Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 867

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biomedical and Biological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

867 Ergosterol Biosynthesis: Non-Conventional Method for Improving Process

Authors: Madalina Postaru, Alexandra Tucaliuc, Dan Cascaval, Anca Irina Galaction

Abstract:

Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is the precursor of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), known as provitamin D2 as it is converted under UV radiation to this vitamin. The natural sources of ergosterol are mainly the yeasts (Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp.), but it can be also found in fungus (Claviceps sp.) or plants (orchids). As ergosterol is mainly accumulated in yeast cell membranes, especially in free form in the plasma-membrane, and the chemical synthesis of ergosterol does not represent an efficient method for its production, this study aimed to analyze the influence of aeration efficiency on ergosterol production by S. cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch fermentations, by considering different levels of mixing intensity, aeration rate, and n-dodecane concentration. Our previous studies on ergosterol production by S. cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch fermentation systems indicated that the addition of n-dodecane led to the increase of almost 50% of this sterol concentration, the highest productivity being reached for the fed-batch process. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory stirred bioreactor, provided with computer-controlled and recorded parameters. In batch fermentation system, the study indicated that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, kLa, is amplified for about 3 times by increasing the volumetric concentration of n-dodecane from 0 to 15%. Moreover, the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration by adding n-dodecane leads to the diminution for 3.5 times of the produced alcohol amount. In fed-batch fermentation process, the positive influence of hydrocarbon on oxygen transfer rate is amplified mainly at its higher concentration level, as the result of the increased yeasts cells amount. Thus, by varying n-dodecane concentration from 0 to 15% vol., the kLa value increase becomes more important than for the batch fermentation, being of 4 times

Keywords: ergosterol, yeast fermentation, n-dodecane, oxygen-vector

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866 Silicon-Photonic-Sensor System for Botulinum Toxin Detection in Water

Authors: Binh T. T. Nguyen, Zhenyu Li, Eric Yap, Yi Zhang, Ai-Qun Liu

Abstract:

Silicon-photonic-sensor system is an emerging class of analytical technologies that use evanescent field wave to sensitively measure the slight difference in the surrounding environment. The wavelength shift induced by local refractive index change is used as an indicator in the system. These devices can be served as sensors for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular detection in clinical and environmental fields. In our study, a system including a silicon-based micro-ring resonator, microfluidic channel, and optical processing is designed, fabricated for biomolecule detection. The system is demonstrated to detect Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoNT) in different water sources. BoNT is one of the most toxic substances known and relatively easily obtained from a cultured bacteria source. The toxin is extremely lethal with LD50 of about 0.1µg/70kg intravenously, 1µg/ 70 kg by inhalation, and 70µg/kg orally. These factors make botulinum neurotoxins primary candidates as bioterrorism or biothreat agents. It is required to have a sensing system which can detect BoNT in a short time, high sensitive and automatic. For BoNT detection, silicon-based micro-ring resonator is modified with a linker for the immobilization of the anti-botulinum capture antibody. The enzymatic reaction is employed to increase the signal hence gains sensitivity. As a result, a detection limit to 30 pg/mL is achieved by our silicon-photonic sensor within a short period of 80 min. The sensor also shows high specificity versus the other type of botulinum. In the future, by designing the multifunctional waveguide array with fully automatic control system, it is simple to simultaneously detect multi-biomaterials at a low concentration within a short period. The system has a great potential to apply for online, real-time and high sensitivity for the label-free bimolecular rapid detection.

Keywords: biotoxin, photonic, ring resonator, sensor

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865 Four Point Impedance Measurements of Blood and Its Constituents in Saline and Localisation of Blood During Cochlear Implantation

Authors: Tayla Razmovski, Aaron Collins, Christofer Bester, Stephen J. O’Leary

Abstract:

Preserving natural hearing is a goal of modern cochlear implant surgeries. Unfortunately, about one-third of implant recipients will lose this hearing after implantation. This loss could be caused by intra-operative trauma during insertion that could lead to blood entering the cochlea. Blood in the cochlea creates a hostile environment that causes a larger inflammatory reaction and may subsequently cause the loss of residual hearing. Using the cochlear implant itself to detect intra-cochlear blood may open therapeutic avenues to prevent this hearing loss. Electrical impedance measurements can identify the presence of blood in a conductive fluid such as perilymph. Here we present electrical impedance measurements from different concentrations of whole blood, red blood cells, and plasma in saline. A commercially available device was used to measure both the resistance and reactance of impedance. These experiments were then repeated using the impedance measuring capabilities of a commercial cochlear implant, capable only of measuring resistance. Both systems succeeded in differentiating concentrations of blood, as little as 5%, in saline, and resistance alone was sensitive enough for this purpose. Then, in an in-vitro study, four-point impedance was continuously monitored, using a cochlear implant, during its insertion into a 3D printed cochlear model, followed by an injection of blood, to emulate surgical events. These results demonstrated four-point impedance from a cochlear implant can instantaneously detect the addition of blood in a cochlear structure and localise it on the electrode array. Early detection of trauma/blood will enable clinicians to develop strategies for the minimization or avoidance of harm and reduce the loss of residual hearing.

Keywords: cochlear implants, four point ımpedance, ıntra-cochlear trauma, in-vivo blood detection

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864 Hybrid Finite Element Model of Mechanical Tests of Endothelial Cells

Authors: Veera Venkata Satya Varaprasad Jakka, Jiri Bursa

Abstract:

Recently a hybrid model of the endothelial cell was created by using the bendo-tensegrity concept to complete the continuum parts of the cell with the cytoskeleton. The model includes a network of actin filaments (AFs) as tension supporting cables and microtubules (MTs) as compression-supporting bended beams. It is created by adopting the geometrical shape of a hexagonal prism with its 12 vertices that results in a nearly isotropic behaviour of the model without any preferred orientation. To achieve the synergistic effect of cytoskeletal components, the elements representing AFs, MTs, and Intermediate filaments (IFs) are connected by sharing the same end nodes at the cell membrane (CM) representing focal adhesions (FAs). The AFs are prestressed (i.e., stressed without application of external load), which is essential for the cell shape stability, while the IFs are wavy, thus not bearing load until straightened. The objective is to perform simulations of mechanical tests (compression, tensile, and shear tests) and validate the model with experimental results to capture the appropriate mechanical responses. The model is intended to be used for assessment of the impact of wall shear stress in arteries on endothelium cells. Endothelial cell dysfunction has been linked to atherosclerosis through their response to hemodynamic forces. Endothelial cells are composed in a monolayer; in this manner, further advances are needed to investigate the perception of loads by a population of cells.

