Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1679

Search results for: isolated areas

1679 Hybrid System Configurations and Charging Strategies for Isolated Electric Tuk-Tuk Charging Station in South Africa

Authors: L. Bokopane, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaark

Abstract:

The success of renewable powered electric vehicle charging station in isolated areas depends highly on the availability and sustainability of renewable resources all year round at a selected location. The main focus of this paper is to discuss the possible charging strategies that could be implemented to find the best possible configuration of an electric Tuk-Tuk charging station at a given location within South Africa. The charging station is designed, modeled and simulated to evaluate its performances. The technoeconomic analysis of different feasible supply configurations of the charging station using renewable energies is simulated using HOMER software and the results compared in order to select the best possible charging strategies in terms of cost of energy consumed.

Keywords: Electric Tuk-Tuk, Renewable energy, Energy Storage, Hybrid systems, HOMER.

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1678 Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Table Olives against Skin Pathogens

Authors: M. Shafighi, Z. Emami, M. Shahsanaei, E. Khaliliyan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LAB isolated from Iranian native olives on the opportunistic skin pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactic Acid Bacteria were isolated from the brine of each sample in the prior of time. The samples were spread on MRS agar for isolation of lactobacillus and for lactococcus. 28 strains of labs were isolated. The labs were centrifuged, the supernatant was strewed and pellet was used to inoculation in wells or at blank disks. 20μl of each pellet was inoculated to blank disks and 40μl of each pellet was inoculated to each well. The result of disk and well diffusion agar against these pathogens were confirmed each other. The size of inhibition zone was different according to the type of bacteria, the method and the concentrations of labs.

Keywords: Olive, Probiotic, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), P.aeroginosa and S.aureus

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1677 Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diseased Giant Freshwater Prawn in Shrimp Culture Ponds

Authors: Kusumawadee Thancharoen, Rungrat Nontawong, Thanawat Junsom

Abstract:

Pathogenic bacterial flora was isolated from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Infected shrimp samples were collected from BuaBan Aquafarm in Kalasin Province, Thailand, between June and September 2018. Bacterial species were isolated by serial dilution and plated on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. A total 89 colonies were isolated and identified using the API 20E biochemical tests. Results showed the presence of genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Chromobacterium, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Vibrio. Maximum number of species was recorded in Pseudomonas (50.57%) with minimum observed in Chromobacterium and Providencia (1.12%).

Keywords: Biochemical test, giant freshwater prawn, isolation, salt tolerance, shrimp diseases.

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1676 Innovative Waste Management Practices in Remote Areas

Authors: Dolores Hidalgo, Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín, Francisco Corona

Abstract:

Municipal waste consist of a variety of items that are everyday discarded by the population. They are usually collected by municipalities and include waste generated by households, commercial activities (local shops) and public buildings. The composition of municipal waste varies greatly from place to place, being mostly related to levels and patterns of consumption, rates of urbanization, lifestyles, and local or national waste management practices. Each year, a huge amount of resources is consumed in the EU, and according to that, also a huge amount of waste is produced. The environmental problems derived from the management and processing of these waste streams are well known, and include impacts on land, water and air. The situation in remote areas is even worst. Difficult access when climatic conditions are adverse, remoteness of centralized municipal treatment systems or dispersion of the population, are all factors that make remote areas a real municipal waste treatment challenge. Furthermore, the scope of the problem increases significantly because the total lack of awareness of the existing risks in this area together with the poor implementation of advanced culture on waste minimization and recycling responsibly. The aim of this work is to analyze the existing situation in remote areas in reference to the production of municipal waste and evaluate the efficiency of different management alternatives. Ideas for improving waste management in remote areas include, for example: the implementation of self-management systems for the organic fraction; establish door-to-door collection models; promote small-scale treatment facilities or adjust the rates of waste generation thereof.

Keywords: Door to door collection, islands, isolated areas, municipal waste, remote areas, rural communities.

