Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1712

Search results for: 9/7 Wavelets Error Sensitivity WES

1712 A Perceptually Optimized Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coder

Authors: A. Bajit, M. Nahid, A. Tamtaoui, E. H. Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEZIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet transform coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to the coding quality obtained using the SPIHT algorithm only. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEZIC quality assessment. Our POEZIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) luminance masking and Contrast masking, 2) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting, 3) the Wavelet Error Sensitivity WES used to reduce the perceptual quantization errors. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.

Keywords: DWT, linear-phase 9/7 filter, 9/7 Wavelets Error Sensitivity WES, CSF implementation approaches, JND Just Noticeable Difference, Luminance masking, Contrast masking, standard SPIHT, Objective Quality Measure, Probability Score PS.

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1711 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: 3D object, optimization, parametrization, Polywog wavelets, reconstruction, wavelet networks.

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1710 The Analysis of Radial/Axial Error Motion on a Precision Rotation Stage

Authors: Jinho Kim, Dongik Shin, Deokwon Yun, Changsoo Han

Abstract:

Rotating stages in semiconductor, display industry and many other fields require challenging accuracy to perform their functions properly. Especially, Axis of rotation error on rotary system is significant; such as the spindle error motion of the aligner, wire bonder and inspector machine which result in the poor state of manufactured goods. To evaluate and improve the performance of such precision rotary stage, unessential movements on the other 5 degrees of freedom of the rotary stage must be measured and analyzed. In this paper, we have measured the three translations and two tilt motions of a rotating stage with high precision capacitive sensors. To obtain the radial error motion from T.I.R (Total Indicated Reading) of radial direction, we have used Donaldson's reversal technique. And the axial components of the spindle tilt error motion can be obtained accurately from the axial direction outputs of sensors by Estler face motion reversal technique. Further more we have defined and measured the sensitivity of positioning error to the five error motions.

Keywords: Donaldson's reversal methods, Estler face motionreversal method, Error motion, sensitivity, T.I.R (Total IndicatedReading).

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1709 Image Compression Using Multiwavelet and Multi-Stage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P. Navaneethan

Abstract:

The existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties such as orthogonality, short support, linear phase symmetry, and a high order of approximation through vanishing moments simultaneously, which are very much essential for signal processing. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling function overcomes this problem. This paper presents a new image coding scheme based on non linear approximation of multiwavelet coefficients along with multistage vector quantization. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the results obtained from scalar wavelets.

Keywords: Image compression, Multiwavelets, Multi-stagevector quantization.

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1708 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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1707 Face Detection using Gabor Wavelets and Neural Networks

Authors: Hossein Sahoolizadeh, Davood Sarikhanimoghadam, Hamid Dehghani

Abstract:

This paper proposes new hybrid approaches for face recognition. Gabor wavelets representation of face images is an effective approach for both facial action recognition and face identification. Perform dimensionality reduction and linear discriminate analysis on the down sampled Gabor wavelet faces can increase the discriminate ability. Nearest feature space is extended to various similarity measures. In our experiments, proposed Gabor wavelet faces combined with extended neural net feature space classifier shows very good performance, which can achieve 93 % maximum correct recognition rate on ORL data set without any preprocessing step.

Keywords: Face detection, Neural Networks, Multi-layer Perceptron, Gabor wavelets.

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1706 Comparison between Haar and Daubechies Wavelet Transformions on FPGA Technology

Authors: Mohamed I. Mahmoud, Moawad I. M. Dessouky, Salah Deyab, Fatma H. Elfouly

Abstract:

Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the comparison between the Haar and Daubechies wavelets is investigated. The Bit Error Rat (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. It is seen that the BER using Daubechies wavelet techniques is less than Haar wavelet. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-of-art Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.

Keywords: Daubechies wavelet, discrete wavelet transform, Haar wavelet, Xilinx FPGA.