Keywords: endothelial cell, finite element model, mechanical test, prestress, tensegrity, wall shear stress

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863 Walking Progression in Ambulatory Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Who Daily Walked with a Walking Device

Authors: Makamas Kumprou, Pipatana Amatachaya, Sugalya Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Preeda Arayawichanon

Abstract:

Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) need an ambulatory assistive device (AAD) to promote their independence and experience of task-specific walking practice. Without a periodic follow-up for their walking progression, however, many individuals may use the same AAD even though up to 66% of them had the potential to progress walking ability. This may distort their optimal ability and increase the possibility of having negative impacts due to the long-lasting used of an AAD. However, these findings were cross-sectionally collected without data confirmation for the benefit or negative impacts of those who changed the types of AAD used. Therefore, this study prospectively assessed the proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who were able to progress their walking ability as determined using a type of AAD, and the changes of their functional ability as well as the incidence of falls over 6 months. Twenty-four subjects with SCI who daily walked with an AAD were involved in the study for 2 visits over 6 months. At the first visit (baseline assessments), the subjects were assessed for their spatiotemporal variables (i.e., cadence, step length, stride length, and step symmetry) and walking ability using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Then, they were assessed for the possibility of their walking progression as determined using the ability of walking with the least support AAD with no more than contact guarding assist. Those who were capable of changing an AAD were trained for the ability to walk with a new AAD. Thereafter, all subjects were monthly monitored for incidence of fall over 6 months. At the second visit (after 6 months followed-up), subjects were reassessed for their spatiotemporal variables and 10MWT. The findings indicated that, of all 24 subjects, 8 subjects (33.3%) were able to walk with less support AAD than their usual one. The walking cadence, step length symmetry, and walking ability of these subjects improved significantly greater than those who walked with the same AAD (p < 0.05). Among these subjects, one subject (12.5%) reported fell (3 times) during the follow-up period, whereas 5 subjects (31.3%) who walked with the same AAD experienced at least one fall (range 1 – 16 times). The findings indicated that a large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who daily walked with an AAD could progress their walking ability, whereby their walking ability and safety also significantly improved after they walked with an optimal AAD. The findings suggest the need for a periodic follow-up for an appropriate AAD used for these individuals.

Keywords: walking device, walker, crutches, cane, rehabilitation

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862 The Use of Five Times Sit-To-Stand Test in Ambulatory People with Spinal Cord Injury When Tested with or without Hands

Authors: Lalita Khuna, Sugalya Amatachaya, Pipatana Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Pattra Wattanapan

Abstract:

The five times sit-to-stand test (FTSST) has been widely used to quantify lower extremity motor strength (LEMS), dynamic balance ability, and risk of falls in many individuals. Recently, it has been used in ambulatory patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) but variously using with or without hands according to patients’ ability. This difference might affect the validity of the test in these individuals. Thus, this study assessed the concurrent validity of the FTSST in ambulatory individuals with SCI, separately for those who could complete the test with or without hands using LEMS and standard functional measures as gold standards. Moreover, the data of the tests from those who completed the FTSST with and without hands were compared. A total of 56 ambulatory participants with SCI who could complete sit-to-stand with or without hands were assessed for the time to complete the FTSST according to their ability. Then they were assessed for their LEMS scores and functional abilities, including the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II), the timed up and go test (TUGT), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the different findings between the participants who performed the FTSST with and without hands. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was applied to analyze the levels of correlation between the FTSST and standard tests (LEMS scores and functional measures). There were significant differences in the data between the participants who performed the test with and without hands (p < 0.01). The time to complete the FTSST of the participants who performed the test without hands showed moderate to strong correlation with total LEMS scores and all functional measures (ρ = -0.71 to 0.69, p < 0.001). On the contrary, the FTSST data of those who performed the test with hands were significantly correlated only with the 10MWT, TUGT, and 6MWT (ρ = -0.47 to 0.57, p < 0.01). The present findings confirm the concurrent validity of the FTSST when performed without hands for LEMS and functional mobility necessary for the ability of independence and safety of ambulatory individuals with SCI. However, the test using hands distort the ability of the outcomes to reflect LEMS and WISCI II that reflect lower limb functions. By contrast, the 10MWT, TUGT, and 6MWT allowed upper limb contribution in the tests. Therefore, outcomes of these tests showed a significant correlation to the outcomes of FTSST when assessed using hands. Consequently, the use of FTSST with or without hands needs to consider the clinical application of the outcomes, i.e., to reflect lower limb functions or mobility of the patients.

Keywords: mobility, lower limb muscle strength, clinical test, rehabilitation

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861 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim

Abstract:

Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (ex. Cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (ex. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow, impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for SBP and DBP was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

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860 Cardiokey: A Binary and Multi-Class Machine Learning Approach to Identify Individuals Using Electrocardiographic Signals on Wearable Devices

Authors: S. Chami, J. Chauvin, T. Demarest, Stan Ng, M. Straus, W. Jahner

Abstract:

Biometrics tools such as fingerprint and iris are widely used in industry to protect critical assets. However, their vulnerability and lack of robustness raise several worries about the protection of highly critical assets. Biometrics based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals is a robust identification tool. However, most of the state-of-the-art techniques have worked on clinical signals, which are of high quality and less noisy, extracted from wearable devices like a smartwatch. In this paper, we are presenting a complete machine learning pipeline that identifies people using ECG extracted from an off-person device. An off-person device is a wearable device that is not used in a medical context such as a smartwatch. In addition, one of the main challenges of ECG biometrics is the variability of the ECG of different persons and different situations. To solve this issue, we proposed two different approaches: per person classifier, and one-for-all classifier. The first approach suggests making binary classifier to distinguish one person from others. The second approach suggests a multi-classifier that distinguishes the selected set of individuals from non-selected individuals (others). The preliminary results, the binary classifier obtained a performance 90% in terms of accuracy within a balanced data. The second approach has reported a log loss of 0.05 as a multi-class score.

