Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 383

Search results for: procedural dimension

383 An Exploration of the Dimensions of Place-Making: A South African Case Study

Authors: W. J. Strydom, K. Puren

Abstract:

Place-making is viewed here as an empowering process in which people represent, improve and maintain their spatial (natural or built) environment. With the above-mentioned in mind, place-making is multi-dimensional and include a spatial dimension (including visual properties or the end product/plan), a procedural dimension during which (negotiation/discussion of ideas with all relevant stakeholders in terms of end product/plan) and a psychological dimension (inclusion of intrinsic values and meanings related to a place in the end product/plan). These three represent dimensions of place-making. The purpose of this paper is to explore these dimensions of place-making in a case study of a local community in Ikageng, Potchefstroom, North-West Province, South Africa. This case study represents an inclusive process that strives to empower a local community (forcefully relocated due to Apartheid legislation in South Africa). This case study focussed on the inclusion of participants in the decision-making process regarding their daily environment. By means of focus group discussions and a collaborative design workshop, data is generated and ultimately creates a linkage with the theoretical dimensions of place-making. This paper contributes to the field of spatial planning due to the exploration of the dimensions of place-making and the relevancy of this process on spatial planning (especially in a South African setting).

Keywords: Case study, place-making, spatial planning, spatial dimension, procedural dimension, psychological dimension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1204
382 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

Keywords: Conceptual knowledge, primary school teachers, procedural knowledge, rational numbers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1375
381 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Number and Its Effects on Pupils’ Achievement in Rational Numbers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers and its effects on pupil’s achievement in rational numbers. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual knowledge about rational numbers, primary school teachers’ level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers, and the effects of teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge on their pupils understanding of rational numbers in primary schools is investigated. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in the Bauchi state of Nigeria. The design of the study was a multi-stage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Two instruments were used for the data collection in the study. These were Conceptual and Procedural knowledge test (CPKT) and Rational number achievement test (RAT), the population of the study comprises of three (3) mathematics teachers’ holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and 210 pupils in their intact classes were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and t- test. The findings indicated that the pupils taught rational number by a teacher that has high conceptual and procedural knowledge understand and perform better than the pupil taught by a teacher who has low conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in primary schools should be encouraged to enrich their conceptual knowledge of rational numbers. Also, the superiority performance of teachers in procedural knowledge in rational number should not become an obstruction of understanding. Teachers Conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers should be balanced so that primary school pupils will have a view of better teaching and learning of rational number in our contemporary schools.

Keywords: Achievement, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, rational numbers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 659
380 Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1

Authors: Kaoutar Lamrini Uahabi, Mohamed Atounti

Abstract:

In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.

Keywords: Feasible angles, fractal dimension, Minkowski sausage, trinomial curves, trinomial equation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 391
379 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq

Abstract:

Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, metric dimension, honeycomb network, line graph.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 397
378 Fractal Dimension of Breast Cancer Cell Migration in a Wound Healing Assay

Authors: R. Sullivan, T. Holden, G. Tremberger, Jr, E. Cheung, C. Branch, J. Burrero, G. Surpris, S. Quintana, A. Rameau, N. Gadura, H. Yao, R. Subramaniam, P. Schneider, S. A. Rotenberg, P. Marchese, A. Flamhlolz, D. Lieberman, T. Cheung

Abstract:

Migration in breast cancer cell wound healing assay had been studied using image fractal dimension analysis. The migration of MDA-MB-231 cells (highly motile) in a wound healing assay was captured using time-lapse phase contrast video microscopy and compared to MDA-MB-468 cell migration (moderately motile). The Higuchi fractal method was used to compute the fractal dimension of the image intensity fluctuation along a single pixel width region parallel to the wound. The near-wound region fractal dimension was found to decrease three times faster in the MDA-MB- 231 cells initially as compared to the less cancerous MDA-MB-468 cells. The inner region fractal dimension was found to be fairly constant for both cell types in time and suggests a wound influence range of about 15 cell layer. The box-counting fractal dimension method was also used to study region of interest (ROI). The MDAMB- 468 ROI area fractal dimension was found to decrease continuously up to 7 hours. The MDA-MB-231 ROI area fractal dimension was found to increase and is consistent with the behavior of a HGF-treated MDA-MB-231 wound healing assay posted in the public domain. A fractal dimension based capacity index has been formulated to quantify the invasiveness of the MDA-MB-231 cells in the perpendicular-to-wound direction. Our results suggest that image intensity fluctuation fractal dimension analysis can be used as a tool to quantify cell migration in terms of cancer severity and treatment responses.

