Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 997

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biomedical and Biological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

997 Stability Study of Hydrogel Based on Sodium Alginate/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) with Aloe Vera Extract for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: Klaudia Pluta, Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Dagmara Malina, Mateusz Barczewski

Abstract:

Hydrogel networks, due to their unique properties, are highly attractive materials for wound dressing. The three-dimensional structure of hydrogels provides tissues with optimal moisture, which supports the wound healing process. Moreover, a characteristic feature of hydrogels is their absorption properties which allow for the absorption of wound exudates. For the fabrication of biomedical hydrogels, a combination of natural polymers ensuring biocompatibility and synthetic ones that provide adequate mechanical strength are often used. Sodium alginate (SA) is one of the polymers widely used in wound dressing materials because it exhibits excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, due to poor strength properties, often alginate-based hydrogel materials are enhanced by the addition of another polymer such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). This paper is concentrated on the preparation methods of sodium alginate/polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel system incorporating Aloe vera extract and glycerin for wound healing material with particular focus on the role of their composition on structure, thermal properties, and stability. Briefly, the hydrogel preparation is based on the chemical cross-linking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, Mn = 700 g/mol) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. In vitro degradation tests of SA/PVA/AV hydrogels were carried out in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (pH – 7.4) as well as in distilled water. Hydrogel samples were firstly cut into half-gram pieces (in triplicate) and immersed in immersion fluid. Then, all specimens were incubated at 37°C and then the pH and conductivity values were measurements at time intervals. The post-incubation fluids were analyzed using SEC/GPC to check the content of oligomers. The separation was carried out at 35°C on a poly(hydroxy methacrylate) column (dimensions 300 x 8 mm). 0.1M NaCl solution, whose flow rate was 0.65 ml/min, was used as the mobile phase. Three injections with a volume of 50 µl were made for each sample. The thermogravimetric data of the prepared hydrogels were collected using a Netzsch TG 209 F1 Libra apparatus. The samples with masses of about 10 mg were weighed separately in Al2O3 crucibles and then were heated from 30°C to 900°C with a scanning rate of 10 °C∙min−1 under a nitrogen atmosphere. Based on the conducted research, a fast and simple method was developed to produce potential wound dressing material containing sodium alginate, poly(vinyl alcohol) and Aloe vera extract. As a result, transparent and flexible SA/PVA/AV hydrogels were obtained. The degradation experiments indicated that most of the samples immersed in PBS as well as in distilled water were not degraded throughout the whole incubation time.

Keywords: hydrogels, wound dressings, sodium alginate, poly(vinyl alcohol)

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996 Studies On Triazole Resistant Candida Albicans Expressing ERG11 Gene Among Adult Females In Abakaliki; Nigeria

Authors: Agumah N. B. Orji, M. U., Oru C. M., Ugbo, E. N., Onwuliri E. A Nwakaeze, E. A.,

Abstract:

ERG11 gene has been reported to be one of the genes whose expression is responsible for resistance of Candida to various triazole drugs, which are first line treatment for candidiasis. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Triazole (Fluconazole and voriconazole) resistant Candida albicans expressing ERG11 gene from adult females in Abakaliki. Urine and vaginal swab samples were randomly collected from volunteers after obtaining their consent to participate in the study. A total of 565 adult females participated in the study. A total of 340 urine specimens and 288 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Direct wet mount technique, as well as culture in Trichomonas broth, were used to examine the urine and vaginal swab specimens for the presence of motile Trichomonads. The Trichomonas broth used was selective for both T. vaginalis and C. albicans. Broths that yielded budding yeast cells after microscopy were subcultured on to Sabouraud dextrose agar, after which Germ tube test was carried out to confirm the presence of C. albicans. Biochemical tests, including carbohydrate fermentation and urease utilization, were also performed. Antibiogram of C. albicans isolates obtained from this study was carried out using commercially available azole drugs. Fluconazole and voriconazole were selected as Triazole drugs used for this study. Nystatin was used as a tangential control. An MIC test was carried out with E-strips on some of the resistant C. albicans isolates A total of 6 isolates that resisted all the azole drugs were selected and screened for the presence of ERG11 gene using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. The total prevalence recorded for C. albicans was 13.0%. Frequency was statistically higher in Pregnant (7.96%) than non pregnant (5.09%) volunteers (X2=0.94 at P=0.05). With respect to clinical samples, frequency was higher in vaginal swabs samples (7.96%) than Urine samples (5.09%) (X2=9.05 at P=0.05). Volunteers within the age group 26-30 years recorded the highest prevalence (4.46%), while those within the age group 36-40 years recorded the lowest at 1.27%(X2=4.34 at P=0.05). In pregnant female participants, the highest frequency was recorded with those in their 3rd trimester (4.14%), while lowest incidence was recorded for those in their first trimester (0.80%). Antibiogram results from this study showed that C. albicans isolates obtained from this study resisted Fluconazole (72%) more than Voriconazole (57%). Only one out of the six selected isolates yielded resistance in the MIC test. Results obtained from the RT-PCR showed that there was no expression of ERG11 gene among the fluconazole resistant isolates of C. albicans. Observed resistance may be due to other factors other than expression of ERG11 gene.

Keywords: candida, ERG11, triazole, nigeria

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995 Characteristics of Bio-hybrid Hydrogel Materials with Prolonged Release of the Model Active Substance as Potential Wound Dressings

Authors: Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta, Dagmara Malina, Małgorzata Miastkowska

Abstract:

In recent years, biocompatible hydrogels have been used more and more in medical applications, especially as modern dressings and drug delivery systems. The main goal of this research was the characteristics of bio-hybrid hydrogel materials incorporated with the nanocarrier-drug system, which enable the release in a gradual and prolonged manner, up to 7 days. Therefore, the use of such a combination will provide protection against mechanical damage and adequate hydration. The proposed bio-hybrid hydrogels are characterized by: transparency, biocompatibility, good mechanical strength, and the dual release system, which allows for gradual delivery of the active substance, even up to 7 days. Bio-hybrid hydrogels based on sodium alginate (SA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), glycerine, and Aloe vera solution (AV) were obtained through the chemical crosslinking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate as a crosslinking agent. Additionally, a nanocarrier-drug system was incorporated into SA/PVA/AV hydrogel matrix. Here, studies were focused on the release profiles of active substances from bio-hybrid hydrogels using the USP4 method (DZF II Flow-Through System, Erweka GmbH, Langen, Germany). The equipment incorporated seven in-line flow-through diffusion cells. The membrane was placed over support with an orifice of 1,5 cm in diameter (diffusional area, 1.766 cm²). All the cells were placed in a cell warmer connected with the Erweka heater DH 2000i and the Erweka piston pump HKP 720. The piston pump transports the receptor fluid via seven channels to the flow-through cells and automatically adapts the setting of the flow rate. All volumes were measured by gravimetric methods by filling the chambers with Milli-Q water and assuming a density of 1 g/ml. All the determinations were made in triplicate for each cell. The release study of the model active substance was carried out using a regenerated cellulose membrane Spectra/Por®Dialysis Membrane MWCO 6-8,000 Carl Roth® Company. These tests were conducted in buffer solutions – PBS at pH 7.4. A flow rate of receptor fluid of about 4 ml /1 min was selected. The experiments were carried out for 7 days at a temperature of 37°C. The released concentration of the model drug in the receptor solution was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer Company). Additionally, the following properties of the modified materials were studied: physicochemical, structural (FT-IR analysis), morphological (SEM analysis). Finally, the cytotoxicity tests using in vitro method were conducted. The obtained results exhibited that the dual release system allows for the gradual and prolonged delivery of the active substances, even up to 7 days.

