Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1229

Search results for: hypertext structures

1229 Towards Clustering of Web-based Document Structures

Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Jürgen Kilian, Andreas Zulauf

Abstract:

Methods for organizing web data into groups in order to analyze web-based hypertext data and facilitate data availability are very important in terms of the number of documents available online. Thereby, the task of clustering web-based document structures has many applications, e.g., improving information retrieval on the web, better understanding of user navigation behavior, improving web users requests servicing, and increasing web information accessibility. In this paper we investigate a new approach for clustering web-based hypertexts on the basis of their graph structures. The hypertexts will be represented as so called generalized trees which are more general than usual directed rooted trees, e.g., DOM-Trees. As a important preprocessing step we measure the structural similarity between the generalized trees on the basis of a similarity measure d. Then, we apply agglomerative clustering to the obtained similarity matrix in order to create clusters of hypertext graph patterns representing navigation structures. In the present paper we will run our approach on a data set of hypertext structures and obtain good results in Web Structure Mining. Furthermore we outline the application of our approach in Web Usage Mining as future work.

Keywords: Clustering methods, graph-based patterns, graph similarity, hypertext structures, web structure mining

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1228 The Challenges of Hyper-Textual Learning Approach for Religious Education

Authors: Elham Shirvani–Ghadikolaei, Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi

Abstract:

State of the art technology has the tremendous impact on our life, in this situation education system have been influenced as well as. In this paper, tried to compare two space of learning text and hypertext with each other, and some challenges of using hypertext in religious education. Regarding the fact that, hypertext is an undeniable part of learning in this world and it has highly beneficial for the education process from class to office and home. In this paper tried to solve this question: the consequences and challenges of applying hypertext in religious education. Also, the consequences of this survey demonstrate the role of curriculum designer and planner of education to solve this problem.

Keywords: Hyper-textual, education, religious text, religious education.

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1227 Analysis of Transmedia Storytelling in Pokémon GO

Authors: Iva Nedelcheva

Abstract:

This study is part of a doctoral thesis on the topic of Hyperfiction: Past, Present and Future of Storytelling through Hypertext. It explores in depth the impact of transmedia storytelling and the role of hypertext in the realm of the currently popular social media phenomenon Pokémon GO. Storytelling is a powerful method to engage and unite people. Moreover, the technology progress adds a whole new angle to the method, with hypertext and cross-platform sharing that enhance the traditional storytelling so much that transmedia storytelling gives unlimited opportunities to affect the everyday life of people across the globe. This research aims at examining the transmedia storytelling approach in Pokémon GO, and explaining how that contributed to its establishment as a massive worldwide hit in less than a week. The social engagement is investigated in all major media platforms, including traditional and online media channels. Observation and content analyses are reported in this paper to form the conclusion that transmedia storytelling with the input of hypertext has a promising future as a method of establishing a productive and rewarding communication strategy.

Keywords: Communication, hypertext, Pokémon GO, storytelling, transmedia.

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1226 Application of a Similarity Measure for Graphs to Web-based Document Structures

Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Alexander Mehler, Jürgen Kilian, Max Mühlhauser

Abstract:

Due to the tremendous amount of information provided by the World Wide Web (WWW) developing methods for mining the structure of web-based documents is of considerable interest. In this paper we present a similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as linear integer strings, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings. In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments for solving a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. In other words: We first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem for developing a efficient graph similarity measure. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based document structures.

Keywords: Graph similarity, hierarchical and directed graphs, hypertext, generalized trees, web structure mining.

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1225 Measuring the Structural Similarity of Web-based Documents: A Novel Approach

Authors: Matthias Dehmer, Frank Emmert Streib, Alexander Mehler, Jürgen Kilian

Abstract:

Most known methods for measuring the structural similarity of document structures are based on, e.g., tag measures, path metrics and tree measures in terms of their DOM-Trees. Other methods measures the similarity in the framework of the well known vector space model. In contrast to these we present a new approach to measuring the structural similarity of web-based documents represented by so called generalized trees which are more general than DOM-Trees which represent only directed rooted trees.We will design a new similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as strings of linear integers, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings. In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments to solve a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. More precisely, we first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based documents.

Keywords: Graph similarity, hierarchical and directed graphs, hypertext, generalized trees, web structure mining.

