Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: farms

88 The Scale of Farms and Development Perspectives in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili, E. Kharaishvili, G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

The article presents the development trends of farms, estimates on the optimal scope of farming, as well as the experience of local and foreign countries in this area. As well, the advantages of small and large farms are discussed; herewith, the scales of farms are compared to the local reality. The study analyzes the results of farm operations and the possibilities of diversification of farms. The indicators of an effective use of land resources and land fragmentation are measured; also, a comparative analysis with other countries is presented, in particular, the measurements of agricultural lands for farming, as well as the indicators of population ensuring. The conducted research shows that most of the farms in Georgia are small and their development is at the initial stage, which outlines that the country has a high resource potential to increase the scale of the farming industry and its full integration into market relations. On the basis of the obtained results, according to the research on the scale of farming in Georgia and the identification of hampering factors of farming development, the conclusions are presented and the relevant recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: Farm cooperatives, farms, farm scale, land fragmentation, small and large farms.

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87 Small Farm Diversification Opportunities in Viticulture-Winemaking Sector of Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper analyses the role of small farms in socio-economic development of agriculture in Georgia and evaluates modern concepts regarding the development of the farms of this size. The scale of farms in Georgia is studied and the major problems are revealed. Opportunities and directions of diversification are discussed from the point of increasing the share of Georgian grapes and wine both on domestic and international markets. It’s shown that the size of vineyard areas is directly reflected on the grape and wine production potential. Accordingly, vineyard area and grape production dynamics is discussed. Comparative analysis of small farms in Georgia and Italy is made and the major differences are identified. Diversification is evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis on the one hand and on the other hand, from the point of promoting economic activities, protecting nature and rural area development. The paper provides proofs for the outcomes of diversification. The key hindering factors for the development of small farms are identified and corresponding conclusions are made, based on which recommendations for diversification of the farms of this size are developed.

Keywords: Farm diversification, scale of farms, small farms, viticulture-winemaking.

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86 Factors Affecting Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Chicken Meat from Biosecure Farms

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Asmuddin Natsir, Hasmida Karim, Ian Patrick

Abstract:

The research aimed at investigating the factors affecting consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms. The research was conducted in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Samples were taken using random sampling technique in two supermarkets namely Lotte Mart and Gelael. Total samples were 50 respondents which comprised the chicken meat consumers. To find out the consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from the biosecure farms, the contingent valuation method was utilized. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Probit Logistic was estimated to examine the factors affecting the consumers’ willingness to pay for at the premium price for chicken meat from the biosecure farms. The research indicates that the education and income affect significantly the consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from the biosecure farms (P < 0.05). The results of the study will be beneficial for the policy makers, producers, consumers and those conducting research.

Keywords: Biosecure, chicken, farms, consumer, willingness to pay.

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85 Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation

Authors: W. Du, X. Wang, Jun Cao, H. F. Wang

Abstract:

Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.

Keywords: Frequency regulation, virtual inertia control, installation locations, observability, wind farms.

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84 Effect of Irrigation Methods on Water Use Efficiency Applied to Citrus Crop in the Souss Region (Morocco) in the Context of Climate Change

Authors: H. Elomari, M. Fallah, A. Elmousadik

Abstract:

This work was conducted in the Souss region, known by severe water scarcity and a high agricultural activity dominated by the citrus (representing 40% of the area of Morocco's citrus). The objective of this work is to diagnose the current situation of the water efficiency in citrus irrigation and analyze the impact of various production factors on water productivity and its sustainability in the context of climate change. A field survey was conducted on 65 farms with areas varying from 0.5 to 350 ha. The stratification method was adopted as a sampling frame. Initial result indicates that the use of water shows a huge shortfall, since 31% of farms in the region are still using the surface irrigation system and 67% of farms are still using only the experience of the manager to control and adjust irrigation. The assessment of water productivity showed a value of 1.2 kg/m3 for surface irrigation and 3.8 kg/m3 for drip irrigation. The use of tools for control and adjustment of irrigation increases the water productivity of drip irrigation by 25%. The availability of the technical staff (internal or external) allows an increase in productivity of 172.4% compared to farms without technical advice.

