**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**374

# Search results for: equal triangle

##### 374 Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle

**Authors:**
Sanaz Ahmadzadeh Siyahrood,
Arghavan Ebrahimi,
Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad

**Abstract:**

Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental shapes are generated from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical interaction principles between square and equal triangle, in the first definition step, all types of their linear forces individually and in the second step, between them, would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized to some groups and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion, is attributable to a large-scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships which have been obtained from this analysis are applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.

**Keywords:**
Angle,
architecture,
design,
equal triangle,
generating,
grammar,
square and structural hierarchy.

##### 373 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

**Authors:**
Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Generalized Pascal’s triangle,
Pascal’s triangle,
polynomial expansion,
Sierpinski’s triangle,
staircase horizontal
vertical method.

##### 372 A new Configurable Decimation Filter using Pascal-s Triangle Theorem

**Authors:**
A. Chahardah Cherik,
E. Farshidi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Decimation filter,
sigma delta,
Pascal's triangle'stheorem,
memory

##### 371 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions

**Authors:**
Ibrahim El rube'

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Image matching,
key point detection,
affine
invariant,
triangle-shaped segments.

##### 370 Supply Chain Resilience Triangle: The Study and Development of a Framework

**Authors:**
M. Bevilacqua,
F. E. Ciarapica,
G. Marcucci

**Abstract:**

Supply Chain Resilience has been broadly studied during the last decade, focusing the research on many aspects of Supply Chain performance. Consequently, different definitions of Supply Chain Resilience have been developed by the research community, drawing inspiration also from other fields of study such as ecology, sociology, psychology, economy et al. This way, the definitions so far developed in the extant literature are therefore very heterogeneous, and many authors have pointed out a lack of consensus in this field of analysis. The aim of this research is to find common points between these definitions, through the development of a framework of study: the Resilience Triangle. The Resilience Triangle is a tool developed in the field of civil engineering, with the objective of modeling the loss of resilience of a given structure during and after the occurrence of a disruption such as an earthquake. The Resilience Triangle is a simple yet powerful tool: in our opinion, it can summarize all the features that authors have captured in the Supply Chain Resilience definitions over the years. This research intends to recapitulate within this framework all these heterogeneities in Supply Chain Resilience research. After collecting a various number of Supply Chain Resilience definitions present in the extant literature, the methodology approach provides a taxonomy step with the scope of collecting and analyzing all the data gathered. The next step provides the comparison of the data obtained with the plotting of a disruption profile, in order to contextualize the Resilience Triangle in the Supply Chain context. The tool and the results developed in this research will allow to lay the foundation for future Supply Chain Resilience modeling and measurement work.

**Keywords:**
Supply chain resilience,
resilience definition,
supply chain resilience triangle.

##### 369 Border Limited Adaptive Subdivision Based On Triangle Meshes

**Authors:**
Pichayut Peerasathien,
Hiroshi Nagahashi

**Abstract:**

Subdivision is a method to create a smooth surface from a coarse mesh by subdividing the entire mesh. The conventional ways to compute and render surfaces are inconvenient both in terms of memory and computational time as the number of meshes will increase exponentially. An adaptive subdivision is the way to reduce the computational time and memory by subdividing only certain selected areas. In this paper, a new adaptive subdivision method for triangle meshes is introduced. This method defines a new adaptive subdivision rules by considering the properties of each triangle's neighbors and is embedded in a traditional Loop's subdivision. It prevents some undesirable side effects that appear in the conventional adaptive ways. Models that were subdivided by our method are compared with other adaptive subdivision methods

**Keywords:**
Subdivision,
loop subdivision,
handle cracks,
smooth
surface.

##### 368 Development and Assessment of Measuring/Rehabilitation Device for Myelopathy Patients with Lower Extremity Function

**Authors:**
Hironobu Murayama,
Shohei Shimizu,
Masakazu Ohnuki,
Hisanori Mihara,
Tohru Kanada

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy,
disorder of lower limbs,
measuringfunction,
rehabilitation function,
full automatic apparatus,
triangle step test.

