Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source
Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan
The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131197Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1188
 T. Williams, “Reaction and Thermal Modeling of a Packed Bed Reactor for Hydrogen Storage”, in Proc. of the COMSOL Conference, Boston, 2007.
 A. Du, S.C. Smith, G.Q. Lu,“First-principle studies of the formation and diffusion of hydrogen vacancies in magnesium hydride”, J. Phys. Chem. C, vol. 111, pp. 8360–8365, Jun. 2007.
 J. Solberg, S. Løken, J.P. Mæhlen, R.V. Denys, M.V. Lototsky, B.P. Tarasov, V. Yartys, “Nanostructured Mg-Mm-Ni hydrogen storage alloy: structure-properties relationship”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 446-447, pp.114-120,Oct. 2007.
 P. Larsson et al., Role of catalysts in dehydrogenation of MgH2 nanoclusters, in Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 105 no. 24, pp.8227-8231, Jun. 2008.
 M. Fidelman, “Galvanic Hydrogen Producer”, US Patent 3256504, 1966.
 V.I. Kirillov, A.N. Yastrebov, “Magnesium Alloy for Hydrogen Production”, US Patent 5494538, 1996.
 C.T. Cheng, “Portable Hydrogen Generation Using Metal Emulsion”, US Patent 6834623, 2004.
 T. Wang, W. Scrivan, J. Zimmerman, S. Seaman, “Hydrogen Generation Using Compositions Including Magnesiumand Silicon”, US Patent 8808663 B2, Aug. 2014.
 C. Wang, T. Yang, Y. Liu, J. Ruan, S. Yang, X. Liu, “Hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis of magnesium–aluminum–iron material in aqueous solutions”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 39, no. 21, pp. 10843–10852,July 2014.
 D. Cao, L. Wu, Y. Sun, G. Wang, Y. Lu,“Electrochemical behavior of Mg−Li, Mg−Li−Al and Mg−Li−Al−Ce in sodium chloride solution”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 177, no. 2,pp. 624−630, Mar. 2008.
 A.R. Suresh Kannan, S. Muralidharan, K.B. Sarangapani, V. Balaramachandran, V. Kapali, “Corrosion and anodic behaviour of zinc and its ternary alloys in alkaline battery electrolytes”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 93−98, Sept.-Dec. 1995.
 F. Pacheco, “Hydrogen Generator”, US Patent 6834623, Dec. 2004.
 Y. Yan, Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Mg-Air Batteries, Dissertation, Institute for Frontier Materials Deakin University, Jan. 2016.
 T. Zhang, Z. Tao and J. Chen, “Magnesium-air batteries: from principle to application”, Mater. Horiz.,vol. 1, pp.196-206, Jan. 2014.
 Ø. Hasvold, T. Lian, E. Haakaas, N. Størkersen, O. Perelman, S. Cordier, “CLIPPER: a long-range, autonomous underwater vehicle using magnesium fuel and oxygen from the sea”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 232-239, Oct. 2004.
 S.D. Korolenko, F.V. Makordey, L.D. Konovalenko, I.N. Barba, L.I. Korolenko, “Magnesium-air primary current source. Technology and designing in electronic apparatuses”, Energy electronics, no. 6, pp. 26-29, Oct.2007 (in Russian).
 M.G. Medeiros, R.R. Bessette, C.M. Deschenes, D.W. Atwater, “Optimization of the magnesium-solution phase catholyte semi-fuel cell for long duration testing”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 96, no. 1, , pp. 236-239, Jun. 2001.
 R. Hahn, J. Mainert, F. Glaw, K.-D. Lang, “Sea water magnesium fuel cell power supply”, Journal of Power Sources,vol. 288, pp. 26-35, Aug. 2015.
 M. Wierse,R. Werner, M. Groll, “Magnesium hydride for thermal energy storage in a small-scale solar-thermal power station”, Journal of the Less Common Metals, vol. 172–174, part 3, pp.1111-1121, Aug. 1991.
 S.A. Black, J.F. Jenkins, “Sandwiched Structure for Production of Heat and Hydrogen Gas”, US Patent 3942511, Mar. 1976.
 I.A. Kramer, K. Kustin, “Water-Activated Chemical Heater with Suppressed Hydrogen”, US Patent 5517981, Jun.1994.
 Y. Kato, Development of a Magnesium Oxide/Water Chemical Heat Pump For Efficient Energy Storage and Utilization, V Minsk International Seminar “Heat Pipes, Heat Pumps, Refrigerators” Minsk, Belarus, 2003, pp.129-140.
 T. Yabe, Y. Suzuki and Y. Satoh, “Renewable Energy Cycle with Magnesium and Solar-Energy-Pumped Lasers”, Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal, Vol.1, No.12, April 2014, paper 236.
 T. Saiki1, S. Uchida, T. Karita1, K. Nakamura, Y. Nishikawa, S. Taniguchi, Y. Iida, “Recyclable metal air fuel cells using sintered Magnesium paste with reduced Mg nanoparticles by high-repetitive Ns pulse laser ablation in liquid”, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy, vol. 3, no. 6,pp.143-149, Nov. 2014.
 G.A. Martoyan, “Extraction of Metals”, US Patent Application 20130233720 A1, Sep. 2013.
 D. Cao, L. Wu, G. Wang, Y. Lu. Electrochemical oxidation behavior of Mg−Li−Al−Ce−Zn and Mg−Li−Al−Ce−Zn−Mn in sodium chloride solution, Journal of Power Sources, vol.183, no. 2, pp. 799−804, Sept.2008.
 Hovhannisyan H., Abovyan S., Karamyan G., “Waste-free hydrometallurgical extraction of magnesium and other metals from rock formation of varying olivine content”, International Patent Application WO 2005098062, 2005.
 T. Yabe, T. Yamaji, The Magnesium Civilization: An Alternative New Source of Energy to Oil, Pan Stanford Publishing, 2010 - Science, pp. 1- 147.