Keywords: Citrus, irrigation efficiency, water productivity, drip irrigation.

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83 Biosecurity Control Systems in Two Phases for Poultry Farms

Authors: M. Peña Aguilar Juan, E. Nava Galván Claudia, Pastrana Palma Alberto

Abstract:

In this work was developed and implemented a thermal fogging disinfection system to counteract pathogens from poultry feces in agribusiness farms, to reduce mortality rates and increase biosafety in them. The control system consists of two phases for the conditioning of the farm during the sanitary break. In the first phase, viral and bacterial inactivation was performed by treating the stool dry cleaning, along with the development of a specialized product that foster the generation of temperatures above 55 °C in less than 24 hr, for virus inactivation. In the second phase, a process for disinfection by fogging was implemented, along with the development of a specialized disinfectant that guarantee no risk for the operators’ health or birds. As a result of this process, it was possible to minimize the level of mortality of chickens on farms from 12% to 5.49%, representing a reduction of 6.51% in the death rate, through the formula applied to the treatment of poultry litter based on oxidising agents used as antiseptics, hydrogen peroxide solutions, glacial acetic acid and EDTA in order to act on bacteria, viruses, micro bacteria and spores.

Keywords: Innovation, triple-helix, innovation, poultry farms.

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82 Dynamic Modeling of Wind Farms in the Jeju Power System

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a dynamic modeling of wind farms in the Jeju power system. The dynamic model of wind farms is developed to study their dynamic effects on the Jeju power system. PSS/E is used to develop the dynamic model of a wind farm composed of 1.5-MW doubly fed induction generators. The output of a wind farm is regulated based on pitch angle control, in which the two controllable parameters are speed and power references. The simulation results confirm that the pitch angle is successfully controlled, regardless of the variation in wind speed and output regulation.

Keywords: Dynamic model, Jeju power system, pitch angle control, PSS/E, wind farm.

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81 Analysis of Factors Used by Farmers to Manage Risk: A Case Study on Italian Farms

Authors: A. Pontrandolfi, G. Enjolras, F. Capitanio

Abstract:

The study analyses the strategies Italian farmers use to cope with the risks that face their production. We specifically explore the potential and the limitations of the economic tools for climatic risk management in agriculture of the Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020, that foresees contributions for economic tools for risk management, in relation to farms’ needs, exposure and vulnerability of agricultural areas to climatic risk. We consider at the farm level approaches to hedge risks in terms of the use of technical tools (agricultural practices, pesticides, fertilizers, irrigation) and economic/financial instruments (insurances, etc.). We develop cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses as well as analyses of correlation that underline the main differences between the way farms adapt their structure and management towards risk. The results show a preference for technical tools, despite the presence of important public aids on economic tools such as insurances. Therefore, there is a strong need for a more effective and integrated risk management policy scheme. Synergies between economic tools and risk reduction actions of a more technical, structural and management nature (production diversification, irrigation infrastructures, technological and management innovations and formation-information-consultancy, etc.) are emphasized.

Keywords: Agriculture and climate change, climatic risk management, insurance schemes.

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80 Laboratory Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis Bioactivity on Musca domestica (Linn) (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae from Poultry Farms in South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya

Abstract:

Muscid flies are known to be vectors of disease agents and species that annoy humans and domesticated animals. An example of these flies is Musca domestica (house fly) whose adult and immature stages occur in a variety of filthy organic substances including household garbage and animal manures. They contribute to microbial contamination of foods. It is therefore imperative to control these flies as a result of their role in Public health. The second and third instars of Musca domestica (Linn) were infected with varying cell loads of Bacillus subtilis in vitro for a period of 48 hours to evaluate its larvicidal activities. Mortality of the larvae increased with incubation period after treatment with the varying cell loads. Investigation revealed that the second instars larvae were more susceptible to treatment than the third instars treatments. Values obtained from the third instar group were significantly different (P<0.05) from those obtained from the second instars group in all the treatments. Lethal concentration (LC50) at 24 hours for 2nd instars was 2.35 while LC50 at 48 hours was 4.31.This study revealed that Bacillus subtilis possess good larvicidal potential for use in the control of Musca domestica in poultry farms.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, larvicidal activities, Musca domestica, poultry farms.

