Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 196

Search results for: edges

196 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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195 Video Quality Control Using a ROI and Two- Component Weighted Metrics

Authors: Petra Heribanová, Jaroslav Polec, Michal Martinovič

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new content-weighted method for full reference (FR) video quality control using a region of interest (ROI) and wherein two-component weighted metrics for Deaf People Video Communication. In our approach, an image is partitioned into region of interest and into region "dry-as-dust", then region of interest is partitioned into two parts: edges and background (smooth regions), while the another methods (metrics) combined and weighted three or more parts as edges, edges errors, texture, smooth regions, blur, block distance etc. as we proposed. Using another idea that different image regions from deaf people video communication have different perceptual significance relative to quality. Intensity edges certainly contain considerable image information and are perceptually significant.

Keywords: Video quality assessment, weighted MSE.

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194 Adaptive Bidirectional Flow for Image Interpolation and Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image to some extent. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to sharpen edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (“jaggies") along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, corners and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directional derivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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193 Feature Preserving Image Interpolation and Enhancement Using Adaptive Bidirectional Flow

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually to some extent the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to enhance edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (''jaggies'') along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, angles and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the first and second order directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directionalderivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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192 Combinatorial Approach to Reliability Evaluation of Network with Unreliable Nodes and Unreliable Edges

Authors: Y. Shpungin

Abstract:

Estimating the reliability of a computer network has been a subject of great interest. It is a well known fact that this problem is NP-hard. In this paper we present a very efficient combinatorial approach for Monte Carlo reliability estimation of a network with unreliable nodes and unreliable edges. Its core is the computation of some network combinatorial invariants. These invariants, once computed, directly provide pure and simple framework for computation of network reliability. As a specific case of this approach we obtain tight lower and upper bounds for distributed network reliability (the so called residual connectedness reliability). We also present some simulation results.

Keywords: Combinatorial invariants, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, unreliable nodes and unreliable edges.

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191 Performance Analysis of CATR Reflector with Super Hybrid Modulated Segmented Exponential Serrated Edges

Authors: T. Venkata Rama Krishna, P. Siddaiah, B. Prabhakara Rao

Abstract:

This paper presented a theoretical and numerical investigation of the Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR) equipped with Super Hybrid Modulated Segmented Exponential Serrations (SHMSES). The investigation was based on diffraction theory and, more specifically, the Fresnel diffraction formulation. The CATR provides uniform illumination within the Fresnel region to test antenna. Application of serrated edges has been shown to be a good method to control diffraction at the edges of the reflectors. However, in order to get some insight into the positive effect of serrated edges a less rigorous analysis technique known as Physical Optics (PO) may be used. Ripple free and enhanced quiet zone width are observed for specific values of width and height modulation factors per serrations. The performance of SHMSE serrated reflector is evaluated in order to observe the effects of edge diffraction on the test zone fields.

Keywords: Fresnel region, quiet zone, physical optics, ripples, serrations.

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190 [a, b]-Factors Excluding Some Specified Edges In Graphs

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Bingyuan Pu

Abstract:

Let G be a graph of order n, and let a, b and m be positive integers with 1 ≤ a<b. An [a, b]-factor of G is defined as a spanning subgraph F of G such that a ≤ dF (x) ≤ b for each x ∈ V (G). In this paper, it is proved that if n ≥ (a+b−1+√(a+b+1)m−2)2−1 b and δ(G) > n + a + b − 2 √bn+ 1, then for any subgraph H of G with m edges, G has an [a, b]-factor F such that E(H)∩ E(F) = ∅. This result is an extension of thatof Egawa [2].

Keywords: graph, minimum degree, [a, b]-factor.

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189 Prime Cordial Labeling on Graphs

Authors: S. Babitha, J. Baskar Babujee

Abstract:

A prime cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set V is a bijection f from V to {1, 2, ..., |V |} such that each edge uv is assigned the label 1 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) = 1 and 0 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) > 1, then the number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by at most 1. In this paper we exhibit some characterization results and new constructions on prime cordial graphs.

Keywords: Prime cordial, tree, Euler, bijective, function.

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188 Improved Approximation to the Derivative of a Digital Signal Using Wavelet Transforms for Crosstalk Analysis

Authors: S. P. Kozaitis, R. L. Kriner

Abstract:

The information revealed by derivatives can help to better characterize digital near-end crosstalk signatures with the ultimate goal of identifying the specific aggressor signal. Unfortunately, derivatives tend to be very sensitive to even low levels of noise. In this work we approximated the derivatives of both quiet and noisy digital signals using a wavelet-based technique. The results are presented for Gaussian digital edges, IBIS Model digital edges, and digital edges in oscilloscope data captured from an actual printed circuit board. Tradeoffs between accuracy and noise immunity are presented. The results show that the wavelet technique can produce first derivative approximations that are accurate to within 5% or better, even under noisy conditions. The wavelet technique can be used to calculate the derivative of a digital signal edge when conventional methods fail.

