Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: fruits trees

43 Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Russian Olive Fruit

Authors: D. Zare, F. Salmanizade, H. Safiyari

Abstract:

Physical and mechanical properties of Russian olive fruits were measured at moisture content of 14.43% w.b. The results revealed that the mean length, width and thickness of Russian olive fruits were 20.72, 15.73 and 14.69mm, respectively. Mean mass and volume of Russian olive fruits were measured as 1.45 g and 2.55 cm3, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio and surface area were calculated as 0.81, 0.72 and 8.96 cm2, respectively, while arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and equivalent diameter of Russian olive fruits were 17.05, 16.83 and 16.84 mm, respectively. Whole fruit density, bulk density and porosity of jujube fruits were measured and found to be 1.01 g/cm3, 0.29 g/cm3 and 69.5%, respectively. The values of static coefficient of friction on three surfaces of glass, galvanized iron and plywood were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.43, respectively. The skin color (L*, a*, b*) varied from 9.92 to 16.08; 2.04 to 3.91 and 1.12 to 3.83, respectively. The values of rupture force, deformation, energy absorbed and hardness were found to be between 12.14-16.85 N, 2.16-4.25 mm, 3.42-6.99 N mm and 17.1-23.85 N/mm.

Keywords: Mechanical and Physical properties, Russian olive fruits, friction coefficient

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42 Mineral and Some Physico-Chemical Composition of 'Karayemis' (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Fruits Grown in Northeast Turkey

Authors: İsmail Hakkı Kalyoncu, Nilda Ersoy, Ayşe Yalcın Elidemir, Cansu Dolek

Abstract:

Some physico-chemical characteristics and mineral composition of 'Karayemis' (Prunus laurocerasus L.) fruits which grown naturally in Norteast Turkey was studied. 28 minerals ( Al, Mg, B, Mn, Co, Na, Ca, Ni, Cd, P, Cr, Pb, Cu, S, Fe, Zn, K, Sr, Li, As, V, Ag, Ba, Br, Ga, In, Se, Ti) were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at ascertainable levels. Karayemis fruit was richest in potassium (7938.711 ppm), magnesium (1242.186 ppm) and calcium (1158.853 ppm). And some physico-chemical characteristics of Karayemis fruit was investigated. Fruit length, fruit width, fruit thickness, fruit weight, total soluble solids, colour, protein, crude ash, crude fiber, crude oil values were determined as 2.334 cm, 1.884 cm, 2.112 cm, 5.35 g, 20.1 %, S99M99Y99, 0.29 %, 0.22 %, 6.63 % and 0.001 %, respectively. The seed of fruit mean weight, length, width and thickness were found to be 0.41 g, 1.303 cm, 0.921 cm and 0.803, respectively.

Keywords: Prunus laurocerasus L., physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties.

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41 Assessing the Actual Status and Farmer’s Attitude towards Agroforestry in Chiniot, Pakistan

Authors: M. F. Nawaz, S. Gul, T. H. Farooq, M. T. Siddiqui, M. Asif, I. Ahmad, N. K. Niazi

Abstract:

In Pakistan, major demands of fuel wood and timber wood are fulfilled by agroforestry. However, the information regarding economic significance of agroforestry and its productivity in Pakistan is still insufficient and unreliable. Survey of field conditions to examine the agroforestry status at local level helps us to know the future trends and to formulate the policies for sustainable wood supply. The objectives of this research were to examine the actual status and potential of agroforestry and to point out the barriers that are faced by farmers in the adoption of agroforestry. Research was carried out in Chiniot district, Pakistan because it is the famous city for furniture industry that is largely dependent on farm trees. A detailed survey of district Chiniot was carried out from 150 randomly selected farmer respondents using multi-objective oriented and pre-tested questionnaire. It was found that linear tree planting method was more adopted (45%) as compared to linear + interplanting (42%) and/or compact planting (12.6%). Chi-square values at P-value <0.5 showed that age (11.35) and education (17.09) were two more important factors in the quick adoption of agroforestry as compared to land holdings (P-value of 0.7). The major reason of agroforestry adoption was to obtain income, fodder and fuelwood. The most dominant species in farmlands was shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) but since last five years, mostly farmers were growing Sufeida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), kikar (Acacia nilotica) and popular (Populus deltoides) on their fields due to “Shisham die-back” problem. It was found that agro-forestry can be increased by providing good quality planting material to farmers and improving wood markets.