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79 Assessing the Effect of Grid Connection of Large-Scale Wind Farms on Power System Small-Signal Angular Stability

Authors: Wenjuan Du, Jingtian Bi, Tong Wang, Haifeng Wang

Abstract:

Grid connection of a large-scale wind farm affects power system small-signal angular stability in two aspects. Firstly, connection of the wind farm brings about the change of load flow and configuration of a power system. Secondly, the dynamic interaction is introduced by the wind farm with the synchronous generators (SGs) in the power system. This paper proposes a method to assess the two aspects of the effect of the wind farm on power system small-signal angular stability. The effect of the change of load flow/system configuration brought about by the wind farm can be examined separately by displacing wind farms with constant power sources, then the effect of the dynamic interaction of the wind farm with the SGs can be also computed individually. Thus, a clearer picture and better understanding on the power system small-signal angular stability as affected by grid connection of the large-scale wind farm are provided. In the paper, an example power system with grid connection of a wind farm is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: power system small-signal angular stability, power system low-frequency oscillations, electromechanical oscillation modes, wind farms, double fed induction generator (DFIG)

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78 The Presence of Enterobacters (E.Coli and Salmonella spp.) in Industrial Growing Poultry in Albania

Authors: Boci J., Çabeli P., Shtylla T., Kumbe I.

Abstract:

The development of the poultry industry in Albania is mainly based on the existence of intensive modern farms with huge capacities, which often are mixed with other forms. Colibacillosis is commonly displayed regardless of the type of breeding, delivering high mortality in poultry industry. The mechanisms with which pathogen enterobacters are able to cause the infection in poultry are not yet clear. The routine diagnose in the field, followed by isolation of E. coli and species of Salmonella genres in reference laboratories cannot lead in classification or full recognition of circulative strains in a territory, if it is not performed a differentiation among the present microorganisms in intensive farms and those in rural areas. In this study were isolated 1.496 strains of E. coli and 378 Salmonella spp. This study, presents distribution of poultry pathogenosity of E.coli and Salmonella spp., based on the usage of innovative diagnostic methods.

Keywords: poultry, E.coli, Salmonella spp., Enterobacter

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77 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein- Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein- Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords:

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76 Various Advanced Statistical Analyses of Index Values Extracted from Outdoor Agricultural Workers Motion Data

Authors: Shinji Kawakura, Ryosuke Shibasaki

Abstract:

We have been grouping and developing various kinds of practical, promising sensing applied systems concerning agricultural advancement and technical tradition (guidance). These include advanced devices to secure real-time data related to worker motion, and we analyze by methods of various advanced statistics and human dynamics (e.g. primary component analysis, Ward system based cluster analysis, and mapping). What is more, we have been considering worker daily health and safety issues. Targeted fields are mainly common farms, meadows, and gardens. After then, we observed and discussed time-line style, changing data. And, we made some suggestions. The entire plan makes it possible to improve both the aforementioned applied systems and farms.

Keywords: Advanced statistical analysis, wearable sensing system, tradition of skill, supporting for workers, detecting crisis.

