Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1279

Search results for: bearing stress

1279 EHD Effect on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Journal Bearing Lubricated with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: B. Chetti, W. A. Crosby

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis for the dynamic performance of a finite journal bearing lubricated with couple stress fluid taking into account the effect of the deformation of the bearing liner. The modified Reynolds equation has been solved by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients, critical mass and whirl ratio are evaluated for different values of eccentricity ratio and elastic coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids and a Newtonian fluid. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids are improved compared to journal bearings lubricated with Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: Circular bearing, elastohydrodynamic, stability, couple stress.

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1278 A Study on Characteristics and Geometric Parameters of the Flat Porous Aerostatic Bearing

Authors: T. Y. Huang, B. Z. Wang, S. C. Lin, S. Y. Hsu

Abstract:

A CFD software was employed to analyze the characteristics of the flat round porous aerostatic bearings. The effects of gap between the bearing and the guide way and the porosity of the porous material on the load capacity of the bearing were studied. The adequacy of the simulation model and the approach was verified. From the parametric study, it is found that the depth of the flow path does not influence the load capacity of the bearing; the load capacity of the bearing will decrease if the thickness of the porous material increases or the porous material protrudes above the bearing housing; the variation of the chamfer at the edge of the bearing does not affect the bearing load capacity. For a bearing with an air gap of 5μm and a porosity of 0.1, the average load capacity and the pressure distribution of the bearing are nearly unchanged no matter the bearing moves at a constant or a varying speed.

Keywords: Aerostatic bearing, Load capacity, Porosity, Porous material.

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1277 Failure Modes and Bearing Capacity Estimation for Strip Foundations in C-ɸ Soils: A Numerical Study

Authors: Paul Akagwu, Aaron Aboshio

Abstract:

In this study, typical c-ɸ soils subjected to loadings were assessed with a view to understand the general stress distribution and settlement behaviour of the soils under drained conditions. Numerical estimations of the non-dimensional bearing capacity factors, Nq and Nγ for varied angles of friction in the soil mass were obtained using PLAXIS. Ultimate bearing capacity values over a Ф range of 0-30 degrees were also computed and compared with analytical results obtained from the traditional simplified uncoupled approach of Terzaghi and Meyerhof. Results from the numerical study agree well with theoretical findings.

Keywords: Bearing capacity factors, finite element method, safe bearing pressure, structure-soil interaction.

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1276 Influence of Intermediate Principal Stress on Solution of Planar Stability Problems

Authors: M. Jahanandish, M. B. Zeydabadinejad

Abstract:

In this paper, von Mises and Drucker-Prager yield criteria, as typical ones that consider the effect of intermediate principal stress σ2, have been selected and employed for investigating the influence of σ2 on the solution of a typical stability problem. The bearing capacity factors have been calculated under plane strain condition (strip footing) and axisymmetric condition (circular footing) using the method of stress characteristics together with the criteria mentioned. Different levels of σ2 relative to the other two principal stresses have been considered. While a higher σ2 entry in yield criterion gives a higher bearing capacity; its entry in equilibrium equations (axisymmetric) causes substantial reduction.

Keywords: Intermediate principal stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, yield criteria.

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1275 Parametric Characterization of Load Capacity of Infinitely Wide Parabolic Slider Bearing with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: Oladeinde Mobolaji Humphrey, Akpobi John

Abstract:

A mathematical model for the hydrodynamic lubrication of parabolic slider bearings with couple stress lubricants is presented. A numerical solution for the mathematical model using finite element scheme is obtained using three nodes isoparametric quadratic elements. Stiffness integrals obtained from the weak form of the governing equations were solved using Gauss Quadrature to obtain a finite number of stiffness matrices. The global system of equations was obtained for the bearing and solved using Gauss Seidel iterative scheme. The converged pressure solution was used to obtain the load capacity of the bearing. Parametric studies were carried out and it was shown that the effect of couple stresses and profile parameter are to increase the load carrying capacity of the parabolic slider bearing. Numerical experiments reveal that the magnitude of the profile parameter at which maximum load is obtained increases with decrease in couple stress parameter. The results are presented in graphical form.

Keywords: Finite element, numerical, parabolic slider.