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1675 Fungi Associated with Decline of Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in Faisalabad

Authors: I. Ahmad, A. Hannan, S. Ahmad, M. Asif, M. F. Nawaz, M. A. Tanvir, M. F. Azhar

Abstract:

During this research, a comprehensive survey of tree growing areas of Faisalabad district of Pakistan was conducted to observe the symptoms, spectrum, occurrence and severity of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis decline. Objective of current research was to investigate specific fungal pathogens involved in decline of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis. For this purpose, infected roots, bark, neck portion, stem, branches, leaves and infected soils were collected to identify associated fungi. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czepak dox agar media were used for isolations. Identification of isolated fungi was done microscopically and different fungi were identified. During survey of urban locations of Faisalabad, disease incidence on Kikar and Eucalyptus was recorded as 3.9-7.9% and 2.6-7.1% respectively. Survey of Agroforest zones of Faisalabad revealed decline incidence on kikar 7.5% from Sargodha road while on Satiana and Jhang road it was not planted. In eucalyptus trees, 4%, 8% and 0% disease incidence was observed on Jhang road, Sargodha road and Satiana road respectively. The maximum fungus isolated from the kikar tree was Drechslera australiensis (5.00%) from the stem part. Aspergillus flavus also gave the maximum value of (3.05%) from the bark. Alternaria alternata gave the maximum value of (2.05%) from leaves. Rhizopus and Mucor spp. were recorded minimum as compared to the Drechslera, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The maximum fungus isolated from the Eucalyptus tree was Armillaria luteobubalina (5.00%) from the stem part. The other fungi isolated were Macrophamina phaseolina and A. niger.

Keywords: Decline, frequency of mycoflora, A. nilotica, E. camaldulensis, Drechslera australiensis, Armillaria luteobubalina.

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1674 Recognition of Isolated Speech Signals using Simplified Statistical Parameters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Bhargav Kumar Mitra, Biswajoy Chatterjee

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to recognize isolated speech signals using certain statistical parameters derived from those signals. The determination of the statistical estimates is based on extracted signal information rather than the original signal information in order to reduce the computational complexity. Subtle details of these estimates, after extracting the speech signal from ambience noise, are first exploited to segregate the polysyllabic words from the monosyllabic ones. Precise recognition of each distinct word is then carried out by analyzing the histogram, obtained from these information.

Keywords: Isolated speech signals, Block overlapping technique, Positive peaks, Histogram analysis.

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1673 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes. 

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow.

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1672 Seasonal Prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Ae.albopictus in Three Topographical Areas of Southern Thailand

Authors: W. Preechaporn, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

This study investigated the seasonal prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in three topographical areas (i.e. mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas). Samples were collected from 300 households in both wet and dry seasons in nine districts in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in 21 out of 29 types of water containers in mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus laid eggs in different container types depending on season and topographical areas. Ae. aegypti larvae were found most in metal box in mangrove and mountainous areas in wet season. Ae. albopictus larvae were also found most in metal box in mangrove and mountainous areas in both wet and dry seasons. All Ae. albopictus larval indices were higher than Ae. aegypti larval indices in all three topographical areas and both seasons. HI and BI did not differ in three topographical areas but differed between Aedes sp. HI for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in all three topographical areas in both seasons were greater than 10 %, except Aedes aegypti in rice paddy area in wet season. This indicated high risks of DHF transmission in these areas.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Season, Topography.

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1671 Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Pollution in Red Deer Meat in Latvia and Determination the Compatibility of VT1, VT2, eae A Genes in their Isolate

Authors: S. Liepina, A. Jemeljanovs

Abstract:

Tasks of the work were study the possible E.coli contamination in red deer meat, identify pathogenic strains from isolated E.coli, determine their incidence in red deer meat and determine the presence of VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes for the pathogenic E.coli. 8 (10%) samples were randomly selected from 80 analysed isolates of E.coli and PCR reaction was performed on them. PCR was done both on initial materials – samples of red deer meat - and for already isolated liqueurs. Two of analysed venison samples contain verotoxin-producing strains of E. coli. It means that this meat is not safe to consumer. It was proven by the sequestration reaction of E. coli and by comparison of the obtained results with the database of microorganism genome available on the internet that the isolated culture corresponds to region 16S rDNS of E. coli thus presenting correctness of the microbiological methods.