Keywords: biometrics, electrocardiographic, machine learning, signals processing

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859 A Physiological Approach for Early Detection of Hemorrhage

Authors: Rabie Fadil, Parshuram Aarotale, Shubha Majumder, Bijay Guargain

Abstract:

Hemorrhage is the loss of blood from the circulatory system and leading cause of battlefield and postpartum related deaths. Early detection of hemorrhage remains the most effective strategy to reduce mortality rate caused by traumatic injuries. In this study, we investigated the physiological changes via non-invasive cardiac signals at rest and under different hemorrhage conditions simulated through graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood pressure (BP), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and phonocardiogram (PCG) were acquired from 10 participants (age:28 ± 6 year, weight:73 ± 11 kg, height:172 ± 8 cm). The LBNP protocol consisted of applying -20, -30, -40, -50, and -60 mmHg pressure to the lower half of the body. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean aerial pressure (MAP) were extracted from ECG and blood pressure. Systolic amplitude (SA), systolic time (ST), diastolic time (DT), and left ventricle Ejection time (LVET) were extracted from PPG during each stage. Preliminary results showed that the application of -40 mmHg i.e. moderate stage simulated hemorrhage resulted significant changes in HR (85±4 bpm vs 68 ± 5bpm, p < 0.01), ST (191 ± 10 ms vs 253 ± 31 ms, p < 0.05), LVET (350 ± 14 ms vs 479 ± 47 ms, p < 0.05) and DT (551 ± 22 ms vs 683 ± 59 ms, p < 0.05) compared to rest, while no change was observed in SA (p > 0.05) as a consequence of LBNP application. These findings demonstrated the potential of cardiac signals in detecting moderate hemorrhage. In future, we will analyze all the LBNP stages and investigate the feasibility of other physiological signals to develop a predictive machine learning model for early detection of hemorrhage.

Keywords: blood pressure, hemorrhage, lower-body negative pressure, LBNP, machine learning

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858 Application of Electronic Nose Systems in Medical and Food Industries

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Feryal Alskafi, Rabaa Hammad, Shaker Khanfar, Yara Alsukhni

Abstract:

Electronic noses are devices designed to emulate the humane sense of smell by characterizing and differentiating odor profiles. In this study, we build a low-cost e-nose using an array module containing four different types of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. We used this system to create a profile for a meat specimen over three days. Then using a pattern recognition software, we correlated the odor of the specimen to its age. It is a simple, fast detection method that is both non-expensive and non-destructive. The results support the usage of this technology in food control management.

Keywords: e-nose, low cost, odor detection, food safety

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857 Microalbuminuria in Patients with Hypertension Visiting Tertiary Care Centre, Western Nepal

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhi R. Pokharel, Narayan Gautam, Puspa R. Dhakal, Yuresh Twayana

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to hypertension, with an increased risk for renal diseases. The present study was designed to find the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients by determining albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the association of ACR and microalbuminuria status with different stages and duration of hypertension (HTN). Also, to establish the correlation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with various parameters viz; ACR, urinary microalbumin (UMA), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary creatinine (Ucreat), serum creatinine (Screat), and find out their significance among HTN and ACR status. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Internal Medicine, UCMS, Bhairahawa, Nepal from April 2019 to September 2019 after obtaining ethical approval from institutional review committee (IRC), UCMS. A total of 120 hypertensive patients were enrolled whose blood, and spot urine samples were taken. eGFR was calculated by using Cockcroft-Gault formula after determining Screat while ACR was calculated after measuring Ucreat and UMA from the spot urine sample. Creatinine was estimated from modified jaffes’ reaction, whereas urinary micro albumin was done by Mispa i3 analyzer. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. 20 using p-value ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In our study, the highest enrolled were grade II HTN (36.7%) followed by normal (33.3%), grade I (20.8%) and grade III (9.2%). Evaluating the ACR status, 19.2% were microalbuminuria, and the rest were normal. Though the ACR status (normal and microalbuminuria) was not statistically significant with HTN status (P=0.860) and the duration of HTN status (P=0.165), 5 (45.5%) out of 11 grade III HTN were microalbuminuria and the prevalence was also higher for longer duration .i.e., more than 10 years. In microalbuminuria, both the SBP (p=0.023, r=0.471) and DBP (P=0.034, r= 0.444) were strongly and positively correlated with Screat, in contrast to eGFR, which was negatively but weakly correlated. With the significant difference between the HTN group, the mean ACR (P=0.047) and UMA (P=0.02) were found to be highest among grade III patients, i.e., 84.3 ± 113.3 mg/gm. and 88.4 ± 83.9 mg/l respectively. The mean eGFR (64.2 ± 24.8 vs 77.2 ± 18.1 ml/min) was considerably lower in microalbuminuria ( p=0.026) than the normal in contrast to the SBP (160 ± 33.7 vs. 146.6 ± 19.5 mm of Hg) which was significantly higher (P=0.008). Among the different BMI category, the mean ACR was found to be significantly different (P= 0.01) with the highest value in underweight (115.2 ± 51.5 mg/gm.) and lowest in overweight (31.8 ± 4.3 mg/gm.). Conclusion: The study recommends that the microalbuminuria can be a very useful and imperative predictor of deranged kidney functions in hypertensive patients. The high value of ACR and UMA in hypertensive patients along with significant increased Screat, SBP whereas decreased eGFR in microalbuminuria patients explicitly supports the above statement.

