Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 374

# Search results for: equal triangle

##### 374 Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle

Abstract:

Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental shapes are generated from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical interaction principles between square and equal triangle, in the first definition step, all types of their linear forces individually and in the second step, between them, would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized to some groups and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion, is attributable to a large-scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships which have been obtained from this analysis are applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.

##### 373 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

Authors: Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi

Abstract:

The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities. Downloads 2069
##### 372 A new Configurable Decimation Filter using Pascal-s Triangle Theorem

Authors: A. Chahardah Cherik, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new configurable decimation filter for sigma-delta modulators. The filter employs the Pascal-s triangle-s theorem for building the coefficients of non-recursive decimation filters. The filter can be connected to the back-end of various modulators with different output accuracy. In this work two methods are shown and then compared from area occupation viewpoint. First method uses the memory and the second one employs Pascal-s triangle-s method, aiming to reduce required gates. XILINX ISE v10 is used for implementation and confirmation the filter. Downloads 1453
##### 371 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions

Authors: Ibrahim El rube'

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for matching image segments using triangle-based (geometrical) regions is proposed. Triangular regions are formed from triples of vertex points obtained from a keypoint detector (SIFT). However, triangle regions are subject to noise and distortion around the edges and vertices (especially acute angles). Therefore, these triangles are expanded into parallelogramshaped regions. The extracted image segments inherit an important triangle property; the invariance to affine distortion. Given two images, matching corresponding regions is conducted by computing the relative affine matrix, rectifying one of the regions w.r.t. the other one, then calculating the similarity between the reference and rectified region. The experimental tests show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm against geometrical distortion. Downloads 1671
##### 370 Supply Chain Resilience Triangle: The Study and Development of a Framework

Authors: M. Bevilacqua, F. E. Ciarapica, G. Marcucci

Abstract:

Supply Chain Resilience has been broadly studied during the last decade, focusing the research on many aspects of Supply Chain performance. Consequently, different definitions of Supply Chain Resilience have been developed by the research community, drawing inspiration also from other fields of study such as ecology, sociology, psychology, economy et al. This way, the definitions so far developed in the extant literature are therefore very heterogeneous, and many authors have pointed out a lack of consensus in this field of analysis. The aim of this research is to find common points between these definitions, through the development of a framework of study: the Resilience Triangle. The Resilience Triangle is a tool developed in the field of civil engineering, with the objective of modeling the loss of resilience of a given structure during and after the occurrence of a disruption such as an earthquake. The Resilience Triangle is a simple yet powerful tool: in our opinion, it can summarize all the features that authors have captured in the Supply Chain Resilience definitions over the years. This research intends to recapitulate within this framework all these heterogeneities in Supply Chain Resilience research. After collecting a various number of Supply Chain Resilience definitions present in the extant literature, the methodology approach provides a taxonomy step with the scope of collecting and analyzing all the data gathered. The next step provides the comparison of the data obtained with the plotting of a disruption profile, in order to contextualize the Resilience Triangle in the Supply Chain context. The tool and the results developed in this research will allow to lay the foundation for future Supply Chain Resilience modeling and measurement work.

##### 369 Border Limited Adaptive Subdivision Based On Triangle Meshes

Abstract:

Subdivision is a method to create a smooth surface from a coarse mesh by subdividing the entire mesh. The conventional ways to compute and render surfaces are inconvenient both in terms of memory and computational time as the number of meshes will increase exponentially. An adaptive subdivision is the way to reduce the computational time and memory by subdividing only certain selected areas. In this paper, a new adaptive subdivision method for triangle meshes is introduced. This method defines a new adaptive subdivision rules by considering the properties of each triangle's neighbors and is embedded in a traditional Loop's subdivision. It prevents some undesirable side effects that appear in the conventional adaptive ways. Models that were subdivided by our method are compared with other adaptive subdivision methods

##### 368 Development and Assessment of Measuring/Rehabilitation Device for Myelopathy Patients with Lower Extremity Function

Abstract:

Disordered function of maniphalanx and difficulty with ambulation will occur insofar as a human has a failure in the spinal marrow. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy as one of the myelopathy emanates from not only external factors but also increased age. In addition, the diacrisis is difficult since cervical spondylotic myelopathy is evaluated by a doctor-s neurological remark and imaging findings. As a quantitative method for measuring the degree of disability, hand-operated triangle step test (for short, TST) has formulated. In this research, a full automatic triangle step counter apparatus is designed and developed to measure the degree of disability in an accurate fashion according to the principle of TST. The step counter apparatus whose shape is a low triangle pole displays the number of stepping upon each corner. Furthermore, the apparatus has two modes of operation. Namely, one is for measuring the degree of disability and the other for rehabilitation exercise. In terms of usefulness, clinical practice should be executed before too long. Downloads 1323
##### 367 New Triangle-Ring UWB Bandpass Filter with Sharp Roll-Off and Dual Notched Bands

