Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: MicroRNA

8 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On, Ka-Lok Ng

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: MicroRNA, miRNAs, lung cancer, machine learning, Naïve Bayes, SVM.

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7 Web–Based Tools and Databases for Micro-RNA Analysis: A Review

Authors: Sitansu Kumar Verma, Soni Yadav, Jitendra Singh, Shraddha, Ajay Kumar

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of approximately 22 nucleotide long non coding RNAs which play critical role in different biological processes. The mature microRNA is usually 19–27 nucleotides long and is derived from a bigger precursor that folds into a flawed stem-loop structure. Mature micro RNAs are involved in many cellular processes that encompass development, proliferation, stress response, apoptosis, and fat metabolism by gene regulation. Resent finding reveals that certain viruses encode their own miRNA that processed by cellular RNAi machinery. In recent research indicate that cellular microRNA can target the genetic material of invading viruses. Cellular microRNA can be used in the virus life cycle; either to up regulate or down regulate viral gene expression Computational tools use in miRNA target prediction has been changing drastically in recent years. Many of the methods have been made available on the web and can be used by experimental researcher and scientist without expert knowledge of bioinformatics. With the development and ease of use of genomic technologies and computational tools in the field of microRNA biology has superior tremendously over the previous decade. This review attempts to give an overview over the genome wide approaches that have allow for the discovery of new miRNAs and development of new miRNA target prediction tools and databases.

Keywords: MicroRNAs, computational tools, gene regulation, databases, RNAi.

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6 Function of miR-125b in Zebrafish Neurogenesis

Authors: Minh T. N. Le, Cathleen Teh, Ng Shyh-Chang, Vladimir Korzh, Harvey F. Lodish, Bing Lim

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are an important class of gene expression regulators that are involved in many biological processes including embryogenesis. miR-125b is a conserved microRNA that is enriched in the nervous system. We have previously reported the function of miR-125b in neuronal differentiation of human cell lines. We also discovered the function of miR-125b in regulating p53 in human and zebrafish. Here we further characterize the brain defects in zebrafish embryos injected with morpholinos against miR-125b. Our data confirm the essential role of miR-125b in brain morphogenesis particularly in maintaining the balance between proliferation, cell death and differentiation. We identified lunatic fringe (lfng) as an additional target of miR-125b in human and zebrafish and suggest that lfng may mediate the function of miR-125b in neurogenesis. Together, this report reveals new insights into the function of miR- 125b during neural development of zebrafish.

Keywords: microRNA, miR-125b, neurogenesis, zebrafish.

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5 Screen of MicroRNA Targets in Zebrafish Using Heterogeneous Data Sources: A Case Study for Dre-miR-10 and Dre-miR-196

Authors: Yanju Zhang, Joost M. Woltering, Fons J. Verbeek

Abstract:

It has been established that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene expression by post-transcriptional regulation of messengerRNAs (mRNAs). However, the precise relationships between microRNAs and their target genes in sense of numbers, types and biological relevance remain largely unclear. Dissecting the miRNA-target relationships will render more insights for miRNA targets identification and validation therefore promote the understanding of miRNA function. In miRBase, miRanda is the key algorithm used for target prediction for Zebrafish. This algorithm is high-throughput but brings lots of false positives (noise). Since validation of a large scale of targets through laboratory experiments is very time consuming, several computational methods for miRNA targets validation should be developed. In this paper, we present an integrative method to investigate several aspects of the relationships between miRNAs and their targets with the final purpose of extracting high confident targets from miRanda predicted targets pool. This is achieved by using the techniques ranging from statistical tests to clustering and association rules. Our research focuses on Zebrafish. It was found that validated targets do not necessarily associate with the highest sequence matching. Besides, for some miRNA families, the frequency of their predicted targets is significantly higher in the genomic region nearby their own physical location. Finally, in a case study of dre-miR-10 and dre-miR-196, it was found that the predicted target genes hoxd13a, hoxd11a, hoxd10a and hoxc4a of dre-miR- 10 while hoxa9a, hoxc8a and hoxa13a of dre-miR-196 have similar characteristics as validated target genes and therefore represent high confidence target candidates.

Keywords: MicroRNA targets validation, microRNA-target relationships, dre-miR-10, dre-miR-196.