Keywords: Deer meat, pathogenic Escherichia coli

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1670 Recognition of Isolated Handwritten Latin Characters using One Continuous Route of Freeman Chain Code Representation and Feedforward Neural Network Classifier

Authors: Dewi Nasien, Siti S. Yuhaniz, Habibollah Haron

Abstract:

In a handwriting recognition problem, characters can be represented using chain codes. The main problem in representing characters using chain code is optimizing the length of the chain code. This paper proposes to use randomized algorithm to minimize the length of Freeman Chain Codes (FCC) generated from isolated handwritten characters. Feedforward neural network is used in the classification stage to recognize the image characters. Our test results show that by applying the proposed model, we reached a relatively high accuracy for the problem of isolated handwritten when tested on NIST database.

Keywords: Handwriting Recognition, Freeman Chain Code andFeedforward Backpropagation Neural Networks.

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1669 A Hidden Markov Model-Based Isolated and Meaningful Hand Gesture Recognition

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Jörg Appenrodt, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Gesture recognition is a challenging task for extracting meaningful gesture from continuous hand motion. In this paper, we propose an automatic system that recognizes isolated gesture, in addition meaningful gesture from continuous hand motion for Arabic numbers from 0 to 9 in real-time based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM). In order to handle isolated gesture, HMM using Ergodic, Left-Right (LR) and Left-Right Banded (LRB) topologies is applied over the discrete vector feature that is extracted from stereo color image sequences. These topologies are considered to different number of states ranging from 3 to 10. A new system is developed to recognize the meaningful gesture based on zero-codeword detection with static velocity motion for continuous gesture. Therefore, the LRB topology in conjunction with Baum-Welch (BW) algorithm for training and forward algorithm with Viterbi path for testing presents the best performance. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully recognize isolated and meaningful gesture and achieve average rate recognition 98.6% and 94.29% respectively.

Keywords: Computer Vision & Image Processing, Gesture Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Application

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1668 Multi-Font Farsi/Arabic Isolated Character Recognition Using Chain Codes

Authors: H. Izakian, S. A. Monadjemi, B. Tork Ladani, K. Zamanifar

Abstract:

Nowadays, OCR systems have got several applications and are increasingly employed in daily life. Much research has been done regarding the identification of Latin, Japanese, and Chinese characters. However, very little investigation has been performed regarding Farsi/Arabic characters recognition. Probably the reason is difficulty and complexity of those characters identification compared to the others and limitation of IT activities in Farsi and Arabic speaking countries. In this paper, a technique has been employed to identify isolated Farsi/Arabic characters. A chain code based algorithm along with other significant peculiarities such as number and location of dots and auxiliary parts, and the number of holes existing in the isolated character has been used in this study to identify Farsi/Arabic characters. Experimental results show the relatively high accuracy of the method developed when it is tested on several standard Farsi fonts.

Keywords: Farsi characters, OCR, feature extraction, chain code.

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1667 A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion

Authors: Daniele Losanno, H. A. Hadad, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Keywords: Isolated bridges, optimal design, near-fault motion, supplemental damping.

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1666 Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.

Keywords: Atrazine-degrading bacteria, bioremediation, Thai isolate bacteria.

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1665 Anti-microbial Activity of Aristolochic Acid from Root of Aristolochia bracteata Retz

Authors: S. Angalaparameswari, T.S. Mohamed Saleem, M. Alagusundaram, S. Ramkanth, V.S. Thiruvengadarajan, K. Gnanaprakash, C. Madhusudhana Chetty, G. Pratheesh

Abstract:

The present research was designed to investigate the anti-microbial activity of aristolochic acid from the root of Aristolochia bracteata. From the methanolic & ethyl extract extracts of Aristolochia bracteata aristolochic acid I was isolated and conformed through IR, NMR & MS. The percentage purity of aristolochic acid I was determined by UV & HPLC method. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Aristolochia bracteata and the isolated compound was determined by disc diffusion method. The results reveled that the isolated aristolochic acid from methanolic extract was more pure than the compound from ethyl acetate extract. The various extracts (500μg/disc) of Aristolochia bracteata showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition of 7-18 mm by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts, ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good anti-microbial activity and the growth of E.coli (18 mm) was strongly inhibited. Microbial assay of isolated compound (Aristolochic acid I) from ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good antimicrobial activity and the zone of inhibition of both at higher concentration 50 μg/ml was similar with the standard aristolochic acid. It may be concluded that the isolated compound of aristolochic acid I has good anti-bacterial activity.