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75 Management Challenges and Product Quality of Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: S. Anastasiou, C. Nathanailides, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work is to review some data for the management challenges that the aquaculture industry in Greece is currently facing. The results indicate that Greek aquaculture fish farms apply Human Resources Management (HRM) practices which can increase motivation, commitment and job satisfaction of their personnel. In turn, these practices can increase the productivity of the business. The Greek fish farms appear to invest in research and technological innovation with a good record in research activities and the generation of patents. Interestingly, the results of the present work were carried out during the period of the recent economic crisis in Greece. Several sectors of the Greek economy were severely affected by the financial problems of the Greek government and the Greek banks. Under the adverse economical conditions created by the Greek economic crisis, even the Greek aquaculture industry, which historically is considered as a thriving national exporting business sector, experienced harsh economic and market conditions. As a result of the global, European and national economic crisis, consumption of fish dropped while companies had to hold most of their stocked fish in order to regulated the flow to the market and the price. This occurred at a time where Banks in Greece had their own financial crisis – banking crisis - which resulted in limited access to lending for the all business sectors of the national economy including the Greek aquaculture industry. In spite of these economic conditions, the Greek aquaculture industry, after a series of mergers and acquisitions, has now stabilized production and exhibits very good prospects for future growth. Evidently, the firms had to cut salaries and on some occasions even pay their staff in arrears. Nevertheless, the results presented in this paper indicate that during the economic crisis, the surveyed fish farms maintained their HRM practices, investing in their human capital and technological input. In fact, human capital and technological input are the ticket for future success of companies in any business sector.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Human Resources Management.

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74 Power Reference Control of Wind Farms Based On the Operational Limit

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Seung-Hwa Kang, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

Wind farms usually produce power irregularly, due to  unpredictable change of wind speed. Accordingly, we should  determine the penetration limit of wind power to consider stability of  power system and build a facility to control the wind power. The  operational limit of wind power is determined as the minimum  between the technical limit and the dynamic limit of wind power. The  technical limit is calculated by the number of generators and the  dynamic limit is calculated by the constraint of frequency variation  when a wind farm is disconnected suddenly. According to the  determined operational limit of wind power, pitch angles of wind  generators are controlled. PSS/E simulation results show that the pitch  angles were correctly controlled when wind speeds are changed in  addition to loads.

Keywords: Pitch Angle, Dynamic limit, Operational limit, Technical limit.

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73 Risk Assessment Results in Biogas Production from Agriculture Biomass

Authors: Sandija Zeverte-Rivza, Irina Pilvere, Baiba Rivza

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources incl. biogas has become topical in accordance with the increasing demand for energy, decrease of fossil energy resources and the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy independence from the territories where fossil energy resources are available.

As the technologies of biogas production from agricultural biomass develop, risk assessment and risk management become necessary for farms producing such a renewable energy. The need for risk assessments has become particularly topical when discussions on changing the biogas policy in the EU take place, which may influence the development of the sector in the future, as well as the operation of existing biogas facilities and their income level.

The current article describes results of the risk assessment for farms producing biomass from agriculture biomass in Latvia, the risk assessment system included 24 risks, that affect the whole biogas production process and the obtained results showed the high significance of political and production risks.

Keywords: Biogas production, risks, risk assessment.

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72 Wind Farm Modeling for Steady State and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: G.Kabashi, K.Kadriu, A.Gashi, S.Kabashi, G, Pula, V.Komoni

Abstract:

This paper focuses on PSS/E modeling of wind farms of Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) type and their impact on issues of power system operation. Since Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) don-t have the same characteristics as synchronous generators, the appropriate modeling of wind farms is essential for transmission system operators to analyze the best options of transmission grid reinforcements as well as to evaluate the wind power impact on reliability and security of supply. With the high excepted penetration of wind power into the power system a simultaneous loss of Wind Farm generation will put at risk power system security and reliability. Therefore, the main wind grid code requirements concern the fault ride through capability and frequency operation range of wind turbines. In case of grid faults wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive power depending on the instantaneous voltage and to return quickly to normal operation.

Keywords: Power System transients, PSS/E dynamic simulationDouble-fed Induction Generator.

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71 Designing an Optimal Safe Layout for a Fuel Storage Tanks Farm: Case Study of Jaipur Oil Depot

Authors: Moosa Haji Abbasi, Emad Benhelal, Arshad Ahmad

Abstract:

Storage tank farms are essential industrial facilities to accumulate oil, petrochemicals and gaseous products. Since tank farms contain huge mass of fuel and hazardous materials, they are always targets of serious accidents such as fire, explosion, spill and toxic release which may cause severe impacts on human health, environmental and properties.

Although having a safe layout is not able to prevent initiating accidents, however it effectively controls and reduces the adverse impact of such accidents.