Abstract:

This paper presents a new ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with sharp roll-off and dual-notched bands. The filter consists of a triangle ring multi-mode resonator (MMR) with the stub-loaded resonator (SLR) for controlling the two transmission zeros at 2.8 / 11 GHz, the embedded open-circuited stub and the asymmetric tight coupled input/output (I/O) lines for introducing the dual notched bands at 5.2 / 6.8 GHz. The attenuation slope in the lower and higher passband edges of the proposed filter show 160- and 153-dB/GHz, respectively. This study mainly provides a simple method to design a UWB bandpass filter with high passband selectivity and dual-notched bands for satisfying the Federal Communications Commission (FCC-defined) indoor UWB specification

##### 366 Evolved Strokes in Non Photo–Realistic Rendering

Abstract:

We describe a work with an evolutionary computing algorithm for non photo–realistic rendering of a target image. The renderings are produced by genetic programming. We have used two different types of strokes: “empty triangle" and “filled triangle" in color level. We compare both empty and filled triangular strokes to find which one generates more aesthetic pleasing images. We found the filled triangular strokes have better fitness and generate more aesthetic images than empty triangular strokes. Downloads 1546
##### 365 Simulation and Design of Single Fed Circularly Polarized Triangular Microstrip Antenna with Wide Band Tuning Stub

Authors: R. Irani, A. Ghavidel, F. Hodjat Kashani

Abstract:

Recently, several designs of single fed circularly polarized microstrip antennas have been studied. Relatively, a few designs for achieving circular polarization using triangular microstrip antenna are available. Typically existing design of single fed circularly polarized triangular microstrip antennas include the use of equilateral triangular patch with a slit or a horizontal slot on the patch or addition a narrow band stub on the edge or a vertex of triangular patch. In other word, with using a narrow band tune stub on middle of an edge of triangle causes of facility to compensate the possible fabrication error and substrate materials with easier adjusting the tuner stub length. Even though disadvantages of this method is very long of stub (approximate 1/3 length of triangle edge). In this paper, instead of narrow band stub, a wide band stub has been applied, therefore the length of stub by this method has been decreased around 1/10 edge of triangle in addition changing the aperture angle of stub, provides more facility for designing and producing circular polarization wave. Downloads 1790
##### 364 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Dual Purpose Solar Collector

Authors: I. Jafari, A. Ershadi, E. Najafpour, N. Hedayat

Abstract:

Energy and exergy study of air-water combined solar collector which is called dual purpose solar collector (DPSC) is investigated. The method of ε - NTU is used. Analysis is performed for triangle channels. Parameters like the air flow rate and water inlet temperature are studied. Results are shown that DPSC has better energy and exergy efficiency than single collector. In addition, the triangle passage with water inlet temperature of 60O C has shown better exergy and energy efficiency.

Keywords: Efficiency, Exergy, Irreversibility, Solar collector.

##### 363 Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Band Microstrip Fractal Antenna

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip fractal antenna based on the use of Sierpinski triangle shape, it’s designed and simulated by using FR4 substrate in the operating frequency bands (GPS, WiMAX), the design is a fractal antenna with a modified ground structure. The proposed antenna is simulated and validated by using CST Microwave Studio Software, the simulated results presents good performances in term of radiation pattern and matching input impedance.

##### 362 Triangular Geometric Feature for Offline Signature Verification

Abstract:

Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.

##### 361 Fermat’s Last Theorem a Simple Demonstration

Authors: Jose William Porras Ferreira

Abstract:

This paper presents two solutions to the Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT). The first one using some algebraic basis related to the Pythagorean theorem, expression of equations, an analysis of their behavior, when compared with power  and power  and using " the “Well Ordering Principle” of natural numbers it is demonstrated that in Fermat equation . The second one solution is using the connection between  and power  through the Pascal’s triangle or  Newton’s binomial coefficients, where de Fermat equation do not fulfill the first coefficient, then it is impossible that:

zn=xn+yn for n>2 and (x, y, z) E Z+ - {0}

##### 360 Several Spectrally Non-Arbitrary Ray Patterns of Order 4

Authors: Ling Zhang, Feng Liu

Abstract:

A matrix is called a ray pattern matrix if its entries are either 0 or a ray in complex plane which originates from 0. A ray pattern A of order n is called spectrally arbitrary if the complex matrices in the ray pattern class of A give rise to all possible nth degree complex polynomial. Otherwise, it is said to be spectrally non-arbitrary ray pattern. We call that a spectrally arbitrary ray pattern A of order n is minimally spectrally arbitrary if any nonzero entry of A is replaced, then A is not spectrally arbitrary. In this paper, we find that is not spectrally arbitrary when n equals to 4 for any θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. In this article, we give several ray patterns A(θ) of order n that are not spectrally arbitrary for some θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. by using the nilpotent-Jacobi method. One example is given in our paper.

