Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Drag reduction

14 Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Gap between a Simplified Tractor-Trailer Model and Cross Vortex Trap Device

Authors: Terrance Charles, Zhiyin Yang, Yiling Lu

Abstract:

Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.

Keywords: Aerodynamic drag, cross vortex trap device, truck, RANS.

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13 Aerodynamic Interaction between Two Speed Skaters Measured in a Closed Wind Tunnel

Authors: Ola Elfmark, Lars M. Bardal, Luca Oggiano, H˚avard Myklebust

Abstract:

Team pursuit is a relatively new event in international long track speed skating. For a single speed skater the aerodynamic drag will account for up to 80% of the braking force, thus reducing the drag can greatly improve the performance. In a team pursuit the interactions between athletes in near proximity will also be essential, but is not well studied. In this study, systematic measurements of the aerodynamic drag, body posture and relative positioning of speed skaters have been performed in the low speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, in order to investigate the aerodynamic interaction between two speed skaters. Drag measurements of static speed skaters drafting, leading, side-by-side, and dynamic drag measurements in a synchronized and unsynchronized movement at different distances, were performed. The projected frontal area was measured for all postures and movements and a blockage correction was performed, as the blockage ratio ranged from 5-15% in the different setups. The static drag measurements where performed on two test subjects in two different postures, a low posture and a high posture, and two different distances between the test subjects 1.5T and 3T where T being the length of the torso (T=0.63m). A drag reduction was observed for all distances and configurations, from 39% to 11.4%, for the drafting test subject. The drag of the leading test subject was only influenced at -1.5T, with the biggest drag reduction of 5.6%. An increase in drag was seen for all side-by-side measurements, the biggest increase was observed to be 25.7%, at the closest distance between the test subjects, and the lowest at 2.7% with ∼ 0.7 m between the test subjects. A clear aerodynamic interaction between the test subjects and their postures was observed for most measurements during static measurements, with results corresponding well to recent studies. For the dynamic measurements, the leading test subject had a drag reduction of 3% even at -3T. The drafting showed a drag reduction of 15% when being in a synchronized (sync) motion with the leading test subject at 4.5T. The maximal drag reduction for both the leading and the drafting test subject were observed when being as close as possible in sync, with a drag reduction of 8.5% and 25.7% respectively. This study emphasize the importance of keeping a synchronized movement by showing that the maximal gain for the leading and drafting dropped to 3.2% and 3.3% respectively when the skaters are in opposite phase. Individual differences in technique also appear to influence the drag of the other test subject.

Keywords: Aerodynamic interaction, drag cycle, drag force, frontal area, speed skating.

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12 Aerodynamic Design Optimization of High-Speed Hatchback Cars for Lucrative Commercial Applications

Authors: A. Aravind, M. Vetrivel, P. Abhimanyu, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, K. Sundararaj, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

The choice of high-speed, low budget hatchback car with diversified options is increasing for meeting the new generation buyers trend. This paper is aimed to augment the current speed of the hatchback cars through the aerodynamic drag reduction technique. The inverted airfoils are facilitated at the bottom of the car for generating the downward force for negating the lift while increasing the current speed range for achieving a better road performance. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a 2D steady pressure-based    k-ɛ realizable model with enhanced wall treatment. In our numerical studies, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and its code of solution are used. The code is calibrated and validated using the exact solution of the 2D boundary layer displacement thickness at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed through the parametric analytical studies that the inverted airfoil integrated with the bottom surface at various predesigned locations of Hatchback cars can improve its overall aerodynamic efficiency through drag reduction, which obviously decreases the fuel consumption significantly and ensure an optimum road performance lucratively with maximum permissible speed within the framework of the manufactures constraints.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of commercial cars, downward force, hatchback car, inverted airfoil.