Keywords: Higuchi fractal dimension, box-counting fractal dimension, cancer cell migration, wound healing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2266
377 Effect of Inertia on the Fractal Dimension of Particle Line in three-dimensional Turbulent Flows using Kinematic Simulation

Authors: A. Abou El-Azm Aly, F. Nicolleau, T. M. Michelitsch, A. F. Nowakowski

Abstract:

The dispersion of heavy particles line in an isotropic and incompressible three-dimensional turbulent flow has been studied using the Kinematic Simulation techniques to find out the evolution of the line fractal dimension. In this study, the fractal dimension of the line is found for different cases of heavy particles inertia (different Stokes numbers) in the absence of the particle gravity with a comparison with the fractal dimension obtained in the diffusion case of material line at the same Reynolds number. It can be concluded for the dispersion of heavy particles line in turbulent flow that the particle inertia affect the fractal dimension of a line released in a turbulent flow for Stokes numbers 0.02 < St < 2. At the beginning for small times, most of the different cases are not affected by the inertia until a certain time, the particle response time τa, with larger time as the particles inertia increases, the fractal dimension of the line increases owing to the particles becoming more sensitive to the small scales which cause the change in the line shape during its journey.

Keywords: Heavy particles, two-phase flow, Kinematic Simulation, Fractal dimension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1074
376 Dynamic Visualization on Student's Performance, Retention and Transfer of Procedural Learning

Authors: Fauzy M. Wan, Reem S.A. Baragash

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of two dynamic visualizations on 60 Malaysian primary school student-s performance (time on task), retention and transference. The independent variables in this study were the two dynamic visualizations, the video and the animated instructions. The dependent variables were the gain score of performance, retention and transference. The results showed that the students in the animation group significantly outperformed the students in the video group in retention. There were no significant differences in terms of gain scores in the performance and transference among the animation and the video groups, although the scores were slightly higher in the animation group compared to the video group. The conclusion of this study is that the animation visualization is superior compared to the video in the retention for a procedural task.

Keywords: Dynamic visualization, Procedural Task, Retention, Transference

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1189
375 Graphs with Metric Dimension Two-A Characterization

Authors: Sudhakara G, Hemanth Kumar A.R

Abstract:

In this paper, we define distance partition of vertex set of a graph G with reference to a vertex in it and with the help of the same, a graph with metric dimension two (i.e. β (G) = 2 ) is characterized. In the process, we develop a polynomial time algorithm that verifies if the metric dimension of a given graph G is two. The same algorithm explores all metric bases of graph G whenever β (G) = 2 . We also find a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set with reference to a given vertex, when ever β (G) = 2 . Also, in a graph G with β (G) = 2 , a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set as well as a bound for number of vertices in any sub graph H of G is obtained in terms of diam H .

Keywords: Metric basis, Distance partition, Metric dimension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1551
374 Online Teaching and Learning Processes: Declarative and Procedural Knowledge

Authors: Eulalia Torras, Andreu Bellot

Abstract:

To know whether students’ achievements are the result of online interaction and not just a consequence of individual differences themselves, it seems essential to link the teaching presence and social presence to the types of knowledge built. The research aim is to analyze the social presence in relation to two types of knowledge, declarative and procedural. Qualitative methodology has been used. The analysis of the contents was based on an observation protocol that included community of enquiry indicators and procedural and declarative knowledge indicators. The research has been conducted in three phases that focused on an observational protocol and indicators, results and conclusions. Results show that the teaching-learning processes have been characterized by the patterns of presence and types of knowledge. Results also show the importance of social presence support provided by the teacher and the students, not only in regard to the nature of the instructional support but also concerning how it is presented to the student and the importance that is attributed to it in the teaching-learning process, that is, what it is that assistance is offered on. In this study, we find that the presence based on procedural guidelines and declarative reflection, the management of shared meaning on the basis of the skills and the evidence of these skills entail patterns of learning. Nevertheless, the importance that the teacher attributes to each support aspect has a bearing on the extent to which the students reflect more on the given task.

