Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 455

Search results for: proactive innovation

455 Proactive Approach to Innovation Management

Authors: Andrus Pedai, Igor Astrov

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to compare common approaches for Systems of Innovation (SI) and identify proactive alternatives for driving the innovation. Proactive approaches will also consider short and medium term perspectives with developments in the field of Computer Technology and Artificial Intelligence. Concerning Computer Technology and Large Connected Information Systems, it is reasonable to predict that during current or the next century intelligence and innovation will be separated from the constraints of human driven management. After this happens, humans will be no longer driving the innovation and there is possibility that SI for new intelligent systems will set its own targets and exclude humans. Over long time scale these developments could result in scenario, which will lead to the development of larger, cross galactic (universal) proactive SI and Intelligence.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, DARPA, Moore’s law, proactive innovation, singularity, systems of innovation.

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454 Effects of Proactive Coping on Workplace Adaptation After Transition from College to Workplace

Authors: YiHui Cai, Takaya Kohyama

Abstract:

Proactive coping directed at an upcoming as opposed to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology. The present study explored the proactive coping-s effect on the workplace adaptation after transition from college to workplace. In order to demonstrate the influence process between them, we constructed the model of proactive coping style effecting the actual positive coping efforts and outcomes by mediating proactive competence during one year after the transition. Participants (n = 100) started to work right after graduating from college completed all the four time-s surveys --one month before (Time 0), one month after (Time 1), three months after (Time 2), and one year after (Time 3) the transition. Time 0 survey included the measurement of proactive coping style and competence. Time 1, 2, 3 surveys included the measurement of the challenge cognitive appraisal, problem solving coping strategy, and subjective workplace adaptation. The result indicated that proactive coping style effected newcomers- actual coping efforts and outcomes by mediating proactive coping competence. The result also showed that proactive coping competence directly promoted Time1-s actual positive coping efforts and outcomes, and indirectly promoted Time 2-s and Time 3-s.

Keywords: Proactive coping style, proactive coping competence, transition form college to workplace, workplace adaptation.

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453 The Relation between Proactive Coping and Well-Being: An Example of Middle-Aged and Older Learners from Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Hui-Chuan Wei

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to explore the relation between proactive coping and well-being of middle-aged adults. We conducted survey research that with t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression to analyze. This research drew on a sample of 395 participants from the senior learning centers of Taiwan. The results provided the following findings: 1.The participants from different residence areas associated significant difference with proactive coping, but not with well-being. 2. The participants’ perceived of financial level associated significant difference with both proactive coping and well-being. 3. There was significant difference between participants’ income and well-being. 4. The proactive coping was positively correlated with well-being. 5. From stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that two dimensions of proactive coping had positive predictability. Finally, these results of this study can be provided as references for designing older adult educational programs in Taiwan.

Keywords: Middle-age adults, learners, proactive coping, well-being.

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452 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung

Abstract:

This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.

Keywords: Normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression.

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451 Technological Innovation Persistence Organizational Innovation Matters

Authors: H. Naciba, C. Le Bas, C. Mothe, T.U. Nguyen-Thi

Abstract:

Organizational innovation favors technological innovation, but does it also influence technological innovation persistence? This article investigates empirically the pattern of technological innovation persistence and tests the potential impact of organizational innovation using firm-level data from three waves of the French Community Innovation Surveys. Evidence shows a positive effect of organizational innovation on technological innovation persistence, according to various measures of organizational innovation. Moreover, this impact is more significant for complex innovators (i.e., those who innovate in both products and processes). These results highlight the complexity of managing organizational practices with regard to the firm-s technological innovation. They also add to comprehension of the drivers of innovation persistence, through a focus on an often forgotten dimension of innovation in a broader sense.

Keywords: Organizational Innovation, Technological Innovation, Persistence

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450 Market and Innovation Orientation: A Typology of Public Housing Companies in Sweden

Authors: Agneta Sundström, Zahra Ahmadi, Akmal Hyder

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology based on market orientation (MO) and innovation orientation (IO), and to illustrate to what extent housing companies in Sweden fit within this framework. A qualitative study on 11 public housing companies in the central part of Sweden has been conducted by the help of open and semi-structured questions for data collection. Four public housing company types- i.e. reactive prospector, proactive prospector, reactive defender and proactive defender have been identified by the combination of MO-IO dimensions. Future research can include other dimensions like entrepreneurship and network to observe how it particularly affects MO. An empirical study can compare public and private housing companies on the basis of MO and IO dimensions. One major contribution of the paper is the proposition of typology which can be used to describe public housing companies and deciding their future course of actions.