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11 Effect of Reynolds Number and Concentration of Biopolymer (Gum Arabic) on Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipe

Authors: Kamaljit Singh Sokhal, Gangacharyulu Dasoraju, Vijaya Kumar Bulasara

Abstract:

Biopolymers are popular in many areas, like petrochemicals, food industry and agriculture due to their favorable properties like environment-friendly, availability, and cost. In this study, a biopolymer gum Arabic was used to find its effect on the pressure drop at various concentrations (100 ppm – 300 ppm) with various Reynolds numbers (10000 – 45000). A rheological study was also done by using the same concentrations to find the effect of the shear rate on the shear viscosity. Experiments were performed to find the effect of injection of gum Arabic directly near the boundary layer and to investigate its effect on the maximum possible drag reduction. Experiments were performed on a test section having i.d of 19.50 mm and length of 3045 mm. The polymer solution was injected from the top of the test section by using a peristaltic pump. The concentration of the polymer solution and the Reynolds number were used as parameters to get maximum possible drag reduction. Water was circulated through a centrifugal pump having a maximum 3000 rpm and the flow rate was measured by using rotameter. Results were validated by using Virk's maximum drag reduction asymptote. A maximum drag reduction of 62.15% was observed with the maximum concentration of gum Arabic, 300 ppm. The solution was circulated in the closed loop to find the effect of degradation of polymers with a number of cycles on the drag reduction percentage. It was observed that the injection of the polymer solution in the boundary layer was showing better results than premixed solutions.

Keywords: Drag reduction, shear viscosity, gum Arabic, injection point.

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10 Numerical Study of Base Drag Reduction Using Locked Vortex Flow Management Technique for Lower Subsonic Regime

Authors: Kailas S. Jagtap, Karthik Sundarraj, Nirmal Kumar, S. Rajnarasimha, Prakash S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The issue of turbulence base streams and the drag related to it have been of important attention for rockets, missiles, and aircraft. Different techniques are used for base drag reduction. This paper presents the numerical study of numerous drag reduction technique. The base drag or afterbody drag of bluff bodies can be reduced easily using locked vortex drag reduction technique. For bluff bodies having a cylindrical shape, the base drag is much larger compared to streamlined bodies. For such bodies using splitter plates, the vortex can be trapped between the base and the plate, which results in smooth flow. Splitter plate with round and curved corner shapes has influence in drag reduction. In this paper, the comparison is done between single splitter plate as different positions and with the bluff body. Base drag for the speed of 30m/s can be reduced about 20% to 30% by using single splitter plate as compared to the bluff body.

Keywords: Base drag, bluff body, splitter plate, vortex flow, ANSYS, Fluent.

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9 Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures

Authors: Abinash Tripathy, Girish Muralidharan, Amitava Pramanik, Prosenjit Sen

Abstract:

Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.

Keywords: Contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, contact time, superhydrophobic.

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8 Simulations of Laminar Liquid Flows through Superhydrophobic Micro-Pipes

Authors: Mohamed E. Eleshaky

Abstract:

This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of laminar water flows inside superhydrophobic micro-pipes patterned with square micro-posts features under different operating conditions. It also investigates the effects of air fraction and Reynolds number on the frictional performance of these pipes. Rather than modeling the air-water interfaces of superhydrophobic as a flat inflexible surface, a transient, incompressible, three-dimensional, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology has been employed to continuously track the air–water interface shape inside micro-pipes. Also, the entrance effects on the flow field have been taken into consideration. The results revealed the strong dependency of the frictional performance on the air fractions and Reynolds number. The frictional resistance reduction becomes increasingly more significant at large air fractions and low Reynolds numbers. Increasing Reynolds number has an adverse effect on the frictional resistance reduction.

Keywords: Drag reduction, laminar flow in micropipes, numerical simulation, superhyrophobic surfaces, microposts.

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7 Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol

Abstract:

Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Boundary Layer, Dimple, Drag, Kinetic Energy, Turbulence.

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6 Effect of Reynolds Number on Flow past a Square Cylinder in Presence of Upstream and Downstream Flat Plate at Small Gap Spacing

Authors: Shams-ul-Islam, Raheela Manzoor, Zhou Chao Ying

Abstract:

A two-dimensional numerical study for flow past a square cylinder in presence of flat plate both at upstream and downstream position is carried out using the single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for gap spacing 0.5 and 1. We select Reynolds numbers from 80 to 200. The wake structure mechanism within gap spacing and near wake region, vortex structures around and behind the main square cylinder in presence of flat plate are studied and compared with flow pattern around a single square cylinder. The results are obtained in form of vorticity contour, streamlines, power spectra analysis, time trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients. Four different types of flow patterns were observed in both configurations, named as (i) Quasi steady flow (QSF), (ii) steady flow (SF), (iii) shear layer reattachment (SLR), (iv) single bluff body (SBB). It is observed that upstream flat plate plays a vital role in significant drag reduction. On the other hand, rate of suppression of vortex shedding is high for downstream flat plate case at low Reynolds numbers. The reduction in mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force for upstream flat plate case are89.1% and 86.3% at (Re, g) = (80, 0.5d) and (120, 1d) and reduction for downstream flat plate case for mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force are 11.10% and 97.6% obtained at (180, 1d) and (180, 0.5d).

