Publications | World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24
24 The Effect of Gender and Resources on Entrepreneurial Activity

Authors: Frederick Wedzerai Nyakudya


In this paper, we examine the relationship between human capital, personal wealth and social capital to explain the differences in start-up rates between female and male entrepreneurs. Since our dependent variable is dichotomous, we examine the determinants of these using a maximum likelihood logit estimator. We used the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database covering the period 2006 to 2009 with 421 usable cases drawn from the Lower Layer Super Output Areas in East Midlands in the United Kingdom. We found evidence indicating that a female positively moderates the positive relationships between indicators of human capital and personal wealth with start-up activity. The findings have implications for programs, policies, and practices to encourage more females to engage in start-up activity.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, gender gap, women's entrepreneurship.

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23 Modular Data and Calculation Framework for a Technology-Based Mapping of the Manufacturing Process According to the Value Stream Management Approach

Authors: Tim Wollert, Fabian Behrendt


Value Stream Management (VSM) is a widely used methodology in the context of Lean Management for improving end-to-end material and information flows from a supplier to a customer from a company’s perspective. Whereas the design principles, e.g. Pull, value-adding, customer-orientation and further ones are still valid against the background of an increasing digitalized and dynamic environment, the methodology itself for mapping a value stream is characterized as time- and resource-intensive due to the high degree of manual activities. The digitalization of processes in the context of Industry 4.0 enables new opportunities to reduce these manual efforts and make the VSM approach more agile. The paper at hand aims at providing a modular data and calculation framework, utilizing the available business data, provided by information and communication technologies for automizing the value stream mapping process with focus on the manufacturing process.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, lean management 4.0, value stream management 4.0, value stream mapping.

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22 Causes of Slum Emergence from Decently Built Government's Affordable Housing Projects in Enugu, Nigeria: The Experts’ Perspectives

Authors: Anthony Ikechukwu Agboeze, Walter Timo de Vries, Pamela Durán-Díaz


Since attaining urban status, the population of Enugu, Nigeria, has continued to grow rapidly, leading to growing demands for housing by the teeming population which is predominantly low income. Several government dispensations have developed various affordable housing projects to help deliver decent housing to the Enugu populace. However, over a long period of usage, some of those housing projects in Enugu are unabatedly deteriorating into slums alongside rising housing deficits which has remained problematic for most Nigerian urban centers to address. Emerging from a literature review, this research posits that the link between slum and affordable housing is that both the seekers of affordable housing and slum housing are the low-income earners. This research further investigated the possible causalities of slum emergence from decently built affordable housing projects in Enugu, Nigeria. To do so, we first analyzed the Nigerian housing policy to examine how the policy addresses slum prevention. We further conducted semi-structured expert interviews (qualitative) to sample the views of private housing developers on the degeneration of government housing projects into slums in Enugu, Nigeria. Findings from the housing policy analysis suggest that the housing policy itself is not legally binding on anybody to implement. Sequel to this non-compulsory nature of the housing policy is the poor/non-implementation of the Nigerian housing policy, leading to a constant tendency by the government developers (contractors) to deliver potential slums. The expert respondents corroborated this viewpoint by suggesting that poor planning (including designs of the housing units and the master plan) and poor management (including non-maintenance, poor documentation, and inaccurate housing inventory) are germane to the emergence of slums from affordable housings. This research recommends periodic auditing of delivered housing projects to evaluate the developers’ adherence to the housing policy guidelines – it proposes incentives to policy adherents since the housing policy is not legally binding. We also recommend a participatory management to engage the occupants in the monitoring and reporting of breakdowns in the housing properties – to help improve the quality of management and maintenance to have slum-free settlements.

Keywords: Affordable housing, Enugu, low income, Nigeria, slum.

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21 Standard Fuzzy Sets for Aircraft Selection using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil


This study uses two-dimensional standard fuzzy sets to enhance multiple criteria decision-making analysis for passenger aircraft selection, allowing decision-makers to express judgments with uncertain and vague information. Using two-dimensional fuzzy numbers, three decision makers evaluated three aircraft alternatives according to seven decision criteria. A validity analysis based on two-dimensional standard fuzzy weighted geometric (SFWG) and two-dimensional standard fuzzy weighted average (SFGA) operators is conducted to test the proposed approach's robustness and effectiveness in the fuzzy multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) evaluation process. 

