Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 963

Search results for: media convergence

963 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, Jatinderdeep Kaur, S. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: Conjugate Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums.

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962 Congestion Control for Internet Media Traffic

Authors: Mohammad A. Talaat, Magdi A. Koutb, Hoda S. Sorour

Abstract:

In this paper we investigated a number of the Internet congestion control algorithms that has been developed in the last few years. It was obviously found that many of these algorithms were designed to deal with the Internet traffic merely as a train of consequent packets. Other few algorithms were specifically tailored to handle the Internet congestion caused by running media traffic that represents audiovisual content. This later set of algorithms is considered to be aware of the nature of this media content. In this context we briefly explained a number of congestion control algorithms and hence categorized them into the two following categories: i) Media congestion control algorithms. ii) Common congestion control algorithms. We hereby recommend the usage of the media congestion control algorithms for the reason of being media content-aware rather than the other common type of algorithms that blindly manipulates such traffic. We showed that the spread of such media content-aware algorithms over Internet will lead to better congestion control status in the coming years. This is due to the observed emergence of the era of digital convergence where the media traffic type will form the majority of the Internet traffic.

Keywords: Congestion Control, Media Traffic.

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961 A Methodology for Reducing the BGP Convergence Time

Authors: Eatedal A. Alabdulkreem, Hamed S. Al-Raweshidy, Maysam F. Abbod

Abstract:

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the standard routing protocol between various autonomous systems (AS) in the internet. In the event of failure, a considerable delay in the BGP convergence has been shown by empirical measurements. During the convergence time the BGP will repeatedly advertise new routes to some destination and withdraw old ones until it reach a stable state. It has been found that the KEEPALIVE message timer and the HOLD time are tow parameters affecting the convergence speed. This paper aims to find the optimum value for the KEEPALIVE timer and the HOLD time that maximally reduces the convergence time without increasing the traffic. The KEEPALIVE message timer optimal value founded by this paper is 30 second instead of 60 seconds, and the optimal value for the HOLD time is 90 seconds instead of 180 seconds.

Keywords: BGP, Convergence Time, HOLD time, Keep alive.

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960 On the Fast Convergence of DD-LMS DFE Using a Good Strategy Initialization

Authors: Y.Ben Jemaa, M.Jaidane

Abstract:

In wireless communication system, a Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) to cancel the intersymbol interference (ISI) is required. In this paper, an exact convergence analysis of the (DFE) adapted by the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm during the training phase is derived by taking into account the finite alphabet context of data transmission. This allows us to determine the shortest training sequence that allows to reach a given Mean Square Error (MSE). With the intention of avoiding the problem of ill-convergence, the paper proposes an initialization strategy for the blind decision directed (DD) algorithm. This then yields a semi-blind DFE with high speed and good convergence.

Keywords: Adaptive Decision Feedback Equalizer, PerformanceAnalysis, Finite Alphabet Case, Ill-Convergence, Convergence speed.

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959 On Convergence Property of MINRES Method for Solving a Complex Shifted Hermitian Linear System

Authors: Guiding Gu, Guo Liu

Abstract:

We discuss the convergence property of the minimum residual (MINRES) method for the solution of complex shifted Hermitian system (αI + H)x = f. Our convergence analysis shows that the method has a faster convergence than that for real shifted Hermitian system (Re(α)I + H)x = f under the condition Re(α) + λmin(H) > 0, and a larger imaginary part of the shift α has a better convergence property. Numerical experiments show such convergence properties.

Keywords: complex shifted linear system, Hermitian matrix, MINRES method.

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958 A Family of Improved Secant-Like Method with Super-Linear Convergence

Authors: Liang Chen

Abstract:

A family of improved secant-like method is proposed in this paper. Further, the analysis of the convergence shows that this method has super-linear convergence. Efficiency are demonstrated by numerical experiments when the choice of α is correct.