Keywords: Aristolochic acid I, Anti-microbial activity, Aristolochia bracteata, Bacillus subtilis, E.coli

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1664 Behaviour of Base-Isolated Structures with High Initial Isolator Stiffness

Authors: Ajay Sharma, R.S. Jangid

Abstract:

Analytical seismic response of multi-story building supported on base isolation system is investigated under real earthquake motion. The superstructure is idealized as a shear type flexible building with lateral degree-of-freedom at each floor. The force-deformation behaviour of the isolation system is modelled by the bi-linear behaviour which can be effectively used to model all isolation systems in practice. The governing equations of motion of the isolated structural system are derived. The response of the system is obtained numerically by step-by-method under three real recorded earthquake motions and pulse motions associated in the near-fault earthquake motion. The variation of the top floor acceleration, interstory drift, base shear and bearing displacement of the isolated building is studied under different initial stiffness of the bi-linear isolation system. It was observed that the high initial stiffness of the isolation system excites higher modes in base-isolated structure and generate floor accelerations and story drift. Such behaviour of the base-isolated building especially supported on sliding type of isolation systems can be detrimental to sensitive equipment installed in the building. On the other hand, the bearing displacement and base shear found to reduce marginally with the increase of the initial stiffness of the initial stiffness of the isolation system. Further, the above behaviour of the base-isolated building was observed for different parameters of the bearing (i.e. post-yield stiffness and characteristic strength) and earthquake motions (i.e. real time history as well as pulse type motion).

Keywords: base isolation, base shear, bi-linear, earthquake, floor accelerations, inter-story drift, multi-story building, pulsemotion, stiffness ratio.

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1663 Investigation of Building Loads Effect on the Stability of Slope

Authors: Hadj Brahim Mounia, Belhamel Farid, Souici Messoud

Abstract:

In big cities, construction on sloping land (landslide) is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the unavailability of flat lands. This has created a major challenge for structural engineers with regard to structure design, due to the difficulties encountered during the implementation of projects, both for the structure and the soil. This paper analyses the effect of the number of floors of a building, founded on isolated footing on the stability of the slope using the computer code finite element PLAXIS 2D v. 8.2. The isolated footings of a building in this case were anchored in soil so that the levels of successive isolated footing realize a maximum slope of base of three for two heights, which connects the edges of the nearest footings, according to the Algerian building code DTR-BC 2.331: Shallow foundations. The results show that the embedment of the foundation into the soil reduces the value of the safety factor due to the change of the stress state of the soil by these foundations. The number of floors a building has also influences the safety factor. It has been noticed from this case of study that there is no risk of collapse of slopes for an inclination between 5° and 8°. In the case of slope inclination greater than 10° it has been noticed that the urbanization is prohibited.

Keywords: Building, collapse, factor of safety, isolated footing, PLAXIS 2D, slope.

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1662 An Evaluation of Land Use Control in Hokkaido, Japan

Authors: Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study focuses on an evaluation of Hokkaido which is the northernmost and largest prefecture by surface area in Japan and particularly on two points: the rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land in various cities and their surrounding areas and the possibilities for forestry biomass in areas other than those mentioned above and grasps which areas require examination of the nature of land use control and guidance through conducting land use analysis at the district level using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). The results of analysis in this study demonstrated that it is essential to divide the whole of Hokkaido into two areas: those within delineated city planning areas and those outside of delineated city planning areas and to conduct an evaluation of each land use control. In delineated urban areas, particularly urban areas, it is essential to re-examine land use from the point of view of compact cities or smart cities along with conducting an evaluation of land use control that focuses on issues of rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land. In areas outside of delineated urban areas, it is desirable to aim to build a specific community recycling range based on forest biomass utilization by conducting an evaluation of land use control concerning the possibilities for forest biomass focusing particularly on forests within and outside of city planning areas.