Keywords: Standard fuzzy sets (SFSs), aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making, intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs), SFWG, SFGA, MCDM

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20 Gods, Spirits, and Rituals: Amplifying Mangyans’ Indigenous Wisdom and Resilience in the Age of Pandemic and Ecological Catastrophes

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat


Like mostly Filipinos, Mangyans have to face various ecological conundrums and sicknesses in order to survive. In these challenging times, it is the fear of life that grasps so alarmingly that even indigenous communities are not excused. Given this reality, this paper deals with the local cultural knowledge and customs of Mangyans, the indigenous people in the island of Mindoro, Philippines, that let them face calamities and crises with great resolve. For the Mangyans, their collective wisdom and tradition of resilience make them survive the stiffest challenges that come in their lives. The Mangyans believe in the existence of one Supreme Being, Ambuwaw, who created them and the world and who is continually sustaining their existence. The presence of the divine is experienced in terms of his omnipotence, pervading their everyday life, and manifesting himself in physically observable phenomena such as deliverance from calamities or sicknesses, blessing of the harvest, and other forms. They believe that there are bad spirits roaming the land called Bukaw in the spirit-world. Ecological catastrophes are regarded as being caused by these bad spirits. To drive away these, Mangyans perform a ritual called Tawtaw. Knowing how Mangyans steadfastly confront challenges in life and how they prosper despite having meager means and being significantly less equipped for and dependent on contemporary technologies is enlightening. Their worldview (pananaw) which shapes and informs their customs and traditions (kaugalian) is what they refer to as their indigenous survival wisdom and it is actualized through unique communal behaviors (kinagawian).

Keywords: Indigenous survival wisdom, Mangyans, resilience, tradition and customs.

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19 Understanding the Influence of Sensory Attributes on Wine Price: Case study of Pinot Noir Wines

Authors: Jingxian An, Wei Yu


The commercial value (retail price) of wine is mostly determined by the wine quality, ageing potential, and oak influence. This paper reveals that wine quality, ageing potential, and oak influence are favourably correlated, hence positively influencing the commercial value of Pinot noir wines. Oak influence is the most influential of these three sensory attributes on the price set by wine traders and estimated by experienced customers. In the meanwhile, this study gives winemakers with chemical instructions for raising total phenolics, which can improve wine quality, ageing potential, and oak influence, all of which can increase a wine’s economic worth.

Keywords: Retail price, ageing potential, wine quality, oak influence.

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18 Automatic Classification of Lung Diseases from CT Images

Authors: Abobaker Mohammed Qasem Farhan, Shangming Yang, Mohammed Al-Nehari


Pneumonia is a kind of lung disease that creates congestion in the chest. Such pneumonic conditions lead to loss of life due to the severity of high congestion. Pneumonic lung disease is caused by viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, or COVID-19 induced pneumonia. The early prediction and classification of such lung diseases help reduce the mortality rate. We propose the automatic Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system in this paper using the deep learning approach. The proposed CAD system takes input from raw computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patient's chest and automatically predicts disease classification. We designed the Hybrid Deep Learning Algorithm (HDLA) to improve accuracy and reduce processing requirements. The raw CT scans are pre-processed first to enhance their quality for further analysis. We then applied a hybrid model that consists of automatic feature extraction and classification. We propose the robust 2D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model to extract the automatic features from the pre-processed CT image. This CNN model assures feature learning with extremely effective 1D feature extraction for each input CT image. The outcome of the 2D CNN model is then normalized using the Min-Max technique. The second step of the proposed hybrid model is related to training and classification using different classifiers. The simulation outcomes using the publicly available dataset prove the robustness and efficiency of the proposed model compared to state-of-art algorithms.

Keywords: CT scans, COVID-19, deep learning, image processing, pneumonia, lung disease.

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17 Aircraft Selection Process Using Reference Linear Combination in Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil


This paper introduces a new method for multiplecriteria decision making (MCDM) that avoids order reversal and ensures consistency in decision-making. The proposed method involves range targeting of benefit and cost criteria vectors for range normalization of the initial decision matrix. The Reference Linear Combination (RLC) is used to avoid the rank reversal problem. The preference order generated from the target score matrix does not require relative comparisons between alternatives but relies on a chosen reference solution point after transforming the original decision matrix into an MCDM problem by specifying the minimum and maximum bounds of each criterion. The efficiency and applicability of the proposed RLC method were demonstrated in the selection of commercial passenger aircraft. 