Keywords: albumin creatinine ratio, hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal disease

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856 The Use of Bleomycin and Analogues to Probe the Chromatin Structure of Human Genes

Authors: Vincent Murray

Abstract:

The chromatin structure at the transcription start sites (TSSs) of genes is very important in the control of gene expression. In order for gene expression to occur, the chromatin structure at the TSS has to be altered so that the transcriptional machinery can be assembled and RNA transcripts can be produced. In particular, the nucleosome structure and positioning around the TSS has to be changed. Bleomycin is utilized as an anti-tumor agent to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and testicular cancer. Bleomycin produces DNA damage in human cells and DNA strand breaks, especially double-strand breaks, are thought to be responsible for the cancer chemotherapeutic activity of bleomycin. Bleomycin is a large glycopeptide with molecular weight of approximately 1500 Daltons and hence its DNA strand cleavage activity can be utilized as a probe of chromatin structure. In this project, Illumina next-generation DNA sequencing technology was used to determine the position of DNA double-strand breaks at the TSSs of genes in intact cells. In this genome-wide study, it was found that bleomycin cleavage preferentially occurred at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes in comparison with non-transcribed genes. There was a correlation between the level of enhanced bleomycin cleavage at TSSs and the degree of transcriptional activity. In addition, bleomycin was able to determine the position of nucleosomes at the TSSs of human genes. Bleomycin analogues were also utilized as probes of chromatin structure at the TSSs of human genes. In a similar manner to bleomycin, the bleomycin analogues 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of human genes. Interestingly this degree of enhanced TSS cleavage inversely correlated with the cytotoxicity (IC50 values) of BLM analogues. This indicated that the degree of cleavage by bleomycin analogues at the TSSs of human genes was very important in the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and analogues. It also provided a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of this cancer chemotherapeutic agent since actively transcribed genes were preferentially targeted.

Keywords: anti-cancer activity, chromatin structure, cytotoxicity, gene expression, next-generation DNA sequencing

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855 Fabrication of Electrospun Microbial Siderophore-Based Nanofibers: A Wound Dressing Material to Inhibit the Wound Biofilm Formation

Authors: Sita Lakshmi Thyagarajan

Abstract:

Nanofibers will leave no field untouched by its scientific innovations; the medical field is no exception. Electrospinning has proven to be an excellent method for the synthesis of nanofibers which, have attracted the interest for many biomedical applications. The formation of biofilms in wounds often leads to chronic infections that are difficult to treat with antibiotics. In order to minimize the biofilms and enhance the wound healing, preparation of potential nanofibers was focused. In this study, siderophore incorporated nanofibers were electrospun using biocompatible polymers onto the collagen scaffold and were fabricated into a biomaterial suitable for the inhibition of biofilm formation. The purified microbial siderophore was blended with Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and poly (ethylene oxide) PEO in a suitable solvent. Fabrication of siderophore blended nanofibers onto the collagen surface was done using standard protocols. The fabricated scaffold was subjected to physical-chemical characterization. The results indicated that the fabrication processing parameters of nanofiberous scaffold was found to possess the characteristics expected of the potential scaffold with nanoscale morphology and microscale arrangement. The influence of Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and poly (ethylene oxide) PEO solution concentration, applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, feeding rate, and collector speed were studied. The optimal parameters such as the ratio of Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and poly (ethylene oxide) PEO concentration, applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, feeding rate, collector speed were finalized based on the trial and error experiments. The fibers were found to have a uniform diameter with an aligned morphology. The overall study suggests that the prepared siderophore entrapped nanofibers could be used as a potent tool for wound dressing material for inhibition of biofilm formation.

Keywords: biofilms, electrospinning, nano-fibers, siderophore, tissue engineering scaffold

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854 A Bioinspired Anti-Fouling Coating for Implantable Medical Devices

Authors: Natalie Riley, Anita Quigley, Robert M. I. Kapsa, George W. Greene

Abstract:

As the fields of medicine and bionics grow rapidly in technological advancement, the future and success of it depends on the ability to effectively interface between the artificial and the biological worlds. The biggest obstacle when it comes to implantable, electronic medical devices, is maintaining a ‘clean’, low noise electrical connection that allows for efficient sharing of electrical information between the artificial and biological systems. Implant fouling occurs with the adhesion and accumulation of proteins and various cell types as a result of the immune response to protect itself from the foreign object, essentially forming an electrical insulation barrier that often leads to implant failure over time. Lubricin (LUB) functions as a major boundary lubricant in articular joints, a unique glycoprotein with impressive anti-adhesive properties that self-assembles to virtually any substrate to form a highly ordered, ‘telechelic’ polymer brush. LUB does not passivate electroactive surfaces which makes it ideal, along with its innate biocompatibility, as a coating for implantable bionic electrodes. It is the aim of the study to investigate LUB’s anti-fouling properties and its potential as a safe, bioinspired material for coating applications to enhance the performance and longevity of implantable medical devices as well as reducing the frequency of implant replacement surgeries. Native, bovine-derived LUB (N-LUB) and recombinant LUB (R-LUB) were applied to gold-coated mylar surfaces. Fibroblast, chondrocyte and neural cell types were cultured and grown on the coatings under both passive and electrically stimulated conditions to test the stability and anti-adhesive property of the LUB coating in the presence of an electric field. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were conducted as a directly proportional cell population count on each surface along with immunofluorescent microscopy to visualize cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to test for statistical significance. Under both passive and electrically stimulated conditions, LUB significantly reduced cell attachment compared to bare gold. Comparing the two coating types, R-LUB reduced cell attachment significantly compared to its native counterpart. Immunofluorescent micrographs visually confirmed LUB’s antiadhesive property, R-LUB consistently demonstrating significantly less attached cells for both fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Preliminary results investigating neural cells have so far demonstrated that R-LUB has little effect on reducing neural cell attachment; the study is ongoing. Recombinant LUB coatings demonstrated impressive anti-adhesive properties, reducing cell attachment in fibroblasts and chondrocytes. These findings and the availability of recombinant LUB brings into question the results of previous experiments conducted using native-derived LUB, its potential not adequately represented nor realized due to unknown factors and impurities that warrant further study. R-LUB is stable and maintains its anti-fouling property under electrical stimulation, making it suitable for electroactive surfaces.