Keywords: wound dressings, SA/PVA hydrogels, nanocarrier-drug system, USP4 method

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994 Development of Wound Dressing System Based on Hydrogel Matrix Incorporated with pH-Sensitive Nanocarrier-Drug Systems

Authors: Dagmara Malina, Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta

Abstract:

The growing significance of transdermal systems, in which skin is a route for systemic drug delivery, has generated a considerable amount of data which has resulted in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of transport across the skin in the context of the controlled and prolonged release of active substances. One of such solutions may be the use of carrier systems based on intelligent polymers with different physicochemical properties. In these systems, active substances, e.g. drugs, can be conjugated (attached), immobilized, or encapsulated in a polymer matrix that is sensitive to specific environmental conditions (e.g. pH or temperature changes). Intelligent polymers can be divided according to their sensitivity to specific environmental stimuli such as temperature, pH, light, electric, magnetic, sound, or electromagnetic fields. Materials & methods—The first stage of the presented research concerned the synthesis of pH-sensitive polymeric carriers by a radical polymerization reaction. Then, the selected active substance (hydrocortisone) was introduced into polymeric carriers. In a further stage, bio-hybrid sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) – SA/PVA-based hydrogel matrices modified with various carrier-drug systems were prepared with the chemical cross-linking method. The conducted research included the assessment of physicochemical properties of obtained materials i.e. degree of hydrogel swelling and degradation studies as a function of pH in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C in time. The gel fraction represents the insoluble gel fraction as a result of inter-molecule cross-linking formation was also measured. Additionally, the chemical structure of obtained hydrogels was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was used for the analysis of the average particle size of polymer-carriers and carrier-drug systems. The nanocarriers morphology was observed using SEM microscopy. Results & Discussion—The analysis of the encapsulated polymeric carriers showed that it was possible to obtain the time-stable empty pH-sensitive carrier with an average size 479 nm and the encapsulated system containing hydrocortisone with an average 543 nm, which was introduced into hydrogel structure. Bio-hybrid hydrogel matrices are stable materials, and the presence of an additional component: pH-sensitive carrier – hydrocortisone system, does not reduce the degree of cross-linking of the matrix nor its swelling ability. Moreover, the results of swelling tests indicate that systems containing higher concentrations of the drug have a slightly higher sorption capacity in each of the media used. All analyzed materials show stable and statically changing swelling values in simulated body fluids - there is no sudden fluid uptake and no rapid release from the material. The analysis of FT-IR spectra confirms the chemical structure of the obtained bio-hybrid hydrogel matrices. In the case of modifications with a pH-sensitive carrier, a much more intense band can be observed in the 3200-3500 cm⁻¹ range, which most likely originates from the strong hydrogen interactions that occur between individual components.

Keywords: hydrogels, polymer nanocarriers, sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) matrices, wound dressings.

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993 Role of Vitamin D in Osseointegration of Dental Implant

Authors: Pouya Khaleghi

Abstract:

Dental implants are a successful treatment modality for restoring both function and aesthetics. Dental implant treatment has predictive results in the replacement of the lost teeth and has a high success rate even in the long term. The most important factor which is responsible for the positive course of implant treatment is the process of osseointegration between the implant structure and the host’s bone tissue. During recent years, many studies have focused on surgical and prosthetic factors, as well as the implant-related factors. However, implant failure still occurs despite the improvements that have led to the increased survival rate of dental implants, which suggests the possible role of some host-related risk factors. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism in tissues. The role of vitamin D in bone healing has been under investigation for several years. Vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with impaired and delayed callus formation and fractures healing; however, the role of vitamin D has not been clarified. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the phenomenon of a connection formed between bone tissue and the surface of a titanium implant and find correlations between the 25- hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in blood serum and the course of osseointegration. Because the processes of bone remodeling are very dynamic in the period of actual osseointegration, it is necessary to obtain the correct concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in blood serum. In conclusion, the correct level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the day of surgery and vitamin D deficiency treatment have a significant influence on the increase in the bone level at the implant site during the process of osseointegration assessed radiologically.

Keywords: implant, osseointegration, vitamin d, dental

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992 Biomechanics of Atalantoaxial Complex for Various Posterior Fixation Techniques

Authors: Arun C. O., Shrijith M. B., Thakur Rajesh Singh

Abstract:

The study aims to analyze and understand the biomechanical stability of the atlantoaxial complex under different posterior fixation techniques using the finite element method in the Indian context. The conventional cadaveric studies performed show heterogeneity in biomechanical properties. The finite element method being a versatile numerical tool, is being wisely used for biomechanics analysis of atlantoaxial complex. However, the biomechanics of posterior fixation techniques for an Indian subject is missing in the literature. It is essential to study in this context as the bone density and geometry of vertebrae vary from region to region, thereby requiring different screw lengths and it can affect the range of motion(ROM), stresses generated. The current study uses CT images for developing a 3D finite element model with C1-C2 geometry without ligaments. Instrumentation is added to this geometry to develop four models for four fixation techniques, namely C1-C2 TA, C1LM-C2PS, C1LM-C2Pars, C1LM-C2TL. To simulate Flexion, extension, lateral bending, axial rotation, 1.5 Nm is applied to C1 while the bottom nodes of C2 are fixed. Then Range of Motion (ROM) is compared with the unstable model(without ligaments). All the fixation techniques showed more than 97 percent reduction in the Range of Motion. The von-mises stresses developed in the screw constructs are obtained. From the studies, it is observed that Transarticular technique is most stable in Lateral Bending, C1LM-C2 Translaminar is found most stable in Flexion/extension. The Von-Mises stresses developed minimum in Trasarticular technique in lateral bending and axial rotation, whereas stress developed in C2 pars construct minimum in Flexion/ Extension. On average, the TA technique is stable in all motions and also stresses in constructs are less in TA. Tarnsarticular technique is found to be the best fixation technique for Indian subjects among the 4 methods.