##### 367 New Triangle-Ring UWB Bandpass Filter with Sharp Roll-Off and Dual Notched Bands

**Authors:**
Hung-Wei Wu,
Yung-Wei Chen,
Yu-Fu Chen,
Cheng-Yuan Hung

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a new ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with sharp roll-off and dual-notched bands. The filter consists of a triangle ring multi-mode resonator (MMR) with the stub-loaded resonator (SLR) for controlling the two transmission zeros at 2.8 / 11 GHz, the embedded open-circuited stub and the asymmetric tight coupled input/output (I/O) lines for introducing the dual notched bands at 5.2 / 6.8 GHz. The attenuation slope in the lower and higher passband edges of the proposed filter show 160- and 153-dB/GHz, respectively. This study mainly provides a simple method to design a UWB bandpass filter with high passband selectivity and dual-notched bands for satisfying the Federal Communications Commission (FCC-defined) indoor UWB specification

**Keywords:**
steeply slopes transition band,
bandpass filter,
ultra-wideband (UWB),
triangle-ring,
multi-mode resonator,
stub-loaded resonator.

##### 366 Evolved Strokes in Non Photo–Realistic Rendering

**Authors:**
Ashkan Izadi,
Vic Ciesielski

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artificial intelligence,
Evolutionary programming,
Geneticprogramming,
Non photo–realistic rendering.

##### 365 Simulation and Design of Single Fed Circularly Polarized Triangular Microstrip Antenna with Wide Band Tuning Stub

**Authors:**
R. Irani,
A. Ghavidel,
F. Hodjat Kashani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Circular polarization,
Microstrip antenna,
single
feed,
wide band stub.

##### 364 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Dual Purpose Solar Collector

**Authors:**
I. Jafari,
A. Ershadi,
E. Najafpour,
N. Hedayat

**Abstract:**

Energy and exergy study of air-water combined solar collector which is called dual purpose solar collector (DPSC) is investigated. The method of ε - NTU is used. Analysis is performed for triangle channels. Parameters like the air flow rate and water inlet temperature are studied. Results are shown that DPSC has better energy and exergy efficiency than single collector. In addition, the triangle passage with water inlet temperature of 60O C has shown better exergy and energy efficiency.

**Keywords:**
Efficiency,
Exergy,
Irreversibility,
Solar collector.

##### 363 Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Band Microstrip Fractal Antenna

**Authors:**
I. Zahraoui,
J. Terhzaz,
A. Errkik,
El. H. Abdelmounim,
A. Tajmouati,
L. Abdellaoui,
N. Ababssi,
M. Latrach

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip fractal antenna based on the use of Sierpinski triangle shape, it’s designed and simulated by using FR4 substrate in the operating frequency bands (GPS, WiMAX), the design is a fractal antenna with a modified ground structure. The proposed antenna is simulated and validated by using CST Microwave Studio Software, the simulated results presents good performances in term of radiation pattern and matching input impedance.

**Keywords:**
Dual-band antenna,
Fractal antenna,
GPS band,
Modified ground structure,
Sierpinski triangle,
WiMAX band.

##### 362 Triangular Geometric Feature for Offline Signature Verification

**Authors:**
Zuraidasahana Zulkarnain,
Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim,
Nor Anita Fairos Ismail,
Mohd Azhar M. Arsad

**Abstract:**

Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.

**Keywords:**
biometrics,
euclidean classifier,
feature extraction,
offline signature verification,
VOTING-based classifier

##### 361 Fermat’s Last Theorem a Simple Demonstration

**Authors:**
Jose William Porras Ferreira

**Abstract:**

This paper presents two solutions to the Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT). The first one using some algebraic basis related to the Pythagorean theorem, expression of equations, an analysis of their behavior, when compared with power and power and using " the “Well Ordering Principle” of natural numbers it is demonstrated that in Fermat equation . The second one solution is using the connection between and power through the Pascal’s triangle or Newton’s binomial coefficients, where de Fermat equation do not fulfill the first coefficient, then it is impossible that:

z^{n}=x^{n}+y^{n} for n>2 and (x, y, z) E Z^{+} - {0}

**Keywords:**
Fermat’s Last Theorem,
Pythagorean Theorem,
Newton Binomial Coefficients,
Pascal’s Triangle,
Well Ordering Principle.