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1705 Fingerprint Compression Using Multiwavelets

Authors: Sudhakar.R, Jayaraman.S

Abstract:

Large volumes of fingerprints are collected and stored every day in a wide range of applications, including forensics, access control etc. It is evident from the database of Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) which contains more than 70 million finger prints. Compression of this database is very important because of this high Volume. The performance of existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties which are needed for better performance in compression. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling filters overcomes this problem. The objective of this paper is to develop an efficient compression scheme and to obtain better quality and higher compression ratio through multiwavelet transform and embedded coding of multiwavelet coefficients through Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees algorithm (SPIHT) algorithm. A comparison of the best known multiwavelets is made to the best known scalar wavelets. Both quantitative and qualitative measures of performance are examined for Fingerprints.

Keywords: Mutiwavelet, Modified SPIHT Algorithm, SPIHT, Wavelet.

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1704 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

Authors: Yeonsoo Jang, Dongweon Yoon, Ki Ho Kwon, Jaeyoon Lee, Wooju Lee

Abstract:

Phase error in communications systems degrades error performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified through comparison with simulation result.

Keywords: Average error probability, Phase shift keying, Phase error

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1703 Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

Authors: Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar, Adel M. Alimi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate f as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

Keywords: Beta wavelets networks, RBF neural network, training algorithms, MSE, 1-D, 2D function approximation.

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1702 Sensitivity Computations of Time Relaxation Model with an Application in Cavity Computation

Authors: Monika Neda, Elena Nikonova

Abstract:

We present a numerical study of the sensitivity of the so called time relaxation family of models of fluid motion with respect to the time relaxation parameter χ on the two dimensional cavity problem. The goal of the study is to compute and compare the sensitivity of the model using finite difference method (FFD) and sensitivity equation method (SEM).

Keywords: Sensitivity, time relaxation, deconvolution, Navier- Stokes equations.

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1701 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao

Abstract:

The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: Globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer.

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1700 Performance Evaluation of Complex Valued Neural Networks Using Various Error Functions

Authors: Anita S. Gangal, P. K. Kalra, D. S. Chauhan

Abstract:

The backpropagation algorithm in general employs quadratic error function. In fact, most of the problems that involve minimization employ the Quadratic error function. With alternative error functions the performance of the optimization scheme can be improved. The new error functions help in suppressing the ill-effects of the outliers and have shown good performance to noise. In this paper we have tried to evaluate and compare the relative performance of complex valued neural network using different error functions. During first simulation for complex XOR gate it is observed that some error functions like Absolute error, Cauchy error function can replace Quadratic error function. In the second simulation it is observed that for some error functions the performance of the complex valued neural network depends on the architecture of the network whereas with few other error functions convergence speed of the network is independent of architecture of the neural network.

Keywords: Complex backpropagation algorithm, complex errorfunctions, complex valued neural network, split activation function.

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1699 A Numerical Solution Based On Operational Matrix of Differentiation of Shifted Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for a Stefan Problem

Authors: Rajeev, N. K. Raigar

Abstract:

In this study, one dimensional phase change problem (a Stefan problem) is considered and a numerical solution of this problem is discussed. First, we use similarity transformation to convert the governing equations into ordinary differential equations with its boundary conditions. The solutions of ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions and interface condition (Stefan condition) are obtained by using a numerical approach based on operational matrix of differentiation of shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets. The obtained results are compared with existing exact solution which is sufficiently accurate.

Keywords: Operational matrix of differentiation, Similarity transformation, Shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets, Stefan problem.

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1698 Hybrid Method Using Wavelets and Predictive Method for Compression of Speech Signal

Authors: Karima Siham Aoubid, Mohamed Boulemden

Abstract:

The development of the signal compression algorithms is having compressive progress. These algorithms are continuously improved by new tools and aim to reduce, an average, the number of bits necessary to the signal representation by means of minimizing the reconstruction error. The following article proposes the compression of Arabic speech signal by a hybrid method combining the wavelet transform and the linear prediction. The adopted approach rests, on one hand, on the original signal decomposition by ways of analysis filters, which is followed by the compression stage, and on the other hand, on the application of the order 5, as well as, the compression signal coefficients. The aim of this approach is the estimation of the predicted error, which will be coded and transmitted. The decoding operation is then used to reconstitute the original signal. Thus, the adequate choice of the bench of filters is useful to the transform in necessary to increase the compression rate and induce an impercevable distortion from an auditive point of view.