Keywords: anti-fouling, bioinspired, cell attachment, lubricin

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853 Engineering of Reagentless Fluorescence Biosensors Based on Single-Chain Antibody Fragments

Authors: Christian Fercher, Jiaul Islam, Simon R. Corrie

Abstract:

Fluorescence-based immunodiagnostics are an emerging field in biosensor development and exhibit several advantages over traditional detection methods. While various affinity biosensors have been developed to generate a fluorescence signal upon sensing varying concentrations of analytes, reagentless, reversible, and continuous monitoring of complex biological samples remains challenging. Here, we aimed to genetically engineer biosensors based on single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) that are site-specifically labeled with environmentally sensitive fluorescent unnatural amino acids (UAA). A rational design approach resulted in quantifiable analyte-dependent changes in peak fluorescence emission wavelength and enabled antigen detection in vitro. Incorporation of a polarity indicator within the topological neighborhood of the antigen-binding interface generated a titratable wavelength blueshift with nanomolar detection limits. In order to ensure continuous analyte monitoring, scFv candidates with fast binding and dissociation kinetics were selected from a genetic library employing a high-throughput phage display and affinity screening approach. Initial rankings were further refined towards rapid dissociation kinetics using bio-layer interferometry (BLI) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The most promising candidates were expressed, purified to homogeneity, and tested for their potential to detect biomarkers in a continuous microfluidic-based assay. Variations of dissociation kinetics within an order of magnitude were achieved without compromising the specificity of the antibody fragments. This approach is generally applicable to numerous antibody/antigen combinations and currently awaits integration in a wide range of assay platforms for one-step protein quantification.

Keywords: antibody engineering, biosensor, phage display, unnatural amino acids

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852 Arduino Pressure Sensor Cushion for Tracking and Improving Sitting Posture

Authors: Andrew Hwang

Abstract:

The average American worker sits for thirteen hours a day, often with poor posture and infrequent breaks, which can lead to health issues and back problems. The Smart Cushion was created to alert individuals of their poor postures, and may potentially alleviate back problems and correct poor posture. The Smart Cushion is a portable, rectangular, foam cushion, with five strategically placed pressure sensors, that utilizes an Arduino Uno circuit board and specifically designed software, allowing it to collect data from the five pressure sensors and store the data on an SD card. The data is then compiled into graphs and compared to controlled postures. Before volunteers sat on the cushion, their levels of back pain were recorded on a scale from 1-10. Data was recorded for an hour during sitting, and then a new, corrected posture was suggested. After using the suggested posture for an hour, the volunteers described their level of discomfort on a scale from 1-10. Different patterns of sitting postures were generated that were able to serve as early warnings of potential back problems. By using the Smart Cushion, the areas where different volunteers were applying the most pressure while sitting could be identified, and the sitting postures could be corrected. Further studies regarding the relationships between posture and specific regions of the body are necessary to better understand the origins of back pain; however, the Smart Cushion is sufficient for correcting sitting posture and preventing the development of additional back pain.

Keywords: Arduino Sketch Algorithm, biomedical technology, pressure sensors, Smart Cushion

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851 Isolating the Viscoelastic Properties of Thin Interfaces in Biocomposites from Indirect Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Experiments

Authors: Y. Shelef, A. Y. Uzan, B. Bar-On

Abstract:

Mineralized biocomposite materials are typically structured as an assembly of bulk mineralized elements, separated by thin organic interfaces. Examples are found at the spicules of sea sponges, at the nacreous and prismatic layers of various seashells, and various regions of bone tissues. The mineral phase of the biocomposite is typically elastic, while the organic interfaces exhibit significant viscoelastic characteristics. The viscoelastic nature of these organic interfaces grants the biocomposite various extraordinary functional capabilities compared to that of the isolated bulk minerals, such as increased force-to-failure, enhanced fracture toughness, and magnified impact-resistance. Thus, quantifying the viscoelastic properties of these thin interfaces is a critical step toward understanding the fundamental mechanics of various biocomposite systems. In this study, we propose an indirect analytical-experimental method to measure the viscoelastic properties of thin interfaces in biocomposite materials. We introduce closed-form analytical relations between the dynamic characteristics of the viscoelastic interfaces, with the corresponding characteristics of the integrated biocomposite. These analytical relations are used to back-calculate the isolated viscoelastic properties of the organic interfaces from large-scale DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) experiments on the biocomposite. Validation of the analytical relations was performed using Finite elements modal simulations, which showed less than 10% deviation between the numerical and analytical estimations. An implementation of the method is demonstrated by a numerical case study of a typical biocomposite configuration in seashells.

Keywords: bio-composite, dynamic mechanical analysis, interface, viscoelastic

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850 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker

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Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

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849 Intriguing Modulations in the Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Process of Chrysazine Governed by Host-Guest Interactions with Macrocyclic Molecules

Authors: Poojan Gharat, Haridas Pal, Sharmistha Dutta Choudhury

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Tuning photophysical properties of guest dyes through host-guest interactions involving macrocyclic hosts are the attractive research areas since past few decades, as these changes can directly be implemented in chemical sensing, molecular recognition, fluorescence imaging and dye laser applications. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) is an intramolecular prototautomerization process display by some specific dyes. The process is quite amenable to tunability by the presence of different macrocyclic hosts. The present study explores the interesting effect of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene (SCXn) and cyclodextrin (CD) hosts on the excited-state prototautomeric equilibrium of Chrysazine (CZ), a model antitumour drug. CZ exists exclusively in its normal form (N) in the ground state. However, in the excited state, the excited N* form undergoes ESIPT along with its pre-existing intramolecular hydrogen bonds, giving the excited state prototautomer (T*). Accordingly, CZ shows a single absorption band due to N form, but two emission bands due to N* and T* forms. Facile prototautomerization of CZ is considerably inhibited when the dye gets bound to SCXn hosts. However, in spite of lower binding affinity, the inhibition is more profound with SCX6 host as compared to SCX4 host. For CD-CZ system, while prototautomerization process is hindered by the presence of β-CD, it remains unaffected in the presence of γCD. Reduction in the prototautomerization process of CZ by SCXn and βCD hosts is unusual, because T* form is less dipolar in nature than the N*, hence binding of CZ within relatively hydrophobic hosts cavities should have enhanced the prototautomerization process. At the same time, considering the similar chemical nature of two CD hosts, their effect on prototautomerization process of CZ would have also been similar. The atypical effects on the prototautomerization process of CZ by the studied hosts are suggested to arise due to the partial inclusion or external binding of CZ with the hosts. As a result, there is a strong possibility of intermolecular H-bonding interaction between CZ dye and the functional groups present at the portals of SCXn and βCD hosts. Formation of these intermolecular H-bonds effectively causes the pre-existing intramolecular H-bonding network within CZ molecule to become weak, and this consequently reduces the prototautomerization process for the dye. Our results suggest that rather than the binding affinity between the dye and host, it is the orientation of CZ in the case of SCXn-CZ complexes and the binding stoichiometry in the case of CD-CZ complexes that play the predominant role in influencing the prototautomeric equilibrium of the dye CZ. In the case of SCXn-CZ complexes, the results obtained through experimental findings are well supported by quantum chemical calculations. Similarly for CD-CZ systems, binding stoichiometries obtained through geometry optimization studies on the complexes between CZ and CD hosts correlate nicely with the experimental results. Formation of βCD-CZ complexes with 1:1 stoichiometry while formation of γCD-CZ complexes with 1:1, 1:2 and 2:2 stoichiometries are revealed from geometry optimization studies and these results are in good accordance with the observed effects by the βCD and γCD hosts on the ESIPT process of CZ dye.