Keywords: Agroforestry, trees, services, agriculture, farmers.

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40 Some Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Properties of `Musmula` Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) Grown in Northeast Anatolia

Authors: Ismail Hakki Kalyoncu, Nilda Ersoy, Ayse Yalcin Elidemir, Inci Tolay

Abstract:

In this study, The physico-chemical and nutritional properties of `Musmula` Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) fruit and seed grown in Northeast Anatolia was investigated. In the fruit, length, width, thickness, weight, total soluble solids, colour (1), colour (2) [L, a, b values], protein, crude ash, crude fiber, crude oil, texture and pH were determinated as 4.34 cm, 4.22 cm, 3.67 cm, 38.36 g, 23.97 %, S60O60Y41,, [53.85, 17.15, 33.75], 1.06 %, 0.79 %, 4.24 %, 0.005 %, 1.21 kg/cm2 and 4.26 respectively. Also, pulp ratio, seed ratio and pulp/seed ratio were found to be 92.88 %, 7.11 % and 14.07 %, respectively. In addition, the mineral composition of medlar fruit in Northeast Anatolia was studied. In the fruit, 23 minerals were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at detectable levels. The medlar fruit was richest in potassium (6962 ppm), calcium (1186.378 ppm), magnesium (1070.08 ppm) and phosphor (763.425 ppm).

Keywords: Fruits, Mespilus germanica L., mineral compounds, physico-chemical properties.

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39 Quality Attributes of Various Spray Dried Pulp Powder Prepared from Low Temperature Stored Calcium Salts Pretreated Guava Fruits

Authors: Renu Rahel, A. S. Chauhan, K. Srinivasulu, R. Ravi, V. B. Kudachikar

Abstract:

The effect of calcium salts on the storage stability and on the quality attributes of both fresh and processed product (guava powder) of white flesh guavas (var ‘Allahabad safeda’) was studied. The pulp behavioral studies of fully ripened guava fruits indicated that fruits pretreated with 3% and 4.5% calcium chloride had the least viscosity. The guava pulp powder using spray drying technique was developed and its storage stability and the moisture sorption studies were carried out for product quality evaluation at normal storage condition (27°C; 65%RH). Results revealed that powder obtained from 3% calcium chloride pretreated guavas was found to be at par with the powder obtained from control guavas after 90 days of normal storage. Studies on microbiological quality of guava pulp powder indicated that among the treatments powder obtained from guava fruit pretreated with 3% calcium chloride to be the most effective through restricting microbial counts of total plate count, yeast, mold, Staphylococcus and E. coli below their permissible limit. Moisture sorption studies of guava powder revealed that foil laminate 12μm PET/9 μm foil/38-40 μm is the most suitable packaging material recommended.

Keywords: White flesh guava, calcium salts, spray drying, powder, storage stability.

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38 DWT Based Image Steganalysis

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

‘Steganalysis’ is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques. It is the procedure to detect the hidden information from the stego created by known steganographic algorithm. In this paper, a novel feature based image steganalysis technique is proposed. Various statistical moments have been used along with some similarity metric. The proposed steganalysis technique has been designed based on transformation in four wavelet domains, which include Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Biorthogonal. Each domain is being subjected to various classifiers, namely K-nearest-neighbor, K* Classifier, Locally weighted learning, Naive Bayes classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees and Support vector machines. The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.

Keywords: Steganalysis, Moments, Wavelet Domain, KNN, K*, LWL, Naive Bayes Classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees, SVM.

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37 A Novel Methodology for Synthesis of Fault Trees from MATLAB-Simulink Model

Authors: F. Tajarrod, G. Latif-Shabgahi

Abstract:

Fault tree analysis is a well-known method for reliability and safety assessment of engineering systems. In the last 3 decades, a number of methods have been introduced, in the literature, for automatic construction of fault trees. The main difference between these methods is the starting model from which the tree is constructed. This paper presents a new methodology for the construction of static and dynamic fault trees from a system Simulink model. The method is introduced and explained in detail, and its correctness and completeness is experimentally validated by using an example, taken from literature. Advantages of the method are also mentioned.