Keywords: Compression, linear prediction analysis, multiresolution analysis, speech signal.

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1697 Automatic Detection of Defects in Ornamental Limestone Using Wavelets

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Marco Aniceto, Pedro N. Santos, José C. Freitas

Abstract:

A methodology based on wavelets is proposed for the automatic location and delimitation of defects in limestone plates. Natural defects include dark colored spots, crystal zones trapped in the stone, areas of abnormal contrast colors, cracks or fracture lines, and fossil patterns. Although some of these may or may not be considered as defects according to the intended use of the plate, the goal is to pair each stone with a map of defects that can be overlaid on a computer display. These layers of defects constitute a database that will allow the preliminary selection of matching tiles of a particular variety, with specific dimensions, for a requirement of N square meters, to be done on a desktop computer rather than by a two-hour search in the storage park, with human operators manipulating stone plates as large as 3 m x 2 m, weighing about one ton. Accident risks and work times are reduced, with a consequent increase in productivity. The base for the algorithm is wavelet decomposition executed in two instances of the original image, to detect both hypotheses – dark and clear defects. The existence and/or size of these defects are the gauge to classify the quality grade of the stone products. The tuning of parameters that are possible in the framework of the wavelets corresponds to different levels of accuracy in the drawing of the contours and selection of the defects size, which allows for the use of the map of defects to cut a selected stone into tiles with minimum waste, according the dimension of defects allowed.

Keywords: Automatic detection, wavelets, defects, fracture lines.

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1696 Experimental Investigation into Chaotic Features of Flow Gauges in Automobile Fuel Metering System

Authors: S. K. Fasogbon

Abstract:

Chaotic system may lead to instability, extreme sensitivity and performance reduction in control systems. It is therefore important to understand the causes of such undesirable characteristics in control system especially in the automobile fuel gauges. This is because without accurate fuel gauges in automobile systems, it will be difficult if not impossible to embark on a journey whether during odd hours of the day or where fuel is difficult to obtain. To this end, this work studied the impacts of fuel tank rust and faulty component of fuel gauge system (voltage stabilizer) on the chaotic characteristics of fuel gauges. The results obtained were analyzed using Graph iSOFT package. Over the range of experiments conducted, the results obtained showed that rust effect of the fuel tank would alter the flow density, consequently the fluid pressure and ultimately the flow velocity of the fuel. The responses of the fuel gauge pointer to the faulty voltage stabilizer were erratic causing noticeable instability of gauge measurands indicated. The experiment also showed that the fuel gauge performed optimally by indicating the highest degree of accuracy when combined the effect of rust free tank and non-faulty voltage stabilizer conditions (± 6.75% measurand error) as compared to only the rust free tank situation (± 15% measurand error) and only the non-faulty voltage stabilizer condition (± 40% measurand error). The study concludes that both the fuel tank rust and the faulty voltage stabilizer gauge component have a significant effect on the sensitivity of fuel gauge and its accuracy ultimately. Also, by the reason of literature, our findings can also be said to be valid for all other fluid meters and gauges applicable in plant machineries and most hydraulic systems.

Keywords: Chaotic system, degree of accuracy, measurand, sensitivity of fuel gauge.

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1695 2-DOF Observer Based Controller for First Order with Dead Time Systems

Authors: Ashu Ahuja, Shiv Narayan, Jagdish Kumar

Abstract:

This paper realized the 2-DOF controller structure for first order with time delay systems. The co-prime factorization is used to design observer based controller K(s), representing one degree of freedom. The problem is based on H∞ norm of mixed sensitivity and aims to achieve stability, robustness and disturbance rejection. Then, the other degree of freedom, prefilter F(s), is formulated as fixed structure polynomial controller to meet open loop processing of reference model. This model matching problem is solved by minimizing integral square error between reference model and proposed model. The feedback controller and prefilter designs are posed as optimization problem and solved using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). To show the efficiency of the designed approach different variety of processes are taken and compared for analysis.