The aim of this paper is to determine the optimal layout for a storage tank contains different type of hydrocarbon fuels. A quantitative risk assessment is carried out on a selected tank farm in Jaipur, India, with particular attention given to both the consequence modeling and the overall risk assessment using PHAST Software. Various designs of tank layouts are examined taking into consideration several issues of plant operations and maintenance. In all stages of the work, standard guidelines specified by the industry are considered and recommendations are substantiated with simulation results and risk quantification.

Keywords: Tank farm, safe distance, safe layout, risk assessment, PHAST.

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70 Linear Programming Application in Unit Commitment of Wind Farms with Considering Uncertainties

Authors: M. Esmaeeli Shahrakht, A. Kazemi

Abstract:

Due to uncertainty of wind velocity, wind power generators don’t have deterministic output power. Utilizing wind power generation and thermal power plants together create new concerns for operation engineers of power systems. In this paper, a model is presented to implement the uncertainty of load and generated wind power which can be utilized in power system operation planning. Stochastic behavior of parameters is simulated by generating scenarios that can be solved by deterministic method. A mixed-integer linear programming method is used for solving deterministic generation scheduling problem. The proposed approach is applied to a 12-unit test system including 10 thermal units and 2 wind farms. The results show affectivity of piecewise linear model in unit commitment problems. Also using linear programming causes a considerable reduction in calculation times and guarantees convergence to the global optimum. Neglecting the uncertainty of wind velocity causes higher cost assessment of generation scheduling.

Keywords: Load uncertainty, linear programming, scenario generation, unit commitment, wind farm.

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69 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, J. Walsh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: Behaviour, milk yield, temperature, precision technologies.

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68 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako

Abstract:

There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: Capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, Pre-insertion resistor, Standalone wind farm.

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67 Wireless Sensor Networks for Swiftlet Farms Monitoring

Authors: Al-Khalid Othman, Wan A. Wan Zainal Abidin, Kee M. Lee, Hushairi Zen, Tengku. M. A. Zulcaffle, Kuryati Kipli

Abstract:

This paper provides an in-depth study of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) application to monitor and control the swiftlet habitat. A set of system design is designed and developed that includes the hardware design of the nodes, Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, sensor network, and interconnectivity for remote data access and management. System architecture is proposed to address the requirements for habitat monitoring. Such applicationdriven design provides and identify important areas of further work in data sampling, communications and networking. For this monitoring system, a sensor node (MTS400), IRIS and Micaz radio transceivers, and a USB interfaced gateway base station of Crossbow (Xbow) Technology WSN are employed. The GUI of this monitoring system is written using a Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) along with Xbow Technology drivers provided by National Instrument. As a result, this monitoring system is capable of collecting data and presents it in both tables and waveform charts for further analysis. This system is also able to send notification message by email provided Internet connectivity is available whenever changes on habitat at remote sites (swiftlet farms) occur. Other functions that have been implemented in this system are the database system for record and management purposes; remote access through the internet using LogMeIn software. Finally, this research draws a conclusion that a WSN for monitoring swiftlet habitat can be effectively used to monitor and manage swiftlet farming industry in Sarawak.

Keywords: Swiftlet, WSN, Habitat Monitoring, Networking.

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66 A Novel, Cost-effective Design to Harness Ocean Energy in the Developing Countries

Authors: S. Ayub, S.N. Danish, S.R. Qureshi

Abstract:

The world's population continues to grow at a quarter of a million people per day, increasing the consumption of energy. This has made the world to face the problem of energy crisis now days. In response to the energy crisis, the principles of renewable energy gained popularity. There are much advancement made in developing the wind and solar energy farms across the world. These energy farms are not enough to meet the energy requirement of world. This has attracted investors to procure new sources of energy to be substituted. Among these sources, extraction of energy from the waves is considered as best option. The world oceans contain enough energy to meet the requirement of world. Significant advancements in design and technology are being made to make waves as a continuous source of energy. One major hurdle in launching wave energy devices in a developing country like Pakistan is the initial cost. A simple, reliable and cost effective wave energy converter (WEC) is required to meet the nation-s energy need. This paper will present a novel design proposed by team SAS for harnessing wave energy. This paper has three major sections. The first section will give a brief and concise view of ocean wave creation, propagation and the energy carried by them. The second section will explain the designing of SAS-2. A gear chain mechanism is used for transferring the energy from the buoy to a rotary generator. The third section will explain the manufacturing of scaled down model for SAS-2 .Many modifications are made in the trouble shooting stage. The design of SAS-2 is simple and very less maintenance is required. SAS-2 is producing electricity at Clifton. The initial cost of SAS-2 is very low. This has proved SAS- 2 as one of the cost effective and reliable source of harnessing wave energy for developing countries.