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4 Binding of miR398 to mRNA of Chaperone and Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Plants

Authors: Assyl Bari, Olga Berillo, Saltanat Orazova, Anatoliy Ivashchenko

Abstract:

Among all microRNAs (miRNAs) in 12 plant species investigated in this study, only miR398 targeted the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS). The nucleotide sequences of miRNA binding sites were located in the mRNA protein-coding sequence (CDS) and were highly homologous. These binding sites in CCS mRNA encoded a conservative GDLGTL hexapeptide. The binding sites for miR398 in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA encoded GDLGN pentapeptide. The conservative miR398 binding site located in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 2 mRNA encoded the GDLGNI hexapeptide. The miR398 binding site in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 3 mRNA encoded the GDLGNI or GDLGNV hexapeptide. Gene expression of the entire superoxide dismutase family in the studied plant species was regulated only by miR398. All members of the miR398 family, i.e. miR398a,b,c were connected to one site for each CuZnSOD and chaperone mRNA.

Keywords: MicroRNA, mRNA, plant, superoxide dismutase.

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3 A study of Cancer-related MicroRNAs through Expression Data and Literature Search

Authors: Chien-Hung Huang, Chia-Wei Weng, Chang-Chih Chiang, Shih-Hua Wu, Chih-Hsien Huang, Ka-Lok Ng

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that hybridize to mRNAs and induce either translation repression or mRNA cleavage. Recently, it has been reported that miRNAs could possibly play an important role in human diseases. By integrating miRNA target genes, cancer genes, miRNA and mRNA expression profiles information, a database is developed to link miRNAs to cancer target genes. The database provides experimentally verified human miRNA target genes information, including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In addition, fragile sites information for miRNAs, and the strength of the correlation of miRNA and its target mRNA expression level for nine tissue types are computed, which serve as an indicator for suggesting miRNAs could play a role in human cancer. The database is freely accessible at http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/mirna_target/index.html.

Keywords: MicroRNA, miRNA expression profile, mRNAexpression profile, cancer genes, oncogene, tumor suppressor gene

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2 A Hybrid Feature Selection and Deep Learning Algorithm for Cancer Disease Classification

Authors: Niousha Bagheri Khulenjani, Mohammad Saniee Abadeh

Abstract:

Learning from very big datasets is a significant problem for most present data mining and machine learning algorithms. MicroRNA (miRNA) is one of the important big genomic and non-coding datasets presenting the genome sequences. In this paper, a hybrid method for the classification of the miRNA data is proposed. Due to the variety of cancers and high number of genes, analyzing the miRNA dataset has been a challenging problem for researchers. The number of features corresponding to the number of samples is high and the data suffer from being imbalanced. The feature selection method has been used to select features having more ability to distinguish classes and eliminating obscures features. Afterward, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier for classification of cancer types is utilized, which employs a Genetic Algorithm to highlight optimized hyper-parameters of CNN. In order to make the process of classification by CNN faster, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is recommended for calculating the mathematic equation in a parallel way. The proposed method is tested on a real-world dataset with 8,129 patients, 29 different types of tumors, and 1,046 miRNA biomarkers, taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.

Keywords: Cancer classification, feature selection, deep learning, genetic algorithm.

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1 MiR-200a/ZEB1 Pathway in Liver Fibrogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Authors: Hai-Ying Liu, Yi-Hao Chen, Shu-Yin Pang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Li-Yuan Yang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yi Chen, Bing Zhu

Abstract:

Objective: Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive liver fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. MiR-200a has been shown to repress EMT. We aim to explore the role of miR-200a in the fibrogenesis of BA. Methods: We obtained the plasma samples and liver samples from patients with BA or controls to examine the role of miR-200a. Histological liver fibrosis was assessed using the Ishak fibrosis scores. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-200a in plasma. We also evaluated the expression of miR-200a in liver tissues using tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH). The expression of EMT related proteins zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the expression of miR-200a was both elevated in the plasma and liver tissues from BA patients compared with the controls. The hepatic expression of ZEB1 and α-SMA were markedly increased in the liver sections from BA patients compared to the controls, whereas E-cadherin was downregulated in the BA group. Simultaneously, we noted that the hepatic expression of miR-200a, E-cadherin and α-SMA were upregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in the BA group, while ZEB1 was downregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in BA patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest EMT has a critical effect on the fibrotic process of BA, and the interaction between miR-200a and ZEB1 may regulate EMT and eventually influence liver fibrogenesis of BA.

Keywords: Biliary atresia, liver fibrosis, MicroRNA, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger e-box-binding homeobox 1.

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