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1224 Digital Hypertexts vs. Traditional Books: An Inquiry into Non-Linearity

Authors: Federica Fornaciari

Abstract:

The current study begins with an awareness that today-s media environment is characterized by technological development and a new way of reading caused by the introduction of the Internet. The researcher conducted a meta analysis framed within Technological Determinism to investigate the process of hypertext reading, its differences from linear reading and the effects such differences can have on people-s ways of mentally structuring their world. The relationship between literacy and the comprehension achieved by reading hypertexts is also investigated. The results show hypertexts are not always user friendly. People experience hyperlinks as interruptions that distract their attention generating comprehension and disorientation. On one hand hypertextual jumping reading generates interruptions that finally make people lose their concentration. On the other hand hypertexts fascinate people who would rather read a document in such a format even though the outcome is often frustrating and affects their ability to elaborate and retain information.

Keywords: Hypertext reading, Internet, non-linearity.

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1223 Behavior Factor of Flat Double-Layer Space Structures

Authors: Behnam Shirkhanghah, Vahid Shahbaznejhad-Fard, Houshyar Eimani-Kalesar, Babak Pahlevan

Abstract:

Flat double-layer grid is from category of space structures that are formed from two flat layers connected together with diagonal members. Increased stiffness and better seismic resistance in relation to other space structures are advantages of flat double layer space structures. The objective of this study is assessment and calculation of Behavior factor of flat double layer space structures. With regarding that these structures are used widely but Behavior factor used to design these structures against seismic force is not determined and exact, the necessity of study is obvious. This study is theoretical. In this study we used structures with span length of 16m and 20 m. All connections are pivotal. ANSYS software is used to non-linear analysis of structures.

Keywords: Behavior factor, Double-layer, Intensified resistance, Non-linear analysis

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1222 A Preliminary Study on Effects of Community Structures on Epidemic Spreading and Detection in Complex Networks

Authors: Yi Yu, Gaoxi Xiao

Abstract:

Community structures widely exist in almost all real-life networks. Extensive researches have been carried out on detecting community structures in complex networks. However, many aspects of how community structures may affect the dynamics and properties of complex networks still remain unclear. In this work, we examine the impacts of community structures on the epidemic spreading and detection in complex networks. Extensive simulation results show that community structures may not help decrease the infection size at steady state, yet they could indeed help slow down the infection spreading. Also, networks with strong community structures may expect to have a smaller average infection size when equipped with a number of sparsely deployed monitors.

Keywords: Complex network, epidemic spreading, infection size, infection monitoring.

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1221 Multiscale Structures and Their Evolution in a Screen Cylinder Wake

Authors: Azlin M. Azmi, T. Zhou, A. Rinoshika, L. Cheng

Abstract:

The turbulent structures in the wake (x/d =10 to 60) of a screen cylinder have been educed to understand the roles of the various structures as evolving downstream by comparing with those obtained in a solid circular cylinder wake at Reynolds number, Re of 7000. Using a wavelet multiresolution technique, the flow structures are decomposed into a number of wavelet components based on their central frequencies. It is observed that in the solid cylinder wake, large-scale structures (of frequencyf0 and 1.2 f0) make the largest contribution to the Reynolds stresses although they start to lose their roles significantly at x/d> 20. In the screen cylinder wake, the intermediate-scale structures (2f0 and 4f0) contribute the most to the Reynolds stresses atx/d =10 before being taken over by the large-scale structures (f0) further downstream.

Keywords: Turbulent structure, screen cylinder, vortex, wavelet multiresolution analysis.

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1220 Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Manish Kumar

Abstract:

Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used for construction of different type of structures for the last one century. During this period, we have constructed many structures like buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc. using this construction material. These structures have been created with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair. Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care for quality repair.

Keywords: Deterioration, functional condition, reinforced cement concrete, resources.

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1219 Inheritance Growth: a Biology Inspired Method to Build Structures in P2P

Authors: Panchalee Sukjit, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

IT infrastructures are becoming more and more difficult. Therefore, in the first industrial IT systems, the P2P paradigm has replaced the traditional client server and methods of self-organization are gaining more and more importance. From the past it is known that especially regular structures like grids may significantly improve the system behavior and performance. This contribution introduces a new algorithm based on a biologic analogue, which may provide the growth of several regular structures on top of anarchic grown P2P- or social network structures.