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1274 Rheodynamic Lubrication of a Rectangular Squeeze Film Bearing with an Exponential Curvature Variation using Bingham Lubricants

Authors: K. P. Vishwanath, A. Kandasamy

Abstract:

The present work deals with analyses of the effects of bearing curvature and non-Newtonian characteristics on the load capacity of an exponential rectangular squeeze film bearing using Bingham fluids as lubricants. Bingham fluids are characterized by an yield value and hence the formation of a “rigid" core in the region between the plates is justified. The flow is confined to the region between the core and the plates. The shape of the core has been identified through numerical means. Further, numerical solutions for the pressure distribution and load carrying capacity of the bearing for various values of Bingham number and curvature parameter have been obtained. The effects of bearing curvature and non-Newtonian characteristics of the lubricant on the bearing performances have been discussed.

Keywords: rheodynamic lubrication, yield stress, non-Newtonianfluid, Bingham fluid, exponential squeeze film.

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1273 Experimental Challenges and Solutions in Design and Operation of the Test Rig for Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: Ravindra Mallya, B. Satish Shenoy, B. Raghuvir Pai

Abstract:

The study deals with the challenges in developing a test rig to test the performance of water lubricated journal bearing. The test rig is designed to simulate the working conditions of the bearing in order to understand their performance before they are put in operation. The bearing that is studied is the commercially available water lubricated bearing which has a rubber liner bonded with a rigid metal shell. The lubricant enters the bearing axially through a pressurized inlet tank and exits to an outlet tank which is at sufficiently low pressure. The load on the bearing is applied through the dead weight system which acts both in upward and downward direction so that net load acts on the bearing. The issues in feeding the lubricant into the bearing from the inlet side and preventing the leakage of the lubricant is discussed. The application of the load on the test bearing while maintaining the bearing afloat is also discussed.

Keywords: Axial groove, hydrodynamic pressure, journal bearing, test rig, water lubrication.

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1272 Dynamics Analyses of Swing Structure Subject to Rotational Forces

Authors: Buntheng Chhorn, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Large-scale swing has been used in entertainment and performance, especially in circus, for a very long time. To increase the safety of this type of structure, a thorough analysis for displacement and bearing stress was performed for an extreme condition where a full cycle swing occurs. Different masses, ranging from 40 kg to 220 kg, and velocities were applied on the swing. Then, based on the solution of differential dynamics equation, swing velocity response to harmonic force was obtained. Moreover, the resistance capacity was estimated based on ACI steel structure design guide. Subsequently, numerical analysis was performed in ABAQUS to obtain the stress on each frame of the swing. Finally, the analysis shows that the expansion of swing structure frame section was required for mass bigger than 150kg.

Keywords: Swing structure, displacement, bearing stress, dynamic loads response, finite element analysis.

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1271 Effect of L/D Ratio on the Performance of a Four-Lobe Pressure Dam Bearing

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. S. Rattan, N. P. Mehta

Abstract:

A four-lobe pressure dam bearing which is produced by cutting two pressure dams on the upper two lobes and two relief-tracks on the lower two lobes of an ordinary four-lobe bearing is found to be more stable than a conventional four-lobe bearing. In this paper a four-lobe pressure dam bearing supporting rigid and flexible rotors is analytically investigated to determine its performance when L/D ratio is varied in the range 0.75 to 1.5. The static and dynamic characteristics are studied at various L/D ratios. The results show that the stability of a four-lobe pressure dam bearing increases with decrease in L/D ratios both for rigid as well as flexible rotors.

Keywords: Four-lobe pressure dam bearing, finite-elementmethod, L/D ratio.

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1270 Effect of Speed and Torque on Statistical Parameters in Tapered Bearing Fault Detection

Authors: Sylvester A. Aye, Philippus S. Heyns

Abstract:

The effect of the rotational speed and axial torque on the diagnostics of tapered rolling element bearing defects was investigated. The accelerometer was mounted on the bearing housing and connected to Sound and Vibration Analyzer (SVAN 958) and was used to measure the accelerations from the bearing housing. The data obtained from the bearing was processed to detect damage of the bearing using statistical tools and the results were subsequently analyzed to see if bearing damage had been captured. From this study it can be seen that damage is more evident when the bearing is loaded. Also, at the incipient stage of damage the crest factor and kurtosis values are high but as time progresses the crest factors and kurtosis values decrease whereas the peak and RMS values are low at the incipient stage but increase with damage.

Keywords: crest factor, damage detection, kurtosis, RMS, tapered roller bearing.

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1269 Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface

Authors: S. W. Lo, S.-H. Lu, Y. H. Guo, L.-C. Hsu

Abstract:

In this paper a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore the bearing has the better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, elastomer, static stiffness.