Keywords: Nonlinear equations, Secant method, Convergence order, Secant-like method.

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957 Analyzing Convergence of IT and Energy Industry Based on Social System Framework

Authors: Giseob Byun, Ji Yeon Cho, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze Green IT industry in major developed countries and to suggest overall directions for IT-Energy convergence industry. Recently, IT industry is pointed out as a problem such as environmental pollution, energy exhaustion, and high energy consumption. Therefore, Green IT gets focused which concerns as solution of these problems. However, since it is a beginning stage of this convergence area, there are only a few studies of IT-Energy convergence industry. According to this, this study examined the major developed countries in terms of institution arrangements, resources, markets and companies based on Van de Ven(1999)'s social system framework that shows relationship among key components of industrial infrastructure. Subsequently, the direction of the future study of convergence on IT and Energy industry is proposed.

Keywords: Green IT, Energy industry, Convergence, Social System Framework.

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956 A Novel Convergence Accelerator for the LMS Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Jeng-Shin Sheu, Jenn-Kaie Lain, Tai-Kuo Woo, Jyh-Horng Wen

Abstract:

The least mean square (LMS) algorithmis one of the most well-known algorithms for mobile communication systems due to its implementation simplicity. However, the main limitation is its relatively slow convergence rate. In this paper, a booster using the concept of Markov chains is proposed to speed up the convergence rate of LMS algorithms. The nature of Markov chains makes it possible to exploit the past information in the updating process. Moreover, since the transition matrix has a smaller variance than that of the weight itself by the central limit theorem, the weight transition matrix converges faster than the weight itself. Accordingly, the proposed Markov-chain based booster thus has the ability to track variations in signal characteristics, and meanwhile, it can accelerate the rate of convergence for LMS algorithms. Simulation results show that the LMS algorithm can effectively increase the convergence rate and meantime further approach the Wiener solution, if the Markov-chain based booster is applied. The mean square error is also remarkably reduced, while the convergence rate is improved.

Keywords: LMS, Markov chain, convergence rate, accelerator.

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955 Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

Authors: Chenxue Yang, Mao Ye, Zijian Liu, Tao Li, Jiao Bao

Abstract:

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

Keywords: Non-negative matrix factorizations, convergence, cAG algorithm, equilibrium point, stability.

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954 The Complementarities of Multi-Lateralism, Andregionalism and Income Convergence: ASEAN and SAARC

Authors: Kankesu Jayanthakumaran, Shao-Wei Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes the hypothesis that multilateralism and regionalism are complementary, and that regional income convergence is likely with a like minded and committed regionalism that often has links geographically and culturally. The association between international trade, income per capita, and regional income convergence in founder members of ASEAN and SAARC, is explored by applying the Lumsdaine, and Papell approach. The causal relationships between the above variables are also studied in respective trade blocs by using Granger causality tests. The conclusion is that global reforms have had a greater impact on increasing trade for both trade blocs and induced convergence only in ASEAN-5 countries. The experience of ASEAN countries shows a two-way causal relationship between the flow from trade to regional income convergence, and vice versa. There is no evidence in SAARC countries for income convergence and causality.

Keywords: ASEAN-5, SAARC-5, trade liberalisation, incomeconvergence, structural breaks and causality.

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953 Convergence Analysis of a Prediction based Adaptive Equalizer for IIR Channels

Authors: Miloje S. Radenkovic, Tamal Bose

Abstract:

This paper presents the convergence analysis of a prediction based blind equalizer for IIR channels. Predictor parameters are estimated by using the recursive least squares algorithm. It is shown that the prediction error converges almost surely (a.s.) toward a scalar multiple of the unknown input symbol sequence. It is also proved that the convergence rate of the parameter estimation error is of the same order as that in the iterated logarithm law.

Keywords: Adaptive blind equalizer, Recursive leastsquares, Adaptive Filtering, Convergence analysis.