Keywords: P2P, Pattern generation, Grid, Social network, Inheritance, Reproduction

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1218 Balance of Rural and Urban Structures

Authors: Ehrenstorfer Barbara, Peherstorfer Tanja, Nový Jan

Abstract:

Urbanization and regionalization are two different approaches when it comes to economical structures and development, infrastructure and mobility, quality of life and living, education, social cohesion and many other topics. At first glance, the structures associated with urbanization and regionalization seems to be contradicting. This paper discusses possibilities of transfer and cooperation between rural and urban structures. An empirical investigation contributed to reveal scenarios of supposable forms of exchange and cooperation of remote rural areas and big cities.

Keywords: Learning Regions, Quality of Life and Living, Regional and Rural Development, Social Innovation.

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1217 Maximum Common Substructure Extraction in RNA Secondary Structures Using Clique Detection Approach

Authors: Shih-Yi Chao

Abstract:

The similarity comparison of RNA secondary structures is important in studying the functions of RNAs. In recent years, most existing tools represent the secondary structures by tree-based presentation and calculate the similarity by tree alignment distance. Different to previous approaches, we propose a new method based on maximum clique detection algorithm to extract the maximum common structural elements in compared RNA secondary structures. A new graph-based similarity measurement and maximum common subgraph detection procedures for comparing purely RNA secondary structures is introduced. Given two RNA secondary structures, the proposed algorithm consists of a process to determine the score of the structural similarity, followed by comparing vertices labelling, the labelled edges and the exact degree of each vertex. The proposed algorithm also consists of a process to extract the common structural elements between compared secondary structures based on a proposed maximum clique detection of the problem. This graph-based model also can work with NC-IUB code to perform the pattern-based searching. Therefore, it can be used to identify functional RNA motifs from database or to extract common substructures between complex RNA secondary structures. We have proved the performance of this proposed algorithm by experimental results. It provides a new idea of comparing RNA secondary structures. This tool is helpful to those who are interested in structural bioinformatics.

Keywords: Clique detection, labeled vertices, RNA secondary structures, subgraph, similarity.

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1216 The HDH Model for the Development of Creative Structural Thinking and Its Applications to Other Systems

Authors: Mosseri Avraham

Abstract:

Teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies is considered a difficult mission due to complex reasons and circumstances. This article proposes a new conceptual model (HDH) for teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies. Because of its systems-thinking orientation it is also relevant and applicable to other fields and systems. The HDH model was developed in order to encourage the integration of science and art, especially in relation to structures, in architectural studies.

Keywords: Structural Thinking, Conceptual Design, Teaching Structures, Systems Thinking.

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1215 Making Data Structures and Algorithms more Understandable by Programming Sudoku the Human Way

Authors: Roelien Goede

Abstract:

Data Structures and Algorithms is a module in most Computer Science or Information Technology curricula. It is one of the modules most students identify as being difficult. This paper demonstrates how programming a solution for Sudoku can make abstract concepts more concrete. The paper relates concepts of a typical Data Structures and Algorithms module to a step by step solution for Sudoku in a human type as opposed to a computer oriented solution.

Keywords: Data Structures, Algorithms, Sudoku, ObjectOriented Programming, Programming Teaching, Education.

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1214 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary

Abstract:

The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centers and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, unreinforced masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening.

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1213 A Review on Important Aspects of Information Retrieval

Authors: Yogesh Gupta, Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

Information retrieval has become an important field of study and research under computer science due to explosive growth of information available in the form of full text, hypertext, administrative text, directory, numeric or bibliographic text. The research work is going on various aspects of information retrieval systems so as to improve its efficiency and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive study, which discusses not only emergence and evolution of information retrieval but also includes different information retrieval models and some important aspects such as document representation, similarity measure and query expansion.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, query expansion, similarity measure, query expansion, vector space model.

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1212 HTML5 Online Learning Application with Offline Web, Location Based, Animated Web, Multithread, and Real-Time Features

Authors: Sheetal R. Jadhwani, Daisy Sang, Chang-Shyh Peng

Abstract:

Web applications are an integral part of modem life. They are mostly based upon the HyperText Markup Language (HTML). While HTML meets the basic needs, there are some shortcomings. For example, applications can cease to work once user goes offline, real-time updates may be lagging, and user interface can freeze on computationally intensive tasks. The latest language specification HTML5 attempts to rectify the situation with new tools and protocols. This paper studies the new Web Storage, Geolocation, Web Worker, Canvas, and Web Socket APIs, and presents applications to test their features and efficiencies.