Keywords: Fault tree, Simulink, Standby Sparing and Redundancy

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36 Evaluation of Hazardous Status of Avenue Trees in University of Port Harcourt

Authors: F. S. Eguakun, T. C. Nkwor

Abstract:

Trees in the university environment are uniquely position; however, they can also present a millstone to the infrastructure and humans they coexist with. The numerous benefits of trees can be negated due to poor tree health and anthropogenic activities and as such can become hazardous. The study aims at evaluating the hazardous status of avenue trees in University of Port Harcourt. Data were collected from all the avenue trees within the selected major roads in the University. Tree growth variables were measured and health condition of the avenue trees were assessed as an indicator of some structural defects. The hazard status of the avenue trees was determined. Several tree species were used as avenue trees in the University however, Azadirachta indica (81%) was found to be most abundant. The result shows that only 0.3% avenue tree species was found to pose severe harzard in Abuja part of the University. Most avenue trees (55.2%) were rated as medium hazard status. Due to the danger and risk associated with hazardous trees, the study recommends that good and effective management strategies be implemented so as to prevent future damages from trees with small or medium hazard status.

Keywords: Avenue tree, hazard status, inventory, urban.

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35 Integrating Context Priors into a Decision Tree Classification Scheme

Authors: Kasim Terzic, Bernd Neumann

Abstract:

Scene interpretation systems need to match (often ambiguous) low-level input data to concepts from a high-level ontology. In many domains, these decisions are uncertain and benefit greatly from proper context. This paper demonstrates the use of decision trees for estimating class probabilities for regions described by feature vectors, and shows how context can be introduced in order to improve the matching performance.

Keywords: Classification, Decision Trees, Interpretation, Vision

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34 Some Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Mineral Contents of Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) Fruits in Turkey

Authors: İsmail Hakkı Kalyoncu, Nilda Ersoy, Ayşe Yalcın Elidemir, Muhammed Emin Karalı

Abstract:

Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) grown naturally in Anatolia. In this study, some physico-chemical (sugar, acid, protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash etc.) characteristics and mineral composition of Gilaburu fruit have been investigated. The length, width, thickness, weight, total soluble solid, protein, crude ash, crude fiber and crude oil of fruit were found to be 1.12 cm, 1.58 cm, 1.87 cm, 0.87 g, 14.73 %, 0.2 %, 0.11 %, 6.56 % and 0.4 %, respectively. The seed of fruit mean weight, length, width and thickness were determinated as 0.08 g, 7.76 cm, 7.67 cm and 1.66, respectively. In addition 27 mineral elements (Al, Mg, Na, Ba, Ca, Ni, Cd, P, Cr, Pb, S, Cu, Se, Fe, K, Sr, Li, Z, V, Ag, Bi, Co, Mn, B, Ga, In, Ti) were analyzed. Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) fruit was richest in potassium (10764.764 ppm), Mg (1289.088 ppm) and P (1304.169 ppm).

Keywords: Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.), nutritional properties, physico-chemical properties.

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33 Trust Building Mechanisms for Electronic Business Networks and Their Relation to eSkills

Authors: Radoslav Delina, Michal Tkáč

Abstract:

Globalization, supported by information and communication technologies, changes the rules of competitiveness and increases the significance of information, knowledge and network cooperation. In line with this trend, the need for efficient trust-building tools has emerged. The absence of trust building mechanisms and strategies was identified within several studies. Through trust development, participation on e-business network and usage of network services will increase and provide to SMEs new economic benefits. This work is focused on effective trust building strategies development for electronic business network platforms. Based on trust building mechanism identification, the questionnairebased analysis of its significance and minimum level of requirements was conducted. In the paper, we are confirming the trust dependency on e-Skills which play crucial role in higher level of trust into the more sophisticated and complex trust building ICT solutions.

Keywords: Correlation analysis, decision trees, e-marketplace, trust building

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32 Balancing Neural Trees to Improve Classification Performance

Authors: Asha Rani, Christian Micheloni, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

In this paper, a neural tree (NT) classifier having a simple perceptron at each node is considered. A new concept for making a balanced tree is applied in the learning algorithm of the tree. At each node, if the perceptron classification is not accurate and unbalanced, then it is replaced by a new perceptron. This separates the training set in such a way that almost the equal number of patterns fall into each of the classes. Moreover, each perceptron is trained only for the classes which are present at respective node and ignore other classes. Splitting nodes are employed into the neural tree architecture to divide the training set when the current perceptron node repeats the same classification of the parent node. A new error function based on the depth of the tree is introduced to reduce the computational time for the training of a perceptron. Experiments are performed to check the efficiency and encouraging results are obtained in terms of accuracy and computational costs.