Keywords: Aircraft selection, reference linear combination (RLC), multiple criteria decision-making, MCDM

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16 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr


Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional mechanisms. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the so-called content-bearing function: it argues that emotions provide the material reasoning that is subsequently transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. This paper argues that science education must start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if we want to form citizens with a scientific or cultural future.

Keywords: Epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists, epistemic functions of emotions.

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15 A Design of an Augmented Reality Based Virtual Heritage Application

Authors: Stephen Barnes, Ian Mills, Frances Cleary


Augmented and Virtual Reality based applications offer many benefits for the heritage and tourism sector. This technology provides a platform to showcase the regions of interest to people without the need for them to be physically present, which has had a positive impact on enticing tourists to visit those locations. However, the technology also provides the opportunity to present historical artefacts in a form that accurately represents their original, intended appearance. Three sites of interest were identified in the Lingaun Valley in South East Ireland wherein virtual representations of site specific artefacts of interest were created via a multidisciplinary team encompassing archaeology, art history, 3D modelling, design and software development. The collated information has been presented to users via an Augmented Reality mobile based application that provides information in an engaging manner that encourages an interest in history as well as visits to the sites in the Lingaun Valley.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Virtual Heritage, 3D modelling, archaeology, virtual representation.

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14 Oil Exploitation, Environmental Injustice and Decolonial Nonrecognition: Exploring the Historical Accounts of Host Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Kanu


This research explores the environmental justice of host communities in south-eastern Nigeria whose source of livelihood has been destroyed due to oil exploitation. Environmental justice scholarship in the area often adopts Western liberal ideology from a more macro level synthesis (Niger Delta). This study, therefore, explored the sufficiency or otherwise of the adoption of Western liberal ideology in the framing of Environmental Justice (EJ) in the area which neglects the impact of colonialism and cultural domination. Archival research supplemented by secondary analysis of literature guided this study. Drawing from data analysis, the paper first argues that micro-level studies are required to either validate or invalidate the studies done at the macro-level (Niger Delta) which has often been used to generalise around environmental injustice done within the host communities even though the communities (South-eastern) differ significantly from (South-south) in terms of language, culture, the socio-political and economic formation which indicate that the drivers of EJ may differ among them. Secondly, the paper argues that EJ framing from the Western worldview adopted in the study area is insufficient to understand environmental injustice suffered in the study area and there is the need for EJ framing that will consider the impact of colonialism and nonrecognition of the cultural identities of the host communities which breed EJ. The study, therefore, concludes by drawing from decolonial theory to consider how the framing of EJ would move beyond the western liberal EJ to Indigenous EJ.

Keywords: Culture, decolonial, environmental justice, indigenous environmental justice, nonrecognition.

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13 Application Methodology for the Generation of 3D Thermal Models Using UAV Photogrammety and Dual Sensors for Mining/Industrial Facilities Inspection

Authors: Javier Sedano-Cibrián, Julio Manuel de Luis-Ruiz, Rubén Pérez-Álvarez, Raúl Pereda-García, Beatriz Malagón-Picón


Structural inspection activities are necessary to ensure the correct functioning of infrastructures. UAV techniques have become more popular than traditional techniques. Specifically, UAV Photogrammetry allows time and cost savings. The development of this technology has permitted the use of low-cost thermal sensors in UAVs. The representation of 3D thermal models with this type of equipment is in continuous evolution. The direct processing of thermal images usually leads to errors and inaccurate results. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the generation of 3D thermal models using dual sensors, which involves the application of RGB and thermal images in parallel. Hence, the RGB images are used as the basis for the generation of the model geometry, and the thermal images are the source of the surface temperature information that is projected onto the model. Mining/industrial facilities representations that are obtained can be used for inspection activities.

Keywords: Aerial thermography, data processing, drone, low-cost, point cloud.