Keywords: Clean Energy, Wave energy

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65 Decision-Making Strategies on Smart Dairy Farms: A Review

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, G. Corkery, E. Broderick, J. Walsh

Abstract:

Farm management and operations will drastically change due to access to real-time data, real-time forecasting and tracking of physical items in combination with Internet of Things (IoT) developments to further automate farm operations. Dairy farms have embraced technological innovations and procured vast amounts of permanent data streams during the past decade; however, the integration of this information to improve the whole farm decision-making process does not exist. It is now imperative to develop a system that can collect, integrate, manage, and analyze on-farm and off-farm data in real-time for practical and relevant environmental and economic actions. The developed systems, based on machine learning and artificial intelligence, need to be connected for useful output, a better understanding of the whole farming issue and environmental impact. Evolutionary Computing (EC) can be very effective in finding the optimal combination of sets of some objects and finally, in strategy determination. The system of the future should be able to manage the dairy farm as well as an experienced dairy farm manager with a team of the best agricultural advisors. All these changes should bring resilience and sustainability to dairy farming as well as improving and maintaining good animal welfare and the quality of dairy products. This review aims to provide an insight into the state-of-the-art of big data applications and EC in relation to smart dairy farming and identify the most important research and development challenges to be addressed in the future. Smart dairy farming influences every area of management and its uptake has become a continuing trend.

Keywords: Big data, evolutionary computing, cloud, precision technologies

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64 Low-Cost Monitoring System for Hydroponic Urban Vertical Farms

Authors: Francesco Ruscio, Paolo Paoletti, Jens Thomas, Paul Myers, Sebastiano Fichera

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a low-cost monitoring system for a hydroponic urban vertical farm, enabling its automation and a quantitative assessment of the farm performance. Urban farming has seen increasing interest in the last decade thanks to the development of energy efficient and affordable LED lights; however, the optimal configuration of such systems (i.e. amount of nutrients, light-on time, ambient temperature etc.) is mostly based on the farmers’ experience and empirical guidelines. Moreover, even if simple, the maintenance of such systems is labor intensive as it requires water to be topped-up periodically, mixing of the nutrients etc. To unlock the full potential of urban farming, a quantitative understanding of the role that each variable plays in the growth of the plants is needed, together with a higher degree of automation. The low-cost monitoring system proposed in this paper is a step toward filling this knowledge and technological gap, as it enables collection of sensor data related to water and air temperature, water level, humidity, pressure, light intensity, pH and electric conductivity without requiring any human intervention. More sensors and actuators can also easily be added thanks to the modular design of the proposed platform. Data can be accessed remotely via a simple web interface. The proposed platform can be used both for quantitatively optimizing the setup of the farms and for automating some of the most labor-intensive maintenance activities. Moreover, such monitoring system can also potentially be used for high-level decision making, once enough data are collected.

Keywords: Automation, hydroponics, internet of things, monitoring system, urban farming.

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63 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP.

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62 Architecture Based on Dynamic Graphs for the Dynamic Reconfiguration of Farms of Computers

Authors: Carmen Navarrete, Eloy Anguiano

Abstract:

In the last years, the computers have increased their capacity of calculus and networks, for the interconnection of these machines. The networks have been improved until obtaining the actual high rates of data transferring. The programs that nowadays try to take advantage of these new technologies cannot be written using the traditional techniques of programming, since most of the algorithms were designed for being executed in an only processor,in a nonconcurrent form instead of being executed concurrently ina set of processors working and communicating through a network.This paper aims to present the ongoing development of a new system for the reconfiguration of grouping of computers, taking into account these new technologies.