Keywords: Customer-led, economy, innovativeness, market orientation.

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449 The Study of the Correlation of Proactive Coping and Retirement Planning: An Example of Senior Civil Servants in Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Chien-Hung Hsieh, Ching-Yi Lu

Abstract:

Demographic aging is the major problem that Taiwanese society is facing, and retirement life adaptation is the most concerning issue. In recent years, studies have suggested that in order to have successful aging and retirement planning, a view for the future is necessary. In Taiwan, civil servants receive better pensions and retirement benefits than do other industries. Therefore, their retirement preparation is considerably more significant than other senior groups in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to understand the correlation of proactive coping and retirement planning of senior civil servants in Taiwan. The method is conducted by questionnaire surveys, with 342 valid questionnaires collected. The results of this study are: 1. The background variables of the interviewees, including age, perceived economic statuses, and retirement statuses, are all significantly related to their proactive coping and retirement planning. 2. Regarding age, the interviewees with ages 55 and above have better proactive coping and retirement planning than those with ages 45 and below. 3. In the aspect of perceived economic statuses, the participants who feel “very good” economic statuses have better proactive coping ability and retirement readiness than those who feel “bad” and “very bad”. 4. Retirees have better proactive coping and retirement planning than those who are still working. 5. Monthly income is significant in retirement planning only. The participants’ retirement planning would be better if they have higher incomes. Furthermore, the participants’ retirement planning would be better if their revenue were €1453~€1937, than if their revenue were below €968. 6. There are positive correlations between proactive coping and retirement planning. 7. Proactive coping can predict retirement planning. The result of this study will be provided as references to the Taiwan government for educational retirement planning policies.

Keywords: Civil servants, proactive coping, retirement planning.

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448 Studying the Relationship between Different Dimensions of CRM and Innovation Capabilities in Melli Bank of Iran

Authors: Peyman Ghafari, Reza Karjalian, Ali Mashayekhnia

Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship between different dimensions of customer relationship management and innovation capabilities in Melli Bank of Iran. Five dimensions of CRM include information sharing, customer involvement, long-term partnership, joint problem solving and technology-based CRM are selected to measure their relationship with innovation capabilities including innovation in product, innovation in process, innovation in administrative affairs, innovation in marketing, and finally innovation in services. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between CRM dimensions and innovation capabilities in Melli bank of Iran.

Keywords: Customer relationship management, innovation capabilities.

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447 Problems of Measuring Effectiveness of Innovation Performance

Authors: Aziza S. Zhuparova

Abstract:

The innovation performance of nations has been repeatedly measured in the literature. We argue that while the literature offers many suggestions, their theoretical foundation is often weak and the underlying assumptions are rarely discussed. In this paper, we systematize various mechanisms by which spatial units influence nation and firms' innovation activities. On the basis of this, common innovation performance measures and analyses are discussed and evaluated. It is concluded that there is no general best way of measuring the innovation performance of spatial units. In fact, the most interesting insights can be obtained using a multitude of different approaches at the same time.

Keywords: Innovation performance, firms effectiveness of innovation, national innovativeness, innovation effectiveness, national innovation activity's measurement

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446 Outsourcing the Front End of Innovation

Authors: B. Likar, K. Širok

Abstract:

The paper presents a new method for efficient innovation process management. Even though the innovation management methods, tools and knowledge are well established and documented in literature, most of the companies still do not manage it efficiently. Especially in SMEs the front end of innovation - problem identification, idea creation and selection - is often not optimally performed. Our eMIPS methodology represents a sort of "umbrella methodology" - a well-defined set of procedures, which can be dynamically adapted to the concrete case in a company. In daily practice, various methods (e.g. for problem identification and idea creation) can be applied, depending on the company's needs. It is based on the proactive involvement of the company's employees supported by the appropriate methodology and external experts. The presented phases are performed via a mixture of face-to-face activities (workshops) and online (eLearning) activities taking place in eLearning Moodle environment and using other e-communication channels. One part of the outcomes is an identified set of opportunities and concrete solutions ready for implementation. The other also very important result is connected to innovation competences for the participating employees related with concrete tools and methods for idea management. In addition, the employees get a strong experience for dynamic, efficient and solution oriented managing of the invention process. The eMIPS also represents a way of establishing or improving the innovation culture in the organization. The first results in a pilot company showed excellent results regarding the motivation of participants and also as to the results achieved.