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12 Effects of Particle Size Distribution of Binders on the Performance of Slag-Limestone Ternary Cement

Authors: Zhuomin Zou, Thijs Van Landeghem, Elke Gruyaert


Using supplementary cementitious materials, such as ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and limestone to replace Portland cement (PC) is a promising method to reduce the carbon emissions from cement production. To efficiently use GGBFS and limestone, it is necessary to carefully select the particle size distribution (PSD) of the binders. This study investigated the effects of the PSD of binders on the performance of slag-limestone ternary cement. Based on the PSD parameters of the binders, three types of ternary cements with a similar overall PSD were designed, i.e., No.1 fine GGBFS, medium PC, and coarse limestone; No.2 fine limestone, medium PC, and coarse GGBFS; No.3. fine PC, medium GGBFS, and coarse limestone. The binder contents in the ternary cements were 50% PC, 40% slag, and 10% limestone. The mortar performance of the three ternary cements was investigated in terms of flow table value, strength at 28 days, carbonation resistance and non-steady state chloride migration resistance at 28 days. Results show that ternary cement with fine limestone (No.2) has the weakest performance among the three ternary cements. Ternary cements with fine slag (No.1) show an overall comparable performance to ternary cement with fine PC (No.3). Moreover, the chloride migration coefficient of ternary cements with fine slag (No.1) is significantly lower than the other two ternary cements.

Keywords: Limestone, particle size distribution, slag, ternary cement.

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11 Aerial Firefighting Aircraft Selection with Standard Fuzzy Sets using Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil


Aircraft selection decisions can be challenging due to their multidimensional and interdisciplinary nature. They involve multiple stakeholders with conflicting objectives and numerous alternative options with uncertain outcomes. This study focuses on the analysis of aerial firefighting aircraft that can be chosen for the Air Fire Service to extinguish forest fires. To make such a selection, the characteristics of the fire zones must be considered, and the capability to manage the logistics involved in such operations, as well as the purchase and maintenance of the aircraft, must be determined. The selection of firefighting aircraft is particularly complex because they have longer fleet lives and require more demanding operation and maintenance than scheduled passenger air service. This paper aims to use the fuzzy proximity measure method to select the most appropriate aerial firefighting aircraft based on decision criteria using multiple attribute decision making analysis. Following fuzzy decision analysis, the most suitable aerial firefighting aircraft is ranked and determined for the Air Fire Service.

Keywords: Aerial firefighting aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making, fuzzy sets, standard fuzzy sets, determinate fuzzy sets, indeterminate fuzzy sets, proximity measure method, Minkowski distance family function, Hausdorff distance function, MCDM, PMM, PMM-F

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10 Drive-Related Behaviors as Elements of Thinking

Authors: Peter Pfeifer, Julian Pfeifer, Niko Pfeifer


Information processing is at the focus of brain and cognition research. This work has a different perspective, it starts with behaviors. The detailed analysis of behaviors leads to the discovery that a significant proportion of them are based on only five basic drives. These basic drives are combinable, and the combinations result in the diversity of human behavior and thinking. The key elements are drive memories. They collect memories of drive-related situations and feelings. They contain variations of basic drives in numerous areas of life and build combinations with different meanings depending on the area. Human thinking could be explained with variations on these nested combinations of basic drives.

Keywords: Cognitive modeling, psycholinguistics, psychology, psychophysiology of cognition.

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9 Morphological and Dynamic Mechanical Analyses of a Local Clay/Plantain Fiber Filled Hybrid Polystyrene Composites

Authors: K. P. Odimayomi, A. G. Adeniyi, S. A. Abdulkareem, F. M. Oladipo Emmanuel, C. A. Adeyanju, M. A Amoloye


The abundant availability of the local clay/plantain fiber coupled with the various renewable and sustainability advantages has led to their choice as co-fillers in the development of a hybrid polystyrene composite. The prime objective of this study is to evaluate the morphological and dynamic mechanical properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The hybrid polystyrene composite development was developed via the hand-lay-up method. All processing including the constituent mixing and curing were achieved at room temperature (25 ± 2 ℃).   The mechanical characteristics of the developed composites via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) confirm an indirect relationship between time and storage modulus, this pattern becomes more evident at higher frequencies. It is clearly portrayed that the addition of clay and plantain fiber in the polystyrene matrix increases the stiffness of the developed composite.

