Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 279

Search results for: Circular rod

279 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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278 Circular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna for KU-band

Authors: T.F.Lai, Wan Nor Liza Mahadi, Norhayati Soin

Abstract:

This paper present a circular patch microstrip array antenna operate in KU-band (10.9GHz – 17.25GHz). The proposed circular patch array antenna will be in light weight, flexible, slim and compact unit compare with current antenna used in KU-band. The paper also presents the detail steps of designing the circular patch microstrip array antenna. An Advance Design System (ADS) software is used to compute the gain, power, radiation pattern, and S11 of the antenna. The proposed Circular patch microstrip array antenna basically is a phased array consisting of 'n' elements (circular patch antennas) arranged in a rectangular grid. The size of each element is determined by the operating frequency. The incident wave from satellite arrives at the plane of the antenna with equal phase across the surface of the array. Each 'n' element receives a small amount of power in phase with the others. There are feed network connects each element to the microstrip lines with an equal length, thus the signals reaching the circular patches are all combined in phase and the voltages add up. The significant difference of the circular patch array antenna is not come in the phase across the surface but in the magnitude distribution.

Keywords: Circular patch microstrip array antenna, gain, radiation pattern, S-Parameter.

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277 Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods

Authors: Faruk Fırat Çalım, Nurullah Karaca, Hakan Tacettin Türker

Abstract:

In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared. Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based on finite element method and available in the literature.

Keywords: Circular rod, Out-of-plane free vibration analysis, Transfer Matrix Method.

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276 Limit Analysis of FGM Circular Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Rotational Symmetric Loads

Authors: Kargarnovin M.H., Faghidian S. A, Arghavani J.

Abstract:

The limit load carrying capacity of functionally graded materials (FGM) circular plates subjected to an arbitrary rotationally symmetric loading has been computed. It is provided that the plate material behaves rigid perfectly plastic and obeys either the Square or the Tresca yield criterion. To this end the upper and lower bound principles of limit analysis are employed to determine the exact value for the limiting load. The correctness of the result are verified and finally limiting loads for two examples namely; through radius and through thickness FGM circular plates with simply supported edges are calculated, respectively and moreover, the values of critical loading factor are determined.

Keywords: Circular plate, FGM circular plate, Limit analysis, Lower and Upper bound theorems.

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275 Statistical Description in the Turbulent Near Wake of a Rotating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Sharul S. Dol, U. Azimov, Robert J. Martinuzzi

Abstract:

Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream. The interest was to examine the turbulence properties at the suppression of periodicity in vortex formation process. An experimental study of the turbulent near wake of a rotating circular cylinder was made at a Reynolds number of 9000 for velocity ratios, λ between 0 and 2.7. Hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant changes in the vortical activities. The turbulence quantities are getting smaller as λ increases due to suppression of coherent vortex structures.

Keywords: Rotating circular cylinder, Reynolds stress, vortex.

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274 Territories' Challenges and Opportunities to Promote Circular Economy in the Building Sector

Authors: R. Tirado, G. Habert, A. Mailhac, S. Laurenceau

Abstract:

The rapid development of cities implies significant material inflows and outflows. The construction sector is one of the main consumers of raw materials and producers of waste. The waste from the building sector, for its quantity and potential for recovery, constitutes significant deposits requiring major efforts, by combining different actors, to achieve the circular economy's objectives. It is necessary to understand and know the current construction actors' knowledge of stocks, urban metabolism, deposits, and recovery practices in this context. This article aims to explore the role of local governments in planning strategies by facilitating a circular economy. In particular, the principal opportunities and challenges of communities for applying the principles of the circular economy in the building sector will be identified. The approach used for the study was to conduct semi-structured interviews with those responsible for circular economy projects within local administrations of some communities in France. The results show territories' involvement in the inclusion and application of the principles of the circular economy in the building sector. The main challenges encountered are numerous, hence the importance of having identified and described them so that the different actors can work to meet them.