Keywords: biomechanics, cervical spine, finite element model, posterior fixation

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991 Functional Use Of Biological And Synthetic Biomaterials In Rotator Cuff Repair In Orthopedic Literature

Authors: Shebin Tharakan, Azhar Ilyas

Abstract:

Injuries to the rotator cuff often present with tearing, tendinitis, and loss of functional use. In some cases, these injuries can heal naturally or may require surgical intervention. Rotator cuff augmentation is a surgical treatment modality focusing on applying an allograft to reattach and support the tendon to the bone. However, allografts are associated with adverse effects due to immune rejection by the recipient. In lieu of allografts, biological or synthetic biomaterials can be used to reduce the risk of adverse events and provide tendon growth and regain range of motion. The clinical examination of extracellular matrix and collagen scaffolds demonstrate an increase in range of motion, decrease in pain, and increased tendon growth with studies indicating few to multiple adverse events. Synthetic scaffolds, however, demonstrate profound recovery with little to no adverse events indicating the potential for future use in tendon repair. Our literature review focuses on evaluating the clinical benefits of utilizing biological and synthetic scaffolds and their applications to regain rotator cuff functionality.

Keywords: rotator cuff, biomaterials, synthetic, tendon repair

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990 ECG Based Reliable User Identification Using Deep Learning

Authors: R. N. Begum, Ambalika Sharma, G. K. Singh

Abstract:

Identity theft has serious ramifications beyond data and personal information loss. This necessitates the implementation of robust and efficient user identification systems. Therefore, automatic biometric recognition systems are the need of the hour, and ECG-based systems are unquestionably the best choice due to their appealing inherent characteristics. The CNNs are the recent state-of-the-art techniques for ECG-based user identification systems. However, the results obtained are significantly below standards, and the situation worsens as the number of users and types of heartbeats in the dataset grows. As a result, this study proposes a highly accurate and resilient ECG-based person identification system using CNN's dense learning framework. The proposed research explores explicitly the calibre of dense CNNs in the field of ECG-based human recognition. The study tests four different configurations of dense CNN which are trained on a dataset of recordings collected from eight popular ECG databases. With the highest FAR of 0.04 percent and the highest FRR of 5%, the best performing network achieved an identification accuracy of 99.94 percent. The best network is also tested with various train/test split ratios. The findings show that DenseNets are not only extremely reliable but also highly efficient. Thus, they might also be implemented in real-time ECG-based human recognition systems.

Keywords: Biometrics, Dense Networks, Identification Rate, Train/Test split ratio

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989 The Curvature of Bending Analysis and Motion of Soft Robotic Fingers by Full 3D Printing with MC-Cells Technique for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Chaiyawat Musikapan, Ratchatin Chancharoen, Saknan Bongsebandhu-Phubhakdi

Abstract:

For many recent years, soft robotic fingers were used for supporting the patients who had survived the neurological diseases that resulted in muscular disorders and neural network damages, such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease, and inflammatory symptoms such as De Quervain and trigger finger. Generally, the major hand function is significant to manipulate objects in activities of daily living (ADL). In this work, we proposed the model of soft actuator that manufactured by full 3D printing without the molding process and one material for use. Furthermore, we designed the model with a technique of multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells). Then, we demonstrated the curvature bending, fluidic pressure and force that generated to the model for assistive finger flexor and hand grasping. Also, the soft actuators were characterized in mathematics solving by the length of chord and arc length. In addition, we used an adaptive push-button switch machine to measure the force in our experiment. Consequently, we evaluated biomechanics efficiency by the range of motion (ROM) that affected to metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Finally, the model achieved to exhibit the corresponding fluidic pressure with force and ROM to assist the finger flexor and hand grasping.

Keywords: biomechanics efficiency, curvature bending, hand functional assistance, multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells), range of motion (ROM)

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988 Development of 3D Printed Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Scaffolds for Maxillofacial Reconstruction

Authors: Sri Sai Ramya Bojedla, Falguni Pati

Abstract:

Nature provides the best of solutions to humans. One such incredible gift to regenerative medicine is silk. The literature has publicized a long appreciation for silk owing to its incredible physical and biological assets. Its bioactive nature, unique mechanical strength, and processing flexibility make us curious to explore further to apply it in the clinics for the welfare of mankind. In this study, Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori silk fibroin microfibers are developed by two economical and straightforward steps via degumming and hydrolysis for the first time, and a bioactive composite is manufactured by mixing silk fibroin microfibers at various concentrations with polycaprolactone (PCL), a biocompatible, aliphatic semi-crystalline synthetic polymer. Reconstructive surgery in any part of the body except for the maxillofacial region deals with replacing its function. But answering both the aesthetics and function is of utmost importance when it comes to facial reconstruction as it plays a critical role in the psychological and social well-being of the patient. The main concern in developing adequate bone graft substitutes or a scaffold is the noteworthy variation in each patient's bone anatomy. Additionally, the anatomical shape and size will vary based on the type of defect. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing techniques to bone tissue engineering has facilitated overcoming many of the restraints of conventional fabrication techniques. The acquired patient's CT data is converted into a stereolithographic (STL)-file which is further utilized by the 3D printer to create a 3D scaffold structure in an interconnected layer-by-layer fashion. This study aims to address the limitations of currently available materials and fabrication technologies and develop a customized biomaterial implant via 3D printing technology to reconstruct complex form, function, and aesthetics of the facial anatomy. These composite scaffolds underwent structural and mechanical characterization. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images showed the uniform dispersion of the silk fibroin microfibers in the PCL matrix. With the addition of silk, there is improvement in the compressive strength of the hybrid scaffolds. The scaffolds with Antheraea mylitta silk revealed higher compressive modulus than that of Bombyx mori silk. The above results of PCL-silk scaffolds strongly recommend their utilization in bone regenerative applications. Successful completion of this research will provide a great weapon in the maxillofacial reconstructive armamentarium.

Keywords: compressive modulus, 3d printing, maxillofacial reconstruction, natural fiber reinforced composites, silk fibroin microfibers

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987 The Network Relative Model Accuracy (NeRMA) Score: A Method to Quantify the Accuracy of Prediction Models in a Concurrent External Validation

Authors: Carl van Walraven, Meltem Tuna

Abstract:

Background: Network meta-analysis (NMA) quantifies the relative efficacy of 3 or more interventions from studies containing a subgroup of interventions. This study applied the analytical approach of NMA to quantify the relative accuracy of prediction models with distinct inclusion criteria that are evaluated on a common population (‘concurrent external validation’). Methods: We simulated binary events in 5000 patients using a known risk function. We biased the risk function and modified its precision by pre-specified amounts to create 15 prediction models with varying accuracy and distinct patient applicability. Prediction model accuracy was measured using the Scaled Brier Score (SBS). Overall prediction model accuracy was measured using fixed-effects methods that accounted for model applicability patterns. Prediction model accuracy was summarized as the Network Relative Model Accuracy (NeRMA) Score which ranges from -∞ through 0 (accuracy of random guessing) to 1 (accuracy of most accurate model in concurrent external validation). Results: The unbiased prediction model had the highest SBS. The NeRMA score correctly ranked all simulated prediction models by the extent of bias from the known risk function. A SAS macro and R-function was created to implement the NeRMA Score. Conclusions: The NeRMA Score makes it possible to quantify the accuracy of binomial prediction models having distinct inclusion criteria in a concurrent external validation.