Keywords: Morphology, DMA, Akerebiata clay, plantain fiber, hybrid polystyrene composites.

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8 Effects of Chlorhexidine in Application to Hybrid Layers

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Edona Hasanaj, Vera Ostreni


The hybrid layer (HL), the way it is created and how it is protected against degradation over time, is the key to the clinical success of a composite restoration. The composite supports the dentinal structure exactly with the realized surface of micro-retention. Thus, this surface is in direct proportion to its size versus the duration of clinical use of composite dental restoration. Micro-retention occurs between dentin or acidified enamel and adhesive resin extensions versus pre-prepared spaces, such as hollow dentinal tubules. The way the adhesive resin binds to the acidified dentinal structure depends on the physical or chemical factors of this interrelationship between two structures with very different characteristics. During the acidification process, a precursor to the placement of the adhesive resin layer, activation of metalloproteinases of dental origin occurs, enzymes which are responsible for the degradation of the HL. These enzymes have expressed activity depending on the presence of Zn2+ or Ca2+ ions. There are several ways to inhibit these enzymes, and consequently, there are several ways to inhibit the degradation process of the HL. The study aim is to evaluate chlorhexidine (CHX) as a solution element, inhibitor of dentin activated metalloproteinases, as a result of the application of acidification. This study aims to look at this solution in advantage or contraindication theories, already published in the literature.

Keywords: Hybrid layer, chlorhexidine, degradation, smear layer.

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7 Additive Manufacturing with Ceramic Filler Concerning Filament Creation and Strength

Authors: Wolfram Irsa, Lorenz Boruch


Innovative solutions in additive manufacturing applying material extrusion for functional parts necessitates innovative filaments with persistent quality. Uniform homogeneity and consistent dispersion of particles embedded in filaments generally require multiple cycles of extrusion or well-prepared primal matter by injection molding, kneader machines, or mixing equipment. These technologies commit to dedicated equipment that are rarely at disposal in production laboratories unfamiliar with research in polymer materials. This stands in contrast to laboratories which investigate on complex material topics and technology science to leverage on the potential of 3-D printing. Consequently, scientific studies in labs are often constrained to compositions and concentrations of fillers offered from the market. Therefore, we present a prototypal laboratory methodology scalable to tailored primal matter for extruding ceramic composite filaments with fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. A desktop single-screw extruder serves as core device for the experiments. Custom-made filament encapsulates the ceramic fillers and serves with polylactide (PLA), which is a thermoplastic polyester, as primal matter and is processed in the melting area of the extruder preserving the defined concentration of the fillers. Validated results demonstrate that this approach enables continuously produced and uniform composite filaments with consistent homogeneity. It is 3-D printable with controllable dimensions, which is a prerequisite for any scalable application. Additionally, digital microscopy confirms steady dispersion of the ceramic particles in the composite filament. This permits a 2D reconstruction of the planar distribution of the embedded ceramic particles in the PLA matrices. The innovation of the introduced method lies in the smart simplicity of preparing the composite primal matter. It circumvents the inconvenience of numerous extrusion operations and expensive laboratory equipment. Nevertheless, it delivers consistent filaments of controlled, predictable, and reproducible filler concentration, which is the prerequisite for any industrial application. The introduced prototypal laboratory methodology seems capable for other polymer matrices and suitable to further utilitarian particle types, beyond and above of ceramic fillers. This inaugurates a roadmap for supplementary laboratory development of peculiar composite filaments, providing value for industries and societies. This low-threshold entry of sophisticated preparation of composite filaments - enabling businesses creating their own dedicated filaments - will support the mutual efforts for establishing 3D printing to new functional devices.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, ceramic composites, complex filament, industrial application.

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6 Aircraft Supplier Selection Process with Fuzzy Proximity Measure Method using Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil


Being effective in every organizational activity has become necessary due to the escalating level of competition in all areas of corporate life. In the context of supply chain management, aircraft supplier selection is currently one of the most crucial activities. It is possible to choose the best aircraft supplier and deliver efficiency in terms of cost, quality, delivery time, economic status, and institutionalization if a systematic supplier selection approach is used. In this study, an effective multiple criteria decision-making methodology, proximity measure method (PMM), is used within a fuzzy environment based on the vague structure of the real working environment. The best appropriate aircraft suppliers are identified and ranked after the proposed multiple criteria decision making technique is used in a real-life scenario.