Keywords: Land Use Control, Urbanization, Forestry Biomass, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Hokkaido

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1661 Assessing the Global Water Productivity of Some Irrigation Command Areas in Iran

Authors: A. Montazar

Abstract:

The great challenge of the agricultural sector is to produce more crop from less water, which can be achieved by increasing crop water productivity. The modernization of the irrigation systems offers a number of possibilities to expand the economic productivity of water and improve the virtual water status. The objective of the present study is to assess the global water productivity (GWP) within the major irrigation command areas of I.R. Iran. For this purpose, fourteen irrigation command areas where located in different areas of Iran were selected. In order to calculate the global water productivity of irrigation command areas, all data on the delivered water to cropping pattern, cultivated area, crops water requirement, and yield production rate during 2002-2006 were gathered. In each of the command areas it seems that the cultivated crops have a higher amount of virtual water and thus can be replaced by crops with less virtual water. This is merely suggested due to crop water consumption and at the time of replacing crops, economic value as well as cultural and political factors must be considered. The results indicated that the lowest GWP belongs to Mahyar and Borkhar irrigation areas, 0.24 kg m-3, and the highest is that of the Dez irrigation area, 0.81 kg m-3. The findings demonstrated that water management in the two irrigation areas is just efficient. The difference in the GWP of irrigation areas is due to variations in the cropping pattern, amount of crop productions, in addition to the effective factors in the water use efficiency in the irrigation areas.

Keywords: Iran, Irrigation command area, Water productivity, Virtual water.

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1660 Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy System of Isolated Islands in Smart-Grid Scenario - A Case Study in Indian Context

Authors: Aurobi Das, V. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources available in remote isolated islands of Sundarban-24 Parganas-South of Eastern part of India to National Grid of conventional power supply to give a Smart-Grid scenario. Before grid-integration, feasibility of optimization of hybrid renewable energy system is monitored through an Intelligent Controller proposed to be installed at Moushuni Island of Sundarban. The objective is to ensure the reliability and efficiency of the system to optimize the utilization of the hybrid renewable energy sources and also a proposition of how theses isolated Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems at remote islands can be grid-connected is analyzed towards vision of green smart-grid.

Keywords: Intelligent controller, hybrid renewable, solar photo voltaic, smart-grid.

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1659 Bioremediation of Phenanthrene by Monocultures and Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil

Authors: A. Fazilah, I. Darah, I. Noraznawati

Abstract:

Three different bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated site. In this study, the phenanthrene-degrading activity by defined monoculture was determined and mixed culture was identified as Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a and Pseudomonas sp. P6. All bacteria were able to grow in a minimal salt medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenanthrene degradation efficiencies by different combinations (consortia) of these bacteria were investigated and their phenanthrene degradation was evaluated by gas chromatography. Among the monocultures, Pseudomonas sp. P6 exhibited 58.71% activity compared to Acinetobacter sp. P3d and Bacillus sp. P4a which were 56.97% and 53.05%, respectively after 28 days of cultivation. All consortia showed high phenanthrene elimination which were 95.64, 79.37, 87.19, 79.21% for Consortia A, B, C and D, respectively. The results indicate that all of the bacteria isolated may effectively degrade target chemical and have a promising application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil purposes.

Keywords: Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a, consortia, phenanthrene, Pseudomonas sp. P6.

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1658 Molecular Identification of ESBL Genesbla GES-1, blaVEB-1, blaCTX-M blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4,blaOXA-10 and blaPER-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burn Patientsby PCR, RFLP and Sequencing Techniques

Authors: Fereshteh Shacheraghi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Hanieh Noveiri

Abstract:

Fourty one strains of ESBL producing P.aeruginosa which were previously isolated from burn patients in Kerman University general hospital, Iran were subjected to PCR, RFLP and sequencing in order to determine the type of extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBL), the restriction digestion pattern and possibility of mutation among detected genes. DNA extraction was carried out by phenol chloroform method. PCR for detection of bla genes was performed using specific primer for each gene. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) for ESBL genes was carried out using EcoRI, NheI, PVUII, EcoRV, DdeI, and PstI restriction enzymes. The PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing of both the strands for identification of the ESBL genes.The blaCTX-M, blaVEB-1, blaPER-1, blaGES-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4 and blaOXA-10 genes were detected in the (n=1) 2.43%, (n=41)100%, (n=28) 68.3%, (n=10) 24.4%, (n=29) 70.7%, (n=7)17.1% and (n=38) 92.7% of the ESBL producing isolates respectively. The RFLP analysis showed that each ESBL gene has identical pattern of digestion among the isolated strains. Sequencing of the ESBL genes confirmed the genuinety of PCR products and revealed no mutation in the restriction sites of the above genes. From results of the present investigation it can be concluded that blaVEB-1 and blaCTX-M were the most and the least frequently isolated ESBL genes among the P.aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients. The RFLP and sequencing analysis revealed that same clone of the bla genes were indeed existed among the antibiotic resistant strains.