Keywords: prediction model accuracy, scaled brier score, fixed effects methods, concurrent external validation

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986 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi

Abstract:

Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

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985 Microfluidic Impedimetric Biochip and Related Methods for Measurement Chip Manufacture and Counting Cells

Authors: Amina Farooq, Nauman Zafar Butt

Abstract:

This paper is about methods and tools for counting particles of interest, such as cells. A microfluidic system with interconnected electronics on a flexible substrate, inlet-outlet ports and interface schemes, sensitive and selective detection of cells specificity, and processing of cell counting at polymer interfaces in a microscale biosensor for use in the detection of target biological and non-biological cells. The development of fluidic channels, planar fluidic contact ports, integrated metal electrodes on a flexible substrate for impedance measurements, and a surface modification plasma treatment as an intermediate bonding layer are all part of the fabrication process. Magnetron DC sputtering is used to deposit a double metal layer (Ti/Pt) over the polypropylene film. Using a photoresist layer, specified and etched zones are established. Small fluid volumes, a reduced detection region, and electrical impedance measurements over a range of frequencies for cell counts improve detection sensitivity and specificity. The procedure involves continuous flow of fluid samples that contain particles of interest through the microfluidic channels, counting all types of particles in a portion of the sample using the electrical differential counter to generate a bipolar pulse for each passing cell—calculating the total number of particles of interest originally in the fluid sample by using MATLAB program and signal processing. It's indeed potential to develop a robust and economical kit for cell counting in whole-blood samples using these methods and similar devices.

Keywords: impedance, biochip, cell counting, microfluidics

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984 Review and Evaluation of Trending Canonical Correlation Analyses-Based Brain Computer Interface Methods

Authors: Bayar Shahab

Abstract:

The fast development of technology that has advanced neuroscience and human interaction with computers has enabled solutions to various problems, and issues of this new era have been found and are being found like no other time in history. Brain-computer interface so-called BCI has opened the door to several new research areas and have been able to provide solutions to critical and important issues such as supporting a paralyzed patient to interact with the outside world, controlling a robot arm, playing games in VR with the brain, driving a wheelchair or even a car and neurotechnology enabled the rehabilitation of the lost memory, etc. This review work presents state-of-the-art methods and improvements of canonical correlation analyses (CCA), which is an SSVEP-based BCI method. These are the methods used to extract EEG signal features or, to be said in a different way, the features of interest that we are looking for in the EEG analyses. Each of the methods from oldest to newest has been discussed while comparing their advantages and disadvantages. This would create a great context and help researchers to understand the most state-of-the-art methods available in this field with their pros and cons, along with their mathematical representations and usage. This work makes a vital contribution to the existing field of study. It differs from other similar recently published works by providing the following: (1) stating most of the prominent methods used in this field in a hierarchical way (2) explaining pros and cons of each method and their performance (3) presenting the gaps that exist at the end of each method that can open the understanding and doors to new research and/or improvements.

Keywords: BCI, CCA, SSVEP, EEG

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983 COVID-19: Potential Effects of Nutritional Factors on Inflammation Relief

Authors: Maryam Nazari

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COVID-19 is a respiratory disease triggered by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, that has reached pandemic status today. Acute inflammation and immune cells infiltration into lung injuries result in multi-organ failure. The presence of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with systemic inflammation derived from COVID-19 may exacerbate the patient's situation and increase the risk for adverse effects and mortality. This pandemic is a novel situation and the scientific community at this time is looking for vaccines or drugs to treat the pathology. One of the biggest challenges is focused on reducing inflammation without compromising the correct immune response of the patient. In this regard, addressing the nutritional factors should not be overlooked not only as a matter of avoiding the presence of NCDs with severe infections but also as an adjunctive way to modulate the inflammatory status of the patients. Despite the pivotal role of nutrition in modifying immune response, due to the novelty of the COVID-19 disease, information about the effects of specific dietary agents is limited in this area. From the macronutrients point of view, protein deficiency (quantity or quality) has negative effects on the number of functional immunoglobulins and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). High biological value proteins or some amino acids like arginine and glutamine are well known for their ability to augment the immune system. Among lipids, fish oil has the ability to inactivate enveloped viruses, suppress pro-inflammatory prostaglandin production and block platelet-activating factors and their receptors. In addition, protectin D1, which is an Omega-3 PUFAs derivation, is a novel antiviral drug. So it seems that these fatty acids can reduce the severity and/or improve recovery of patients with COVID-19. Carbohydrates with lower glycemic index and fibers are associated with lower levels of inflammatory cytokines (CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6). Short-Chain Fatty acids not only exert a direct anti-inflammatory effect but also provide appropriate gut microbial, which is important in gastrointestinal issues related to COVID-19. From the micronutrients point of view, Vitamins A, C, D, E, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and copper play a vital role in the maintenance of immune function. Inadequate status in these nutrients may result in decreased resistance against COVID-19 infection. There are specific bioactive compounds in the diet that interact with the ACE2 receptor, which is the gateway for SARS and SARS-CoV-2, and thus controls the viral infection. Regarding this, the potential benefits of probiotics, resveratrol (a polyphenol found in grape), oleoylethanolamide (derived from oleic acid), and natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists in foodstuffs (like curcumin, pomegranate, hot pepper) are suggested. Yet, it should be pointed out that most of these results have been reported in animal models and further human studies are needed to be verified.

Keywords: Covid-19, inflammation, nutrition, dietary agents

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982 Poly(propylene fumarate) Copolymers with Phosphonic Acid-based Monomers Designed as Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Authors: Görkem Cemali̇, Avram Aruh, Gamze Torun Köse, Erde Can ŞAfak

Abstract:

In order to heal bone disorders, the conventional methods which involve the use of autologous and allogenous bone grafts or permanent implants have certain disadvantages such as limited supply, disease transmission, or adverse immune response. A biodegradable material that acts as structural support to the damaged bone area and serves as a scaffold that enhances bone regeneration and guides bone formation is one desirable solution. Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) which is an unsaturated polyester that can be copolymerized with appropriate vinyl monomers to give biodegradable network structures, is a promising candidate polymer to prepare bone tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, hydroxyl-terminated PPF was synthesized and thermally cured with vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and diethyl vinyl phosphonate (VPES) in the presence of radical initiator benzoyl peroxide (BP), with changing co-monomer weight ratios (10-40wt%). In addition, the synthesized PPF was cured with VPES comonomer at body temperature (37oC) in the presence of BP initiator, N, N-Dimethyl para-toluidine catalyst and varying amounts of Beta-tricalcium phosphate (0-20 wt% ß-TCP) as filler via radical polymerization to prepare composite materials that can be used in injectable forms. Thermomechanical properties, compressive properties, hydrophilicity and biodegradability of the PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES copolymers were determined and analyzed with respect to the copolymer composition. Biocompatibility of the resulting polymers and their composites was determined by the MTS assay and osteoblast activity was explored with von kossa, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin activity analysis and the effects of VPA and VPES comonomer composition on these properties were investigated. Thermally cured PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES copolymers with different compositions exhibited compressive modulus and strength values in the wide range of 10–836 MPa and 14–119 MPa, respectively. MTS assay studies showed that the majority of the tested compositions were biocompatible and the overall results indicated that PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES network polymers show significant potential for applications as bone tissue engineering scaffolds where varying PPF and co-monomer ratio provides adjustable and controllable properties of the end product. The body temperature cured PPF/VPES/ß-TCP composites exhibited significantly lower compressive modulus and strength values than the thermal cured PPF/VPES copolymers and were therefore found to be useful as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: biodegradable, bone tissue, copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate), scaffold

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981 A Systematic Review Examining the Experimental methodology behind in vivo testing of hiatus hernia and Diaphragmatic Hernia Mesh

Authors: Whitehead-Clarke T., Beynon V., Banks J., Karanjia R., Mudera V., Windsor A., Kureshi A.