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952 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element

Authors: Rado Flajs, Miran Saje

Abstract:

In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung [19]. It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.

Keywords: Quadrilateral thin plate bending element, convergence, generalized patch test.

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951 Semilocal Convergence of a Three Step Fifth Order Iterative Method under Höolder Continuity Condition in Banach Spaces

Authors: Ramandeep Behl, Prashanth Maroju, S. S. Motsa

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the semilocal convergence of a fifth order iterative method using recurrence relation under the assumption that first order Fréchet derivative satisfies the Hölder condition. Also, we calculate the R-order of convergence and provide some a priori error bounds. Based on this, we give existence and uniqueness region of the solution for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation of the second kind.

Keywords: Hölder continuity condition, Fréchet derivative, fifth order convergence, recurrence relations.

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950 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well known formulas.

Keywords: Conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence.

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949 New Newton's Method with Third-order Convergence for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Osama Yusuf Ababneh

Abstract:

For the last years, the variants of the Newton-s method with cubic convergence have become popular iterative methods to find approximate solutions to the roots of non-linear equations. These methods both enjoy cubic convergence at simple roots and do not require the evaluation of second order derivatives. In this paper, we present a new Newton-s method based on contra harmonic mean with cubically convergent. Numerical examples show that the new method can compete with the classical Newton's method.

Keywords: Third-order convergence, non-linear equations, root finding, iterative method.

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948 Perspectives of Financial Reporting Harmonization

Authors: Sorana M. Manoiu, Razvan V. Mustata, Jiří Strouhal, Carmen G. Bonaci, Dumitru Matis, Jiřina Bokšová

Abstract:

In the current context of globalization, accountability has become a key subject of real interest for both, national and international business areas, due to the need for comparability and transparency of the economic situation, so we can speak about the harmonization and convergence of international accounting. The paper presents a qualitative research through content analysis of several reports concerning the roadmap for convergence. First, we develop a conceptual framework for the evolution of standards’ convergence and further we discuss the degree of standards harmonization and convergence between US GAAP and IAS/IFRS as to October 2012. We find that most topics did not follow the expected progress. Furthermore there are still some differences in the long-term project that are in process to be completed and other that were reassessed as a lower priority project.

Keywords: Convergence, harmonization, FASB, IASB, IFRS, US GAAP.

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947 Interaxial Distance and Convergence Control for Efficient Stereoscopic Shooting using Horizontal Moving 3D Camera Rig

Authors: Seong-Mo An, Rohit Ramesh, Young-Sook Lee, Wan-Young Chung

Abstract:

The proper assessment of interaxial distance and convergence control are important factors in stereoscopic imaging technology to make an efficient 3D image. To control interaxial distance and convergence for efficient 3D shooting, horizontal 3D camera rig is designed using some hardware components like 'LM Guide', 'Goniometer' and 'Rotation Stage'. The horizontal 3D camera rig system can be properly aligned by moving the two cameras horizontally in same or opposite directions, by adjusting the camera angle and finally considering horizontal swing as well as vertical swing. In this paper, the relationship between interaxial distance and convergence angle control are discussed and intensive experiments are performed in order to demonstrate an easy and effective 3D shooting.

Keywords: Interaxial, Convergence, Stereoscopic, Horizontal 3D Camera Rig

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946 Feasible Traits of TV and Web as Media for Advertisements and Their Influences on Buying Behavior– A Comparative Study on Indian Perspective

Authors: K. Pongiannan

Abstract:

Advertising is one of the important marketing strategies and the choice of media is an important aspect of effectiveness of advertising media. The two most popular advertising media, TV and web media are highly effective in creating successful advertisements as they influence the purchase decision of the viewers. Although TV and web are electronic media, they are unique in their features and traits of advertising. Hence, the present study attempts to analyze the influence of these two media towards buying behavior of the viewers. The two media are analyzed separately to determine its level of influence towards buying behavior and finally a comparative analysis of these media is attempted to find the difference in their level of influence.