Keywords: HTML5, Web Worker, Canvas, Web Socket.

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1211 Cost-Effective Design of Space Structures Joints: A Review

Authors: Mohammed I. Ali, Feng Fan, Peter N. Khakina, Ma H.H

Abstract:

In construction of any structure, the aesthetic and utility values should be considered in such a way as to make the structure cost-effective. Most structures are composed of elements and joints which are very critical in any skeletal space structure because they majorly determine the performance of the structure. In early times, most space structures were constructed using rigid joints which had the advantage of better performing structures as compared to pin-jointed structures but with the disadvantage of requiring all the construction work to be done on site. The discovery of semi-rigid joints now enables connections to be prefabricated and quickly assembled on site while maintaining good performance. In this paper, cost-effective is discussed basing on strength of connectors at the joints, buckling of joints and overall structure, and the effect of initial geometrical imperfections. Several existing joints are reviewed by classifying them into categories and discussing where they are most suited and how they perform structurally. Also, finite element modeling using ABAQUS is done to determine the buckling behavior. It is observed that some joints are more economical than others. The rise to span ratio and imperfections are also found to affect the buckling of the structures. Based on these, general principles that guide the design of cost-effective joints and structures are discussed.

Keywords: Buckling, Connectors, Joint stiffness, Eccentricity, Second moment of area, Semi-rigid joints.

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1210 Development of State Model Theory for External Exclusive NOR Type LFSR Structures

Authors: Afaq Ahmad

Abstract:

Using state space technique and GF(2) theory, a simulation model for external exclusive NOR type LFSR structures is developed. Through this tool a systematic procedure is devised for computing pseudo-random binary sequences from such structures.

Keywords: LFSR, external exclusive NOR type, recursivebinary sequence, initial state - next state, state transition matrix.

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1209 Detection ofTensile Forces in Cable-Stayed Structures Using the Advanced Hybrid Micro-Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sang-Youl Lee

Abstract:

This study deals with an advanced numerical techniques to detect tensile forces in cable-stayed structures. The proposed method allows us not only to avoid the trap of minimum at initial searching stage but also to find their final solutions in better numerical efficiency. The validity of the technique is numerically verified using a set of dynamic data obtained from a simulation of the cable model modeled using the finite element method. The results indicate that the proposed method is computationally efficient in characterizing the tensile force variation for cable-stayed structures.

Keywords: Tensile force detection, cable-stayed structures, hybrid system identification (h-SI), dynamic response.

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1208 CSOLAP (Continuous Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing)

Authors: Taher Omran Ahmed, Abdullatif Mihdi Buras

Abstract:

Decision support systems are usually based on multidimensional structures which use the concept of hypercube. Dimensions are the axes on which facts are analyzed and form a space where a fact is located by a set of coordinates at the intersections of members of dimensions. Conventional multidimensional structures deal with discrete facts linked to discrete dimensions. However, when dealing with natural continuous phenomena the discrete representation is not adequate. There is a need to integrate spatiotemporal continuity within multidimensional structures to enable analysis and exploration of continuous field data. Research issues that lead to the integration of spatiotemporal continuity in multidimensional structures are numerous. In this paper, we discuss research issues related to the integration of continuity in multidimensional structures, present briefly a multidimensional model for continuous field data. We also define new aggregation operations. The model and the associated operations and measures are validated by a prototype.

Keywords: Continuous Data, Data warehousing, DecisionSupport, SOLAP

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1207 Numerical Modelling of Dry Stone Masonry Structures Based on Finite-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ž. Nikolić, H. Smoljanović, N. Živaljić

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical model based on finite-discrete element method for analysis of the structural response of dry stone masonry structures under static and dynamic loads. More precisely, each discrete stone block is discretized by finite elements. Material non-linearity including fracture and fragmentation of discrete elements as well as cyclic behavior during dynamic load are considered through contact elements which are implemented within a finite element mesh. The application of the model was conducted on several examples of these structures. The performed analysis shows high accuracy of the numerical results in comparison with the experimental ones and demonstrates the potential of the finite-discrete element method for modelling of the response of dry stone masonry structures.