Keywords: Creativity, distance learning, front end, innovation, problem.

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445 On the Dynamic Model of Service Innovation in Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Yongyoon Suh, Chulhyun Kim, Moon-soo Kim

Abstract:

As the trend of manufacturing is being dominated depending on services, products and processes are more and more related with sophisticated services. Thus, this research starts with the discussion about integration of the product, process, and service in the innovation process. In particular, this paper sets out some foundations for a theory of service innovation in the field of manufacturing, and proposes the dynamic model of service innovation related to product and process. Two dynamic models of service innovation are suggested to investigate major tendencies and dynamic variations during the innovation cycle: co-innovation and sequential innovation. To structure dynamic models of product, process, and service innovation, the innovation stages in which two models are mainly achieved are identified. The research would encourage manufacturers to formulate strategy and planning for service development with product and process.

Keywords: dynamic model, service innovation, service innovation models, innovation cycle, manufacturing industry.

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444 Achieving Performance in an Organization through Marketing Innovation

Authors: Andreea Maier, Diana Nicoară, Dorin Maier, Maria-Mihaela Suărăsan, Alexandra Anastasiu

Abstract:

Innovation is becoming more and more important in modern society. There are a lot of researches on different kinds of innovation but marketing innovation is one kind of innovation that has not been studied frequently before. Marketing innovation is defined as a new way in which companies can market themselves to potential or existing customers. The study shows some key elements for marketing innovation that are worth paying attention to when implementing marketing innovation projects. Examples of such key elements are: paying attention to the neglected market, suitable market segmentatio reliable market information, public relationship, increased customer value, combination of market factors, explore different marketing channels and the use of technology in combination with what? Beside the key elements for marketing innovation, we also present some risks that may occur, such as cost, market uncertainty, information leakage, imitation and overdependence on experience. By proposing a set of indicators to measure marketing innovation, the article offers solutions for marketing innovation implementation so that any organization can achieve optimal results.

Keywords: Innovation, marketing innovation, performance in an organization.

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443 e-Service Innovation within Open Innovation Networks

Authors: Hung T. Tsou, Hsuan Y. Hsu

Abstract:

Service innovations are central concerns in fast changing environment. Due to the fitness in customer demands and advances in information technologies (IT) in service management, an expanded conceptualization of e-service innovation is required. Specially, innovation practices have become increasingly more challenging, driving managers to employ a different open innovation model to maintain competitive advantages. At the same time, firms need to interact with external and internal customers in innovative environments, like the open innovation networks, to co-create values. Based on these issues, an important conceptual framework of e-service innovation is developed. This paper aims to examine the contributing factors on e-service innovation and firm performance, including financial and non-financial aspects. The study concludes by showing how e-service innovation will play a significant role in growing the overall values of the firm. The discussion and conclusion will lead to a stronger understanding of e-service innovation and co-creating values with customers within open innovation networks.

Keywords: e-Service innovation, performance, open innovation networks, co-create value.

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442 The Systematical Analysis about the Effect of Knowledge Spillover on Technological Innovation Capability

Authors: Tian Tian, Tian Baoguang

Abstract:

The paper studies implications between knowledge spillovers and technological innovation capability in the following three aspects: firstly, the paper debates on the effect of knowledge spillover on some perspectives of technological innovation ability; secondly, it discusses how different roles of knowledge spillover affect the technological innovation capability; finally, the paper creates the model of the factors of knowledge spillovers influencing to technological innovation capability. It concludes that knowledge spillovers affect all the main aspects of technological innovation ultimately to impact of technological innovation capabilities.

Keywords: Knowledge Spillover, Technological Innovation Capability, Innovation Cluster, Innovation Network Factors.

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441 Innovation Culture – Determinant of Firms´ Sustainability

Authors: Loreta Losane

Abstract:

Changes in global economy require changes in firms. They need to adapt to speed producing faster and creating new products, structures and processes. The purpose of the paper is to explore literature about organizational culture and its impact on innovation.

In the paper the method of literature review is used to examine influence of organizational culture on innovation and performance of enterprise.

Organizational culture is crucial for innovation. Literature reveals that research of organizational culture mostly confirm already existing conceptions and models, but those help to make profile of innovation culture.

Research summarize previous research of organizational culture as culture which foster innovation and provide profile of innovation culture, which may be used by managers to improve cultural environment to increase performance of their companies. Research also leads to hypothesis for further research.