Keywords: Education, online, teaching and learning processes, knowledge.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1750
373 Temporal Change of Fractal Dimension of Explosion Earthquakes and Harmonic Tremors at Semeru Volcano, East Java, Indonesia, using Critical Exponent Method

Authors: Sukir Maryanto, Iyan Mulyana

Abstract:

Fractal analyses of successive event of explosion earthquake and harmonic tremor recorded at Semeru volcano were carried out to investigate the dynamical system regarding to their generating mechanism. The explosive eruptions accompanied by explosion earthquakes and following volcanic tremor which are generated by continuous emission of volcanic ash. The fractal dimension of successive event of explosion and harmonic tremor was estimated by Critical Exponent Method (CEM). It was found that the method yield a higher fractal dimension of explosion earthquakes and gradually decrease during the occurrence of harmonic tremor, and can be considerably as correlated complexity of the source mechanism from the variance of fractal dimension.

Keywords: Fractal dimension, Semeru volcano, explosionearthquake, harmonic tremor, Critical Exponent Method

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1535
372 Effect of Particle Gravity on the Fractal Dimension of Particle Line in three-dimensional Turbulent Flows using Kinematic Simulation

Authors: A. Abou El-Azm Aly, F. Nicolleau, T. M. Michelitsch, A. F. Nowakowski

Abstract:

In this study, the dispersion of heavy particles line in an isotropic and incompressible three-dimensional turbulent flow has been studied using the Kinematic Simulation techniques to find out the evolution of the line fractal dimension. The fractal dimension of the line is found in the case of different particle gravity (in practice, different values of particle drift velocity) in the presence of small particle inertia with a comparison with that obtained in the diffusion case of material line at the same Reynolds number. It can be concluded for the dispersion of heavy particles line in turbulent flow that the particle gravity affect the fractal dimension of the line for different particle gravity velocities in the range 0.2 < W < 2. With the increase of the particle drift velocity, the fractal dimension of the line decreases which may be explained as the particles pass many scales in their journey in the direction of the gravity and the particles trajectories do not affect by these scales at high particle drift velocities.

Keywords: Heavy particles, two-phase flow, Kinematic Simulation, Fractal dimension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1145
371 Development of Organizational Justice in Incentive Allocation of the Thai Public Sector

Authors: Kalayanee Koonmee

Abstract:

An incentive for performance, as one subsystem of a new performance management system, has been implemented in the Thai public sector since 2004. This research investigates the development of organizational justice in the incentive allocation by comparing the roles of distributive and procedural justice on national personnel-s attitudinal outcomes (incentive satisfaction and job performance) between 2 periods, i.e. 2006 and 2008. The data were collected via self-administered questionnaires completed by national government officers and employees. They were stratified using multistage sampling with 2,600 usable samples or 72.0% response rate in 2006, and 1,969 usable samples or 59.3% in 2008. The findings are: (1) There is no difference in means between the two periods relating to distributive justice, procedural justice, incentive satisfaction and job performance. (2) Distributive justice and procedural justice played more important roles in predicting incentive satisfaction and job performance in 2008 than in 2006.

Keywords: Distributive justice, incentive allocation, proceduraljustice, Thai public sector.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1316
370 Adopting Procedural Animation Technology to Generate Locomotion of Quadruped Characters in Dynamic Environments

Authors: Zongyou He, Bashu Tsai, Chinhung Ko, Tainchi Lu

Abstract:

A procedural-animation-based approach which rapidly synthesize the adaptive locomotion for quadruped characters that they can walk or run in any directions on an uneven terrain within a dynamic environment was proposed. We devise practical motion models of the quadruped animals for adapting to a varied terrain in a real-time manner. While synthesizing locomotion, we choose the corresponding motion models by means of the footstep prediction of the current state in the dynamic environment, adjust the key-frames of the motion models relying on the terrain-s attributes, calculate the collision-free legs- trajectories, and interpolate the key-frames according to the legs- trajectories. Finally, we apply dynamic time warping to each part of motion for seamlessly concatenating all desired transition motions to complete the whole locomotion. We reduce the time cost of producing the locomotion and takes virtual characters to fit in with dynamic environments no matter when the environments are changed by users.