Keywords: intermolecular proton transfer, macrocyclic hosts, quantum chemical studies, photophysical studies

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848 The Use of Geographic Information System and Spatial Statistic for Analyzing Leukemia in Kuwait for the Period of 2006-2012

Authors: Muhammad G. Almatar, Mohammad A. Alnasrallah

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This research focuses on the study of three main issues: 1) The temporal analysis of leukemia for a period of six years (2006-2012), 2) spatial analysis by investigating this phenomenon in the Kuwaiti society spatially in the residential areas within the six governorates, 3) the use of Geographic Information System technology in investigating the hypothesis of the research and its variables using the linear regression, to show the pattern of linear relationship. The study depends on utilizing the map to understand the distribution of blood cancer in Kuwait. Several geodatabases were created for the number of patients and air pollution. Spatial interpolation models were used to generate layers of air pollution in the study area. These geodatabases were tested over the past six years to reach the conclusion: Is there a relationship with significant significance between the two main variables of the study: blood cancer and air pollution? This study is the first to our best knowledge. As far as the researchers know, the distribution of this disease has not been studied geographically at the level of regions in Kuwait within six years and in specific areas as described above. This study investigates the concentration of this type of disease. The study found that there is no relationship of significant value between the two variables studied, and this may be due to the nature of the disease, which are often hereditary. On the other hand, this study has reached a number of suggestions and recommendations that may be useful to decision-makers and interested in the study of leukemia in Kuwait by focusing on the study of genetic diseases, which may be a cause of leukemia rather than air pollution.

Keywords: Kuwait, GIS, cancer, geography

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847 Identification of Knee Dynamic Profiles in High Performance Athletes with the Use of Motion Tracking

Authors: G. Espriú-Pérez, F. A. Vargas-Oviedo, I. Zenteno-Aguirrezábal, M. D. Moya-Bencomo

Abstract:

One of the injuries with a higher incidence among university-level athletes in the North of Mexico is presented in the knee. This injury generates absenteeism in training and competitions for at least 8 weeks. There is no active quantitative methodology, or protocol, that directly contributes to the clinical evaluation performed by the medical personnel at the prevalence of knee injuries. The main objective is to contribute with a quantitative tool that allows further development of preventive and corrective measures to these injuries. The study analyzed 55 athletes for 6 weeks, belonging to the disciplines of basketball, volleyball, soccer and swimming. Using a motion capture system (Nexus®, Vicon®), a three-dimensional analysis was developed that allows the measurement of the range of movement of the joint. To focus on the performance of the lower limb, eleven different movements were chosen from the Functional Performance Test, Functional Movement Screen, and the Cincinnati Jump Test. The research identifies the profile of the natural movement of a healthy knee, with the use of medical guidance, and its differences between each sport. The data recovered by the single-leg crossover hop managed to differentiate the type of knee movement among athletes. A maximum difference of 60° of offset was found in the adduction movement between male and female athletes of the same discipline. The research also seeks to serve as a guideline for the implementation of protocols that help identify the recovery level of such injuries.

Keywords: Cincinnati jump test, functional movement screen, functional performance test, knee, motion capture system

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846 Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle with Respect to Various Body Parameters in Arab Countries

Authors: Ramada R. Khasawneh, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Ejlal Abu-El Rub

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The quadriceps angle (Q angle), formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon, is considered clinically as a very important parameter which displays the biomechanical effect of the quadriceps muscle on the knee, and it is also regarded as a crucial factor for the proper posture and movement of the knee patella. This study had been conducted to measure the normal Q angle values range in the Arab nationalities and determine the correlation between Q angle values and several body parameters, including gender, height, weight, dominant side, and the condylar distance of the femur. The study includes 500 healthy Arab students from Yarmouk University and Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Q angle of those volunteers was measured using a universal manual Goniometer with the subjects in the upright weight-bearing position. It was found that the Q angle was greater in women than in men. The analysis of the data revealed an insignificant increase in the dominant side of the Q angle. In addition, the Q was significantly higher in the taller people of both sexes. However, the Q angle did not present any considerable correlation with weight in the study population; conversely, it was observed that there was a link with the condylar distance of the femur in both sexes. It was also noticed that the Q angle increased remarkably when there was an increase in the condylar distance. Consequently, it turned out that the gender, height, and the condylar distance were momentous factors that had an impact on the Q angle in our study samples. However, weight and dominance factors did not show to have any influence on the values in our study.