Keywords: Innovation, Innovation Culture, Organizational Culture.

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440 A Proposed Innovation Management System Framework – A Solution for Organizations Aimed for Obtaining Performance

Authors: Andreea Maier, Stelian Brad, Mircea Fulea, Diana Nicoară, Dorin Maier

Abstract:

Today, any organization - regardless of the specific activity - must be prepared to face continuous radical changes, innovation thus becoming a condition of survival in a globalized market. Few managers have a wider vision that includes innovation, to enable better performance of the critical activities, namely the degree of novelty that it must submit an innovation to be considered as such. Companies need not only radical changes in the products or their services, but also to their business strategies. Not all managers have an overall view on the real size of necessary innovation potential. Unfortunately there is still no common understanding (and correct) of the term of innovation among managers. Moreover, not all managers are aware of the need for innovation. In these conditions, increasing the processes adaptability of firms (through innovation) to meet the needs and performance requirements is difficult without a systematic framework. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors propose a framework for designing an innovation management system,, to cover all the important aspects of a business system, to reach the actual performance of an organization.

Keywords: Innovation, innovation framework, innovation management system.

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439 The Effect of Innovation Factors to Customer Loyalty by Structural Equation Model

Authors: M. Dachyar, Fatkhurrohman

Abstract:

Innovation is being view from four areas of innovation, product, service, technology, and marketing. Whereas customer loyalty is composed of customer expectation, perceived quality, perceived value, corporate image, customer satisfaction, customer trust/confidence, customer commitment, customer complaint, and customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the influence of innovation factors to customer loyalty to GSM in the telecom companies where use of products and services. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using to analyze innovation factors. It was found the factor of innovation have significant influence on customer loyalty.

Keywords: Innovation, telecommunication, customer loyalty, SEM

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438 Organizational Culture and Innovation Adoption/Generation: A Proposed Model

Authors: Kong-Seng, Lai, Nor'Aini Yusof

Abstract:

Organizational culture fosters innovation, and innovation is the main engine to be sustained within the uncertainty market. Like other countries, the construction industry significantly contributes to the economy, society and technology of Malaysia, yet, innovation is still considered slow compared to other industries such as manufacturing. Given the important role of an architect as the key player and the contributor of new ideas in the construction industry, there is a call to identify the issue and improve the current situation by focusing on the architectural firms. In addition, the existing studies tend to focus only on a few dimensions of organizational culture and very few studies consider whether innovation is being generated or adopted. Hence, the present research tends to fill in the gap by identifying the organizational cultures that foster or hinder innovation generation and/or innovation adoption, and propose a model of organizational culture and innovation generation and/or adoption.

Keywords: Innovation adoption, innovation generation, architectural firm, organizational culture

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437 Community Innovation in Sustainable Development: A Cross Case Study

Authors: Tingan Tang, Kimmo Karhu, Matti Hamalainen

Abstract:

Although in sustainable development field, innovative solutions have been sought worldwide by environmental groups, academia, governments and companies for many years, recently, citizens and communities have emerged as a new group and taken more and more active role in this field. Many scholars call for more research on the role of community and community innovation in sustainable development. This paper is to respond to the calls. In this paper, we first summarize a comprehensive set of innovation principles. Then, we do a qualitative cross case study by comparing three community innovation cases in three different areas of sustainable development according to the innovation principles. Finally, we summarize the case comparison and discuss the implications to sustainable development. A unified role model and innovation distribution map of community innovation are developed to better understand community innovation in sustainable development..

Keywords: Community innovation, grassroots innovation, sustainable development, sustainability.

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436 Organizational Culture and Innovation Adoption/Generation: A Proposed Model for Architectural Firms

Authors: Kong-Seng, Lai, Nor'Aini Yusof

Abstract:

Organizational culture fosters innovation, and innovation is the main engine to be sustained within the uncertainty market. Like other countries, the construction industry significantly contributes to the economy, society and technology of Malaysia, yet, innovation is still considered slow compared to other industries such as manufacturing. Given the important role of an architect as the key player and the contributor of new ideas in the construction industry, there is a call to identify the issue and improve the current situation by focusing on the architectural firms. In addition, the existing studies tend to focus only on a few dimensions of organizational culture and very few studies consider whether innovation is being generated or adopted. Hence, the present research tends to fill in the gap by identifying the organizational cultures that foster or hinder innovation generation and/or innovation adoption, and propose a model of organizational culture and innovation generation and/or adoption.