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1268 The Effect of Rotational Speed and Shaft Eccentric on Looseness of Bearing

Authors: Chalermsak Leetrakool, Komson Jirapattarasilp

Abstract:

This research was to study effect of rotational speed and eccentric factors, which were affected on looseness of bearing. The experiment was conducted on three rotational speeds and five eccentric distances with 5 replications. The results showed that influenced factor affected to looseness of bearing was rotational speed and eccentric distance which showed statistical significant. Higher rotational speed would cause on high looseness. Moreover, more eccentric distance, more looseness of bearing. Using bearing at high rotational with high eccentric of shaft would be affected bearing fault more than lower rotational speed. The prediction equation of looseness was generated by regression analysis. The prediction has an effected to the looseness of bearing at 91.5%.

Keywords: Bearing, Looseness, Rotational speed, Eccentric

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1267 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali

Abstract:

Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery, such as bearings, is important in order to improve the stability of work. Acoustic Emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that vibration analysis is not as successful at low rotational speeds (below 100 rpm). This because the energy generated within this speed region is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this perspective, this paper has presented a brief review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearing conditions.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis.

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1266 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness.

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1265 Study on Damage Tolerance Behavior of Integrally Stiffened Panel and Conventional Stiffened Panel

Authors: M. Adeel

Abstract:

The damage tolerance behavior of integrally and conventional stiffened panel is investigated based on the fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. The load bearing capability and crack growth characteristic of both types of the stiffened panels having same configuration subjected to distributed tensile load is examined in this paper. A fourteen-stringer stiffened panel is analyzed for a central skin crack propagating towards the adjacent stringers. Stress intensity factors and fatigue crack propagation rates of both types of the stiffened panels are then compared. The analysis results show that integral stiffening causes higher stress intensity factor than conventional stiffened panel as the crack tip passes through the stringer and the integrally stiffened panel has less load bearing capability than the riveted stiffened panel.

Keywords: Conventional Stiffened Structure, Damage Tolerance, Finite Element Analysis, Integrally Stiffened Structure, Stress Intensity Factor.

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1264 Dynamic Behavior of the Nanostructure of Load-bearing Biological Materials

Authors: M. Qwamizadeh, K. Zhou, Z. Zhang, YW. Zhang

Abstract:

Typical load-bearing biological materials like bone, mineralized tendon and shell, are biocomposites made from both organic (collagen) and inorganic (biomineral) materials. This amazing class of materials with intrinsic internally designed hierarchical structures show superior mechanical properties with regard to their weak components from which they are formed. Extensive investigations concentrating on static loading conditions have been done to study the biological materials failure. However, most of the damage and failure mechanisms in load-bearing biological materials will occur whenever their structures are exposed to dynamic loading conditions. The main question needed to be answered here is: What is the relation between the layout and architecture of the load-bearing biological materials and their dynamic behavior? In this work, a staggered model has been developed based on the structure of natural materials at nanoscale and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to study the dynamic behavior of the structure of load-bearing biological materials to answer why the staggered arrangement has been selected by nature to make the nanocomposite structure of most of the biological materials. The results showed that the staggered structures will efficiently attenuate the stress wave rather than the layered structure. Furthermore, such staggered architecture is effectively in charge of utilizing the capacity of the biostructure to resist both normal and shear loads. In this work, the geometrical parameters of the model like the thickness and aspect ratio of the mineral inclusions selected from the typical range of the experimentally observed feature sizes and layout dimensions of the biological materials such as bone and mineralized tendon. Furthermore, the numerical results validated with existing theoretical solutions. Findings of the present work emphasize on the significant effects of dynamic behavior on the natural evolution of load-bearing biological materials and can help scientists to design bioinspired materials in the laboratories.

Keywords: Load-bearing biological materials, nanostructure, staggered structure, stress wave decay.

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1263 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: S. Taghvamanesh, R. Ziaie Moayed

Abstract:

There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, Bearing capacity factor, irregular foundation, shallow foundation.

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1262 Effect of Load Orientation on the Stability of a Three-Lobe Bearing Supporting Rigid and Flexible Rotors

Authors: G. Bhushan

Abstract:

Multilobe bearings are found to be more stable than circular bearings. A three lobe bearing also possesses good stability characteristics. Sometimes the line of action of the load does not pass through the axis of a bearing and is shifted on either side by a few degrees. Load orientation is one of the factors that affect the stability of a three lobe bearing. The effect of load orientation on the stability of a three-lobe has been discussed in this paper. The results show that stability of a three-lobe bearing supporting either rigid or flexible rotor is increased for the positive values of load orientation i.e. when the load line is shifted in the opposite direction of rotation.

Keywords: Thee-lobe bearing, load orientation, finite element method.