Keywords: Dynamic environment, motion synthesis, procedural animation, quadruped locomotion

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1627
369 A New Dimension of Business Intelligence: Location-based Intelligence

Authors: Zeljko Panian

Abstract:

Through the course of this paper we define Locationbased Intelligence (LBI) which is outgrowing from process of amalgamation of geolocation and Business Intelligence. Amalgamating geolocation with traditional Business Intelligence (BI) results in a new dimension of BI named Location-based Intelligence. LBI is defined as leveraging unified location information for business intelligence. Collectively, enterprises can transform location data into business intelligence applications that will benefit all aspects of the enterprise. Expectations from this new dimension of business intelligence are great and its future is obviously bright.

Keywords: Business intelligence, geolocation, location-based intelligence, innovation, location-intelligent business

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1823
368 A Neural-Network-Based Fault Diagnosis Approach for Analog Circuits by Using Wavelet Transformation and Fractal Dimension as a Preprocessor

Authors: Wenji Zhu, Yigang He

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method of analog fault diagnosis based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs) using wavelet decomposition and fractal dimension as preprocessors. The proposed method has the capability to detect and identify faulty components in an analog electronic circuit with tolerance by analyzing its impulse response. Using wavelet decomposition to preprocess the impulse response drastically de-noises the inputs to the neural network. The second preprocessing by fractal dimension can extract unique features, which are the fed to a neural network as inputs for further classification. A comparison of our work with [1] and [6], which also employs back-propagation (BP) neural networks, reveals that our system requires a much smaller network and performs significantly better in fault diagnosis of analog circuits due to our proposed preprocessing techniques.

Keywords: Analog circuits, fault diagnosis, tolerance, wavelettransform, fractal dimension, box dimension.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1959
367 Inquiry on the Improvement Teaching Quality in the Classroom with Meta-Teaching Skills

Authors: Shahlan Surat, Saemah Rahman, Saadiah Kummin

Abstract:

When teachers reflect and evaluate whether their teaching methods actually have an impact on students’ learning, they will adjust their practices accordingly. This inevitably improves their students’ learning and performance. The approach in meta-teaching can invigorate and create a passion for teaching. It thus helps to increase the commitment and love for the teaching profession. This study was conducted to determine the level of metacognitive thinking of teachers in the process of teaching and learning in the classroom. Metacognitive thinking teachers include the use of metacognitive knowledge which consists of different types of knowledge: declarative, procedural and conditional. The ability of the teachers to plan, monitor and evaluate the teaching process can also be determined. This study was conducted on 377 graduate teachers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The stratified sampling method was selected for the purpose of this study. The metacognitive teaching inventory consisting of 24 items is called InKePMG (Teacher Indicators of Effectiveness Meta-Teaching). The results showed the level of mean is high for two components of metacognitive knowledge; declarative knowledge (mean = 4.16) and conditional (mean = 4.11) whereas, the mean of procedural knowledge is 4.00 (moderately high). Similarly, the level of knowledge in monitoring (mean = 4.11), evaluating (mean = 4.00) which indicate high score and planning (mean = 4.00) are moderately high score among teachers. In conclusion, this study shows that the planning and procedural knowledge is an important element in improving the quality of teachers teaching in the classroom. Thus, the researcher recommended that further studies should focus on training programs for teachers on metacognitive skills and also on developing creative thinking among teachers.

Keywords: Metacognitive thinking skills, procedural knowledge, conditional knowledge, declarative knowledge, meta-teaching and regulation of cognitive.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1172
366 Rigid Registration of Reduced Dimension Images using 1D Binary Projections

Authors: Panos D. Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present a method for rigid registration of medical images using 1D binary projections when a part of one of the two images is missing. We use 1D binary projections and we adjust the projection limits according to the reduced image in order to perform accurate registration. We use the variance of the weighted ratio as a registration function which we have shown is able to register 2D and 3D images more accurately and robustly than mutual information methods. The function is computed explicitly for n=5 Chebyshev points in a [-9,+9] interval and it is approximated using Chebyshev polynomials for all other points. The images used are MR scans of the head. We find that the method is able to register the two images with average accuracy 0.3degrees for rotations and 0.2 pixels for translations for a y dimension of 156 with initial dimension 256. For y dimension 128/256 the accuracy decreases to 0.7 degrees for rotations and 0.6 pixels for translations.