Keywords: Neural Tree, Pattern Classification, Perceptron, Splitting Nodes.

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31 The Game of Col on Complete K-ary Trees

Authors: Alessandro Cincotti, Timothee Bossart

Abstract:

Col is a classic combinatorial game played on graphs and to solve a general instance is a PSPACE-complete problem. However, winning strategies can be found for some specific graph instances. In this paper, the solution of Col on complete k-ary trees is presented.

Keywords: Combinatorial game, Complete k-ary tree, Mapcoloring game.

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30 Trees for Air Pollution Tolerance to Develop Green Belts as an Ecological Mitigation

Authors: Rahma Al Maawali, Hameed Sulaiman

Abstract:

Air pollution both from point and non-point sources is difficult to control once released in to the atmosphere. There is no engineering method known available to ameliorate the dispersed pollutants. The only suitable approach is the ecological method of constructing green belts in and around the pollution sources. Air pollution in Muscat, Oman is a serious concern due to ever increasing vehicles on roads. Identifying the air pollution tolerance levels of species is important for implementing pollution control strategies in the urban areas of Muscat. Hence, in the present study, Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) for ten avenue tree species was evaluated by analyzing four bio-chemical parameters, plus their Anticipated Performance Index (API) in field conditions. Based on the two indices, Ficus benghalensis was the most suitable one with the highest performance score. Conocarpus erectuse, Phoenix dactylifera, and Pithcellobium dulce were found to be good performers and are recommended for extensive planting. Azadirachta indica which is preferred for its dense canopy is qualified in the moderate category. The rest of the tree species expressed lower API score of less than 51, hence cannot be considered as suitable species for pollution mitigation plantation projects.

Keywords: Air pollution tolerance index, avenue tree species, bio-chemical parameters, Muscat.

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29 Specialization-based parallel Processing without Memo-trees

Authors: Hidemi Ogasawara, Kiyoshi Akama, Hiroshi Mabuchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for constructing correct parallel processing programs based on Equivalent Transformation Framework (ETF). ETF regards computation as In the framework, a problem-s domain knowledge and a query are described in definite clauses, and computation is regarded as transformation of the definite clauses. Its meaning is defined by a model of the set of definite clauses, and the transformation rules generated must preserve meaning. We have proposed a parallel processing method based on “specialization", a part of operation in the transformations, which resembles substitution in logic programming. The method requires “Memo-tree", a history of specialization to maintain correctness. In this paper we proposes the new method for the specialization-base parallel processing without Memo-tree.

Keywords: Parallel processing, Program correctness, Equivalent transformation, Specializer generation rule

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28 Measuring the Structural Similarity of Web-based Documents: A Novel Approach

Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Alexander Mehler, Jürgen Kilian

Abstract:

Most known methods for measuring the structural similarity of document structures are based on, e.g., tag measures, path metrics and tree measures in terms of their DOM-Trees. Other methods measures the similarity in the framework of the well known vector space model. In contrast to these we present a new approach to measuring the structural similarity of web-based documents represented by so called generalized trees which are more general than DOM-Trees which represent only directed rooted trees.We will design a new similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as strings of linear integers, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings. In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments to solve a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. More precisely, we first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based documents.

Keywords: Graph similarity, hierarchical and directed graphs, hypertext, generalized trees, web structure mining.