Keywords: Buying Behavior, TV, web, media for advertisements.

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945 Connecting Lives Inside and Outside the Classroom: Why and How to Implement Technology in the Language Learning Classroom

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha

Abstract:

This paper is primarily addressed to teachers who stand on the threshold of bringing technology and new media into their classrooms. Technology and new media, such as smart phones and tablets have changed the face of communication in general and of language teaching more specifically. New media has widespread appeal among young people in particular, so it is in the teacher’s best interests to bring new media into their lessons. It is the author’s firm belief that technology will never replace the teacher, but it is without question that the twenty-first century teacher must employ technology and new media in some form, or run the risk of failure. The level that one chooses to incorporate new media within their class is entirely in their hands.

Keywords: New media, social media, technology, education.

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944 A Note on the Convergence of the Generalized AOR Iterative Method for Linear Systems

Authors: Zhong-xi Gao, Hou-biao Li

Abstract:

Recently, some convergent results of the generalized AOR iterative (GAOR) method for solving linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices are presented in [Darvishi, M.T., Hessari, P.: On convergence of the generalized AOR method for linear systems with diagonally dominant cofficient matrices. Appl. Math. Comput. 176, 128-133 (2006)] and [Tian, G.X., Huang, T.Z., Cui, S.Y.: Convergence of generalized AOR iterative method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant cofficient matrices. J. Comp. Appl. Math. 213, 240-247 (2008)]. In this paper, we give the convergence of the GAOR method for linear systems with strictly doubly diagonally dominant matrix, which improves these corresponding results.

Keywords: Diagonally dominant matrix, GAOR method, Linear system, Convergence

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943 Smartphone Photography in Urban China

Authors: Wen Zhang

Abstract:

The smartphone plays a significant role in media convergence, and smartphone photography is reconstructing the way we communicate and think. This article aims to explore the smartphone photography practices of urban Chinese smartphone users and images produced by smartphones from a techno-cultural perspective. The analysis consists of two types of data: One is a semi-structured interview of 21 participants, and the other consists of the images created by the participants. The findings are organised in two parts. The first part summarises the current tendencies of capturing, editing, sharing and archiving digital images via smartphones. The second part shows that food and selfie/anti-selfie are the preferred subjects of smartphone photographic images from a technical and multi-purpose perspective and demonstrates that screenshots and image texts are new genres of non-photographic images that are frequently made by smartphones, which contributes to improving operational efficiency, disseminating information and sharing knowledge. The analyses illustrate the positive impacts between smartphones and photography enthusiasm and practices based on the diffusion of innovation theory, which also makes us rethink the value of photographs and the practice of ‘photographic seeing’ from the screen itself.

Keywords: Digital photography, photographic-seeing, media convergence, technological innovation, smartphone, selfie/anti-selfie, image-text.

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942 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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941 Convergence Analysis of the Generalized Alternating Two-Stage Method

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Liangliang Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we give the generalized alternating twostage method in which the inner iterations are accomplished by a generalized alternating method. And we present convergence results of the method for solving nonsingular linear systems when the coefficient matrix of the linear system is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix.

Keywords: Generalized alternating two-stage method, linear system, convergence.

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940 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check

Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.

Keywords: Boiler tube, Convergence Check, Normal Tube, Rifled Tube.

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939 Regional Convergence in per Capita Personal Income in the US and Canada

Authors: Ilona Shiller

Abstract:

This study examines regional convergence in per capita personal income in the US and Canada. We find that the disparity in real per capita income levels across US states (Canadian provinces) has declined, but income levels are not identical. Income levels become more aligned once costs of living are accounted for in relative per capita income series. US states (Canadian provinces) converge at an annual rate of between 1.3% and 2.04% (between 2.15% and 2.37%). A pattern of σ and β-convergence in per capita personal income across regions evident over the entire sample period, is reversed over 1979-1989 (1976-1990) period. The reversal may be due to sectoral or region-specific shocks that have highly persistent effects. The latter explanation might be true for half of the US and most of Canada.