Keywords: 2-DOF, integral square error, mixed sensitivity function, observer based controller, particle swarm optimization, prefilter.

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1694 Topology Preservation in SOM

Authors: E. Arsuaga Uriarte, F. Díaz Martín

Abstract:

The SOM has several beneficial features which make it a useful method for data mining. One of the most important features is the ability to preserve the topology in the projection. There are several measures that can be used to quantify the goodness of the map in order to obtain the optimal projection, including the average quantization error and many topological errors. Many researches have studied how the topology preservation should be measured. One option consists of using the topographic error which considers the ratio of data vectors for which the first and second best BMUs are not adjacent. In this work we present a study of the behaviour of the topographic error in different kinds of maps. We have found that this error devaluates the rectangular maps and we have studied the reasons why this happens. Finally, we suggest a new topological error to improve the deficiency of the topographic error.

Keywords: Map lattice, Self-Organizing Map, topographic error, topology preservation.

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1693 Peakwise Smoothing of Data Models using Wavelets

Authors: D Sudheer Reddy, N Gopal Reddy, P V Radhadevi, J Saibaba, Geeta Varadan

Abstract:

Smoothing or filtering of data is first preprocessing step for noise suppression in many applications involving data analysis. Moving average is the most popular method of smoothing the data, generalization of this led to the development of Savitzky-Golay filter. Many window smoothing methods were developed by convolving the data with different window functions for different applications; most widely used window functions are Gaussian or Kaiser. Function approximation of the data by polynomial regression or Fourier expansion or wavelet expansion also gives a smoothed data. Wavelets also smooth the data to great extent by thresholding the wavelet coefficients. Almost all smoothing methods destroys the peaks and flatten them when the support of the window is increased. In certain applications it is desirable to retain peaks while smoothing the data as much as possible. In this paper we present a methodology called as peak-wise smoothing that will smooth the data to any desired level without losing the major peak features.

Keywords: smoothing, moving average, peakwise smoothing, spatialdensity models, planar shape models, wavelets.

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1692 Design of Digital Differentiator to Optimize Relative Error

Authors: Vinita V. Sondur, Vilas B. Sondur, Narasimha H. Ayachit

Abstract:

It is observed that the Weighted least-square (WLS) technique, including the modifications, results in equiripple error curve. The resultant error as a percent of the ideal value is highly non-uniformly distributed over the range of frequencies for which the differentiator is designed. The present paper proposes a modification to the technique so that the optimization procedure results in lower maximum relative error compared to the ideal values. Simulation results for first order as well as higher order differentiators are given to illustrate the excellent performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Differentiator, equiripple, error distribution, relative error.

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1691 Dispersed Error Control based on Error Filter Design for Improving Halftone Image Quality

Authors: Sang-Chul Kim, Sung-Il Chien

Abstract:

The error diffusion method generates worm artifacts, and weakens the edge of the halftone image when the continuous gray scale image is reproduced by a binary image. First, to enhance the edges, we propose the edge-enhancing filter by considering the quantization error information and gradient of the neighboring pixels. Furthermore, to remove worm artifacts often appearing in a halftone image, we add adaptively random noise into the weights of an error filter.

Keywords: Artifact suppression, Edge enhancement, Error diffusion method, Halftone image

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1690 Functional Near Infrared Spectroscope for Cognition Brain Tasks by Wavelets Analysis and Neural Networks

Authors: Truong Quang Dang Khoa, Masahiro Nakagawa

Abstract:

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has been recently increased in research. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscope (fNIRs) is one the latest technologies which utilize light in the near-infrared range to determine brain activities. Because near infrared technology allows design of safe, portable, wearable, non-invasive and wireless qualities monitoring systems, fNIRs monitoring of brain hemodynamics can be value in helping to understand brain tasks. In this paper, we present results of fNIRs signal analysis indicating that there exist distinct patterns of hemodynamic responses which recognize brain tasks toward developing a BCI. We applied two different mathematics tools separately, Wavelets analysis for preprocessing as signal filters and feature extractions and Neural networks for cognition brain tasks as a classification module. We also discuss and compare with other methods while our proposals perform better with an average accuracy of 99.9% for classification.