Keywords: digital signals, electronics, IBIS model, printedcircuit board, wavelets

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187 Networks with Unreliable Nodes and Edges: Monte Carlo Lifetime Estimation

Authors: Y. Shpungin

Abstract:

Estimating the lifetime distribution of computer networks in which nodes and links exist in time and are bound for failure is very useful in various applications. This problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present efficient combinatorial approaches to Monte Carlo estimation of network lifetime distribution. We also present some simulation results.

Keywords: Combinatorial spectrum, Monte Carlo, Networklifetime, Unreliable nodes and edges.

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186 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

Authors: Kiyoshi Sawada, Takashi Mitsuishi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes.

Keywords: complete K-ary tree, organization structure, shortest path

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185 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Hongxia Liu

Abstract:

Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.

Keywords: Graph, minimum degree, neighborhood union, fractional k-factor, fractional k-deleted graph.

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184 An Edge Detection and Filtering Mechanism of Two Dimensional Digital Objects Based on Fuzzy Inference

Authors: Ayman A. Aly, Abdallah A. Alshnnaway

Abstract:

The general idea behind the filter is to average a pixel using other pixel values from its neighborhood, but simultaneously to take care of important image structures such as edges. The main concern of the proposed filter is to distinguish between any variations of the captured digital image due to noise and due to image structure. The edges give the image the appearance depth and sharpness. A loss of edges makes the image appear blurred or unfocused. However, noise smoothing and edge enhancement are traditionally conflicting tasks. Since most noise filtering behaves like a low pass filter, the blurring of edges and loss of detail seems a natural consequence. Techniques to remedy this inherent conflict often encompass generation of new noise due to enhancement. In this work a new fuzzy filter is presented for the noise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of three stages. (1) Define fuzzy sets in the input space to computes a fuzzy derivative for eight different directions (2) construct a set of IFTHEN rules by to perform fuzzy smoothing according to contributions of neighboring pixel values and (3) define fuzzy sets in the output space to get the filtered and edged image. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed approach with two dimensional objects.

Keywords: Additive noise, edge preserving filtering, fuzzy image filtering, noise reduction, two dimensional mechanical images.

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183 Double Aperture Camera for High Resolution Measurement

Authors: Venkatesh Bagaria, Nagesh AS, Varun AV

Abstract:

In the domain of machine vision, the measurement of length is done using cameras where the accuracy is directly proportional to the resolution of the camera and inversely to the size of the object. Since most of the pixels are wasted imaging the entire body as opposed to just imaging the edges in a conventional system, a double aperture system is constructed to focus on the edges to measure at higher resolution. The paper discusses the complexities and how they are mitigated to realize a practical machine vision system.

Keywords: Machine Vision, double aperture camera, accurate length measurement

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182 A new Cellular Automata Model of Cardiac Action Potential Propagation based on Summation of Excited Neighbors

Authors: F. Pourhasanzade, S. H. Sabzpoushan

Abstract:

The heart tissue is an excitable media. A Cellular Automata is a type of model that can be used to model cardiac action potential propagation. One of the advantages of this approach against the methods based on differential equations is its high speed in large scale simulations. Recent cellular automata models are not able to avoid flat edges in the result patterns or have large neighborhoods. In this paper, we present a new model to eliminate flat edges by minimum number of neighbors.

Keywords: Cellular Automata, Action Potential Simulation, Isotropic Pattern.

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181 Reusing Assessments Tests by Generating Arborescent Test Groups Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ovidiu Domşa, Nicolae Bold

Abstract:

Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) notions in education and three basic processes of education (teaching, learning and assessment) can bring benefits to the pupils and the professional development of teachers. In this matter, we refer to these notions as concepts taken from the informatics area and apply them to the domain of education. These notions refer to genetic algorithms and arborescent structures, used in the specific process of assessment or evaluation. This paper uses these kinds of notions to generate subtrees from a main tree of tests related between them by their degree of difficulty. These subtrees must contain the highest number of connections between the nodes and the lowest number of missing edges (which are subtrees of the main tree) and, in the particular case of the non-existence of a subtree with no missing edges, the subtrees which have the lowest (minimal) number of missing edges between the nodes, where a node is a test and an edge is a direct connection between two tests which differs by one degree of difficulty. The subtrees are represented as sequences. The tests are the same (a number coding a test represents that test in every sequence) and they are reused for each sequence of tests.