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesh implants are regularly used to help repair both hiatus hernias (HH) and diaphragmatic hernias (DH). In vivo studies are used to test not only mesh safety but increasingly comparative efficacy. Our work examines the field of in vivo mesh testing for HH and DH models to establish current practices and standards. Method: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant in vivo studies. 44 articles were identified and underwent abstract review, where 22 were excluded. 4 further studies were excluded after full text review – leaving 18 to undergo data extraction. Results: Of 18 studies identified, 9 used an in vivo HH model and 9 a DH model. 5 studies undertook mechanical testing on tissue samples – all uniaxial in nature. Testing strip widths ranged from 1-20mm (median 3mm). Testing speeds varied from 1.5-60mm/minute. Upon histology, the most commonly assessed structural and cellular factors were neovascularization and macrophages, respectively (n=9 each). Structural analysis was mostly qualitative, where cellular analysis was equally likely to be quantitative. 11 studies assessed adhesion formation, of which 8 used one of four scoring systems. 8 studies measured mesh shrinkage. Discussion: In vivo studies assessing mesh for HH and DH repair are uncommon. Within this relatively young field, we encourage surgical and materials testing institutions to discuss its standardisation.

Keywords: hiatus, diaphragmatic, hernia, mesh, materials testing, in vivo

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980 Preparation of Biomedical Hydrogels Using Phenolic Compounds and Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: Farnaz Sadeghi, Moslem Tavakol

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare a physically cross-linked gel by cooling of tannic acid (TA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution that subsequently convert to antibacterial chemically cross-linked hydrogel by using electron beam irradiation. PVA is known for its biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, and TA is known for being a natural compound which can serve as a cross-linking agent and a therapeutic agent. Swelling behavior, gel content, pore size, and mechanical properties of hydrogels which prepared at 14, 28, and 56 (kGy) with different ratios of polymers were investigated. PVA-TA hydrogel showed sustained release of tannic acid as approximately 20% and 50% of loaded TA released from the hydrogel after 4 and 72 h release time. We found that gel content decreased and the moisture retention capability increased by an increase in TA composition. In addition, PVA-TA hydrogels showed a good antibacterial activity against S.aureus. MTT analysis indicated that close to 83% of fibroblast cells remained viable after 48 h exposure to hydrogel extract. Moreover, the cooling of 10% PVA solution containing 0.5 and 0.75% w/v tannic acid to room and refrigerator, respectively, led to formation of physical gel that did not present any flow index after inversion of hydrogel cast. According to the results, the hydrogel prepared by electron beam irradiation of blended PVA-TA solution could be further investigated as a promising candidate for wound healing.

Keywords: poly vinyl alcohol, tannic acid, electron beam irradiation, hydrogel wound dressing

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979 Bienzymatic Nanocomposites Biosensors Complexed with Gold Nanoparticles, Polyaniline, Recombinant MN Peroxidase from Corn, and Glucose Oxidase to Measure Glucose

Authors: Anahita Izadyar

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Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we are fabricating a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial novel biosensor to measure glucose. We are applying Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP), glucose oxidase (GOx), polyaniline (PANI) as conductive polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Au electrode using electrochemical response to detect glucose. We applied the entrapment method of enzyme composition, which is generally used to immobilize conductive polymer and facilitate electron transfer from the enzyme oxidation-reduction center to the sample solution. In this work, the oxidation of glucose on the modified gold electrode was quantified with Linear Sweep Voltammetry(LSV). We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold nanoparticles electrode, polyaniline

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978 First-Principles Calculations and Thermo-Calc Study of the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Ti-Nb-ZR-Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Madigoe, R. Modiba

Abstract:

High alloyed beta (β) phase-stabilized titanium alloys are known to have a low elastic modulus comparable to that of the human bone (≈30 GPa). The β phase in titanium alloys exhibits an elastic Young’s modulus of about 60-80 GPa, which is nearly half that of α-phase (100-120 GPa). In this work, a theoretical investigation of structural stability and thermodynamic stability, as well as the elastic properties of a quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy, will be presented with an attempt to lower Young’s modulus. The structural stability and elastic properties of the alloy were evaluated using the first-principles approach within the density functional theory (DFT) framework implemented in the CASTEP code. The elastic properties include bulk modulus B, elastic Young’s modulus E, shear modulus cʹ and Poisson’s ratio v. Thermodynamic stability, as well as the fraction of β phase in the alloy, was evaluated using the Thermo-Calc software package. Thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy (Δ𝐺⁰𝒻) and enthalpy of formation will be presented in addition to phase proportion diagrams. The stoichiometric compositions of the alloy is Ti-Nbx-Ta5-Zr5 (x = 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 at.%). An optimum alloy composition must satisfy the Born stability criteria and also possess low elastic Young’s modulus. In addition, the alloy must be thermodynamically stable, i.e., Δ𝐺⁰𝒻 < 0.

Keywords: elastic modulus, phase proportion diagram, thermo-calc, titanium alloys

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977 Single Cell Analysis of Circulating Monocytes in Prostate Cancer Patients

Authors: Leander Van Neste, Kirk Wojno

Abstract:

The innate immune system reacts to foreign insult in several unique ways, one of which is phagocytosis of perceived threats such as cancer, bacteria, and viruses. The goal of this study was to look for evidence of phagocytosed RNA from tumor cells in circulating monocytes. While all monocytes possess phagocytic capabilities, the non-classical CD14+/FCGR3A+ monocytes and the intermediate CD14++/FCGR3A+ monocytes most actively remove threatening ‘external’ cellular materials. Purified CD14-positive monocyte samples from fourteen patients recently diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) were investigated by single-cell RNA sequencing using the 10X Genomics protocol followed by paired-end sequencing on Illumina’s NovaSeq. Similarly, samples were processed and used as controls, i.e., one patient underwent biopsy but was found not to harbor prostate cancer (benign), three young, healthy men, and three men previously diagnosed with prostate cancer that recently underwent (curative) radical prostatectomy (post-RP). Sequencing data were mapped using 10X Genomics’ CellRanger software and viable cells were subsequently identified using CellBender, removing technical artifacts such as doublets and non-cellular RNA. Next, data analysis was performed in R, using the Seurat package. Because the main goal was to identify differences between PCa patients and ‘control’ patients, rather than exploring differences between individual subjects, the individual Seurat objects of all 21 patients were merged into one Seurat object per Seurat’s recommendation. Finally, the single-cell dataset was normalized as a whole prior to further analysis. Cell identity was assessed using the SingleR and cell dex packages. The Monaco Immune Data was selected as the reference dataset, consisting of bulk RNA-seq data of sorted human immune cells. The Monaco classification was supplemented with normalized PCa data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which consists of bulk RNA sequencing data from 499 prostate tumor tissues (including 1 metastatic) and 52 (adjacent) normal prostate tissues. SingleR was subsequently run on the combined immune cell and PCa datasets. As expected, the vast majority of cells were labeled as having a monocytic origin (~90%), with the most noticeable difference being the larger number of intermediate monocytes in the PCa patients (13.6% versus 7.1%; p<.001). In men harboring PCa, 0.60% of all purified monocytes were classified as harboring PCa signals when the TCGA data were included. This was 3-fold, 7.5-fold, and 4-fold higher compared to post-RP, benign, and young men, respectively (all p<.001). In addition, with 7.91%, the number of unclassified cells, i.e., cells with pruned labels due to high uncertainty of the assigned label, was also highest in men with PCa, compared to 3.51%, 2.67%, and 5.51% of cells in post-RP, benign, and young men, respectively (all p<.001). It can be postulated that actively phagocytosing cells are hardest to classify due to their dual immune cell and foreign cell nature. Hence, the higher number of unclassified cells and intermediate monocytes in PCa patients might reflect higher phagocytic activity due to tumor burden. This also illustrates that small numbers (~1%) of circulating peripheral blood monocytes that have interacted with tumor cells might still possess detectable phagocytosed tumor RNA.

Keywords: circulating monocytes, phagocytic cells, prostate cancer, tumor immune response

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976 Technical Aspects of Closing the Loop in Depth-of-Anesthesia Control

Authors: Gorazd Karer

Abstract:

When performing a diagnostic procedure or surgery in general anesthesia (GA), a proper introduction and dosing of anesthetic agents are one of the main tasks of the anesthesiologist. However, depth of anesthesia (DoA) also seems to be a suitable process for closed-loop control implementation. To implement such a system, one must be able to acquire the relevant signals online and in real-time, as well as stream the calculated control signal to the infusion pump. However, during a procedure, patient monitors and infusion pumps are purposely unable to connect to an external (possibly medically unapproved) device for safety reasons, thus preventing closed-loop control. The paper proposes a conceptual solution to the aforementioned problem. First, it presents some important aspects of contemporary clinical practice. Next, it introduces the closed-loop-control-system structure and the relevant information flow. Focusing on transferring the data from the patient to the computer, it presents a non-invasive image-based system for signal acquisition from a patient monitor for online depth-of-anesthesia assessment. Furthermore, it introduces a UDP-based communication method that can be used for transmitting the calculated anesthetic inflow to the infusion pump. The proposed system is independent of a medical device manufacturer and is implemented in Matlab-Simulink, which can be conveniently used for DoA control implementation. The proposed scheme has been tested in a simulated GA setting and is ready to be evaluated in an operating theatre. However, the proposed system is only a step towards a proper closed-loop control system for DoA, which could routinely be used in clinical practice.

Keywords: closed-loop control, depth of anesthesia (DoA), modeling, optical signal acquisition, patient state index (PSi), UDP communication protocol

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975 The Combined Effect of Different Levels of Fe(III) in Diet and Cr(III) Supplementation on the Ca Status in Wistar

Authors: Staniek Halina

Abstract:

The inappropriate trace elements supply such as iron(III) and chromium(III) may be risk factors of many metabolic disorders (e.g., anemia, diabetes, as well cause toxic effect). However, little is known about their mutual interactions and their impact on these disturbances. The effects of Cr(III) supplementation with a deficit or excess supply of Fe(III) in vivo conditions are not known yet. The objective of the study was to investigate the combined effect of different Fe(III) levels in the diet and simultaneous Cr(III) supplementation on the Ca distribution in organs in healthy rats. The assessment was based on a two-factor (2x3) experiment carried out on 54 female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). The animals were randomly divided into 9 groups and for 6 weeks, they were fed semi-purified diets AIN-93 with three different Fe(III) levels in the diet as a factor A [control (C) 45 mg/kg (100% Recommended Daily Allowance for rodents), deficient (D) 5 mg/kg (10% RDA), and oversupply (H) 180 mg/kg (400% RDA)]. The second factor (B) was the simultaneous dietary supplementation with Cr(III) at doses of 1, 50 and 500 mg/kg of the diet. Iron(III) citrate was the source of Fe(III). The complex of Cr(III) with propionic acid, also called Cr₃ or chromium(III) propionate (CrProp), was used as a source of Cr(III) in the diet. The Ca content of analysed samples (liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and femur) was determined with the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. It was found that different dietary Fe(III) supply as well as Cr(III) supplementation independently and in combination influenced Ca metabolism in healthy rats. Regardless of the supplementation of Cr(III), the oversupply of Fe(III) (180 mg/kg) decreased the Ca content in the liver and kidneys, while it increased the Ca saturation of bone tissue. High Cr(III) doses lowered the hepatic Ca content. Moreover, it tended to decrease the Ca content in the kidneys and heart, but this effect was not statistically significant. The combined effect of the experimental factors on the Ca content in the liver and the femur was observed. With the increase in the Fe(III) content in the diet, there was a decrease in the Ca level in the liver and an increase in bone saturation, and the additional Cr(III) supplementation intensified those effects. The study proved that the different Fe(III) content in the diet, independently and in combination with Cr(III) supplementation, affected the Ca distribution in organisms of healthy rats.

Keywords: calcium, chromium(III), iron(III), rats, supplementation

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974 A Statistical Analysis on the Comparison of First and Second Waves of COVID-19 and Importance of Early Actions in Public Health for Third Wave in India

Authors: Maitri Dave

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Coronaviruses (CoV) is such infectious virus which has impacted globally in a more dangerous manner causing severe lung problems and leaving behind more serious diseases among the people. This pandemic has affected globally and created severe respiratory problems, and damaged the lungs. India has reported the first case of COVID-19 in January 2020. The first wave of COVID-19 took place from April to September of 2020. Soon after, a second peak is also noticed in the month of March 2021, which in turn becomes more dangerous due to a lack of supply of medical equipment. It created resource deficiency globally, specifically in India, where some necessary life-saving equipment like ventilators and oxygenators were not sufficient to cater to the demand-supply ratio effectively. Through carefully examining such a situation, India began to execute the process of vaccination in the month of January 2021 and successfully administered 25,46,71,259 doses of vaccines till now, which is only 15.5% of the total population while only 3.6% of the total population is fully vaccinated. India has authorized the British Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine (Covishield), the Indian BBV152 (Covaxin) vaccine, and the Russian Sputnik V vaccine for emergency use. In the present study, we have collected all the data state wisely of both first and second wave and analyzed them using MS Excel Version 2019 and SPSS Statistics Version 26. Following the trends, we have predicted the characteristics of the upcoming third wave of COVID-19 and recommended some strategies, early actions, and measures that can be taken by the public health system in India to combat the third wave more effectively.