Keywords: functional near infrared spectroscope (fNIRs), braincomputer interface (BCI), wavelets, neural networks, brain activity, neuroimaging.

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1689 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.

Keywords: Haar's basis, Image compression, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan.

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1688 Sensitivity Analysis in Power Systems Reliability Evaluation

Authors: A.R Alesaadi, M. Nafar, A.H. Gheisari

Abstract:

In this paper sensitivity analysis is performed for reliability evaluation of power systems. When examining the reliability of a system, it is useful to recognize how results change as component parameters are varied. This knowledge helps engineers to understand the impact of poor data, and gives insight on how reliability can be improved. For these reasons, a sensitivity analysis can be performed. Finally, a real network was used for testing the presented method.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, reliability evaluation, powersystems.

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1687 Analytical Analysis of Image Representation by Their Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: R. M. Farouk

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical analysis of the representation of images as the magnitudes of their transform with the discrete wavelets. Such a representation plays as a model for complex cells in the early stage of visual processing and of high technical usefulness for image understanding, because it makes the representation insensitive to small local shifts. We found that if the signals are band limited and of zero mean, then reconstruction from the magnitudes is unique up to the sign for almost all signals. We also present an iterative reconstruction algorithm which yields very good reconstruction up to the sign minor numerical errors in the very low frequencies.

Keywords: Wavelets, Image processing signal processing, Image reconstruction

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1686 A New Voting Approach to Texture Defect Detection Based on Multiresolutional Decomposition

Authors: B. B. M. Moasheri, S. Azadinia

Abstract:

Wavelets have provided the researchers with significant positive results, by entering the texture defect detection domain. The weak point of wavelets is that they are one-dimensional by nature so they are not efficient enough to describe and analyze two-dimensional functions. In this paper we present a new method to detect the defect of texture images by using curvelet transform. Simulation results of the proposed method on a set of standard texture images confirm its correctness. Comparing the obtained results indicates the ability of curvelet transform in describing discontinuity in two-dimensional functions compared to wavelet transform

Keywords: Curvelet, Defect detection, Wavelet.

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1685 Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets

Authors: M. Kutila, J. Viitanen

Abstract:

This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

Keywords: image compression, jpeg, wavelet, vlc

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1684 Kinematic Parameter-Independent Modeling and Measuring of Three-Axis Machine Tools

Authors: Yung-Yuan Hsu

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper was to construct a “kinematic parameter-independent modeling of three-axis machine tools for geometric error measurement" technique. Improving the accuracy of the geometric error for three-axis machine tools is one of the machine tools- core techniques. This paper first applied the traditional method of HTM to deduce the geometric error model for three-axis machine tools. This geometric error model was related to the three-axis kinematic parameters where the overall errors was relative to the machine reference coordinate system. Given that the measurement of the linear axis in this model should be on the ideal motion axis, there were practical difficulties. Through a measurement method consolidating translational errors and rotational errors in the geometric error model, we simplified the three-axis geometric error model to a kinematic parameter-independent model. Finally, based on the new measurement method corresponding to this error model, we established a truly practical and more accurate error measuring technique for three-axis machine tools.

Keywords: Three-axis machine tool, Geometric error, HTM, Error measuring

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1683 End Point Detection for Wavelet Based Speech Compression

Authors: Jalal Karam

Abstract:

In real-field applications, the correct determination of voice segments highly improves the overall system accuracy and minimises the total computation time. This paper presents reliable measures of speech compression by detcting the end points of the speech signals prior to compressing them. The two different compession schemes used are the Global threshold and the Level- Dependent threshold techniques. The performance of the proposed method is tested wirh the Signal to Noise Ratios, Peak Signal to Noise Ratios and Normalized Root Mean Square Error parameter measures.

Keywords: Wavelets, End-points Detection, Compression.

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