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1261 Nonlinear Seismic Dynamic Response of Continuous Curved Highway Viaducts with Different Bearing Supports

Authors: Rinna Tanaka, Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa

Abstract:

The results show that the bridge equipped with seismic isolation bearing system shows a high amount of energy dissipation. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the overall performance of continuous curved highway viaducts with different bearing supports, with an emphasis on the effectiveness of seismic isolation based on lead rubber bearing and hedge reaction force bearing system consisted of friction sliding bearing and rubber bearing. The bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on six different cases with six bearing models. The effects of the different arrangement of bearing on the deck superstructure displacements, the seismic damage at the bottom of the piers, movement track at the pier-s top and the total and strain energies absorbed by the structure are evaluated. In conclusion, the results provide sufficient evidence of the effectiveness on the use of seismic isolation on steel curved highway bridges.

Keywords: Curved highway viaducts, non-linear dynamic response, seismic damage.

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1260 Discrete Element Modeling on Bearing Capacity Problems

Authors: N. Li, Y. M. Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, the classical bearing capacity problem is re-considered from discrete element analysis. In the discrete element approach, the bearing capacity problem is considered from the elastic stage to plastic stage to rupture stage (large displacement). The bearing capacity failure mechanism of a strip footing on soil is investigated, and the influence of micro-parameters on the bearing capacity of soil is also observed. It is found that the distinct element method (DEM) gives very good visualized results, and basically coincides well with that derived by the classical methods.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, distinct element method, failure mechanism, large displacement.

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1259 Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip

Authors: M. Meftahi, M. Hoseinzadeh, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.

Keywords: Adjacent foundation, bearing capacity, reinforcements, settlement, numerical analysis.

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1258 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Yong-Run Chen, Jui-Pin Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: Dynamic compliance, Bearing preload, Modal damping.

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1257 Predicting the Effect of Vibro Stone Column Installation on Performance of Reinforced Foundations

Authors: K. Al Ammari, B. G. Clarke

Abstract:

Soil improvement using vibro stone column techniques consists of two main parts: (1) the installed load bearing columns of well-compacted, coarse-grained material and (2) the improvements to the surrounding soil due to vibro compaction. Extensive research work has been carried out over the last 20 years to understand the improvement in the composite foundation performance due to the second part mentioned above. Nevertheless, few of these studies have tried to quantify some of the key design parameters, namely the changes in the stiffness and stress state of the treated soil, or have consider these parameters in the design and calculation process. Consequently, empirical and conservative design methods are still being used by ground improvement companies with a significant variety of results in engineering practice. Two-dimensional finite element study to develop an axisymmetric model of a single stone column reinforced foundation was performed using PLAXIS 2D AE to quantify the effect of the vibro installation of this column in soft saturated clay. Settlement and bearing performance were studied as an essential part of the design and calculation of the stone column foundation. Particular attention was paid to the large deformation in the soft clay around the installed column caused by the lateral expansion. So updated mesh advanced option was taken in the analysis. In this analysis, different degrees of stone column lateral expansions were simulated and numerically analyzed, and then the changes in the stress state, stiffness, settlement performance and bearing capacity were quantified. It was found that application of radial expansion will produce a horizontal stress in the soft clay mass that gradually decrease as the distance from the stone column axis increases. The excess pore pressure due to the undrained conditions starts to dissipate immediately after finishing the column installation, allowing the horizontal stress to relax. Changes in the coefficient of the lateral earth pressure K ٭, which is very important in representing the stress state, and the new stiffness distribution in the reinforced clay mass, were estimated. More encouraging results showed that increasing the expansion during column installation has a noticeable effect on improving the bearing capacity and reducing the settlement of reinforced ground, So, a design method should include this significant effect of the applied lateral displacement during the stone column instillation in simulation and numerical analysis design.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, design, Installation, numerical analysis, settlement, stone column.

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1256 A Numerical Approach for Static and Dynamic Analysis of Deformable Journal Bearings

Authors: D. Benasciutti, M. Gallina, M. Gh. Munteanu, F. Flumian

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical approach for the static and dynamic analysis of hydrodynamic radial journal bearings. In the first part, the effect of shaft and housing deformability on pressure distribution within oil film is investigated. An iterative algorithm that couples Reynolds equation with a plane finite elements (FE) structural model is solved. Viscosity-to-pressure dependency (Vogel- Barus equation) is also included. The deformed lubrication gap and the overall stress state are obtained. Numerical results are presented with reference to a typical journal bearing configuration at two different inlet oil temperatures. Obtained results show the great influence of bearing components structural deformation on oil pressure distribution, compared with results for ideally rigid components. In the second part, a numerical approach based on perturbation method is used to compute stiffness and damping matrices, which characterize the journal bearing dynamic behavior.