Keywords: ESBL genes, PCR, RFLP, Sequencing, P.aeruginosa

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1657 Cellolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Bacillus Genus Isolated from the Soil of Zailiskiy Alatau Slopes

Authors: I. Savitskaya, A. Kistaubayeva, A. Zhubanova, I. Blavachinskaiya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, A. Otarbay, A.Isabekova

Abstract:

This study was conducted for the investigation of number of cellulolytic bacteria and their ability in decomposition. Seven samples surface soil were collected on cellulose Zailiskii Alatau slopes. Cellulolitic activity of new strains of Bacillus, isolated from soil is determined. Isolated cellulose degrading bacteria were screened for determination of the highest cellulose activity by quantitative assay using Congo red, gravimetric assay and colorimetric DNS method trough of the determination of the parameters of sugar reduction. Strains are assigned to: B.subtilis, B.licheniformis, B. cereus and, В. megaterium. Bacillus strains consisting of several different types of cellulases have broad substrate specificity of cellulase complexes formed by them. Cellulolitic bacteria were recorded to have highest cellulase activity and selected for optimization of cellulase enzyme production.

Keywords: Cellulose-degrading bacteria, cellulase complex, foothills soil, screening.

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1656 Identifying Blind Spots in a Stereo View for Early Decisions in SI for Fusion based DMVC

Authors: H. Ali, K. Hameed, N. Khan

Abstract:

In DMVC, we have more than one options of sources available for construction of side information. The newer techniques make use of both the techniques simultaneously by constructing a bitmask that determines the source of every block or pixel of the side information. A lot of computation is done to determine each bit in the bitmask. In this paper, we have tried to define areas that can only be well predicted by temporal interpolation and not by multiview interpolation or synthesis. We predict that all such areas that are not covered by two cameras cannot be appropriately predicted by multiview synthesis and if we can identify such areas in the first place, we don-t need to go through the script of computations for all the pixels that lie in those areas. Moreover, this paper also defines a technique based on KLT to mark the above mentioned areas before any other processing is done on the side view.

Keywords: Side Information, Distributed Multiview Video Coding, Fusion, Early Decision.

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1655 Clustering based Voltage Control Areas for Localized Reactive Power Management in Deregulated Power System

Authors: Saran Satsangi, Ashish Saini, Amit Saraswat

Abstract:

In this paper, a new K-means clustering based approach for identification of voltage control areas is developed. Voltage control areas are important for efficient reactive power management in power systems operating under deregulated environment. Although, voltage control areas are formed using conventional hierarchical clustering based method, but the present paper investigate the capability of K-means clustering for the purpose of forming voltage control areas. The proposed method is tested and compared for IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus systems. The results show that this K-means based method is competing with conventional hierarchical approach

Keywords: Voltage control areas, reactive power management, K-means clustering algorithm

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1654 Analysis of Road Repairs in Undermined Areas

Authors: Tomáš Seidler, Marek Mihola, Denisa Cihlarova

Abstract:

The article presents analysis results of maps of expected subsidence in undermined areas for road repair management. The analysis was done in the area of Karvina district in the Czech Republic, including undermined areas with ongoing deep mining activities or finished deep mining in years 2003 - 2009. The article discusses the possibilities of local road maintenance authorities to determine areas that will need most repairs in the future with limited data available. Using the expected subsidence maps new map of surface curvature was calculated. Combined with road maps and historical data about repairs the result came for five main categories of undermined areas, proving very simple tool for management.