##### 360 Several Spectrally Non-Arbitrary Ray Patterns of Order 4

**Authors:**
Ling Zhang,
Feng Liu

**Abstract:**

A matrix is called a ray pattern matrix if its entries are either 0 or a ray in complex plane which originates from 0. A ray pattern *A *of order *n *is called spectrally arbitrary if the complex matrices in the ray pattern class of *A* give rise to all possible *n*th degree complex polynomial. Otherwise, it is said to be spectrally non-arbitrary ray pattern*.* We call that a spectrally arbitrary ray pattern *A *of order *n *is minimally spectrally arbitrary if any nonzero entry of *A* is replaced, then *A *is not spectrally arbitrary. In this paper, we find that is not spectrally arbitrary when n equals to 4 for any θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. In this article, we give several ray patterns A(θ) of order n that are not spectrally arbitrary for some θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. by using the nilpotent-Jacobi method. One example is given in our paper.

**Keywords:**
Spectrally arbitrary,
Nilpotent matrix,
Ray patterns,
sign patterns.

##### 359 A New Method for Contour Approximation Using Basic Ramer Idea

**Authors:**
Ali Abdrhman Ukasha

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Polygonal approximation,
Ramer,
Triangle and
Trapezoid methods.

##### 358 GPU-Accelerated Triangle Mesh Simplification Using Parallel Vertex Removal

**Authors:**
Thomas Odaker,
Dieter Kranzlmueller,
Jens Volkert

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Computer graphics,
half edge collapse,
mesh
simplification,
precomputed simplification,
topology preserving.

##### 357 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform

**Authors:**
Omaima N. Ahmad AL-Allaf

**Abstract:**

Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.

**Keywords:**
Image watermarking,
genetic algorithm,
particle swarm optimization,
discrete wavelet transform.

##### 356 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

**Authors:**
Phuoc Si Nguyen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Frequency transformation,
Bilinear z-transformation,
Pre-warping frequency,
Digital filters,
Analog filters,
Pascal’s
triangle.

##### 355 Packet Losses Interpretation in Mobile Internet

**Authors:**
Hossam el-ddin Mostafa,
Pavel Čičak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Amigos,
BER-systems,
ns-2 implementation,
packetlosses,
registration process,
roaming.

##### 354 Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

**Authors:**
Sajad Farokhi,
Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin,
Jan Flusser,
Usman Ullah Sheikh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Infrared Face recognition,
Time-lapse,
Zernike
moment invariants

##### 353 Analysis of Equal cost Adaptive Routing Algorithms using Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols

**Authors:**
ER. Yashpaul Singh,
A. Swarup

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Multi-path routing algorithm,
Datagram,
Virtual
Circuit,
Throughput,
Network services.

##### 352 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

**Authors:**
Mostafa Osman,
Ata El-kareim Shoeib

**Abstract:**

The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (4040 160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibers with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11%, 0.22%, and 0.33% by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0%, 0.11%, and 0.22% by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fibers is more effective when used with cement mortar more than used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fibers. And also by adding nano-fibers the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

**Keywords:**
Carbon nano-tubes fibers,
nano-silica (nS) fibers,
compressive strength,
flexural.

##### 351 Weighted Clustering Coefficient for Identifying Modular Formations in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

**Authors:**
Zelmina Lubovac,
Björn Olsson,
Jonas Gamalielsson

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Modules,
systems biology,
protein interactionnetworks,
yeast.

##### 350 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

**Authors:**
Khaled Alnefaie

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Rotor dynamics,
beam-shaft coupling,
beam
vibration,
flexible shaft.

