Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: N.M.Saad

70 Bifurcation Study and Parameter Analyses Boost Converter

Authors: S. Ben Said, K. Ben Saad, M. Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper deals with bifurcation analyses in current programmed DC/DC Boost converter and exhibition of chaotic behavior. This phenomenon occurs due to variation of a set of the studied circuit parameters (input voltage and a reference current). Two different types of bifurcation paths have been observed as part as part of another bifurcation arising from variation of suitable chosen parameter.

Keywords: Bifurcation, Chaos, Boost converter, Current- programmed control, Initial parameters.

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69 A Programmable FSK-Modulator in 350nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Saad Rahman, Vinodh Ravinath, Mahesh Balaji

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a programmable FSK-modulator based on VCO and its implementation in 0.35m CMOS process. The circuit is used to transmit digital data at 100Kbps rate in the frequency range of 400-600MHz. The design and operation of the modulator is discussed briefly. Further the characteristics of PLL, frequency synthesizer, VCO and the whole design are elaborated. The variation among the proposed and tested specifications is presented. Finally, the layout of sub-modules, pin configurations, final chip and test results are presented.

Keywords: FSK Modulator, CMOS, VCO, Phase Locked Loop, Frequency Synthesizer.

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68 Design and Implementation of a Microcontroller Based LCD Screen Digital Stop Watch

Authors: Mr. Khalid I. Saad, Ms. Nusrat Afrin, Mr. Rajib Mikail

Abstract:

The stop watch is used to measure the time required for a certain event. This is different from normal clocks in many ways, one of which is the accuracy of time. The stop watch requires much more accuracy than the normal clocks. In this paper, an ATmega8535 microcontroller was used to control the stop watch, by which perfect accuracy can be ensured. For compiling the C code and for loading the compiled .hex file into the microcontroller, AVR studio and PonyProg were used respectively. The stop watch is also different from traditional stop watches, as it contains two different timing modes namely 'Split timing' and 'Lap timing'.

Keywords: Stop Watch, Microcontroller, Split timing, Laptiming, LCD.

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67 Comparison between LQR and ANN Active Anti-Roll Control of a Single Unit Heavy Vehicle

Authors: Babesse Saad, Ameddah Djameleddine

Abstract:

In this paper, a learning algorithm using neuronal networks to improve the roll stability and prevent the rollover in a single unit heavy vehicle is proposed. First, LQR control to keep balanced normalized rollovers, between front and rear axles, below the unity, then a data collected from this controller is used as a training basis of a neuronal regulator. The ANN controller is thereafter applied for the nonlinear side force model, and gives satisfactory results than the LQR one.

Keywords: Rollover, single unit heavy vehicle, neural networks, nonlinear side force.

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66 Moving Vehicles Detection Using Automatic Background Extraction

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Vehicle detection is the critical step for highway monitoring. In this paper we propose background subtraction and edge detection technique for vehicle detection. This technique uses the advantages of both approaches. The practical applications approved the effectiveness of this method. This method consists of two procedures: First, automatic background extraction procedure, in which the background is extracted automatically from the successive frames; Second vehicles detection procedure, which depend on edge detection and background subtraction. Experimental results show the effective application of this algorithm. Vehicles detection rate was higher than 91%.

Keywords: Image processing, Automatic background extraction, Moving vehicle detection.

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65 Adaptive Equalization Using Controlled Equal Gain Combining for Uplink/Downlink MC-CDMA Systems

Authors: Miloud Frikel , Boubekeur Targui, Francois Hamon, Mohammed M'SAAD

Abstract:

In this paper we propose an enhanced equalization technique for multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA). This method is based on the control of Equal Gain Combining (EGC) technique. Indeed, we introduce a new level changer to the EGC equalizer in order to adapt the equalization parameters to the channel coefficients. The optimal equalization level is, first, determined by channel training. The new approach reduces drastically the mutliuser interferences caused by interferes, without increasing the noise power. To compare the performances of the proposed equalizer, the theoretical analysis and numerical performances are given.