Keywords: GIS, Map of Subsidence, Road, Undermined Area

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1653 Utilization of 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol by Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 isolated from Natural Soil

Authors: Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Jiro Arima, Tsuyoshi Ichiyanagi, Emi Sakuno, Nobuhiro Mori

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to screen for microorganism that able to utilize 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol (homocholine) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The aerobic degradation of homocholine has been found by a gram-positive Rhodococcus sp. bacterium isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 based on the phenotypic features, physiologic and biochemical characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis. The cells of the isolated strain grown on both basal-TMAP and nutrient agar medium displayed elementary branching mycelia fragmented into irregular rod and coccoid elements. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing studies indicated that the strain A4 falls into the Rhodococcus erythropolis subclade and forms a monophyletic group with the type-strains of R. opacus, and R. wratislaviensis. Metabolites analysis by capillary electrophoresis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, showed trimethylamine (TMA) as the major metabolite beside β-alanine betaine and trimethylaminopropionaldehyde. Therefore, the possible degradation pathway of trimethylamino propanol in the isolated strain is through consequence oxidation of alcohol group (-OH) to aldehyde (-CHO) and acid (-COOH), and thereafter the cleavage of β-alanine betaine C-N bonds yielded trimethylamine and alkyl chain.

Keywords: Homocholine, 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol, Quaternary ammonium compounds, 16S rDNA gene sequence.

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1652 DC Bus Voltage Regulator for Renewable Energy Based Microgrid Application

Authors: Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

Abstract:

Renewable Energy based microgrids are being considered to provide electricity for the expanding energy demand in the grid distribution network and grid isolated areas. The technical challenges associated with the operation and controls are immense. Electricity generation by Renewable Energy Sources is of stochastic nature such that there is a demand for regulation of voltage output in order to satisfy the standard loads’ requirements. In a renewable energy based microgrid, the energy sources give stochastically variable magnitude AC or DC voltages. AC voltage regulation of micro and mini sources pose practical challenges as well as unbearable costs. It is therefore practically and economically viable to convert the voltage outputs from stochastic AC and DC voltage sources to constant DC voltage to satisfy various DC loads including inverters which ultimately feed AC loads. This paper presents results obtained from SEPIC converter based DC bus voltage regulator as a case study for renewable energy microgrid application. Real-Time Simulation results show that upon appropriate choice of controller parameters for control of the SEPIC converter, the output DC bus voltage can be kept constant regardless of wide range of voltage variations of the source. This feature is particularly important in the situation that multiple renewable sources are to be integrated to supply a microgrid under main grid integration or isolated modes of operation.

Keywords: DC Voltage Regulator, microgrid, multisource, Renewable Energy, SEPIC Converter.

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1651 Carbon Sources Utilization Profiles of Thermophilic Phytase Producing Bacteria Isolated from Hot-spring in Malaysia

Authors: Noor Muzamil Mohamad, Abdul Manaf Ali, Hamzah Mohd Salleh

Abstract:

Phytases (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases; EC 3.1.3.8) catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid (myoinositol hexakisphosphate) to the mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates of myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. Therrmophilic bacteria isolated from water sampled from hot spring. About 120 isolates of bacteria were successfully isolated form hot spring water sample and tested for extracellular phytase producing. After 5 passages of the screening on the PSM media, 4 isolates were found stable in producing phytase enzyme. The 16s RDNA sequencing for identification of bacteria using molecular technique revealed that all isolates those positive in phytase producing are belong to Geobacillus spp. And Anoxybacillus spp. Anoxybacillus rupiensis UniSZA-7 were identified for their carbon source utilization using Phenotype Microarray Plate of Biolog and found they utilize several kind of carbon source provided.

Keywords: Phytase, Phytic Acid, Thermophilic Bacteria, PSM Media and Phytase Assay

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1650 Village Construction under China-s Rapid Urbanization: The Role and Strategy of Planning in the Rural Areas

Authors: Chen Zhang, Jiwu Wang

Abstract:

With China's urbanization continuing to accelerate, a amount of rural people flood into China's cities in recent years, and the issue of agriculture, rural areas and farmers is getting more and more serious. In 2005, the Chinese government put forward a plan for “the construction of new rural village", in order to coordinate the development of both urban and rural areas. The planning method of rural region differs sharply from that of urban areas, as same as village social structure and habits of farmer-s life, so the studies which can consider the special needs of village construction in China are absolutely essential. This paper expresses explore current situation and problems existing in the construction of China-s new rural village, such as bigger gap between urban and rural areas, excessive new construction projects, extinct traditional village style and so on. It tries to analyze the deep reason of the present situation of the village from law system, industrial structure, financial sources and planning method. Then it also provides a guide for developing policies and procedures promoting the development of china-s rural areas.

Keywords: Rural areas, village construction, physical planning, law system, financial sources, Public participation, China.

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