Keywords: binary projections, image registration, reduceddimension images.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1246
365 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared

Abstract:

In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1716
364 Fractal Analysis on Human Colonic Pressure Activities based on the Box-counting Method

Authors: Rongguo Yan, Guozheng Yan, Banghua Yang

Abstract:

The colonic tissue is a complicated dynamic system and the colonic activities it generates are composed of irregular segmental waves, which are referred to as erratic fluctuations or spikes. They are also highly irregular with subunit fractal structure. The traditional time-frequency domain statistics like the averaged amplitude, the motility index and the power spectrum, etc. are insufficient to describe such fluctuations. Thus the fractal box-counting dimension is proposed and the fractal scaling behaviors of the human colonic pressure activities under the physiological conditions are studied. It is shown that the dimension of the resting activity is smaller than that of the normal one, whereas the clipped version, which corresponds to the activity of the constipation patient, shows with higher fractal dimension. It may indicate a practical application to assess the colonic motility, which is often indicated by the colonic pressure activity.

Keywords: Colonic pressure activity, erratic fluctuations, fractal dimension and spikes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1291
363 Routing Algorithm for a Clustered Network

Authors: Hemanth KumarA.R, Sudhakara G., Satyanarayana B.S.

Abstract:

The Cluster Dimension of a network is defined as, which is the minimum cardinality of a subset S of the set of nodes having the property that for any two distinct nodes x and y, there exist the node Si, s2 (need not be distinct) in S such that ld(x,s1) — d(y, s1)1 > 1 and d(x,s2) < d(x,$) for all s E S — {s2}. In this paper, strictly non overlap¬ping clusters are constructed. The concept of LandMarks for Unique Addressing and Clustering (LMUAC) routing scheme is developed. With the help of LMUAC routing scheme, It is shown that path length (upper bound)PLN,d < PLD, Maximum memory space requirement for the networkMSLmuAc(Az) < MSEmuAc < MSH3L < MSric and Maximum Link utilization factor MLLMUAC(i=3) < MLLMUAC(z03) < M Lc

Keywords: Metric dimension, Cluster dimension, Cluster.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1032
362 Evaluation of Ultrasonic C-Scan Images by Fractal Dimension

Authors: S. Samanta, D. Datta, S. S. Gautam

Abstract:

In this paper, quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic Cscan images through estimation of their Fractal Dimension (FD) is discussed. Necessary algorithm for evaluation of FD of any 2-D digitized image is implemented by developing a computer code. For the evaluation purpose several C-scan images of the Kevlar composite impacted by high speed bullet and glass fibre composite having flaw in the form of inclusion is used. This analysis automatically differentiates a C-scan image showing distinct damage zone, from an image that contains no such damage.

Keywords: C-scan, Impact, Fractal Dimension, Kevlar composite and Inclusion Flaw

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1525
361 Fractal Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene Sequences in Archaea Thermophiles

Authors: T. Holden, G. Tremberger, Jr, E. Cheung, R. Subramaniam, R. Sullivan, N. Gadura, P. Schneider, P. Marchese, A. Flamholz, T. Cheung, D. Lieberman

Abstract:

A nucleotide sequence can be expressed as a numerical sequence when each nucleotide is assigned its proton number. A resulting gene numerical sequence can be investigated for its fractal dimension in terms of evolution and chemical properties for comparative studies. We have investigated such nucleotide fluctuation in the 16S rRNA gene of archaea thermophiles. The studied archaea thermophiles were archaeoglobus fulgidus, methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, methanocaldococcus jannaschii, pyrococcus horikoshii, and thermoplasma acidophilum. The studied five archaea-euryarchaeota thermophiles have fractal dimension values ranging from 1.93 to 1.97. Computer simulation shows that random sequences would have an average of about 2 with a standard deviation about 0.015. The fractal dimension was found to correlate (negative correlation) with the thermophile-s optimal growth temperature with R2 value of 0.90 (N =5). The inclusion of two aracheae-crenarchaeota thermophiles reduces the R2 value to 0.66 (N = 7). Further inclusion of two bacterial thermophiles reduces the R2 value to 0.50 (N =9). The fractal dimension is correlated (positive) to the sequence GC content with an R2 value of 0.89 for the five archaea-euryarchaeota thermophiles (and 0.74 for the entire set of N = 9), although computer simulation shows little correlation. The highest correlation (positive) was found to be between the fractal dimension and di-nucleotide Shannon entropy. However Shannon entropy and sequence GC content were observed to correlate with optimal growth temperature having an R2 of 0.8 (negative), and 0.88 (positive), respectively, for the entire set of 9 thermophiles; thus the correlation lacks species specificity. Together with another correlation study of bacterial radiation dosage with RecA repair gene sequence fractal dimension, it is postulated that fractal dimension analysis is a sensitive tool for studying the relationship between genotype and phenotype among closely related sequences.

Keywords: Fractal dimension, archaea thermophiles, Shannon entropy, GC content

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1543
360 Specification of Agent Explicit Knowledge in Cryptographic Protocols

Authors: Khair Eddin Sabri, Ridha Khedri, Jason Jaskolka

Abstract:

Cryptographic protocols are widely used in various applications to provide secure communications. They are usually represented as communicating agents that send and receive messages. These agents use their knowledge to exchange information and communicate with other agents involved in the protocol. An agent knowledge can be partitioned into explicit knowledge and procedural knowledge. The explicit knowledge refers to the set of information which is either proper to the agent or directly obtained from other agents through communication. The procedural knowledge relates to the set of mechanisms used to get new information from what is already available to the agent. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which specifies the explicit knowledge of an agent involved in a cryptographic protocol. Modelling this knowledge is crucial for the specification, analysis, and implementation of cryptographic protocols. We also, report on a prototype tool that allows the representation and the manipulation of the explicit knowledge.

Keywords: Information Algebra, Agent Knowledge, CryptographicProtocols

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1215
359 Evaluating Hurst Parameters and Fractal Dimensions of Surveyed Dataset of Tailings Dam Embankment

Authors: I. Yakubu, Y. Y. Ziggah, C. Yeboah

Abstract:

In the mining environment, tailings dam embankment is among the hazards and risk areas. The tailings dam embankment could fail and result to damages to facilities, human injuries or even fatalities. Periodic monitoring of the dam embankment is needed to help assess the safety of the tailings dam embankment. Artificial intelligence techniques such as fractals can be used to analyse the stability of the monitored dataset from survey measurement techniques. In this paper, the fractal dimension (D) was determined using D = 2-H. The Hurst parameters (H) of each monitored prism were determined by using a time domain of rescaled range programming in MATLAB software. The fractal dimensions of each monitored prism were determined based on the values of H. The results reveal that the values of the determined H were all within the threshold of 0 ≤ H ≤ 1 m. The smaller the H, the bigger the fractal dimension is. Fractal dimension values ranging from 1.359 x 10-4 m to 1.8843 x 10-3 m were obtained from the monitored prisms on the based on the tailing dam embankment dataset used. The ranges of values obtained indicate that the tailings dam embankment is stable.

Keywords: Hurst parameter, fractal dimension, tailings dam embankment, surveyed dataset.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 454
358 Effect of Model Dimension in Numerical Simulation on Assessment of Water Inflow to Tunnel in Discontinues Rock

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

Groundwater inflow to the tunnels is one of the most important problems in tunneling operation. The objective of this study is the investigation of model dimension effects on tunnel inflow assessment in discontinuous rock masses using numerical modeling. In the numerical simulation, the model dimension has an important role in prediction of water inflow rate. When the model dimension is very small, due to low distance to the tunnel border, the model boundary conditions affect the estimated amount of groundwater flow into the tunnel and results show a very high inflow to tunnel. Hence, in this study, the two-dimensional universal distinct element code (UDEC) used and the impact of different model parameters, such as tunnel radius, joint spacing, horizontal and vertical model domain extent has been evaluated. Results show that the model domain extent is a function of the most significant parameters, which are tunnel radius and joint spacing.