Keywords: Aircraft supplier selection, multiple criteria decision making, fuzzy sets, proximity measure method, Minkowski distance family function, Hausdorff distance function, PMM, MCDM

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5 Furniko Flour: An Emblematic Traditional Food of Greek Pontic Cuisine

Authors: A. Keramaris, T. Sawidis, E. Kasapidou, P. Mitlianga


Although the gastronomy of the Greeks of Pontus is well-known, it has not received the same level of scientific scrutiny as another Greek local cuisine, that of Crete. As a result, we planned to concentrate our research on Greek Pontic cuisine to shed light on its distinct recipes, food products, and, ultimately, its characteristics. The Greeks of Pontus have one of Greece's most distinguished local cuisines, having lived for a long time in the northern part (Black Sea Region) of modern Turkey and now widely inhabiting northern Greece. Despite its simplicity, their cuisine contains several mouthwatering delicacies. Even though they have been in Greece for a century, their gastronomic culture remains an important part of their collective identity. As a first step toward understanding Greek Pontic cuisine, furniko flour, one of its most well-known traditional products, was investigated. For this project, we targeted residents of Western Macedonia, a province in northern Greece with a large population of descendants of Pontus Greeks who are primarily engaged in agricultural activities. In this quest, we approached a descendant of Pontus Greeks who is involved in the production of furniko flour and agreed to show us the entire process as we participated in it. Furniko flour is made from heirloom non-hybrid corn. When the moisture content of the seeds is low enough to make them suitable for roasting, they are harvested by hand. Harvesting by hand entails removing the cob from the plant and separating the husks. The harvested cobs are then roasted in a traditional wood oven for 24 hours. After that, the these are collected and stored in sacks. The next step is to extract the seeds by rubbing the cobs together. Ideally, the seeds should be ground in a traditional stone hand mill. The outcome of this process is aromatic, dark golden furniko flour, which is used to make havitz. Along with the furniko flour preparation, we also documented the havitz cooking process (a porridge-like corn flour dish). One of the most delectable dishes in Greek Pontic cuisine, this savory delicacy is simple to prepare. Because of the ingredients of furniko flour, havitz is a highly nutritious dish, according to the research participant. Furthermore, he claims that preparing havitz is a wonderful way to bring families together, share stories, and revisit happy memories. Finally, as an initial effort to highlight elements of Pontic Greek cuisine, this study illustrates the traditional preparation of furniko flour and its use in various traditional recipes. Our next objective would be to evaluate the nutritional value of furniko flour by analyzing its chemical components.

Keywords: Furniko flour, Greek Pontic cuisine, Havitz, traditional foods.

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4 Implications about the Impact of COVID-19 on International Trade in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anwar Kashgari


COVID-19 has severe impacts on business all over the world. The great lockdown of many business owners requires a sage deal with this pandemic. This paper seeks to support business leaders with a standpoint about the COVID-19 situation and provides implications for the SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) and companies. The paper reflects the author's view about the impact of COVID-19 on business activities. We discussed the impact of COVID-19 upon three aspects, namely, startups, SMEs, and e-commerce. The KSA is taken as an example of the developing countries about which we present the current situation. Finally, recommendations to policy and decision-makers are given.

Keywords: COVID-19, business networking, globalization, Saudi Arabia.

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3 Malaria Prone Zones of West Bengal: A Spatio-Temporal Scenario