Keywords: Innovation adoption, innovation generation, architectural firm, organizational culture

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435 Innovation Strategies and Challenges in Emerging Economies: The Case of Research and Technology Organizations in Turkey

Authors: F. Demir

Abstract:

Innovation is highly critical for every company, especially for technology-based organizations looking to sustain their competitive advantage. However, this is not an easy task. Regardless of the size of the enterprise, market and location, all organizations face numerous challenges. Even though huge barriers to innovation exist in different countries, firm- and industry-specific challenges can be distinguished. This paper examines innovation strategies and obstacles to innovation in research and technology organizations (RTO) of Turkey. From the most important to the least, nine different challenges are ranked according the results of this survey. The findings reveal that to take the lead in innovation, financial constraint is the biggest challenge, which is consistent with the related literature. It ranked number one in this study. Beyond that, based on a sample of 40 RTOs, regional challenges such as underdeveloped regional innovation ecosystem plays a significant role in hampering innovation. Most of the organizations (55%) embrace an incremental approach to innovation, while only few pursue radical shifts. About 40% of the RTOs focus on product innovation, and 27.5% of them concentrate on technological innovation, while a very limited number aim for operational excellence and customer engagement as the focus of their strategic innovation efforts.

Keywords: Innovation strategies, innovation challenges, emerging economies, research and technology organizations.

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434 Driving Innovation by Enhancing Employee Roles: The Balancing Act of Employee-Driven Innovation

Authors: L. Tirabeni, K. E. Soderquist, P. Pisano

Abstract:

Our purpose is to investigate how the relationship between employees and innovation management processes can drive organizations to successful innovations. This research is deeply related to a new way of thinking about human resources management practices. It’s not simply about improving the employees’ engagement, but rather about a different and more radical commitment: the employee can take on the role traditionally played by the customer, namely to become the first tester of an innovative product or service, the first user/customer and eventually the first investor in the innovation. This new perception of employees could create the basis of a novelty in the innovation process where innovation is taken to a next level when the problems with customer driven innovation on the one hand, and employees driven innovation on the other can be balanced. This research identifies an effective approach to innovation where the employees will participate throughout the whole innovation process, not only in the idea creation but also in the idea definition and development by giving feedback in parallel to that provided by customers and lead-users.

Keywords: Employee-Driven Innovation, engagement, human resource management, innovative companies.

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433 New Product Development Process on High-Tech Innovation Life Cycle

Authors: Gonçalo G. Aleixo, Alexandra B. Tenera

Abstract:

This work will provide a new perspective of exploring innovation thematic. It will reveal that radical and incremental innovations are complementary during the innovation life cycle and accomplished through distinct ways of developing new products. Each new product development process will be constructed according to the nature of each innovation and the state of the product development. This paper proposes the inclusion of the organizational function areas that influence new product's development on the new product development process.

Keywords: Cross-functional, Incremental Innovation, New Product development Process, Radical Innovation

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432 Innovation Strategy in Slovak Businesses

Authors: V. Lendel, M. Varmus

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is based on detailed analysis of literary sources and carried out research to develop a model development and implementation of innovation strategy in the business. The paper brings the main results of the authors conducted research on a sample of 462 respondents that shows the current situation in the Slovak enterprises in the use of innovation strategy. Carried out research and analysis provided the base for a model development and implementation of innovation strategy in the business, which is in the paper in detail, step by step explained with emphasis on the implementation process. Implementing the innovation strategy is described a separate model. Paper contains recommendations for successful implementation of innovation strategy in the business. These recommendations should serve mainly business managers as valuable tool in implementing the innovation strategy.

Keywords: innovation, innovation strategy, innovative management, innovative potential

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431 Proactive Identification of False Alert for Drug-Drug Interaction

Authors: Hsuan-Chia Yang, Yan-Jhih Haung, Yu-Chuan Li

Abstract:

Researchers of drug-drug interaction alert systems have often suggested that there were high overridden rate for alerts and also too false alerts. However, research about decreasing false alerts is scant. Therefore, the aim of this article attempts to proactive identification of false alert for drug-drug interaction and provide solution to decrease false alerts. This research involved retrospective analysis prescribing database and calculated false alert rate by using MYSQL and JAVA. Results of this study showed 17% of false alerts and the false alert rate in the hospitals (37%) was more than in the clinics. To conclude, this study described the importance that drug-drug interaction alert system should not only detect drug name but also detect frequency or route, as well as in providing solution to decrease false alerts.