Keywords: COVID-19, vaccination, Covishiled, Coronavirus

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973 Genotypic Characterization of Gram-Positive Bacteria Isolated on Ornamental Animals Feed

Authors: C. Miranda, R. Soares, S. Cunha, L. Ferreira, G. Igrejas, P. Poeta

Abstract:

Different animal species, including ornamental animals, are reported as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, these resistances can be disseminated in the environment and transferred to humans. Moreover, multidrug-resistant bacteria reduce the efficacy of antibiotics, as the case of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are described as the main nosocomial pathogens. In this line, the aim of this study was to characterize resistance and virulence genes of enterococci species isolated from samples of food supplied to ornamental animals during 2020. The 29 enterococci isolates (10 E. faecalis and 19 E. faecium) were tested for the presence of the resistance genes for the following antibiotics: erythromicyn (ermA, ermB and ermC), tetracycline (tetL, tetM, tetK and tetO), quinupristin/dalfopristin (vatD and vatE), gentamicin (aac(6’)-aph(2’’)-Ia), chloramphenicol (catA), streptomycin (ant(6)-Ia) and vancomycin (vanA and vanB). The same isolates were also tested for 10 virulence factors genes (esp, ace, gelE, agg, fsr, cpd, cylA, cylB, cylM and cylLL). The resistance and virulence genes were performed by PCR, using specific primers and conditions. Negative and positive controls were used in all PCR assays. The most prevalent resistance genes detected in both enterococci species were ermB (n=15, 52%), ermC (n=7, 24%), tetK (n=8, 28%) and vatE (n=4, 14%). Resistance genes for vancomycin were found in ten (34%) E. faecalis and ten (34%) E. faecium isolates. Only E. faecium isolates showed the presence of ermA (n=2, 7%), tetL (n=13, 45%) and ant(6)-Ia gene (n=4, 14%). A total of nine (31%) enterococci isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant bacteria (3 E. faecalis and 6 E. faecium). In three E. faecalis and one E. faecium were not detected resistance genes. The virulence genes detected in both species were agg (n=6, 21%) and cylLL (n=11, 38%). In general, each isolate showed only one of these virulence genes. Five E. faecalis and eleven E. faecium isolates were negative for all analyzed virulence genes. These preliminary results showed the presence of multidrug-resistant enterococci in food supplied to ornamental animals, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci. This genotypic characterization reinforces the relevance to public health in the control of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterococci, feed, ornamental animals

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972 Analysis of Resistance and Virulence Genes of Gram-Positive Bacteria Detected in Calf Colostrums

Authors: C. Miranda, S. Cunha, R. Soares, M. Maia, G. Igrejas, F. Silva, P. Poeta

Abstract:

The worldwide inappropriate use of antibiotics has increased the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms isolated from animals, humans, food, and the environment. To combat this complex and multifaceted problem is essential to know the prevalence in livestock animals and possible ways of transmission among animals and between these and humans. Enterococci species, in particular E. faecalis and E. faecium, are the most common nosocomial bacteria, causing infections in animals and humans. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize resistance and virulence factors genes among two enterococci species isolated from calf colostrums in Portuguese dairy farms. The 55 enterococci isolates (44 E. faecalis and 11 E. faecium) were tested for the presence of the resistance genes for the following antibiotics: erythromicyn (ermA, ermB, and ermC), tetracycline (tetL, tetM, tetK, and tetO), quinupristin/dalfopristin (vatD and vatE) and vancomycin (vanB). Of which, 25 isolates (15 E. faecalis and 10 E. faecium) were tested until now for 8 virulence factors genes (esp, ace, gelE, agg, cpd, cylA, cylB, and cylLL). The resistance and virulence genes were performed by PCR, using specific primers and conditions. Negative and positive controls were used in all PCR assays. All enterococci isolates showed resistance to erythromicyn and tetracycline through the presence of the genes: ermB (n=29, 53%), ermC (n=10, 18%), tetL (n=49, 89%), tetM (n=39, 71%) and tetK (n=33, 60%). Only two (4%) E. faecalis isolates showed the presence of tetO gene. No resistance genes for vancomycin were found. The virulence genes detected in both species were cpd (n=17, 68%), agg (n=16, 64%), ace (n=15, 60%), esp (n=13, 52%), gelE (n=13, 52%) and cylLL (n=8, 32%). In general, each isolate showed at least three virulence genes. In three E. faecalis isolates was not found virulence genes and only E. faecalis isolates showed virulence genes for cylA (n=4, 16%) and cylB (n=6, 24%). In conclusion, these colostrum samples that were consumed by calves demonstrated the presence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci harbored virulence genes. This genotypic characterization is crucial to control the antibiotic-resistant bacteria through the implementation of restricts measures safeguarding public health. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the R&D Project CAREBIO2 (Comparative assessment of antimicrobial resistance in environmental biofilms through proteomics - towards innovative theragnostic biomarkers), with reference NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-030101 and PTDC/SAU-INF/30101/2017, financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the Northern Regional Operational Program (NORTE 2020) and the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). This work was supported by the Associate Laboratory for Green Chemistry - LAQV which is financed by national funds from FCT/MCTES (UIDB/50006/2020 and UIDP/50006/2020).

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, calf, colostrums, enterococci

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971 Design and Development of Ssvep-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Limb Disabled Patients

Authors: Zerihun Ketema Tadesse, Dabbu Suman Reddy

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Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) give the possibility for disabled people to communicate and control devices. This work aims at developing steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for patients with limb disabilities. In hospitals, devices like nurse emergency call devices, lights, and TV sets are what patients use most frequently, but these devices are operated manually or using the remote control. Thus, disabled patients are not able to operate these devices by themselves. Hence, SSVEP-based BCI system that can allow disabled patients to control nurse calling device and other devices is proposed in this work. Portable LED visual stimulator that flickers at specific frequencies of 7Hz, 8Hz, 9Hz and 10Hz were developed as part of this project. Disabled patients can stare at specific flickering LED of visual stimulator and Emotiv EPOC used to acquire EEG signal in a non-invasive way. The acquired EEG signal can be processed to generate various control signals depending upon the amplitude and duration of signal components. MATLAB software is used for signal processing and analysis and also for command generation. Arduino is used as a hardware interface device to receive and transmit command signals to the experimental setup. Therefore, this study is focused on the design and development of Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for limb disabled patients, which helps them to operate and control devices in the hospital room/wards.