Keywords: Chromosome, genetic algorithm, subtree, test.

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180 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, Low contrast image.

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179 Total Chromatic Number of Δ-Claw-Free 3-Degenerated Graphs

Authors: Wongsakorn Charoenpanitseri

Abstract:

The total chromatic number χ"(G) of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the elements (vertices and edges) of G such that no incident or adjacent pair of elements receive the same color Let G be a graph with maximum degree Δ(G). Considering a total coloring of G and focusing on a vertex with maximum degree. A vertex with maximum degree needs a color and all Δ(G) edges incident to this vertex need more Δ(G) + 1 distinct colors. To color all vertices and all edges of G, it requires at least Δ(G) + 1 colors. That is, χ"(G) is at least Δ(G) + 1. However, no one can find a graph G with the total chromatic number which is greater than Δ(G) + 2. The Total Coloring Conjecture states that for every graph G, χ"(G) is at most Δ(G) + 2. In this paper, we prove that the Total Coloring Conjectur for a Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph. That is, we prove that the total chromatic number of every Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph is at most Δ(G) + 2.

Keywords: Total colorings, the total chromatic number, 3-degenerated.

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178 Crystalline Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges via a Novel Physico- Chemical Route

Authors: A. Morelos-Gómez, S. M. Vega-Díaz, V. J. González, F. Tristán-López, R. Cruz-Silva , K. Fujisawa, H. Muramatsu , T. Hayashi , Xi Mi , Yunfeng Shi , H. Sakamoto , F. Khoerunnisa , K. Kaneko , B. G. Sumpter , Y.A. Kim , V. Meunier, M. Endo , E. Muñoz-Sandoval, M. Terrones

Abstract:

A novel physico-chemical route to produce few layer graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges is reported, via acid treatment (H2SO4:HNO3) followed by characteristic thermal shock processes involving extremely cold substances. Samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This method demonstrates the importance of having the nanotubes open ended for an efficient uniform unzipping along the nanotube axis. The average dimensions of these nanoribbons are approximately ca. 210 nm wide and consist of few layers, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The produced nanoribbons exhibit different chiralities, as observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This method is able to provide graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges which could be used in various applications including sensors, gas adsorption materials, composite fillers, among others.

Keywords: Carbon nanoribbons, carbon nanotubes, unzipping.

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177 Fingerprint Compression Using Contourlet Transform and Multistage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, R. Sudhakar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new fingerprint coding technique based on contourlet transform and multistage vector quantization. Wavelets have shown their ability in representing natural images that contain smooth areas separated with edges. However, wavelets cannot efficiently take advantage of the fact that the edges usually found in fingerprints are smooth curves. This issue is addressed by directional transforms, known as contourlets, which have the property of preserving edges. The contourlet transform is a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks. The computation and storage requirements are the major difficulty in implementing a vector quantizer. In the full-search algorithm, the computation and storage complexity is an exponential function of the number of bits used in quantizing each frame of spectral information. The storage requirement in multistage vector quantization is less when compared to full search vector quantization. The coefficients of contourlet transform are quantized by multistage vector quantization. The quantized coefficients are encoded by Huffman coding. The results obtained are tabulated and compared with the existing wavelet based ones.

Keywords: Contourlet Transform, Directional Filter bank, Laplacian Pyramid, Multistage Vector Quantization

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176 The Effect of Directional Search Using Iterated Functional System for Matching Range and Domain Blocks

Authors: Shimal Das, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

The effect of directional search using iterated functional system has been studied on four images taken from databases. The images are portioned successively towards smaller dimension. Presented method provides the faster rate of convergence with respect to processing time in the flat region, but the same has been found to be slower at the border of the images and edges. It has also been revealed that the PSNR is lower at the edges and border portions of the image, and it is found to be higher in the uniform gray region, under the same external illumination and external noise environment.

Keywords: Iterated functional system, fractal compression, structural similarity index measure, fractal block coding, affine transformations.

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175 Spatio-Temporal Video Slice Edges Analysis for Shot Transition Detection and Classification

Authors: Aissa Saoudi, Hassane Essafi

Abstract:

In this work we will present a new approach for shot transition auto-detection. Our approach is based on the analysis of Spatio-Temporal Video Slice (STVS) edges extracted from videos. The proposed approach is capable to efficiently detect both abrupt shot transitions 'cuts' and gradual ones such as fade-in, fade-out and dissolve. Compared to other techniques, our method is distinguished by its high level of precision and speed. Those performances are obtained due to minimizing the problem of the boundary shot detection to a simple 2D image partitioning problem.

Keywords: Boundary shot detection, Shot transition detection, Video analysis, Video indexing.