Keywords: drug-drug interaction, proactive identification, false alert

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430 The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation

Authors: R. Hashim, A. J. Bock, S. Cooper

Abstract:

Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, construction industry, environmental, green innovation.

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429 Crowdsourcing as an Open Innovation Tool for Entrepreneurship

Authors: Zeynep Ayfer Bozat

Abstract:

As traditional innovation has already taken its place in managers’ to do lists; managers and companies have started to look for new ways to go beyond the traditional innovation. Because of its cost, traditional innovation became a burden for companies since they only use inner sources. Companies have intended to use outer innovation sources to decrease the innovation costs and Open Innovation has become a new solution for companies at this point. Crowdsourcing is a tool of Open Innovation and it consists of two words: Outsourcing and crowd. Crowdsourcing aims to benefit from the efforts and ideas of a virtual crowd via Internet technologies. In addition to that, crowdsourcing can help entrepreneurs to innovate and grow their businesses. They can crowd source anything they can use to grow their businesses: Ideas, investment, new business, new partners, new solutions, new policies, data, insight, marketing or talent. Therefore, the aim of the study is to be able to show some possible ways for entrepreneurs to benefit from crowdsourcing to expand or foster their businesses. In the study, the term crowdsourcing has been given in details and these possible ways have been searched and given.

Keywords: Crowdsourcing, entrepreneurship, innovation, open innovation.

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428 The Keys to Innovation: Defining and Evaluating Attributes that Measure Innovation Capabilities

Authors: Mohammad Samarah, Benjamin Stark, Jennifer Kindle, Langley Payton

Abstract:

Innovation is a key driver for companies, society, and economic growth. However, assessing and measuring innovation for individuals as well as organizations remains difficult. Our i5-Score presented in this study will help to overcome this difficulty and facilitate measuring the innovation potential. The score is based on a framework we call the 5Gs of innovation which defines specific innovation attributes. Those are 1) the drive for long-term goals 2) the audacity to generate new ideas, 3) the openness to share ideas with others, 4) the ability to grow, and 5) the ability to maintain high levels of optimism. To validate the i5-Score, we conducted a study at Florida Polytechnic University. The results show that the i5-Score is a good measure reflecting the innovative mindset of an individual or a group. Thus, the score can be utilized for evaluating, refining and enhancing innovation capabilities.

Keywords: Change management, innovation attributes, organizational development, STEM and venture creation.

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427 Assessing and Managing Intellectual Capital to Support Open Innovation Paradigm

Authors: Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli, Francesco Rogo, Alessia Iannarelli

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The objective of this paper is to support the application of Open Innovation practices in firms and organizations by the assessment and management of Intellectual Capital. Intellectual Capital constituents are analyzed in order to verify their capability of acting as key drivers of Open Innovation processes and, therefore, of creating value. A methodology is defined to settle a procedure which helps to select the most relevant Intellectual Capital value drivers and to provide Communities of Innovation with strategic and managerial guidelines in sustaining Open Innovation paradigm. An application of the methodology is developed within a specifically addressed project and its results are hereafter examined.

Keywords: Assessment, Community of Innovation, Intellectual Capital, Management, Open Innovation.

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426 Use of Integrated Knowledge Networks to Increase Innovation in Nanotechnology Research and Development

Authors: R. Byler

Abstract:

Innovation, particularly in technology development, is a crucial aspect of nanotechnology R&D and, although several approaches to effective innovation management exist, organizational structures that promote knowledge exchange have been found to be most effect in supporting new and emerging technologies. This paper discusses Integrated Knowledge Networks (IKNs) and evaluates its use within nanotechnology R&D to increase technology innovation. Specifically, this paper reviews the role of IKNs in bolstering national and international nanotechnology development and in enhancing nanotechnology innovation. Both physical and virtual IKNs, particularly IT-based network platforms for community-based innovation, offer strategies for enhanced technology innovation, interdisciplinary cooperation, and enterprise development. Effectively creating and managing technology R&D networks can facilitate successful knowledge exchange, enhanced innovation, commercialization, and technology transfer. As such, IKNs are crucial to technology development processes and, thus, in increasing the quality and access to new, innovative nanoscience and technologies worldwide.

Keywords: Community-based innovation, integrated knowledge networks, nanotechnology, technology innovation.

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