Keywords: Dynamic network topology, resource and task allocation, parallel computing, heterogeneous computing, dynamic reconfiguration.

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61 Farm Diversification and the Corresponding Policy for Its Implementation in Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper shows the necessity of farm diversification in accordance with the current trends in agricultural sector of Georgia. The possibilities for the diversification and the corresponding economic policy are suggested. The causes that hinder diversification of farms are revealed, possibilities of diversification are identified and the ability of increasing employment through diversification is proved. Index of harvest diversification is calculated based on the areas used for cereals and legumes, potatoes and vegetables and other food crops. Crop and livestock production indexes are analyzed; correlation between crop capacity index and value added per worker and per hectare is studied. Based on the research farm diversification strategies and priorities of corresponding economic policy are presented. Based on the conclusions relevant recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: Farm diversification, diversification index, agricultural development policy.

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60 The Effects of Human Activity in Yasuj Area on the Health of Stream City

Authors: Jamalodin Alvani, Fardin Boustani, Omid Tabiee, Masoud Hashemi

Abstract:

The Yasuj city stream named the Beshar supply water for different usages such as aquaculture farms , drinking, agricultural and industrial usages. Fish processing plants ,Agricultural farms, waste water of industrial zones and hospitals waste water which they are generate by human activity produce a considerable volume of effluent and when they are released in to the stream they can effect on the water quality and down stream aquatic systems. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of outflow effluent from different human activity and point and non point pollution sources on the water quality and health of the Beshar river next to Yasuj. Yasuj is the biggest and most important city in the Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad province . The Beshar River is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems in the upstream of the Karun watershed in south of Iran which is affected by point and non point pollutant sources . This study was done in order to evaluate the effects of human activities on the water quality and health of the Beshar river. This river is approximately 190 km in length and situated at the geographical positions of 51° 20' to 51° 48' E and 30° 18' to 30° 52' N it is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad province in south-west Iran. In this research project, five study stations were selected to examine water pollution in the Beshar River systems. Human activity is now one of the most important factors affecting on hydrology and water quality of the Beshar river. Humans use large amounts of resources to sustain various standards of living, although measures of sustainability are highly variable depending on how sustainability is defined. The Beshar river ecosystems are particularly sensitive and vulnerable to human activities. The water samples were analyzed, then some important water quality parameters such as pH, dissolve oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TDS),Turbidity, Temperature, Nitrates (NO3) and Phosphates (PO4) were estimated at the two stations. The results show a downward trend in the water quality at the down stream of the city. The amounts of BOD5,COD,TSS,T,Turbidity, NO3 and PO4 in the down stream stations were considerably more than the station 1. By contrast the amounts of DO in the down stream stations were less than to the station 1. However when effluent discharge consequence of human activities are released into the Beshar river near the city, the quality of river are decreases and the environmental problems of the river during the next years are predicted to rise.

Keywords: Health, Human activities, Water pollution, Yasuj , Iran

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59 Phenotypic Characterization of the Zebu Cattle in Tajikistan

Authors: A. Norezzine, N. Y. Rebouh, M. Souadkia, D. Parpura, A. Gadzhikurbanov, E. A. Gladyr, P. M. Klenovitsky, A. A. Nikishov, A. Dranidis

Abstract:

This article deals with the genetic characteristics of samples Schwyz-zebu cattle from three farms of the Republic of Tajikistan on 10 microsatellite markers (STS). Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the heterozygosity in the population and to characterize this breed by identifying DNA markers using microstatellites. Microsatellites often have multiple alleles and may have heterozygosity frequencies of 70% or more. This makes them highly informative for genetic analysis. A total of ten microsatellite primers were used for microsatellite analysis in genomic DNA of Zebu cattle. The amplified products were analysed for polymorphic alleles and their frequencies. The resulting information can be used in dealing with the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of the Tajik Schwyz-zebu cattle.

Keywords: DNA, gene pool, Schwyz-zebu cattle, microsatellite loci.

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