and substrate porosity, creates a synergistic effect that minimizes errors and maximizes efficiency. This holistic optimization approach ensures that microfluidic devices operate at their peak performance, delivering reliable results in disease testing. A key highlight of our methodology is its consideration of the interconnected nature of geometric parameters. For instance, the volume of the sample, when optimized alongside channel width, length, and substrate porosity, creates a synergistic effect that minimizes errors and maximizes efficiency. This holistic optimization approach ensures that microfluidic devices operate at their peak performance, delivering reliable results in disease testing.

Keywords: microfluidic device, minitab, statistical optimization, response surface methodology

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1270 Microfluidic Manipulation for Biomedical and Biohealth Applications

Authors: Reza Hadjiaghaie Vafaie, Sevda Givtaj

Abstract:

Automation and control of biological samples and solutions at the microscale is a major advantage for biochemistry analysis and biological diagnostics. Despite the known potential of miniaturization in biochemistry and biomedical applications, comparatively little is known about fluid automation and control at the microscale. Here, we study the electric field effect inside a fluidic channel and proper electrode structures with different patterns proposed to form forward, reversal, and rotational flows inside the channel. The simulation results confirmed that the ac electro-thermal flow is efficient for the control and automation of high-conductive solutions. In this research, the fluid pumping and mixing effects were numerically studied by solving physic-coupled electric, temperature, hydrodynamic, and concentration fields inside a microchannel. From an experimental point of view, the electrode structures are deposited on a silicon substrate and bonded to a PDMS microchannel to form a microfluidic chip. The motions of fluorescent particles in pumping and mixing modes were captured by using a CCD camera. By measuring the frequency response of the fluid and exciting the electrodes with the proper voltage, the fluid motions (including pumping and mixing effects) are observed inside the channel through the CCD camera. Based on the results, there is good agreement between the experimental and simulation studies.

Keywords: microfluidic, nano/micro actuator, AC electrothermal, Reynolds number, micropump, micromixer, microfabrication, mass transfer, biomedical applications

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1269 Effectiveness of Adrenal Venous Sampling in the Management of Primary Aldosteronism: Single Centered Cohort Study at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka

Authors: Balasooriya B. M. C. M., Sujeeva N., Thowfeek Z., Siddiqa Omo, Liyanagunawardana J. E., Jayawardana Saiu, Manathunga S. S., Katulanda G. W.

Abstract:

Introduction and objectives: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard to discriminate unilateral primary aldosteronism (UPA) from bilateral disease (BPA). AVS is technically demanding and only performed in a limited number of centers worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, Except for one study conducted in India, no other research studies on this area have been conducted in South Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of AVS in the management of primary aldosteronism. Methods: A total of 32 patients who underwent AVS at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka from April 2021 to April 2023 were enrolled. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained retrospectively. A procedure was considered successful when adequate cannulation of both adrenal veins was demonstrated. Cortisol gradient across the adrenal vein (AV) and the peripheral vein was used to establish the success of venous cannulation. Lateralization was determined by the aldosterone gradient between the two sides. Continuous and categorical variables were summarized with mean, SD, and proportions, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the contralateral suppression index (CSI) were estimated with an intercept-only Bayesian inference model. Results: Of the 32 patients, the average age was 52.47 +26.14 and 19 (59.4%) were males. Both AVs were successfully cannulated in 12 (37.5%). Among them, lateralization was demonstrated in 11(91.7%), and one was diagnosed as a bilateral disease. There were no total failures. Right AV cannulation was unsuccessful in 18 (56.25%), of which lateralization was demonstrated in 9 (50%), and others were inconclusive. Left AV cannulation was unsuccessful only in 2 (6.25%); one was lateralized, and the other remained inconclusive. The estimated mean of the CSI was 0.33 (89% credible interval 0.11-0.86). Seven patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy and demonstrated significant improvement in blood pressure during follow-up. Two patients await surgery. Others were treated medically. Conclusions: Despite failure due to procedural difficulties, AVS remained useful in the management of patients with PA. Moreover, the success of the procedure needs experienced hands and advanced equipment to achieve optimal outcomes in PA.

Keywords: adrenal venous sampling, lateralization, contralateral suppression index, primary aldosteronism

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1268 Identification of Genes Regulating Differentiation and Stemness of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Gene Therapy in Regenerative Medicine

Authors: Tong Ming Liu

Abstract:

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent the most used stem cells for clinical application, which have been used in over 1000 clinical trials to treat over 30 diseases due to multilineage differentiation potential, secretome and immunosuppression. Gene therapies of MSCs hold great promise in the treatment of many diseases due to enhanced MSC-based clinical outcomes. To identify genes for gene therapy of MSCs, by comparing gene expression profile before and after MSC differentiation following by functional screening, we have identified ZNF145 that regulated MSC differentiation. Forced expression of ZNF145 resulted in enhanced in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs as an upstream factor of SOX9 and improved osteochondral repair upon implant into osteochondral defects in rodents. By comparing gene expression profile during differentiation of iPSCs toward MSCs, we also identified gene HOX regulating MSC stemness, which was much downregulated in late-passaged MSCs. Knockdown of this gene greatly compromised MSC stemness including abolished proliferation, decreased CFU-F, promoted senescence and reduced expression of cell surface antigens linked to the MSC phenotype. In addition, multi-linage differentiation was also greatly impaired. Notably, HOX overexpression resulted in improved multi-lineage differentiation. In the mechanism, HOX expression significantly deceased in late passage of MSCs compared with early passage of MSCs, correlating with MSC important genes. ChIP-seq data shown that HOX binds to genes related to MSC self-renewal and differentiation. Most importantly, most HOX binding sites are lost in late passage of MSCs. HOX exerts its effects by directing binding Twist1, one important gene of MSCs. The identification of the genes regulating MSC differentiation and stemness will provide and promising strategies for gene therapy of MSCs in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, novel transcription factor, stemness, gene therapy, cartilage repair, signaling pathway

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