Perturbative Analysis on a Lunar Free Return Trajectory
Authors: Emre Ünal, Hasan Başaran
In this study, starting with a predetermined Lunar free-return trajectory, an analysis of major near-Earth perturbations is carried out. Referencing to historical Apollo-13 flight, changes in the mission’s resultant perimoon and perigee altitudes with each perturbative effect are evaluated. The perturbations that were considered are Earth oblateness effects, up to the 6th order, atmospheric drag, third body perturbations consisting of solar and planetary effects and solar radiation pressure effects. It is found that for a Moon mission, most of the main perturbative effects spoil the trajectory significantly while some came out to be negligible. It is seen that for apparent future request of constructing low cost, reliable and safe trajectories to the Moon, most of the orbital perturbations are crucial.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 78
 European Space Agency, “Helium-3 mining on the lunar surface”. Accessed on November 15, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Preparing_for_the_Future/Space_for_Earth/Energy/Helium-3_mining_on_the_lunar_surface.
 I. Crawford, “Moon village”, Astronomy & Geophysics, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 6.18-6.21, 2017.
 K. Tate, “Home on the Moon: How to build a lunar colony”, 2013, accessed on April 25, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.space.com/21588-how-moon-base-lunar-colony-works-infographic.html
 Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, “Chandrayaan-2 to land two rovers”, accessed on December, 2016, retrieved from https://sservi.nasa.gov/articles/chandrayaan-2-to-land-two-rovers
 B. Cohen, and R. Staehle, “Lunar flashlight”, Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, accessed on December, 2016, retrieved from https://sservi.nasa.gov/articles/lunar-flashlight
 B. A. Cohen, J. A. Bassler, J. M. McDougal, D. W. Harris, L. Hill, M. S. Hammond, B. J. Morse, C. L. B. Reed, K. W. Kirby and T. H. Morgan, “The international lunar network (ILN) anchor nodes mission update”, 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Jan., 2009.
 R. D. Adamo, “Apollo-13 trajectory reconstruction via state transition matrices”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1772-1781, 2008
 M. Jesick and C. Ocampo, “Symmetric lunar free-return trajectories”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol 34, no. 1, pp. 98-106, (2011).
 J. Li, S. P. Gong, H. Baoyin and F. Jiang, “Lunar orbit insertion targeting from the two-segment lunar free-return trajectories”, Advances in Space Research, vol. 55, no. 4, pp 1051-1060, 2015.
 E. Unal, “Free return trajectories to Moon”, 9th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, Istanbul, June, 2019.
 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Apollo 13 Mission Report”, Houston, Texas, 1970.
 H. D. Curtis, Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students, 3rd ed., Elsevier , Waltham, Massachusetts, USA, 2010, ch .12.
 B. Michaels, “Exploration of lunar free-return trajectories”, unpublished, accessed on November 6, 2017. retrieved from http://ccar.colorado.edu/asen5050/projects/projects_2012/michels/
 H. Schaub and J. L. Junkins, Analytical Mechanics for Aerospace Systems. AIAA education series, 2002, pp. 372-380.
 National Aerospace and Space Administration, “Apollo 13 Press Kit”, Washington DC, 1970.
 D. M. Prieto, B. P. Graziano and P. C. E. Roberts, “Spacecraft drag modelling”, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, vol. 64, pp. 56-65, 2014.
 C. Colombo, C. Bewick, and C. McInnes, “Orbital dynamics of high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft under the influence of j2 and solar radiation pressure”, 62nd International Astranautical Congress, Cape Town, 2011.
 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Apollo 13 technical air-to-ground voice transcript”. Manned Spacecraft Center. Houston, Texas, 1970.