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27 Thermodynamic Analyses of Information Dissipation along the Passive Dendritic Trees and Active Action Potential

Authors: Bahar Hazal Yalçınkaya, Bayram Yılmaz, Mustafa Özilgen

Abstract:

Brain information transmission in the neuronal network occurs in the form of electrical signals. Neural work transmits information between the neurons or neurons and target cells by moving charged particles in a voltage field; a fraction of the energy utilized in this process is dissipated via entropy generation. Exergy loss and entropy generation models demonstrate the inefficiencies of the communication along the dendritic trees. In this study, neurons of 4 different animals were analyzed with one dimensional cable model with N=6 identical dendritic trees and M=3 order of symmetrical branching. Each branch symmetrically bifurcates in accordance with the 3/2 power law in an infinitely long cylinder with the usual core conductor assumptions, where membrane potential is conserved in the core conductor at all branching points. In the model, exergy loss and entropy generation rates are calculated for each branch of equivalent cylinders of electrotonic length (L) ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 for four different dendritic branches, input branch (BI), and sister branch (BS) and two cousin branches (BC-1 & BC-2). Thermodynamic analysis with the data coming from two different cat motoneuron studies show that in both experiments nearly the same amount of exergy is lost while generating nearly the same amount of entropy. Guinea pig vagal motoneuron loses twofold more exergy compared to the cat models and the squid exergy loss and entropy generation were nearly tenfold compared to the guinea pig vagal motoneuron model. Thermodynamic analysis show that the dissipated energy in the dendritic tress is directly proportional with the electrotonic length, exergy loss and entropy generation. Entropy generation and exergy loss show variability not only between the vertebrate and invertebrates but also within the same class. Concurrently, single action potential Na+ ion load, metabolic energy utilization and its thermodynamic aspect contributed for squid giant axon and mammalian motoneuron model. Energy demand is supplied to the neurons in the form of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Exergy destruction and entropy generation upon ATP hydrolysis are calculated. ATP utilization, exergy destruction and entropy generation showed differences in each model depending on the variations in the ion transport along the channels.

Keywords: ATP utilization, entropy generation, exergy loss, neuronal information transmittance.

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26 A Decision Boundary based Discretization Technique using Resampling

Authors: Taimur Qureshi, Djamel A Zighed

Abstract:

Many supervised induction algorithms require discrete data, even while real data often comes in a discrete and continuous formats. Quality discretization of continuous attributes is an important problem that has effects on speed, accuracy and understandability of the induction models. Usually, discretization and other types of statistical processes are applied to subsets of the population as the entire population is practically inaccessible. For this reason we argue that the discretization performed on a sample of the population is only an estimate of the entire population. Most of the existing discretization methods, partition the attribute range into two or several intervals using a single or a set of cut points. In this paper, we introduce a technique by using resampling (such as bootstrap) to generate a set of candidate discretization points and thus, improving the discretization quality by providing a better estimation towards the entire population. Thus, the goal of this paper is to observe whether the resampling technique can lead to better discretization points, which opens up a new paradigm to construction of soft decision trees.

Keywords: Bootstrap, discretization, resampling, soft decision trees.

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25 Generating Concept Trees from Dynamic Self-organizing Map

Authors: Norashikin Ahmad, Damminda Alahakoon

Abstract:

Self-organizing map (SOM) provides both clustering and visualization capabilities in mining data. Dynamic self-organizing maps such as Growing Self-organizing Map (GSOM) has been developed to overcome the problem of fixed structure in SOM to enable better representation of the discovered patterns. However, in mining large datasets or historical data the hierarchical structure of the data is also useful to view the cluster formation at different levels of abstraction. In this paper, we present a technique to generate concept trees from the GSOM. The formation of tree from different spread factor values of GSOM is also investigated and the quality of the trees analyzed. The results show that concept trees can be generated from GSOM, thus, eliminating the need for re-clustering of the data from scratch to obtain a hierarchical view of the data under study.

Keywords: dynamic self-organizing map, concept formation, clustering.

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24 Identification of Healthy and BSR-Infected Oil Palm Trees Using Color Indices

Authors: Siti Khairunniza-Bejo, Yusnida Yusoff, Nik Salwani Nik Yusoff, Idris Abu Seman, Mohamad Izzuddin Anuar

Abstract:

Most of the oil palm plantations have been threatened by Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease which causes serious economic impact. This study was conducted to identify the healthy and BSRinfected oil palm tree using thirteen color indices. Multispectral and thermal camera was used to capture 216 images of the leaves taken from frond number 1, 9 and 17. Indices of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), red (R), green (G), blue (B), near infrared (NIR), green – blue (GB), green/blue (G/B), green – red (GR), green/red (G/R), hue (H), saturation (S), intensity (I) and thermal index (T) were used. From this study, it can be concluded that G index taken from frond number 9 is the best index to differentiate between the healthy and BSR-infected oil palm trees. It not only gave high value of correlation coefficient (R=-0.962), but also high value of separation between healthy and BSR-infected oil palm tree. Furthermore, power and S model developed using G index gave the highest R2 value which is 0.985.