Keywords: regional convergence, regional disparities, per capita income.

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938 Convergence Analysis of Training Two-Hidden-Layer Partially Over-Parameterized ReLU Networks via Gradient Descent

Authors: Zhifeng Kong

Abstract:

Over-parameterized neural networks have attracted a great deal of attention in recent deep learning theory research, as they challenge the classic perspective of over-fitting when the model has excessive parameters and have gained empirical success in various settings. While a number of theoretical works have been presented to demystify properties of such models, the convergence properties of such models are still far from being thoroughly understood. In this work, we study the convergence properties of training two-hidden-layer partially over-parameterized fully connected networks with the Rectified Linear Unit activation via gradient descent. To our knowledge, this is the first theoretical work to understand convergence properties of deep over-parameterized networks without the equally-wide-hidden-layer assumption and other unrealistic assumptions. We provide a probabilistic lower bound of the widths of hidden layers and proved linear convergence rate of gradient descent. We also conducted experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets to validate our theory.

Keywords: Over-parameterization, Rectified Linear Units (ReLU), convergence, gradient descent, neural networks.

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937 Rate of Convergence for Generalized Baskakov-Durrmeyer Operators

Authors: Durvesh Kumar Verma, P. N. Agrawal

Abstract:

In the present paper, we consider the generalized form of Baskakov Durrmeyer operators to study the rate of convergence, in simultaneous approximation for functions having derivatives of bounded variation.

Keywords: Bounded variation, Baskakov-Durrmeyer operators, simultaneous approximation, rate of convergence.

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936 Factors Affecting Media Literacy of Early Teenagers

Authors: Khajornjit Bunnag

Abstract:

The purposes of this research are: 1) to study the media literacy of early teenagers, and 2) to study the interaction between gender and timing of media exposure that affects the media literacy of teenagers. The sample of the study included 400 young people aged between 11 to 17 and who were living in Bangkok. The data was collected using questionnaires. Two-way ANOVA was used in analyzing the collected data. The result revealed that gender and timing of media exposure affected the media literacy of early teenagers with statistical significance at the level of 0.05.

Keywords: Gender, Media Literacy, Teenager, Timing of Media Exposure.

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935 A New Derivative-Free Quasi-Secant Algorithm For Solving Non-Linear Equations

Authors: F. Soleymani, M. Sharifi

Abstract:

Most of the nonlinear equation solvers do not converge always or they use the derivatives of the function to approximate the root of such equations. Here, we give a derivative-free algorithm that guarantees the convergence. The proposed two-step method, which is to some extent like the secant method, is accompanied with some numerical examples. The illustrative instances manifest that the rate of convergence in proposed algorithm is more than the quadratically iterative schemes.

Keywords: Non-linear equation, iterative methods, derivative-free, convergence.

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934 Developing New Media Credibility Scale: A Multidimensional Perspective

Authors: Hanaa Farouk Saleh

Abstract:

The main purposes of this study are to develop a scale that reflects emerging theoretical understandings of new media credibility, based on the evolution of credibility studies in western researches, identification of the determinants of credibility in the media and its components by comparing traditional and new media credibility scales and building accumulative scale to test new media credibility. This approach was built on western researches using conceptualizations of media credibility, which focuses on four principal components: Source (journalist), message (article), medium (newspaper, radio, TV, web, etc.), and organization (owner of the medium), and adding user and cultural context as key components to assess new media credibility in particular. This study’s value lies in its contribution to the conceptualization and development of new media credibility through the creation of a theoretical measurement tool. Future studies should explore this scale to test new media credibility, which represents a promising new approach in the efforts to define and measure credibility of all media types.

Keywords: Credibility scale, media credibility components, new media credibility scale, scale development.

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