##### 349 An Advanced Nelder Mead Simplex Method for Clustering of Gene Expression Data

**Authors:**
M. Pandi,
K. Premalatha

**Abstract:**

The DNA microarray technology concurrently monitors the expression levels of thousands of genes during significant biological processes and across the related samples. The better understanding of functional genomics is obtained by extracting the patterns hidden in gene expression data. It is handled by clustering which reveals natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. In the proposed work clustering gene expression data is done through an Advanced Nelder Mead (ANM) algorithm. Nelder Mead (NM) method is a method designed for optimization process. In Nelder Mead method, the vertices of a triangle are considered as the solutions. Many operations are performed on this triangle to obtain a better result. In the proposed work, the operations like reflection and expansion is eliminated and a new operation called spread-out is introduced. The spread-out operation will increase the global search area and thus provides a better result on optimization. The spread-out operation will give three points and the best among these three points will be used to replace the worst point. The experiment results are analyzed with optimization benchmark test functions and gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that ANM outperforms NM in both benchmarks.

**Keywords:**
Spread out,
simplex,
multi-minima,
fitness function,
optimization,
search area,
monocyte,
solution,
genomes.

##### 348 The Shaping of a Triangle Steel Plate into an Equilateral Vertical Steel by Finite-Element Modeling

**Authors:**
Tsung-Chia Chen

**Abstract:**

The orthogonal processes to shape the triangle steel plate into a equilateral vertical steel are examined by an incremental elasto-plastic finite-element method based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The highly non-linear problems due to the geometric changes, the inelastic constitutive behavior and the boundary conditions varied with deformation are taken into account in an incremental manner. On the contact boundary, a modified Coulomb friction mode is specially considered. A weighting factor r-minimum is employed to limit the step size of loading increment to linear relation. In particular, selective reduced integration was adopted to formulate the stiffness matrix. The simulated geometries of verticality could clearly demonstrate the vertical processes until unloading. A series of experiments and simulations were performed to validate the formulation in the theory, leading to the development of the computer codes. The whole deformation history and the distribution of stress, strain and thickness during the forming process were obtained by carefully considering the moving boundary condition in the finite-element method. Therefore, this modeling can be used for judging whether a equilateral vertical steel can be shaped successfully. The present work may be expected to improve the understanding of the formation of the equilateral vertical steel.

**Keywords:**
Elasto-plastic,
finite element,
orthogonal pressing process,
vertical steel.

##### 347 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique Based Design and Simulation of a Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter Systems

**Authors:**
Farhan Beg

**Abstract:**

A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses. MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically. For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal, the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower harmonics contents and the resolution increase.

**Keywords:**
Power Factor,
SVPWM,
PWM rectifier,
SPWM.

##### 346 Performance of BLDC Motor under Kalman Filter Sensorless Drive

**Authors:**
Yuri Boiko,
Ci Lin,
Iluju Kiringa,
Tet Yeap

**Abstract:**

The performance of a permanent magnet brushless direct current (BLDC) motor controlled by the Kalman filter based position-sensorless drive is studied in terms of its dependence from the system’s parameters variations. The effects of the system’s parameters changes on the dynamic behavior of state variables are verified. Simulated is the closed loop control scheme with Kalman filter in the feedback line. Distinguished are two separate data sampling modes in analyzing feedback output from the BLDC motor: (1) equal angular separation and (2) equal time intervals. In case (1), the data are collected via equal intervals of rotor’s angular position i, i.e. keeping = const. In case (2), the data collection time points ti are separated by equal sampling time intervals t = const. Demonstrated are the effects of the parameters changes on the sensorless control flow, in particular, reduction of the instability torque ripples, switching spikes, and torque load balancing. It is specifically shown that an efficient suppression of commutation induced instability torque ripples is an achievable selection of the sampling rate in the Kalman filter settings above a certain critical value. The computational cost of such suppression is shown to be higher for the motors with lower induction values of the windings.

**Keywords:**
BLDC motor,
Kalman filter,
sensorless drive,
state variables,
instability torque ripples reduction,
sampling rate.

##### 345 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

**Authors:**
O. Hashemipour,
S. G. Nabavi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Zero-voltage-technique,
MOS-resistor,
OTA,
Feedback-resistor.