##### 359 A New Method for Contour Approximation Using Basic Ramer Idea

Authors: Ali Abdrhman Ukasha

Abstract:

This paper presented two new efficient algorithms for contour approximation. The proposed algorithm is compared with Ramer (good quality), Triangle (faster) and Trapezoid (fastest) in this work; which are briefly described. Cartesian co-ordinates of an input contour are processed in such a manner that finally contours is presented by a set of selected vertices of the edge of the contour. In the paper the main idea of the analyzed procedures for contour compression is performed. For comparison, the mean square error and signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Computational time of analyzed methods is estimated depending on a number of numerical operations. Experimental results are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression ratios, and speed. The main advantages of the analyzed algorithm is small numbers of the arithmetic operations compared to the existing algorithms. Downloads 1579
##### 358 GPU-Accelerated Triangle Mesh Simplification Using Parallel Vertex Removal

Abstract:

We present an approach to triangle mesh simplification designed to be executed on the GPU. We use a quadric error metric to calculate an error value for each vertex of the mesh and order all vertices based on this value. This step is followed by the parallel removal of a number of vertices with the lowest calculated error values. To allow for the parallel removal of multiple vertices we use a set of per-vertex boundaries that prevent mesh foldovers even when simplification operations are performed on neighbouring vertices. We execute multiple iterations of the calculation of the vertex errors, ordering of the error values and removal of vertices until either a desired number of vertices remains in the mesh or a minimum error value is reached. This parallel approach is used to speed up the simplification process while maintaining mesh topology and avoiding foldovers at every step of the simplification. Downloads 2332
##### 357 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform

Abstract:

Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.

##### 356 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen

Abstract:

Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter. Downloads 1541
##### 355 Packet Losses Interpretation in Mobile Internet

Authors: Hossam el-ddin Mostafa, Pavel Čičak

Abstract:

The mobile users with Laptops need to have an efficient access to i.e. their home personal data or to the Internet from any place in the world, regardless of their location or point of attachment, especially while roaming outside the home subnet. An efficient interpretation of packet losses problem that is encountered from this roaming is to the centric of all aspects in this work, to be over-highlighted. The main previous works, such as BER-systems, Amigos, and ns-2 implementation that are considered to be in conjunction with that problem under study are reviewed and discussed. Their drawbacks and limitations, of stopping only at monitoring, and not to provide an actual solution for eliminating or even restricting these losses, are mentioned. Besides that, the framework around which we built a Triple-R sequence as a costeffective solution to eliminate the packet losses and bridge the gap between subnets, an area that until now has been largely neglected, is presented. The results show that, in addition to the high bit error rate of wireless mobile networks, mainly the low efficiency of mobile-IP registration procedure is a direct cause of these packet losses. Furthermore, the output of packet losses interpretation resulted an illustrated triangle of the registration process. This triangle should be further researched and analyzed in our future work. Downloads 1259
##### 354 Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

Abstract:

Although face recognition seems as an easy task for human, automatic face recognition is a much more challenging task due to variations in time, illumination and pose. In this paper, the influence of time-lapse on visible and thermal images is examined. Orthogonal moment invariants are used as a feature extractor to analyze the effect of time-lapse on thermal and visible images and the results are compared with conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A new triangle square ratio criterion is employed instead of Euclidean distance to enhance the performance of nearest neighbor classifier. The results of this study indicate that the ideal feature vectors can be represented with high discrimination power due to the global characteristic of orthogonal moment invariants. Moreover, the effect of time-lapse has been decreasing and enhancing the accuracy of face recognition considerably in comparison with PCA. Furthermore, our experimental results based on moment invariant and triangle square ratio criterion show that the proposed approach achieves on average 13.6% higher in recognition rate than PCA. Downloads 1561
##### 353 Analysis of Equal cost Adaptive Routing Algorithms using Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols

Authors: ER. Yashpaul Singh, A. Swarup

Abstract:

This research paper evaluates and compares the performance of equal cost adaptive multi-path routing algorithms taking the transport protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) using network simulator ns2 and concludes which one is better. Downloads 1289
##### 352 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-kareim Shoeib

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (4040 160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibers with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11%, 0.22%, and 0.33% by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0%, 0.11%, and 0.22% by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fibers is more effective when used with cement mortar more than used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fibers. And also by adding nano-fibers the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