Keywords: Building stock, circular economy, interview, local authorities.

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273 Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires

Authors: Amir Bak Khoshnevis, Mahdieh Khodadadi, Aghil Lotfi

Abstract:

For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.

Keywords: Wake of a circular cylinder, trip wire, velocity defect, Strouhal number.

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272 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: Control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions.

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271 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: Automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources.

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270 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti

Abstract:

Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: Liquid filled containers, Circular Tanks, IS 1893 (Part 2), Seismic analysis, Sloshing.

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269 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: Circular arrays, First null beam width, Side lobe level, FFA.

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268 Analyzing the Potential of Job Creation by Taking the First Step Towards Circular Economy: Case Study of Brazil

Authors: R. Conde

Abstract:

The Brazilian economic projections and social indicators show a future of crisis for the country. Solutions to avoid this crisis scenario are necessary. Several developed countries implement initiatives linked to sustainability, mainly related to the circular economy, to solve their crises quickly - green recovery. This article aims to assess social gains if Brazil followed the same recovery strategy. Furthermore, with the use of data presented and recognized in the international academic society, the number of jobs that can be created, if Brazil took the first steps towards a more circular economy, was found. Moreover, in addition to the gross value in the number of jobs created, this article also detailed the number of these jobs by type of activity (collection, processing, and manufacturing) and by type of material.

Keywords: Circular economy, green recovery, job creation, social gains.

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267 A Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna with Polyphase Filter for Polarization Diversity and Cross Polarization Filtering Operation

Authors: Lakhdar Zaid, Albane Sangiovanni

Abstract:

A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with polyphase filter for polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation is presented in this paper. In our approach, a polyphase filter is used to obtain the four 90° phase shift outputs to feed a square microstrip patch antenna. The antenna can be switched between four states of polarization in transmission as well as in receiving mode. Switches are interconnected with the polyphase filter network to produce left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. Additional advantage of using polyphase filter is its filtering capability for cross polarization filtering in right-hand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization operation. The theoretical and simulated results demonstrated that polyphase filter is a good candidate to drive microstrip patch antenna to accomplish polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation.

Keywords: Microstrip patch antenna, polyphase filter, circular polarization, linear polarization, reconfigurable antenna.

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266 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani

Abstract:

Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated-plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers.

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265 On the Numerical Simulation of Flow Past an Oscillating Circular Cylinder in a Circular Path: Oscillation Amplitude Effect

Authors: Qasem M. Al-Mdallal

Abstract:

This paper presents results obtained from the numerical solution for the flow past an oscillating circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 200. The frequency of oscillation was fixed to the vortex shedding frequency from a fixed cylinder, f0, while the amplitudes of oscillations were varied from to 1.1a, where a represents the radius of the cylinder. The response of the flow through the fluid forces acting on the surface of the cylinder are investigated. The lock-on phenomenon is captured at low oscillation amplitudes.

Keywords: Lock-on; streamwise oscillation; transverse oscillation; fluid forces, combined motion

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264 Effect of Out-of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: Stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis.

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263 Defuzzification of Periodic Membership Function on Circular Coordinates

Authors: Takashi Mitsuishi, Koji Saigusa

Abstract:

This paper presents circular polar coordinates transformation of periodic fuzzy membership function. The purpose is identification of domain of periodic membership functions in consequent part of IF-THEN rules. Proposed methods in this paper remove complicatedness concerning domain of periodic membership function from defuzzification in fuzzy approximate reasoning. Defuzzification on circular polar coordinates is also proposed.

Keywords: Defuzzification, periodic membership function, polar coordinates transformation.

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262 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade

Abstract:

This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine ‎its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as ‎shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the ‎effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the ‎modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

Keywords: Circular foundation, eccentric loading, sand, modulus of subgrade reaction.

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261 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

Abstract:

The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young’s modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: Stress Concentration, Circular Hole, FGM Plate, Bending.