Keywords: Oil palm, image processing, disease, leaves.

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23 Approximately Similarity Measurement of Web Sites Using Genetic Algorithms and Binary Trees

Authors: Doru Anastasiu Popescu, Dan Rădulescu

Abstract:

In this paper, we determine the similarity of two HTML web applications. We are going to use a genetic algorithm in order to determine the most significant web pages of each application (we are not going to use every web page of a site). Using these significant web pages, we will find the similarity value between the two applications. The algorithm is going to be efficient because we are going to use a reduced number of web pages for comparisons but it will return an approximate value of the similarity. The binary trees are used to keep the tags from the significant pages. The algorithm was implemented in Java language.

Keywords: Tag, HTML, web page, genetic algorithm, similarity value, binary tree.

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22 Study of the Glucidic Fraction of Celtis Australis L, Crataegus Azarolus L, Crataegus Monogyna Jacq., Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. and Zizyphus Lotus L. Fruits

Authors: Saadoudi Mouni, Hamebaba Leila, Abdeddaim Mohamed

Abstract:

In Algeria, some fruit trees produce fruits in free nature. Such trees are Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna and Zizyphus lotus. In spite of their appreciable consumption, their nutritional value remains unknown. The objective of this study is the determination of sugars in the pulpe and almond of the above fruits. The biochemical analysis shows that these fruits present interesting contents of soluble sugars which confers significant caloric intakes to them. As well as significant fibres which give them therapeutic and industrial benefits? The analysis of the almonds shows that it contains considerable contents of sugars which enable them to be an energetic food.

Keywords: Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna, Zizyphus lotus, Fibres, Soluble sugars.

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21 Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences Using Phylogenetic Profiles

Authors: Omer Nebil Yaveroglu, Tolga Can

Abstract:

In this study, a high accuracy protein-protein interaction prediction method is developed. The importance of the proposed method is that it only uses sequence information of proteins while predicting interaction. The method extracts phylogenetic profiles of proteins by using their sequence information. Combining the phylogenetic profiles of two proteins by checking existence of homologs in different species and fitting this combined profile into a statistical model, it is possible to make predictions about the interaction status of two proteins. For this purpose, we apply a collection of pattern recognition techniques on the dataset of combined phylogenetic profiles of protein pairs. Support Vector Machines, Feature Extraction using ReliefF, Naive Bayes Classification, K-Nearest Neighborhood Classification, Decision Trees, and Random Forest Classification are the methods we applied for finding the classification method that best predicts the interaction status of protein pairs. Random Forest Classification outperformed all other methods with a prediction accuracy of 76.93%

Keywords: Protein Interaction Prediction, Phylogenetic Profile, SVM , ReliefF, Decision Trees, Random Forest Classification

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20 Data Mining for Cancer Management in Egypt Case Study: Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Authors: Nevine M. Labib, Michael N. Malek

Abstract:

Data Mining aims at discovering knowledge out of data and presenting it in a form that is easily comprehensible to humans. One of the useful applications in Egypt is the Cancer management, especially the management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or ALL, which is the most common type of cancer in children. This paper discusses the process of designing a prototype that can help in the management of childhood ALL, which has a great significance in the health care field. Besides, it has a social impact on decreasing the rate of infection in children in Egypt. It also provides valubale information about the distribution and segmentation of ALL in Egypt, which may be linked to the possible risk factors. Undirected Knowledge Discovery is used since, in the case of this research project, there is no target field as the data provided is mainly subjective. This is done in order to quantify the subjective variables. Therefore, the computer will be asked to identify significant patterns in the provided medical data about ALL. This may be achieved through collecting the data necessary for the system, determimng the data mining technique to be used for the system, and choosing the most suitable implementation tool for the domain. The research makes use of a data mining tool, Clementine, so as to apply Decision Trees technique. We feed it with data extracted from real-life cases taken from specialized Cancer Institutes. Relevant medical cases details such as patient medical history and diagnosis are analyzed, classified, and clustered in order to improve the disease management.