Authors: Meghna Maiti, Utpal Roy


In India, till today, malaria is considered to be one of the significant infectious diseases. Most of the cases regional geographical factors are the principal elements to let the places a unique identity. The incidence and intensity of infectious diseases are quite common and affect different places differently across the nation. The present study aims to identify spatial clusters of hot spots and cold spots of malaria incidence and their seasonal variation during the three periods of 2012-2014, 2015-2017 and 2018-20 in the state of West Bengal in India. As malaria is a vector-borne disease, numbers of positive test results are to be reported by the laboratories to the Department of Health, West Bengal (through the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme). Data on block-wise monthly malaria positive cases are collected from Health Management Information System (HMIS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Moran’s I statistic is performed to assess the spatial autocorrelation of malaria incidence. The spatial statistical analysis mainly Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) cluster and Local Geary Cluster are applied to find the spatial clusters of hot spots and cold spots and seasonal variability of malaria incidence over the three periods. The result indicates that the spatial distribution of malaria is clustered during each of the three periods of 2012-2014, 2015-2017 and 2018-20. The analysis shows that in all the cases, high-high clusters are primarily concentrated in the western (Purulia, Paschim Medinipur districts), central (Maldah, Murshidabad districts) and the northern parts (Jalpaiguri, Kochbihar districts) and low-low clusters are found in the lower Gangetic plain (central-south) mainly and northern parts of West Bengal during the stipulated period. Apart from this seasonal variability inter-year variation is also visible. The results from different methods of this study indicate significant variation in the spatial distribution of malaria incidence in West Bengal and high incidence clusters are primarily persistently concentrated over the western part during 2012-2020 along with a strong seasonal pattern with a peak in rainy and autumn. By applying the different techniques in identifying the different degrees of incidence zones of malaria across West Bengal, some specific pockets or malaria hotspots are marked and identified where the incidence rates are quite harmonious over the different periods. From this analysis, it is clear that malaria is not a disease that is distributed uniformly across the state; some specific pockets are more prone to be affected in particular seasons of each year. Disease ecology and spatial patterns must be the factors in explaining the real factors for the higher incidence of this issue within those affected districts. The further study mainly by applying empirical approach is needed for discerning the strong relationship between communicable disease and other associated affecting factors.

Keywords: Malaria, infectious diseases, spatial statistics, spatial autocorrelation, LISA.

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2 Stochastic Edge Based Anomaly Detection for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisitions Systems: Considering the Zambian Power Grid

Authors: Lukumba Phiri, Simon Tembo, Kumbuso Joshua Nyoni


In Zambia, recent initiatives by various power operators like ZESCO, CEC, and consumers like the mines, to upgrade power systems into smart grids, target an even tighter integration with information technologies to enable the integration of renewable energy sources, local and bulk generation, and demand response. Thus, for the reliable operation of smart grids, its information infrastructure must be secure and reliable in the face of both failures and cyberattacks. Due to the nature of the systems, ICS/SCADA cybersecurity and governance face additional challenges compared to the corporate networks, and critical systems may be left exposed. There exist control frameworks internationally such as the NIST framework, however, they are generic and do not meet the domain-specific needs of the SCADA systems. Zambia is also lagging in cybersecurity awareness and adoption, and therefore there is a concern about securing ICS controlling key infrastructure critical to the Zambian economy as there are few known facts about the true posture. In this paper, we present a stochastic Edged-based Anomaly Detection for SCADA systems (SEADS) framework for threat modeling and risk assessment. SEADS enables the calculation of steady-steady probabilities that are further applied to establish metrics like system availability, maintainability, and reliability.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, SmartGrid, edge, maintainability, reliability, stochastic process.

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1 Effects of Gratitude Practice on Relationship Satisfaction and the Role of Perceived Superiority

Authors: Anomi Bearden, Brooke Goodyear, Alicia Khan


This repeated-measures experiment explored the effects of six weeks of gratitude practice on college students (N = 67) on relationship satisfaction and perceived superiority. Replicating previous research on gratitude practice, it was hypothesized that after consistent gratitude practice, participants in the experimental group (n = 32) would feel increased levels of relationship satisfaction compared to the control group (n = 35). Of particular interest was whether the level of perceived superiority would moderate the effect of gratitude practice on relationship satisfaction. The gratitude group evidenced significantly higher appreciation and marginally higher relationship satisfaction at post-test than the control group (both groups being equal at pre-test). Significant enhancements in gratitude, satisfaction, and feeling both appreciative and appreciated were found in the gratitude group, as well as significant enhancements in gratitude, satisfaction, and feeling appreciated in the control group. Appreciation for one’s partner was the only measure that improved in the gratitude group and not the control group from pre-test to post-test. Perceived superiority did not change significantly from pre-test to post-test in either group, supporting the prevalence and stability of this bias within people’s overall perceptions of their relationships.

Keywords: Gratitude, relationship satisfaction, perceived superiority, partner appreciation.

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