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260 Evaluation of the Power Generation Effect Obtained by Inserting a Piezoelectric Sheet in the Backlash Clearance of a Circular Arc Helical Gear

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yuya Nakamoto

Abstract:

Power generation effect, obtained by inserting a piezo- electric sheet in the backlash clearance of a circular arc helical gear, is evaluated. Such type of screw gear is preferred since, in comparison with the involute tooth profile, the circular arc profile leads to reduced stress-concentration effects, and improved life of the piezoelectric film. Firstly, geometry of the circular arc helical gear, and properties of the piezoelectric sheet are presented. Then, description of the test-rig, consisted of a right-hand thread gear meshing with a left-hand thread gear, and the voltage measurement procedure are given. After creating the tridimensional (3D) model of the meshing gears in SolidWorks, they are 3D-printed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin. Variation of the generated voltage versus time, during a meshing cycle of the circular arc helical gear, is measured for various values of the center distance. Then, the change of the maximal, minimal, and peak-to-peak voltage versus the center distance is illustrated. Optimal center distance of the gear, to achieve voltage maximization, is found and its significance is discussed. Such results prove that the contact pressure of the meshing gears can be measured, and also, the electrical power can be generated by employing the proposed technique.

Keywords: Power generation, circular arc helical gear, piezo- electric sheet, contact problem, optimal center distance.

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259 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: Contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device.

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258 Subpixel Detection of Circular Objects Using Geometric Property

Authors: Wen-Yen Wu, Wen-Bin Yu

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method for detecting circular shapes with subpixel accuracy. First, the geometric properties of circles have been used to find the diameters as well as the circumference pixels. The center and radius are then estimated by the circumference pixels. Both synthetic and real images have been tested by the proposed method. The experimental results show that the new method is efficient.

Keywords: Subpixel, least squares estimation, circle detection, Hough transformation.

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257 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: Laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger.

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256 Incorporating Circular Economy into Passive Design Strategies in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Noah G. Akhimien, Eshrar Latif

Abstract:

The natural environment is in need for an urgent rescue due to dilapidation and recession of resources. Passive design strategies have proven to be one of the effective ways to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve building performance. On the other hand, there is a huge drop in material availability due to poor recycling culture. Consequently, building waste pose environmental hazard due to unrecycled building materials from construction and deconstruction. Buildings are seen to be material banks for a circular economy, therefore incorporating circular economy into passive housing will not only safe guide the climate but also improve resource efficiency. The study focuses on incorporating a circular economy in passive design strategies for an affordable energy and resource efficient residential building in Nigeria. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is still on the increase as buildings are responsible for a significant amount of this emission globally. Therefore, prompt measures need to be taken to combat the effect of global warming and associated threats. Nigeria is rapidly growing in human population, resources on the other hand have receded greatly, and there is an abrupt need for recycling even in the built environment. It is necessary that Nigeria responds to these challenges effectively and efficiently considering building resource and energy. Passive design strategies were assessed using simulations to obtain qualitative and quantitative data which were inferred to case studies as it relates to the Nigeria climate. Building materials were analysed using the ReSOLVE model in order to explore possible recycling phase. This provided relevant information and strategies to illustrate the possibility of circular economy in passive buildings. The study offers an alternative approach, as it is the general principle for the reworking of an economy on ecological lines in passive housing and by closing material loops in circular economy.

Keywords: Building, circular economy, efficiency, passive design, sustainability.

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255 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler depends on rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (Fin Per Inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on heat transfer, and pressure drop in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ softwares are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI=12 and then decreased gradually to FPI=15, and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI=12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI)

Keywords: Air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop.