Keywords: Q angle, Jordanian, anatomy, condylar distance

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845 Evaluation of Polymerisation Shrinkage of Randomly Oriented Micro-Sized Fibre Reinforced Dental Composites Using Fibre-Bragg Grating Sensors and Their Correlation with Degree of Conversion

Authors: Sonam Behl, Raju, Ginu Rajan, Paul Farrar, B.Gangadhara Prusty

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Reinforcing dental composites with micro-sized fibres can significantly improve the physio-mechanical properties of dental composites. The short fibres can be oriented randomly within dental composites, thus providing quasi-isotropic reinforcing efficiency unlike unidirectional/bidirectional fibre reinforced composites enhancing anisotropic properties. Thus, short fibres reinforced dental composites are getting popular among practitioners. However, despite their popularity, resin-based dental composites are prone to failure on account of shrinkage during photo polymerisation. The shrinkage in the structure may lead to marginal gap formation, causing secondary caries, thus ultimately inducing failure of the restoration. The traditional methods to evaluate polymerisation shrinkage using strain gauges, density-based measurements, dilatometer, or bonded-disk focuses on average value of volumetric shrinkage. Moreover, the results obtained from traditional methods are sensitive to the specimen geometry. The present research aims to evaluate the real-time shrinkage strain at selected locations in the material with the help of optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Due to the miniature size (diameter 250 µm) of FBG sensors, they can be easily embedded into small samples of dental composites. Furthermore, an FBG array into the system can map the real-time shrinkage strain at different regions of the composite. The evaluation of real-time monitoring of shrinkage values may help to optimise the physio-mechanical properties of composites. Previously, FBG sensors have been able to rightfully measure polymerisation strains of anisotropic (unidirectional or bidirectional) reinforced dental composites. However, very limited study exists to establish the validity of FBG based sensors to evaluate volumetric shrinkage for randomly oriented fibres reinforced composites. The present study aims to fill this research gap and is focussed on establishing the usage of FBG based sensors for evaluating the shrinkage of dental composites reinforced with randomly oriented fibres. Three groups of specimens were prepared by mixing the resin (80% UDMA/20% TEGDMA) with 55% of silane treated BaAlSiO₂ particulate fillers or by adding 5% of micro-sized fibres of diameter 5 µm, and length 250/350 µm along with 50% of silane treated BaAlSiO₂ particulate fillers into the resin. For measurement of polymerisation shrinkage strain, an array of three fibre Bragg grating sensors was embedded at a depth of 1 mm into a circular Teflon mould of diameter 15 mm and depth 2 mm. The results obtained are compared with the traditional method for evaluation of the volumetric shrinkage using density-based measurements. Degree of conversion was measured using FTIR spectroscopy (Spotlight 400 FT-IR from PerkinElmer). It is expected that the average polymerisation shrinkage strain values for dental composites reinforced with micro-sized fibres can directly correlate with the measured degree of conversion values, implying that more C=C double bond conversion to C-C single bond values also leads to higher shrinkage strain within the composite. Moreover, it could be established the photonics approach could help assess the shrinkage at any point of interest in the material, suggesting that fibre-Bragg grating sensors are a suitable means for measuring real-time polymerisation shrinkage strain for randomly fibre reinforced dental composites as well.

Keywords: dental composite, glass fibre, polymerisation shrinkage strain, fibre-Bragg grating sensors

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844 The Interplay between Autophagy and Macrophages' Polarization in Wound Healing: A Genetic Regulatory Network Analysis

Authors: Mayada Mazher, Ahmed Moustafa, Ahmed Abdellatif

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Background: Autophagy is a eukaryotic, highly conserved catabolic process implicated in many pathophysiologies such as wound healing. Autophagy-associated genes serve as a scaffolding platform for signal transduction of macrophage polarization during the inflammatory phase of wound healing and tissue repair process. In the current study, we report a model for the interplay between autophagy-associated genes and macrophages polarization associated genes. Methods: In silico analysis was performed on 249 autophagy-related genes retrieved from the public autophagy database and gene expression data retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO); GSE81922 and GSE69607 microarray data macrophages polarization 199 DEGS. An integrated protein-protein interaction network was constructed for autophagy and macrophage gene sets. The gene sets were then used for GO terms pathway enrichment analysis. Common transcription factors for autophagy and macrophages' polarization were identified. Finally, microRNAs enriched in both autophagy and macrophages were predicated. Results: In silico prediction of common transcription factors in DEGs macrophages and autophagy gene sets revealed a new role for the transcription factors, HOMEZ, GABPA, ELK1 and REL, that commonly regulate macrophages associated genes: IL6,IL1M, IL1B, NOS1, SOC3 and autophagy-related genes: Atg12, Rictor, Rb1cc1, Gaparab1, Atg16l1. Conclusions: Autophagy and macrophages' polarization are interdependent cellular processes, and both autophagy-related proteins and macrophages' polarization related proteins coordinate in tissue remodelling via transcription factors and microRNAs regulatory network. The current work highlights a potential new role for transcription factors HOMEZ, GABPA, ELK1 and REL in wound healing.

Keywords: autophagy related proteins, integrated network analysis, macrophages polarization M1 and M2, tissue remodelling

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843 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Optimization Methods with Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing Technique

Authors: Shraddha Srivastava, N. K. Painuly, S. P. Mishra, Navin Singh, Muhsin Punchankandy, Kirti Srivastava, M. L. B. Bhatt

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Various optimization methods used in interstitial brachytherapy are based on dwell positions and dwell weights alteration to produce dose distribution based on the implant geometry. Since these optimization schemes are not anatomy based, they could lead to deviations from the desired plan. This study was henceforth carried out to compare anatomy-based Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing (IPSA) optimization technique with graphical and geometrical optimization methods in interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy planning of cervical carcinoma. Six patients with 12 CT data sets of MUPIT implants in HDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer were prospectively studied. HR-CTV and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured in Oncentra treatment planning system (TPS) using GYN GEC-ESTRO guidelines on cervical carcinoma. Three sets of plans were generated for each fraction using IPSA, graphical optimization (GrOPT) and geometrical optimization (GOPT) methods. All patients were treated to a dose of 20 Gy in 2 fractions. The main objective was to cover at least 95% of HR-CTV with 100% of the prescribed dose (V100 ≥ 95% of HR-CTV). IPSA, GrOPT, and GOPT based plans were compared in terms of target coverage, OAR doses, homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (COIN) using dose-volume histogram (DVH). Target volume coverage (mean V100) was found to be 93.980.87%, 91.341.02% and 85.052.84% for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans respectively. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of HR-CTV) values for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans were 10.19 ± 1.07 Gy, 10.17 ± 0.12 Gy and 7.99 ± 1.0 Gy respectively, while D100 (minimum dose received by 100% volume of HR-CTV) for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans was 6.55 ± 0.85 Gy, 6.55 ± 0.65 Gy, 4.73 ± 0.14 Gy respectively. IPSA plans resulted in lower doses to the bladder (D₂