Keywords: Water inflow, Tunnel, Discontinues rock, Numerical simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2254
357 Fractal Dimension: An Index to Quantify Parameters in Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Mahmoud R. Shaghaghian

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are direct searching methods which require little information from design space. This characteristic beside robustness of these algorithms makes them to be very popular in recent decades. On the other hand, while this method is employed, there is no guarantee to achieve optimum results. This obliged designer to run such algorithms more than one time to achieve more reliable results. There are many attempts to modify the algorithms to make them more efficient. In this paper, by application of fractal dimension (particularly, Box Counting Method), the complexity of design space are established for determination of mutation and crossover probabilities (Pm and Pc). This methodology is followed by a numerical example for more clarification. It is concluded that this modification will improve efficiency of GAs and make them to bring about more reliable results especially for design space with higher fractal dimensions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Fractal Dimension, BoxCounting Method, Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1245
356 Nonlinear Dynamical Characterization of Heart Rate Variability Time Series of Meditation

Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt

Abstract:

Many recent electrophysiological studies have revealed the importance of investigating meditation state in order to achieve an increased understanding of autonomous control of cardiovascular functions. In this paper, we characterize heart rate variability (HRV) time series acquired during meditation using nonlinear dynamical parameters. We have computed minimum embedding dimension (MED), correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and nonlinearity scores (NLS) from HRV time series of eight Chi and four Kundalini meditation practitioners. The pre-meditation state has been used as a baseline (control) state to compare the estimated parameters. The chaotic nature of HRV during both pre-meditation and meditation is confirmed by MED. The meditation state showed a significant decrease in the value of CD and increase in the value of LLE of HRV, in comparison with premeditation state, indicating a less complex and less predictable nature of HRV. In addition, it was shown that the HRV of meditation state is having highest NLS than pre-meditation state. The study indicated highly nonlinear dynamic nature of cardiac states as revealed by HRV during meditation state, rather considering it as a quiescent state.

Keywords: Correlation dimension, Embedding dimension, Heartrate variability, Largest Lyapunov exponent, Meditation, Nonlinearity score.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1619
355 Dimension Free Rigid Point Set Registration in Linear Time

Authors: Jianqin Qu

Abstract:

This paper proposes a rigid point set matching algorithm in arbitrary dimensions based on the idea of symmetric covariant function. A group of functions of the points in the set are formulated using rigid invariants. Each of these functions computes a pair of correspondence from the given point set. Then the computed correspondences are used to recover the unknown rigid transform parameters. Each computed point can be geometrically interpreted as the weighted mean center of the point set. The algorithm is compact, fast, and dimension free without any optimization process. It either computes the desired transform for noiseless data in linear time, or fails quickly in exceptional cases. Experimental results for synthetic data and 2D/3D real data are provided, which demonstrate potential applications of the algorithm to a wide range of problems.

Keywords: Covariant point, point matching, dimension free, rigid registration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 453
354 An Embedded System for Artificial Intelligence Applications

Authors: Ioannis P. Panagopoulos, Christos C. Pavlatos, George K. Papakonstantinou

Abstract:

Conventional approaches in the implementation of logic programming applications on embedded systems are solely of software nature. As a consequence, a compiler is needed that transforms the initial declarative logic program to its equivalent procedural one, to be programmed to the microprocessor. This approach increases the complexity of the final implementation and reduces the overall system's performance. On the contrary, presenting hardware implementations which are only capable of supporting logic programs prevents their use in applications where logic programs need to be intertwined with traditional procedural ones, for a specific application. We exploit HW/SW codesign methods to present a microprocessor, capable of supporting hybrid applications using both programming approaches. We take advantage of the close relationship between attribute grammar (AG) evaluation and knowledge engineering methods to present a programmable hardware parser that performs logic derivations and combine it with an extension of a conventional RISC microprocessor that performs the unification process to report the success or failure of those derivations. The extended RISC microprocessor is still capable of executing conventional procedural programs, thus hybrid applications can be implemented. The presented implementation is programmable, supports the execution of hybrid applications, increases the performance of logic derivations (experimental analysis yields an approximate 1000% increase in performance) and reduces the complexity of the final implemented code. The proposed hardware design is supported by a proposed extended C-language called C-AG.

Keywords: Attribute Grammars, Logic Programming, RISC microprocessor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4889