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254 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Drag Reduction on a Circular Cylinder

Authors: A.O. Ladjedel, B.T.Yahiaoui, C.L.Adjlout, D.O.Imine

Abstract:

In the present paper; an experimental and numerical investigations of drag reduction on a grooved circular cylinder have been performed. The experiments were carried out in closed circuit subsonic wind tunnel (TE44); the pressure distribution on the cylinder was conducted using a TE44DPS differential pressure scanner and the drag forces were measured using the TE81 balance. The display unit is linked to a computer, loaded with DATASLIM software for data analysis and logging of result. The numerical study was performed using the code ANSYS FLUENT solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The k-ε and k- ω SST models were tested. The results obtained from the experimental and numerical investigations have showed a reduction in the drag when using longitudinal grooves namely 2 and 6 on the cylinder.

Keywords: Circular cylinder, Drag, grooves, pressure distribution

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253 Detecting Subsurface Circular Objects from Low Contrast Noisy Images: Applications in Microscope Image Enhancement

Authors: Soham De, Nupur Biswas, Abhijit Sanyal, Pulak Ray, Alokmay Datta

Abstract:

Particle detection in very noisy and low contrast images is an active field of research in image processing. In this article, a method is proposed for the efficient detection and sizing of subsurface spherical particles, which is used for the processing of softly fused Au nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy is used for imaging the nanoparticles, and the proposed algorithm has been tested with the two-dimensional projected TEM images obtained. Results are compared with the data obtained by transmission optical spectroscopy, as well as with conventional circular object detection algorithms.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Circular Hough Transform, Au Nanoparticles, Median Filter, Laplacian Sharpening Filter, Canny Edge Detection

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252 Analytical Evaluation on Structural Performance and Optimum Section of CHS Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jeonghyun Jang, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the effective size, section and structural characteristics of circular hollow steel (CHS) damper. CHS damper is among steel dampers which are used widely for seismic energy dissipation because they are easy to install, maintain and are inexpensive. CHS damper dissipates seismic energy through metallic deformation due to the geometrical elasticity of circular shape and fatigue resistance around connection part. After calculating the effective size, which is found to be height to diameter ratio of √3, nonlinear FE analyses were carried out to evaluate the structural characteristics and effective section (diameter-to-ratio).

Keywords: Circular hollow steel damper, structural characteristics, effective size, effective section, large deformation, FE analysis.

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251 A New Analytical Approach for Free Vibration of Membrane from Wave Standpoint

Authors: Mansour Nikkhah-Bahrami, Masih Loghmani, Mostafa Pooyanfar

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical approach for free vibration analysis of rectangular and circular membranes is presented. The method is based on wave approach. From wave standpoint vibration propagate, reflect and transmit in a structure. Firstly, the propagation and reflection matrices for rectangular and circular membranes are derived. Then, these matrices are combined to provide a concise and systematic approach to free vibration analysis of membranes. Subsequently, the eigenvalue problem for free vibration of membrane is formulated and the equation of membrane natural frequencies is constructed. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is shown by comparison of the results with existing classical solution.

Keywords: Rectangular and circular membranes, propagation matrix, reflection matrix, vibration analysis.

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250 Studying the Structural Behaviour of RC Beams with Circular Openings of Different Sizes and Locations Using FE Method

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hasanain Alwan, Ee Yu Phur, John McLoughlin, Ameer Al-khaykan

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the structural behaviour of RC beams with circular openings of different sizes and locations modelled using ABAQUS FEM software. Seven RC beams with the dimensions of 1200 mm×150 mm×150 mm were tested under three-point loading. Group A consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the shear zone. However, Group B consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the flexural zone. The final RC beam did not have any openings, to provide a control beam for comparison. The results show that increasing the diameter of the openings increases the maximum deflection and the ultimate failure load decreases relative to the control beam. In the shear zone, the presence of the openings caused an increase in the maximum deflection ranging between 4% and 22% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 26% and 36% compared to the control beam. However, the presence of the openings in the flexural zone caused an increase in the maximum deflection of between 1.5% and 19.7% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 6% and 13% relative to the control beam. In this study, the optimum location for placing circular openings was found to be in the flexural zone of the beam with a diameter of less than 30% of the depth of the beam.

Keywords: Ultimate failure load, maximum deflection, shear zone, flexural zone.

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