Keywords: MC-CDMA, Equalization, EGC, Single User Detection.

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64 The Effect of Different Compression Schemes on Speech Signals

Authors: Jalal Karam, Raed Saad

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of different compression constraints and schemes presented in a new and flexible paradigm to achieve high compression ratios and acceptable signal to noise ratios of Arabic speech signals. Compression parameters are computed for variable frame sizes of a level 5 to 7 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) representation of the signals for different analyzing mother wavelet functions. Results are obtained and compared for Global threshold and level dependent threshold techniques. The results obtained also include comparisons with Signal to Noise Ratios, Peak Signal to Noise Ratios and Normalized Root Mean Square Error.

Keywords: Speech Compression, Wavelets.

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63 The Role of Medical Expert Systems in Pakistan

Authors: Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Fahad Maqbool, Saad Razzaq, Kashif Irfan, Tehseen Zia

Abstract:

Expert systems are used extensively in many domains. This paper discusses the use of medical expert systems in Pakistan. Countries all over the world pay special attention on health facilities. A country like Pakistan faces a lot of trouble in health sector. Several attempts have been made in Pakistan to improve the health conditions of the people but the situation is still not encouraging. There is a shortage of doctors and other trained personnel in Pakistan. Expert systems can play a vital role in such cases where the medical expert is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role that such systems can play in improving the health conditions of the people in Pakistan.

Keywords: Medical Diagnostics, Expert Systems, Pakistan.

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62 Macro Corruption: A Conceptual Analysis of Its Dimensions and Forward and Backward Linkages

Authors: Ahmed Sakr Ashour, Hoda Saad AboRemila

Abstract:

An attempt was made to fill the gap in the macro analysis of corruption by suggesting a conceptual framework that differentiates four types of macro corruption: state capture, political, bureaucratic and financial/corporate. The economic consequences or forward linkages (growth, inclusiveness and sustainability of development) and macro institutional determinants constituting the backward linkages of each type were delineated. The research implications of the macro perspective and proposed framework were discussed. Implications of the findings for theory, research and reform policies addressing macro corruption issues were discussed.

Keywords: Economic growth, Inclusive growth, macro corruption, sustainable development.

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61 Tracking Trajectory of a Cable-Driven Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Hachmia Faqihi, Maarouf Saad, Khalid Benjelloun, Mohammed Benbrahim, M. Nabil Kabbaj

Abstract:

This paper investigates and presents a cable-driven robot to lower limb rehabilitation use in sagittal plane. The presented rehabilitation robot is used for a trajectory tracking in joint space. The paper covers kinematic and dynamic analysis, which reveals the tensionability of the used cables as being the actuating source to provide a rehabilitation exercises of the human leg. The desired trajectory is generated to be used in the control system design in joint space. The obtained simulation results is showed to be efficient in this kind of application.

Keywords: Cable-driven multibody system, computed-torque controller, lower limb rehabilitation, tracking trajectory.

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60 Surveillance Video Summarization Based on Histogram Differencing and Sum Conditional Variance

Authors: Nada Jasim Habeeb, Rana Saad Mohammed, Muntaha Khudair Abbass

Abstract:

For more efficient and fast video summarization, this paper presents a surveillance video summarization method. The presented method works to improve video summarization technique. This method depends on temporal differencing to extract most important data from large video stream. This method uses histogram differencing and Sum Conditional Variance which is robust against to illumination variations in order to extract motion objects. The experimental results showed that the presented method gives better output compared with temporal differencing based summarization techniques.

Keywords: Temporal differencing, video summarization, histogram differencing, sum conditional variance.