Keywords: Finite-discrete element method, dry stone masonry structures, static load, dynamic load.

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1206 PIV Investigation into the Evolution of Vortical Structures in the Zero Pressure Gradient Boundary Layer

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R. Tahir

Abstract:

Experimental investigation has been carried out towards understanding the complex fluid dynamics involved in the interaction of vortical structures with zero pressure gradient boundary layer. A laminar boundary layer is produced on the flat plate placed in the water flume and the synthetic jet actuator is deployed on top of the plate at a definite distance from the leading edge. The synthetic jet actuator has been designed in such a way that the to and fro motion of the diaphragm is maneuvered at will by varying the operating parameters to produce the typical streamwise vortical structures namely hairpin and tilted vortices. PIV measurements are made on the streamwise plane normal to the plate to evaluate their interaction with the near wall fluid.

Keywords: Boundary layer, synthetic jet actuator, flow separation control, vortical structures.

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1205 Investigating the Behavior of Underground Structures in the Event of an Earthquake

Authors: Davoud Beheshtizadeh, Farzin Malekpour

Abstract:

The progress of technology and producing new machinery have made a big change in excavation operations and construction of underground structures. The limitations of space and some other economic, politic and military considerations gained the attention of most developed and developing countries towards the construction of these structures for mine, military, and development objectives. Underground highways, tunnels, subways, oil reservoir resources, fuels, nuclear wastes burying reservoir and underground stores are increasingly developing and being used in these countries. The existence and habitability of the cities depend on these underground installations or in other words these vital arteries. Stopping the flow of water, gas leakage and explosion, collapsing of sewage paths, etc., resulting from the earthquake are among the factors that can severely harm the environment and increase the casualty. Lack of sewage network and complete stoppage of the flow of water in Bam (Iran) is a good example of this kind. In this paper, we investigate the effect of wave orientation on structures and deformation of them and the effect of faulting on underground structures, and then, we study resistance of reinforced concrete against earthquake, simulate two different samples, analyze the result and point out the importance of paying attention to underground installations.

Keywords: Earthquake, underground structures, underground installations.

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1204 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: WooYoung Jung, HoYoung Son

Abstract:

This study presented to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, hightech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: Composite material, GFRP, Infill Panel, Aftershock, Seismic Retrofitting.

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1203 Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures

Authors: Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, Attila B. Széll

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.

Keywords: Parametric design, structural morphology, space structures, spherical coordinate system.

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1202 Analysis of Vortical Structures Generated by the Swirler of Combustion Chamber

Authors: Vladislav A. Nazukin, Valery G. Avgustinovich, Vakhtang V. Tsatiashvili

Abstract:

The most important part of modern lean low NOx combustors is a premixer where swirlers are often used for intensification of mixing processes and further formation of required flow pattern in combustor liner. Swirling flow leads to formation of complex eddy structures causing flow perturbations. It is able to cause combustion instability. Therefore, at design phase, it is necessary to pay great attention to aerodynamics of premixers. Analysis based on unsteady CFD modeling of swirling flow in production combustor swirler showed presence of large number of different eddy structures that can be conditionally divided into three types relative to its location of origin and a propagation path. Further, features of each eddy type were subsequently defined. Comparison of calculated and experimental pressure fluctuations spectrums verified correctness of computations.

Keywords: DES simulation, swirler, vortical structures.

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1201 Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry

Abstract:

There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied, though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties, as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling element.

Keywords: Temperature dependent mechanical characteristics, wave propagation properties, damage detection, wave finite element, composite structure.

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1200 Comparison of CPW Fed Microstrip Patch Antennas with Varied Ground Structures for Fixed Satellite Applications

Authors: Deepanshu Kaushal, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This paper draws a comparison between two microstrip patch antennas having different ground structures. The designs utilize 45 mm x 40 mm x 1.6 mm FR4 epoxy substrate (relative permittivity of 4.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.02) and CPW feeding technique. The design 1 uses conducting partial ground plates along the two sides of the radiating X’mas tree shaped patch. The design 2 utilizes an X’mas tree shaped slotted ground structure that features a circular radiating patch. A comparative analysis of results of both designs has been carried. The two designs are intended to serve the fixed satellite applications in X and Ku band respectively.

Keywords: CPW feed, partial ground structures, slotted ground structures, fixed satellite applications.

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