Keywords: Journal bearing, finite elements, deformation, dynamic analysis

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1255 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system can reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation has been evaluated numerically in two cases; in the first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles were the parameters which varied in this study to find out how they affected the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity.

Keywords: Soft clay, Strip piled raft, Bearing capacity, Settlement.

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1254 The Effect of Geogrid Reinforcement Pre-Stressing on the Performance of Sand Bed Supporting a Strip Foundation

Authors: Ahmed M. Eltohamy

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and numerical study was adopted to investigate the effect geogrid soil reinforcement pre-stressing on the pressure settlement relation of sand bed supporting a strip foundation. The studied parameters include foundation depth and pre-stress ratio for the cases of one and two pre-stressed reinforcement layers. The study reflected that pre-stressing of soil reinforcement resulted in a marked enhancement in reinforced bed soil stiffness compared to the reinforced soil without pre-stress. The best benefit of pre-stressing reinforcement was obtained as the overburden pressure and pre-straining ratio increase. Pre-stressing of double reinforcement topmost layers results in further enhancement of stress strain relation of bed soil.

Keywords: Geogrid reinforcement, strip footing, pre-stress, bearing capacity.

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1253 Evaluation of Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Bearing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Neville Fernandes, Satish Shenoy B., Raghuvir Pai B., Rammohan S. Pai B, Shrikanth Rao.D

Abstract:

This research details a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to model fluid flow in a journal bearing with 8 equispaced semi-circular axial grooves. Water is used as the lubricant and is fed from one end of the bearing to the other, under pressure. The geometry of the bearing is modeled using a commercially available modeling software GAMBIT and the flow analysis is performed using a dedicated CFD analysis software FLUENT. The pressure distribution in the bearing clearance is obtained from FLUENT for various whirl ratios and is used to calculate the hydrodynamic force components in the radial and tangential direction of the bearing. These values along with the various whirl speeds can be used to do a regression analysis to determine the stiffness and damping coefficients. The values obtained are then compared with the stiffness and damping coefficients of a 3 Axial groove water lubricated journal bearing and those obtained from a FORTRAN code for a similar bearing.

Keywords: CFD, multiple axial groove, Water lubricated, Stiffness and Damping Coefficients.

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1252 Evaluation on Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations on two-Layered Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, V. Rashidian, E. Izadi

Abstract:

This paper utilizes a finite element analysis to study the bearing capacity of ring footings on a two-layered soil. The upper layer, that the footing is placed on it, is soft clay and the underneath layer is a cohesionless sand. For modeling soils, Mohr–Coulomb plastic yield criterion is employed. The effects of two factors, the clay layer thickness and the ratio of internal radius of the ring footing to external radius of the ring, have been analyzed. It is found that the bearing capacity decreases as the value of ri / ro increases. Although, as the clay layer thickness increases the bearing capacity was alleviated gradually.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, Ring footing, Two-layered soil

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1251 Static Response of Homogeneous Clay Stratum to Imposed Structural Loads

Authors: Aaron Aboshio

Abstract:

Numerical study of the static response of homogeneous clay stratum considering a wide range of cohesion and subject to foundation loads is presented. The linear elastic–perfectly plastic constitutive relation with the von Mises yield criterion were utilised to develop a numerically cost effective finite element model for the soil while imposing a rigid body constrain to the foundation footing. From the analyses carried out, estimate of the bearing capacity factor, Nc as well as the ultimate load-carrying capacities of these soils, effect of cohesion on foundation settlements, stress fields and failure propagation were obtained. These are consistent with other findings in the literature and hence can be a useful guide in design of safe foundations in clay soils for buildings and other structure.

Keywords: Bearing capacity factors, finite element method, safe bearing pressure, structure-soil interaction.

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1250 Bearing Fault Feature Extraction by Recurrence Quantification Analysis

Authors: V. G. Rajesh, M. V. Rajesh

Abstract:

In rotating machinery one of the critical components that is prone to premature failure is the rolling bearing. Consequently, early warning of an imminent bearing failure is much critical to the safety and reliability of any high speed rotating machines. This study is concerned with the application of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) in fault detection of rolling element bearings in rotating machinery. Based on the results from this study it is reported that the RQA variable, percent determinism, is sensitive to the type of fault investigated and therefore can provide useful information on bearing damage in rolling element bearings.

Keywords: Bearing fault detection, machine vibrations, nonlinear time series analysis, recurrence quantification analysis.

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