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59 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

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58 CFD Simulations of a Co-current Spray Dryer

Authors: Saad Nahi Saleh

Abstract:

This paper presents the prediction of air flow, humidity and temperature patterns in a co-current pilot plant spray dryer fitted with a pressure nozzle using a three dimensional model. The modelling was done with a Computational Fluid Dynamic package (Fluent 6.3), in which the gas phase is modelled as continuum using the Euler approach and the droplet/ particle phase is modelled by the Discrete Phase model (Lagrange approach).Good agreement was obtained with published experimental data where the CFD simulation correctly predicts a fast downward central flowing core and slow recirculation zones near the walls. In this work, the effects of the air flow pattern on droplets trajectories, residence time distribution of droplets and deposition of the droplets on the wall also were investigated where atomizing of maltodextrin solution was used.

Keywords: Spray, CFD, multiphase, drying, droplet, particle.

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57 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: Partial discharges, condition monitoring, MPD 540, cavities/defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA.

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56 Multimethod Approach to Research in Interlanguage Pragmatics

Authors: Saad Al-Gahtani, Ghassan H Al Shatter

Abstract:

Argument over the use of particular method in interlanguage pragmatics has increased recently. Researchers argued the advantages and disadvantages of each method either natural or elicited. Findings of different studies indicated that the use of one method may not provide enough data to answer all its questions. The current study investigated the validity of using multimethod approach in interlanguage pragmatics to understand the development of requests in Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2). To this end, the study adopted two methods belong to two types of data sources: the institutional discourse (natural data), and the role play (elicited data). Participants were 117 learners of Arabic L2 at the university level, representing four levels (beginners, low-intermediate, highintermediate, and advanced). Results showed that using two or more methods in interlanguage pragmatics affect the size and nature of data.

Keywords: Arabic L2, Development of requests, Interlanguage Pragmatics, Multimethod approach.

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55 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: Biorobotics, rehabilitation, nonlinear control, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton.

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54 On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter

Authors: Abdelaziz Sahbani, Kamel Ben Saad, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.

Keywords: Boost DC-DC converter, Sliding Mode Control (SMC), Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC), Robustness.

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53 Investigation of Water Transport Dynamics in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Based on a Gas Diffusion Media Layers

Authors: Saad S. Alrwashdeh, Henning Markötter, Handri Ammari, Jan Haußmann, Tobias Arlt, Joachim Scholta, Ingo Manke

Abstract:

In this investigation, synchrotron X-ray imaging is used to study water transport inside polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Two measurement techniques are used, namely in-situ radiography and quasi-in-situ tomography combining together in order to reveal the relationship between the structures of the microporous layers (MPLs) and the gas diffusion layers (GDLs), the operation temperature and the water flow. The developed cell is equipped with a thick GDL and a high back pressure MPL. It is found that these modifications strongly influence the overall water transport in the whole adjacent GDM.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, microporous layer, water transport, radiography, tomography.

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52 Active Vibration Control of Flexible Beam using Differential Evolution Optimisation

Authors: Mohd Sazli Saad, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin, Intan Zaurah Mat Darus

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an active vibration control using direct adaptive controller to suppress the vibration of a flexible beam system. The controller is realized based on linear parametric form. Differential evolution optimisation algorithm is used to optimize the controller using single objective function by minimizing the mean square error of the observed vibration signal. Furthermore, an alternative approach is developed to systematically search for the best controller model structure together with it parameter values. The performance of the control scheme is presented and analysed in both time and frequency domain. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to suppress the unwanted vibration effectively.

Keywords: flexible beam, finite difference method, active vibration control, differential evolution, direct adaptive controller

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51 Chattering Phenomenon Supression of Buck Boost DC-DC Converter with Fuzzy Sliding Modes Control

Authors: Abdelaziz Sahbani, Kamel Ben Saad, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) as a control strategy for Buck-Boost DC-DC converter. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the knowledge of the surface and the surface change to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

Keywords: Buck Boost converter, Sliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control, robustness, chattering.

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50 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting.