##### 351 Weighted Clustering Coefficient for Identifying Modular Formations in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel approach for deriving modules from protein-protein interaction networks, which combines functional information with topological properties of the network. This approach is based on weighted clustering coefficient, which uses weights representing the functional similarities between the proteins. These weights are calculated according to the semantic similarity between the proteins, which is based on their Gene Ontology terms. We recently proposed an algorithm for identification of functional modules, called SWEMODE (Semantic WEights for MODule Elucidation), that identifies dense sub-graphs containing functionally similar proteins. The rational underlying this approach is that each module can be reduced to a set of triangles (protein triplets connected to each other). Here, we propose considering semantic similarity weights of all triangle-forming edges between proteins. We also apply varying semantic similarity thresholds between neighbours of each node that are not neighbours to each other (and hereby do not form a triangle), to derive new potential triangles to include in module-defining procedure. The results show an improvement of pure topological approach, in terms of number of predicted modules that match known complexes. Downloads 1840
##### 350 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

Authors: Khaled Alnefaie

Abstract:

In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor speed ωm. Downloads 3301
##### 349 An Advanced Nelder Mead Simplex Method for Clustering of Gene Expression Data

Authors: M. Pandi, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

The DNA microarray technology concurrently monitors the expression levels of thousands of genes during significant biological processes and across the related samples. The better understanding of functional genomics is obtained by extracting the patterns hidden in gene expression data. It is handled by clustering which reveals natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. In the proposed work clustering gene expression data is done through an Advanced Nelder Mead (ANM) algorithm. Nelder Mead (NM) method is a method designed for optimization process. In Nelder Mead method, the vertices of a triangle are considered as the solutions. Many operations are performed on this triangle to obtain a better result. In the proposed work, the operations like reflection and expansion is eliminated and a new operation called spread-out is introduced. The spread-out operation will increase the global search area and thus provides a better result on optimization. The spread-out operation will give three points and the best among these three points will be used to replace the worst point. The experiment results are analyzed with optimization benchmark test functions and gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that ANM outperforms NM in both benchmarks.

##### 348 The Shaping of a Triangle Steel Plate into an Equilateral Vertical Steel by Finite-Element Modeling

Authors: Tsung-Chia Chen

Abstract:

The orthogonal processes to shape the triangle steel plate into a equilateral vertical steel are examined by an incremental elasto-plastic finite-element method based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The highly non-linear problems due to the geometric changes, the inelastic constitutive behavior and the boundary conditions varied with deformation are taken into account in an incremental manner. On the contact boundary, a modified Coulomb friction mode is specially considered. A weighting factor r-minimum is employed to limit the step size of loading increment to linear relation. In particular, selective reduced integration was adopted to formulate the stiffness matrix. The simulated geometries of verticality could clearly demonstrate the vertical processes until unloading. A series of experiments and simulations were performed to validate the formulation in the theory, leading to the development of the computer codes. The whole deformation history and the distribution of stress, strain and thickness during the forming process were obtained by carefully considering the moving boundary condition in the finite-element method. Therefore, this modeling can be used for judging whether a equilateral vertical steel can be shaped successfully. The present work may be expected to improve the understanding of the formation of the equilateral vertical steel.

##### 347 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique Based Design and Simulation of a Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter Systems

Authors: Farhan Beg

Abstract:

A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses. MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically. For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal, the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower harmonics contents and the resolution increase.

Keywords: Power Factor, SVPWM, PWM rectifier, SPWM.

##### 346 Performance of BLDC Motor under Kalman Filter Sensorless Drive

Authors: Yuri Boiko, Ci Lin, Iluju Kiringa, Tet Yeap

Abstract:

The performance of a permanent magnet brushless direct current (BLDC) motor controlled by the Kalman filter based position-sensorless drive is studied in terms of its dependence from the system’s parameters variations. The effects of the system’s parameters changes on the dynamic behavior of state variables are verified. Simulated is the closed loop control scheme with Kalman filter in the feedback line. Distinguished are two separate data sampling modes in analyzing feedback output from the BLDC motor: (1) equal angular separation and (2) equal time intervals. In case (1), the data are collected via equal intervals  of rotor’s angular position i, i.e. keeping  = const. In case (2), the data collection time points ti are separated by equal sampling time intervals t = const. Demonstrated are the effects of the parameters changes on the sensorless control flow, in particular, reduction of the instability torque ripples, switching spikes, and torque load balancing. It is specifically shown that an efficient suppression of commutation induced instability torque ripples is an achievable selection of the sampling rate in the Kalman filter settings above a certain critical value. The computational cost of such suppression is shown to be higher for the motors with lower induction values of the windings.