Keywords: cervical cancer, HDR brachytherapy, IPSA, MUPIT

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842 Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow with Magnetic Nanoparticles as Carrier for Targeted Drug Delivery in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit

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A study on targeted drug delivery is carried out in an unsteady flow of blood infused with magnetic NPs (nanoparticles) with an aim to understand the flow pattern and nanoparticle aggregation in a diseased arterial segment having stenosis. The magnetic NPs are supervised by the magnetic field which is significant for therapeutic treatment of arterial diseases, tumor and cancer cells and removing blood clots. Coupled thermal energy have also been analyzed by considering dissipation of energy because of the application of the magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. Simulation technique used to solve the mathematical model is vorticity-stream function formulations in the diseased artery. An elevation in SLP (Specific loss power) is noted in the aortic bloodstream when the agglomeration of nanoparticles is higher. This phenomenon has potential application in the treatment of hyperthermia. The study focuses on the lowering of WSS (Wall Shear Stress) with increasing particle concentration at the downstream of the stenosis which depicts the vigorous flow circulation zone. These low shear stress regions prolong the residing time of the nanoparticles carrying drugs which soaks up the LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) deposition. Moreover, an increase in NP concentration enhances the Nusselt number which marks the increase of heat transfer from the arterial wall to the surrounding tissues to destroy tumor and cancer cells without affecting the healthy cells. The results have a significant influence in the study of medicine, to treat arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis without the need for surgery which can minimize the expenditures on cardiovascular treatments.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, blood flow, atherosclerosis, hyperthermia

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841 The Effect of Simultaneous Doping of Silicate Bioglass with Alkaline and Alkaline-Earth Elements on Biological Behavior

Authors: Tannaz Alimardani, Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa

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Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO₂-CaO-P₂O₅ glass with a nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of the opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF, but also stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on the dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with the live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S bioactive glass exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioglass, co-doping, ion release

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840 Pre-Operative Tool for Facial-Post-Surgical Estimation and Detection

Authors: Ayat E. Ali, Christeen R. Aziz, Merna A. Helmy, Mohammed M. Malek, Sherif H. El-Gohary

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Goal: Purpose of the project was to make a plastic surgery prediction by using pre-operative images for the plastic surgeries’ patients and to show this prediction on a screen to compare between the current case and the appearance after the surgery. Methods: To this aim, we implemented a software which used data from the internet for facial skin diseases, skin burns, pre-and post-images for plastic surgeries then the post- surgical prediction is done by using K-nearest neighbor (KNN). So we designed and fabricated a smart mirror divided into two parts a screen and a reflective mirror so patient's pre- and post-appearance will be showed at the same time. Results: We worked on some skin diseases like vitiligo, skin burns and wrinkles. We classified the three degrees of burns using KNN classifier with accuracy 60%. We also succeeded in segmenting the area of vitiligo. Our future work will include working on more skin diseases, classify them and give a prediction for the look after the surgery. Also we will go deeper into facial deformities and plastic surgeries like nose reshaping and face slim down. Conclusion: Our project will give a prediction relates strongly to the real look after surgery and decrease different diagnoses among doctors. Significance: The mirror may have broad societal appeal as it will make the distance between patient's satisfaction and the medical standards smaller.

Keywords: k-nearest neighbor (knn), face detection, vitiligo, bone deformity

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839 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader, Sherif H. ElGohary

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: ADHD, autism, epilepsy, EEG, SVM

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838 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Tree Algorithms in Classification of Spongy Tissue Texture

Authors: Roza Dzierzak, Waldemar Wojcik, Piotr Kacejko

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Analysis of the texture of medical images consists of determining the parameters and characteristics of the examined tissue. The main goal is to assign the analyzed area to one of two basic groups: as a healthy tissue or a tissue with pathological changes. The CT images of the thoracic lumbar spine from 15 healthy patients and 15 with confirmed osteoporosis were used for the analysis. As a result, 120 samples with dimensions of 50x50 pixels were obtained. The set of features has been obtained based on the histogram, gradient, run-length matrix, co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and Haar wavelet. As a result of the image analysis, 290 descriptors of textural features were obtained. The dimension of the space of features was reduced by the use of three selection methods: Fisher coefficient (FC), mutual information (MI), minimization of the classification error probability and average correlation coefficients between the chosen features minimization of classification error probability (POE) and average correlation coefficients (ACC). Each of them returned ten features occupying the initial place in the ranking devised according to its own coefficient. As a result of the Fisher coefficient and mutual information selections, the same features arranged in a different order were obtained. In both rankings, the 50% percentile (Perc.50%) was found in the first place. The next selected features come from the co-occurrence matrix. The sets of features selected in the selection process were evaluated using six classification tree methods. These were: decision stump (DS), Hoeffding tree (HT), logistic model trees (LMT), random forest (RF), random tree (RT) and reduced error pruning tree (REPT). In order to assess the accuracy of classifiers, the following parameters were used: overall classification accuracy (ACC), true positive rate (TPR, classification sensitivity), true negative rate (TNR, classification specificity), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Taking into account the classification results, it should be stated that the best results were obtained for the Hoeffding tree and logistic model trees classifiers, using the set of features selected by the POE + ACC method. In the case of the Hoeffding tree classifier, the highest values of three parameters were obtained: ACC = 90%, TPR = 93.3% and PPV = 93.3%. Additionally, the values of the other two parameters, i.e., TNR = 86.7% and NPV = 86.6% were close to the maximum values obtained for the LMT classifier. In the case of logistic model trees classifier, the same ACC value was obtained ACC=90% and the highest values for TNR=88.3% and NPV= 88.3%. The values of the other two parameters remained at a level close to the highest TPR = 91.7% and PPV = 91.6%. The results obtained in the experiment show that the use of classification trees is an effective method of classification of texture features. This allows identifying the conditions of the spongy tissue for healthy cases and those with the porosis.

Keywords: classification, feature selection, texture analysis, tree algorithms

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