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49 Efficiency Improvement of Wireless Power Transmission for Bio-Implanted Devices

Authors: Saad Mutashar, M. A. Hannan, S. A. Samad, A. Hussain

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modified wireless power transmission system for biomedical implanted devices. The system consists of efficient class-E power amplifier and inductive power links based on spiral circular transmitter and receiver coils. The model of the class-E power amplifier operated with 13.56 MHz is designed, discussed and analyzed in which it is achieved 87.2% of efficiency. The inductive coupling method is used to achieve link efficiency up to 73% depending on the electronic remote system resistance. The improved system powered with 3.3 DC supply and the voltage across the transmitter side is 40 V whereas, cross the receiver side is 12 V which is rectified to meet the implanted micro-system circuit requirements. The system designed and simulated by NI MULTISIM 11.02.

Keywords: Wireless Transmission, inductive coupling, implanted devices, class-E power amplifier, coils design.

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48 A Systematic Mapping Study on Software Engineering Education

Authors: Bushra Malik, Saad Zafar

Abstract:

Inadequate curriculum for software engineering is considered to be one of the most common software risks. A number of solutions, on improving Software Engineering Education (SEE) have been reported in literature but there is a need to collectively present these solutions at one place. We have performed a mapping study to present a broad view of literature; published on improving the current state of SEE. Our aim is to give academicians, practitioners and researchers an international view of the current state of SEE. Our study has identified 70 primary studies that met our selection criteria, which we further classified and categorized in a well-defined Software Engineering educational framework. We found that the most researched category within the SE educational framework is Innovative Teaching Methods whereas the least amount of research was found in Student Learning and Assessment category. Our future work is to conduct a Systematic Literature Review on SEE.

Keywords: Mapping Study, Software Engineering, Software Engineering Education, Literature Survey.

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47 The Efficiency of Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene (cox1) in Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relations among Some Crustacean Species

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Heba El-Sebaie Abd El-Sadek

Abstract:

Some Metapenaeus monoceros cox1 gene fragments were isolated, purified, sequenced, and comparatively analyzed with some other Crustacean Cox1 gene sequences (obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information). This work was designed for testing the efficiency of this system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among some Crustacean species belonging to four genera (Metapenaeus, Artemia, Daphnia and Calanus). The single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype diversity were calculated for all estimated mt-DNA fragments. The genetic distance values were 0.292, 0.015, 0.151, and 0.09 within Metapenaeus species, Calanus species, Artemia species, and Daphnia species, respectively. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree is clustered into some unique clades. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was a powerful system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among evaluated crustacean species.

Keywords: Crustacean, Genetics, cox1, phylogeny.

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46 Designing Transcutaneous Inductive Powering Links for Implanted Micro-System Device

Authors: Saad Mutashar Abbas, M. A. Hannan, S. A. Samad, A. Hussain

Abstract:

This paper presented a proposed design for transcutaneous inductive powering links. The design used to transfer power and data to the implanted devices such as implanted Microsystems to stimulate and monitoring the nerves and muscles. The system operated with low band frequency 13.56 MHZ according to industrial- scientific – medical (ISM) band to avoid the tissue heating. For external part, the modulation index is 13 % and the modulation rate 7.3% with data rate 1 Mbit/s assuming Tbit=1us. The system has been designed using 0.35-μm fabricated CMOS technology. The mathematical model is given and the design is simulated using OrCAD P Spice 16.2 software tool and for real-time simulation the electronic workbench MULISIM 11 has been used. The novel circular plane (pancake) coils was simulated using ANSOFT- HFss software.

Keywords: Implanted devices, ASK techniques, Class-E power amplifier, Inductive powering and low-frequency ISM band.