Keywords: SSVEP-BCI, Limb Disabled Patients, LED Visual Stimulator, EEG signal, control devices, hospital room/wards

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970 Barrier Membrane Influence Histology of Guided Bone Regenerations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Laura Canagueral-Pellice, Antonio Munar-Frau, Adaia Valls-ontanon, Joao Carames, Federico Hernandez-Alfaro, Jordi Caballe-Serrano

Abstract:

Objective: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to replace the missing bone with a new structure to achieve long-term stability of rehabilitations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of barrier membranes on histological outcomes after GBR procedures. Moreover, the effect of the grafting material and tissue gain were analyzed. Materials & methods: Two independent reviewers performed an electronic search in Pubmed and Scopus, identifying all eligible publications up to March 2020. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a histological analysis of augmented areas were included. Results: A total of 6 publications were included for the present systematic review. A total of 110 biopsied sites were analysed; 10 corresponded to vertical bone augmentation procedures, whereas 100 analysed horizontal regeneration procedures. A mean tissue gain of 3 ± 1.48mm was obtained for horizontal defects. Histological assessment of new bone formation, residual particle and sub-epithelial connective tissue (SCT) was reported. The four main barrier membranes used were natural collagen membranes, e-PTFE, polylactic resorbable membranes and acellular dermal matrix membranes (AMDG). The analysis demonstrated that resorbable membranes result in higher values of new bone formation and lower values of residual particles and SCT. Xenograft resulted in lower new bone formation compared to allograft; however, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding residual particle and SCT. Overall, regeneration procedures adding autogenous bone, plasma derivate or growth factors achieved in general greater new bone formation and tissue gain. Conclusions: There is limited evidence favoring the effect of a certain type of barrier membrane in GBR. Data needs to be evaluated carefully; however, resorbable membranes are correlated with greater new bone formation values, especially when combined with allograft materials and/or the addition of autogenous bone, platelet reach plasma (PRP) or growth factors in the regeneration area. More studies assessing the histological outcomes of different GBR protocols and procedures testing different biomaterials are needed to maximize the clinical and histological outcomes in bone regeneration science.

Keywords: barrier membrane, graft material, guided bone regeneration, implant surgery, histology

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969 Biocompatibility assessment of different origin Barrier Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration

Authors: Antonio Munar-Frau, Sascha Klismoch, Manfred Schmolz, Federico Hernandez-Alfaro, Jordi Caballe-Serrano

Abstract:

Introduction: Biocompatibility of biomaterials has been proposed as one of the main criteria for treatment success. For guided bone regeneration (GBR), barrier membranes present a conflict given the number of origins and modifications of these materials. The biologic response to biomaterials is orchestrated by a series of events leading to the integration or rejection of the biomaterial, posing questions such as if a longer occlusive property may trigger an inflammatory reaction. Whole blood cultures are a solution to study the immune response to drugs or biomaterials during the first 24-48 hours. The aim of this study is to determine the early immune response of different origins and chemical modifications of barrier membranes. Materials & Methods: 5 different widely used barrier membranes were included in this study: Acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm, LifeCell®), Porcine Peritoneum (BioGide, Geistlich Pharma®), Porcine Pericardium (Jason, Botiss Biomaterials GmbH®), Porcine Cross-linked collagen (Ossix Plus, Datum Dental®) and d-PTFE (Cytoplast TXT, Osteogenics Biomedical®). Blood samples were extracted from 3 different healthy donors and incubated with the different samples of barrier membranes for 24 hours. After the incubation time, serum samples were obtained and analyzed by means of biocompatibility assays taking into account 42 markers. Results: In an early stage of the inflammatory response, the Acellular dermal matrix, porcine peritoneum and porcine cross-linked collagen expressed similar patterns of cytokine expression with a great manifestation of ENA 78. Porcine pericardium and d-PTFE presented similar cytokine activation, especially for MMP-3 and MMP-9, although other cytokines were highlighted with lower expression. For the later immune response, Porcine peritoneum and acellular dermal matrix MCP-1 and IL-15 were evident. Porcine pericardium, porcine cross-linked collagen and d-PTFE presented a high expression of IL-16 and lower manifestation of other cytokines. Different behaviors depending on an earlier or later stage of the inflammation process were observed. Barrier membrane inflammatory expression does not only differ depending on the origin, variables such as treatment of the collagen and polymers may also have a great impact on the cytokine expression of the studied barrier membranes during inflammation. Conclusions: Surface treatment and modifications might affect the biocompatibility of the membranes, as different cytokine expressions were evidently depending on the origin of the biomaterial. This study is only a brushstroke regarding the biocompatibility of materials, as it is one of the pioneer studies for ex vivo barrier membranes assays. Studies regarding surface modification are needed in order to clarify mystifications of barrier membrane science.

Keywords: biomaterials, bone regeneration, biocompatibility, inflammation

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968 A Formal Microlectic Framework for Biological Circularchy

Authors: Ellis D. Cooper

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“Circularchy” is supposed to be an adjustable formal framework with enough expressive power to articulate biological theory about Earthly Life in the sense of multi-scale biological autonomy constrained by non-equilibrium thermodynamics. “Formal framework” means specifically a multi-sorted first-order-theorywithequality (for each sort). Philosophically, such a theory is one kind of “microlect,” which means a “way of speaking” (or, more generally, a “way of behaving”) for overtly expressing a “mental model” of some “referent.” Other kinds of microlect include “natural microlect,” “diagrammatic microlect,” and “behavioral microlect,” with examples such as “political theory,” “Euclidean geometry,” and “dance choreography,” respectively. These are all describable in terms of a vocabulary conforming to grammar. As aspects of human culture, they are possibly reminiscent of Ernst Cassirer’s idea of “symbolic form;” as vocabularies, they are akin to Richard Rorty’s idea of “final vocabulary” for expressing a mental model of one’s life. A formal microlect is presented by stipulating sorts, variables, calculations, predicates, and postulates. Calculations (a.k.a., “terms”) may be composed to form more complicated calculations; predicates (a.k.a., “relations”) may be logically combined to form more complicated predicates; and statements (a.k.a., “sentences”) are grammatically correct expressions which are true or false. Conclusions are statements derived using logical rules of deduction from postulates, other assumed statements, or previously derived conclusions. A circularchy is a formal microlect constituted by two or more sub-microlects, each with its distinct stipulations of sorts, variables, calculations, predicates, and postulates. Within a sub-microlect some postulates or conclusions are equations which are statements that declare equality of specified calculations. An equational bond between an equation in one sub-microlect and an equation in either the same sub-microlect or in another sub-microlect is a predicate that declares equality of symbols occurring in a side of one equation with symbols occurring in a side of the other equation. Briefly, a circularchy is a network of equational bonds between sub-microlects. A circularchy is solvable if there exist solutions for all equations that satisfy all equational bonds. If a circularchy is not solvable, then a challenge would be to discover the obstruction to solvability and then conjecture what adjustments might remove the obstruction. Adjustment means changes in stipulated ingredients (sorts, etc.) of sub-microlects, or changes in equational bonds between sub-microlects, or introduction of new sub-microlects and new equational bonds. A circularchy is modular insofar as each sub-microlect is a node in a network of equation bonds. Solvability of a circularchy may be conjectured. Efforts to prove solvability may be thwarted by a counter-example or may lead to the construction of a solution. An automated theorem-proof assistant would likely be necessary for investigating a substantial circularchy, such as one purported to represent Earthly Life. Such investigations (chains of statements) would be concurrent with and no substitute for simulations (chains of numbers).

Keywords: autonomy, first-order theory, mathematics, thermodynamics

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