Keywords: Data Mining, Decision Trees, Knowledge Discovery, Leukemia.

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19 Automatic Sleep Stage Scoring with Wavelet Packets Based on Single EEG Recording

Authors: Luay A. Fraiwan, Natheer Y. Khaswaneh, Khaldon Y. Lweesy

Abstract:

Sleep stage scoring is the process of classifying the stage of the sleep in which the subject is in. Sleep is classified into two states based on the constellation of physiological parameters. The two states are the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and the rapid eye movement (REM). The NREM sleep is also classified into four stages (1-4). These states and the state wakefulness are distinguished from each other based on the brain activity. In this work, a classification method for automated sleep stage scoring based on a single EEG recording using wavelet packet decomposition was implemented. Thirty two ploysomnographic recording from the MIT-BIH database were used for training and validation of the proposed method. A single EEG recording was extracted and smoothed using Savitzky-Golay filter. Wavelet packets decomposition up to the fourth level based on 20th order Daubechies filter was used to extract features from the EEG signal. A features vector of 54 features was formed. It was reduced to a size of 25 using the gain ratio method and fed into a classifier of regression trees. The regression trees were trained using 67% of the records available. The records for training were selected based on cross validation of the records. The remaining of the records was used for testing the classifier. The overall correct rate of the proposed method was found to be around 75%, which is acceptable compared to the techniques in the literature.

Keywords: Features selection, regression trees, sleep stagescoring, wavelet packets.

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18 Application of a Similarity Measure for Graphs to Web-based Document Structures

Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Alexander Mehler, Jürgen Kilian, Max Mühlhauser

Abstract:

Due to the tremendous amount of information provided by the World Wide Web (WWW) developing methods for mining the structure of web-based documents is of considerable interest. In this paper we present a similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as linear integer strings, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings. In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments for solving a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. In other words: We first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem for developing a efficient graph similarity measure. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based document structures.

Keywords: Graph similarity, hierarchical and directed graphs, hypertext, generalized trees, web structure mining.

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17 Pruning Method of Belief Decision Trees

Authors: Salsabil Trabelsi, Zied Elouedi, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

The belief decision tree (BDT) approach is a decision tree in an uncertain environment where the uncertainty is represented through the Transferable Belief Model (TBM), one interpretation of the belief function theory. The uncertainty can appear either in the actual class of training objects or attribute values of objects to classify. In this paper, we develop a post-pruning method of belief decision trees in order to reduce size and improve classification accuracy on unseen cases. The pruning of decision tree has a considerable intention in the areas of machine learning.

Keywords: machine learning, uncertainty, belief function theory, belief decision tree, pruning.

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16 Fixed Point Equations Related to Motion Integrals in Renormalization Hopf Algebra

Authors: Ali Shojaei-Fard

Abstract:

In this paper we consider quantum motion integrals depended on the algebraic reconstruction of BPHZ method for perturbative renormalization in two different procedures. Then based on Bogoliubov character and Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, we show that how motion integral condition on components of Birkhoff factorization of a Feynman rules character on Connes- Kreimer Hopf algebra of rooted trees can determine a family of fixed point equations.

Keywords: Birkhoff Factorization, Connes-Kreimer Hopf Algebra of Rooted Trees, Integral Renormalization, Lax Pair Equation, Rota- Baxter Algebras.

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15 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

Authors: Wan Chian Li, Justie Su-Tzu Juan, Yi-Chun Wang, Shu-Chuan Chen

Abstract:

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

Keywords: evolutionary tree, mixture tree, mutated site, distance.

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14 Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Techniques in Textile Industry

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Erkin Guler

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issues and technique for textile industry using data mining techniques. Data mining has been applied to the stitching of garments products that were obtained from a textile company. Data mining techniques were applied to the data obtained from the CHAID algorithm, CART algorithm, Regression Analysis and, Artificial Neural Networks. Classification technique based analyses were used while data mining and decision model about the production per person and variables affecting about production were found by this method. In the study, the results show that as the daily working time increases, the production per person also decreases. In addition, the relationship between total daily working and production per person shows a negative result and the production per person show the highest and negative relationship.

Keywords: Data mining, textile production, decision trees, classification.

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