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45 Shading Percentage Effects on Energy Consumption for Bahraini Residential Buildings

Authors: Saad F. Al Nuaimi

Abstract:

Energy consumption is a very important topic these days especially regarding air conditioning in residential buildings, since this takes the biggest amount of energy in buildings total consumption, residential buildings constitute the biggest percentage of energy consumption in Bahrain. This research reflects on the effects of shading percentage in different solar orientations on the energy consumption inside residential buildings (domestic dwellings). The research as found that, there are different effects of shading in changing building orientation: • 0.69% for the shading percentage 25% when the building is oriented to the north (0º); • 18.59% for 75% of shading in north-west orientation (325º); • The best effect for shading is in north-west orientation (315º); • The less effect for shading was in case of the building orientation is the north (0º).

Keywords: Bahraini buildings, Building shading, energy consumption, residential buildings, shading effects.

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44 Blind Impulse Response Identification of Frequency Radio Channels: Application to Bran A Channel

Authors: S. Safi, M. Frikel, M. M'Saad, A. Zeroual

Abstract:

This paper describes a blind algorithm for estimating a time varying and frequency selective fading channel. In order to identify blindly the impulse response of these channels, we have used Higher Order Statistics (HOS) to build our algorithm. In this paper, we have selected two theoretical frequency selective channels as the Proakis-s 'B' channel and the Macchi-s channel, and one practical frequency selective fading channel called Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN A). The simulation results in noisy environment and for different data input channel, demonstrate that the proposed method could estimate the phase and magnitude of these channels blindly and without any information about the input, except that the input excitation is i.i.d (Identically and Independent Distributed) and non-Gaussian.

Keywords: Frequency response, system identification, higher order statistics, communication channels, phase estimation.

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43 Design Management Applications to Improve Work Environment for Female Academics in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nouf Saad Alnassar, Susan Grant, Ray Holland

Abstract:

This research study examines cases of Saudi Arabian universities and female academics for work environment issues within the context of design management applications. The study proposes use of design research, ergonomics and systems design thinking to develop the university design which facilitates removal of physical and cognitive barriers for female academics. Review of literature demonstrates that macro and micro ergonomic combined with design management and system design strategies can significantly improve the workplace design for female academics. The university design model would be prepared based on the analyses of primary data obtained from archived documents, participants' observation logs, photo audits, focus groups and semi-structured interviews of currently employed female academics in the selected case universities.

Keywords: Design management, workplace design, university design, ergonomics.

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42 Lyapunov-Based Tracking Control for Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robot

Authors: Raouf Fareh, Maarouf Saad, Sofiane Khadraoui, Tamer Rabie

Abstract:

This paper presents a tracking control strategy based on Lyapunov approach for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot. This control strategy consists of two levels. First, a kinematic controller is developed to adjust the right and left wheel velocities. Using this velocity control law, the stability of the tracking error is guaranteed using Lyapunov approach. This kinematic controller cannot be generated directly by the motors. To overcome this problem, the second level of the controllers, dynamic control, is designed. This dynamic control law is developed based on Lyapunov theory in order to track the desired trajectories of the mobile robot. The stability of the tracking error is proved using Lupunov and Barbalat approaches. Simulation results on a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: Mobile robot, trajectory tracking, Lyapunov, stability.

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41 Enhanced Performance of Fading Dispersive Channel Using Dynamic Frequency Hopping(DFH)

Authors: Walid M. Saad

Abstract:

techniques are examined to overcome the performance degradation caused by the channel dispersion using slow frequency hopping (SFH) with dynamic frequency hopping (DFH) pattern adaptation. In DFH systems, the frequency slots are selected by continuous quality monitoring of all frequencies available in a system and modification of hopping patterns for each individual link based on replacing slots which its signal to interference ratio (SIR) measurement is below a required threshold. Simulation results will show the improvements in BER obtained by DFH in comparison with matched frequency hopping (MFH), random frequency hopping (RFH) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) in multipath slowly fading dispersive channels using a generalized bandpass two-path transfer function model, and will show the improvement obtained according to the threshold selection.

Keywords: code division multiple access (CDMA), dynamic channel allocation (DCA), dynamic channel assignment, frequency hopping, matched frequency hopping (MFH).

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