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174 Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations

Authors: Shih-Yan Chen, Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn, the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n +1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n +2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness, basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems are presented, and include some open problems at the end.

Keywords: Hypercubes, dual-cubes, fault-tolerant hamiltonian property, dual-cube extensive networks, dual-cube-like networks.

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173 Two Concurrent Convolution Neural Networks TC*CNN Model for Face Recognition Using Edge

Authors: T. Alghamdi, G. Alaghband

Abstract:

In this paper we develop a model that couples Two Concurrent Convolution Neural Network with different filters (TC*CNN) for face recognition and compare its performance to an existing sequential CNN (base model). We also test and compare the quality and performance of the models on three datasets with various levels of complexity (easy, moderate, and difficult) and show that for the most complex datasets, edges will produce the most accurate and efficient results. We further show that in such cases while Support Vector Machine (SVM) models are fast, they do not produce accurate results.

Keywords: Convolution neural network, edges, face recognition, support vector machine.

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172 A Robust Wavelet-Based Watermarking Algorithm Using Edge Detection

Authors: John N. Ellinas

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust watermarking algorithm using the wavelet transform and edge detection is presented. The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges, where distortions are less noticeable, with a subband level dependent strength. Also, the watermark is embedded to selected coefficients around edges, using a different scale factor for watermark strength, that are captured by a morphological dilation operation. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency to various attacks such as median filtering, Gaussian noise, JPEG compression and geometrical transformations.

Keywords: Watermarking, wavelet transform, edge detection.

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171 Robust Ellipse Detection by Fitting Randomly Selected Edge Patches

Authors: Watcharin Kaewapichai, Pakorn Kaewtrakulpong

Abstract:

In this paper, a method to detect multiple ellipses is presented. The technique is efficient and robust against incomplete ellipses due to partial occlusion, noise or missing edges and outliers. It is an iterative technique that finds and removes the best ellipse until no reasonable ellipse is found. At each run, the best ellipse is extracted from randomly selected edge patches, its fitness calculated and compared to a fitness threshold. RANSAC algorithm is applied as a sampling process together with the Direct Least Square fitting of ellipses (DLS) as the fitting algorithm. In our experiment, the method performs very well and is robust against noise and spurious edges on both synthetic and real-world image data.

Keywords: Direct Least Square Fitting, Ellipse Detection, RANSAC

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170 The Frequency Graph for the Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Y. Wang

Abstract:

Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is hard to resolve when the number of cities and routes become large. The frequency graph is constructed to tackle the problem. A frequency graph maintains the topological relationships of the original weighted graph. The numbers on the edges are the frequencies of the edges emulated from the local optimal Hamiltonian paths. The simplest kind of local optimal Hamiltonian paths are computed based on the four vertices and three lines inequality. The search algorithm is given to find the optimal Hamiltonian circuit based on the frequency graph. The experiments show that the method can find the optimal Hamiltonian circuit within several trials.

Keywords: Traveling salesman problem, frequency graph, local optimal Hamiltonian path, four vertices and three lines inequality.

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169 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: Bioheat transfer, Electrode, Neuroprosthetics, TENS, Transcutaneous stimulation.

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168 Automatic Landmark Selection Based on Feature Clustering for Visual Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Paulo Fernando Silva Filho, Elcio Hideiti Shiguemori

Abstract:

The selection of specific landmarks for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ Visual Navigation systems based on Automatic Landmark Recognition has significant influence on the precision of the system’s estimated position. At the same time, manual selection of the landmarks does not guarantee a high recognition rate, which would also result on a poor precision. This work aims to develop an automatic landmark selection that will take the image of the flight area and identify the best landmarks to be recognized by the Visual Navigation Landmark Recognition System. The criterion to select a landmark is based on features detected by ORB or AKAZE and edges information on each possible landmark. Results have shown that disposition of possible landmarks is quite different from the human perception.

Keywords: Clustering, edges, feature points, landmark selection, X-Means.

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167 Elimination Noise by Adaptive Wavelet Threshold

Authors: Iman Elyasi, Sadegh Zarmehi

Abstract:

Due to some reasons, observed images are degraded which are mainly caused by noise. Recently image denoising using the wavelet transform has been attracting much attention. Waveletbased approach provides a particularly useful method for image denoising when the preservation of edges in the scene is of importance because the local adaptivity is based explicitly on the values of the wavelet detail coefficients. In this paper, we propose several methods of noise removal from degraded images with Gaussian noise by using adaptive wavelet threshold (Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink and Normal Shrink). The proposed thresholds are simple and adaptive to each subband because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on subband data. Experimental results show that the proposed thresholds remove noise significantly and preserve the edges in the scene.

Keywords: Image denoising, Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink, Normal Shrink.

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