Keywords: Detached flat plates, drag and lift coefficients, Reynolds numbers, square cylinder, Strouhal number.

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5 Vehicle Aerodynamics: Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: C. K. Chear, S. S. Dol

Abstract:

For a bluff body, dimples behave like roughness elements in stimulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake and lower form drag. This is very different in principle from the application of dimples to streamlined body, where any reduction in drag would be predominantly due to a reduction in skin friction. In the present work, a car model with different dimple geometry is simulated using k-ε turbulence modeling to determine its effect to the aerodynamics performance. Overall, the results show that the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Boundary Layer, Dimple, Drag, Kinetic Energy, Turbulence.

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4 Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil

Authors: M. Tahar Bouzaher

Abstract:

This study involves a numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 15°angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It reposes inputting a cylindrical rod upstream of the leading edge in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, non-stationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 51%.

Keywords: CFD, Flow separation, Active control, Boundary layer, rod, NACA 2415.

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3 Numerical Study of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil

Authors: M. Tahar Bouzaher

Abstract:

This study involves numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 18° angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It involves putting a cylindrical rod - upstream of the leading edge- in vertical translation movement in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, nonstationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The rod movement is reproduced using the dynamic mesh technique and an in-house developed UDF (User Define Function). The frequency varies from 75 to 450 Hz and the considered amplitudes are 2%, and 3% of the foil chord. The frequency chosen closed to the frequency of separation. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 61%.

Keywords: CFD, Flow separation, Active control, Boundary layer, rod, NACA 2415.

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2 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Drag Reduction on a Circular Cylinder

Authors: A.O. Ladjedel, B.T.Yahiaoui, C.L.Adjlout, D.O.Imine

Abstract:

In the present paper; an experimental and numerical investigations of drag reduction on a grooved circular cylinder have been performed. The experiments were carried out in closed circuit subsonic wind tunnel (TE44); the pressure distribution on the cylinder was conducted using a TE44DPS differential pressure scanner and the drag forces were measured using the TE81 balance. The display unit is linked to a computer, loaded with DATASLIM software for data analysis and logging of result. The numerical study was performed using the code ANSYS FLUENT solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The k-ε and k- ω SST models were tested. The results obtained from the experimental and numerical investigations have showed a reduction in the drag when using longitudinal grooves namely 2 and 6 on the cylinder.

Keywords: Circular cylinder, Drag, grooves, pressure distribution

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1 Wind-tunnel Measurement of the Drag-reducing Effect of Compliant Coating

Authors: Inwon Lee, Victor M. Kulik, Andrey V. Boiko, Ho Hwan Chun

Abstract:

A specially designed flat plate was mounted vertically over the axial line in the wind tunnel of the Aerospace Department of the Pusan National University. The plate is 2 m long, 0.8 m high and 8 cm thick. The measurements were performed in velocity range from 15 to 60 m/s. A sand paper turbulizer was placed close to the plate nose to provide fully developed turbulent boundary layer over the most part of the plate. Strain balances were mounted in the trailing part of the plate to measure the skin friction drag over removable insertions of 0.55×0.25m2 size. A set of the insertions was designed and manufactured: 3mm thick polished metal surface and three compliant surfaces. The compliant surfaces were manufactured of a silicone rubber Silastic® S2 (Dow Corning company). To modify the viscoelastic properties of the rubber, its composition was varied: 90% of the rubber + 10% catalyst (standard), 92.5% + 7.5% (weak), 85% + 15% (strong). Modulus of elasticity and the loss tangent were measured accurately for these materials in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 3 KHz using the unique proposed technique.

Keywords: boundary layer, compliant coating, drag reduction, hot wire, wind tunnel.

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