Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 430

Search results for: Validation

430 A Validation Technique for Integrated Ontologies

Authors: Neli P. Zlatareva

Abstract:

Ontology validation is an important part of web applications’ development, where knowledge integration and ontological reasoning play a fundamental role. It aims to ensure the consistency and correctness of ontological knowledge and to guarantee that ontological reasoning is carried out in a meaningful way. Existing approaches to ontology validation address more or less specific validation issues, but the overall process of validating web ontologies has not been formally established yet. As the size and the number of web ontologies continue to grow, more web applications’ developers will rely on the existing repository of ontologies rather than develop ontologies from scratch. If an application utilizes multiple independently created ontologies, their consistency must be validated and eventually adjusted to ensure proper interoperability between them. This paper presents a validation technique intended to test the consistency of independent ontologies utilized by a common application.

Keywords: Knowledge engineering, ontological reasoning, ontology validation, semantic web.

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429 Design Process and Real-Time Validation of an Innovative Autonomous Mid-Air Flight and Landing System

Authors: De Lellis E., Di Vito V., Garbarino L., Lai C., Corraro F.

Abstract:

This paper describes the design process and the realtime validation of an innovative autonomous mid-air flight and landing system developed by the Italian Aerospace Research Center in the framework of the Italian national funded project TECVOL (Technologies for the Autonomous Flight). In the paper it is provided an insight of the whole development process of the system under study. In particular, the project framework is illustrated at first, then the functional context and the adopted design and testing approach are described, and finally the on-ground validation test rig on purpose designed is addressed in details. Furthermore, the hardwarein- the-loop validation of the autonomous mid-air flight and landing system by means of the real-time test rig is described and discussed.

Keywords: Autonomous landing, autonomous mid-air flight, design and test approach, real-time hardware-in-the-loop validation

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428 Flexible, Adaptable and Scaleable Business Rules Management System for Data Validation

Authors: Kashif Kamran, Farooque Azam

Abstract:

The policies governing the business of any organization are well reflected in her business rules. The business rules are implemented by data validation techniques, coded during the software development process. Any change in business policies results in change in the code written for data validation used to enforce the business policies. Implementing the change in business rules without changing the code is the objective of this paper. The proposed approach enables users to create rule sets at run time once the software has been developed. The newly defined rule sets by end users are associated with the data variables for which the validation is required. The proposed approach facilitates the users to define business rules using all the comparison operators and Boolean operators. Multithreading is used to validate the data entered by end user against the business rules applied. The evaluation of the data is performed by a newly created thread using an enhanced form of the RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) algorithm.

Keywords: Business Rules, data validation, multithreading, Reverse Polish Notation

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427 Verification and Validation of Simulated Process Models of KALBR-SIM Training Simulator

Authors: T. Jayanthi, K. Velusamy, H. Seetha, S. A. V. Satya Murty

Abstract:

Verification and Validation of Simulated Process Model is the most important phase of the simulator life cycle. Evaluation of simulated process models based on Verification and Validation techniques checks the closeness of each component model (in a simulated network) with the real system/process with respect to dynamic behaviour under steady state and transient conditions. The process of Verification and Validation helps in qualifying the process simulator for the intended purpose whether it is for providing comprehensive training or design verification. In general, model verification is carried out by comparison of simulated component characteristics with the original requirement to ensure that each step in the model development process completely incorporates all the design requirements. Validation testing is performed by comparing the simulated process parameters to the actual plant process parameters either in standalone mode or integrated mode. A Full Scope Replica Operator Training Simulator for PFBR - Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor has been developed at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, INDIA named KALBR-SIM (Kalpakkam Breeder Reactor Simulator) where in the main participants are engineers/experts belonging to Modeling Team, Process Design and Instrumentation & Control design team. This paper discusses about the Verification and Validation process in general, the evaluation procedure adopted for PFBR operator training Simulator, the methodology followed for verifying the models, the reference documents and standards used etc. It details out the importance of internal validation by design experts, subsequent validation by external agency consisting of experts from various fields, model improvement by tuning based on expert’s comments, final qualification of the simulator for the intended purpose and the difficulties faced while co-coordinating various activities.

Keywords: Verification and Validation (V&V), Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), Kalpakkam Breeder Reactor Simulator (KALBR-SIM), Steady State, Transient State.

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426 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab M. Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily A. Jusoh

Abstract:

The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: Validation, verification, formal, theorem proving.

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425 Semi-Automatic Method to Assist Expert for Association Rules Validation

Authors: Amdouni Hamida, Gammoudi Mohamed Mohsen

Abstract:

In order to help the expert to validate association rules extracted from data, some quality measures are proposed in the literature. We distinguish two categories: objective and subjective measures. The first one depends on a fixed threshold and on data quality from which the rules are extracted. The second one consists on providing to the expert some tools in the objective to explore and visualize rules during the evaluation step. However, the number of extracted rules to validate remains high. Thus, the manually mining rules task is very hard. To solve this problem, we propose, in this paper, a semi-automatic method to assist the expert during the association rule's validation. Our method uses rule-based classification as follow: (i) We transform association rules into classification rules (classifiers), (ii) We use the generated classifiers for data classification. (iii) We visualize association rules with their quality classification to give an idea to the expert and to assist him during validation process.

Keywords: Association rules, Rule-based classification, Classification quality, Validation.

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424 A Proposal for Systematic Mapping Study of Software Security Testing, Verification and Validation

Authors: Adriano Bessa Albuquerque, Francisco Jose Barreto Nunes

Abstract:

Software vulnerabilities are increasing and not only impact services and processes availability as well as information confidentiality, integrity and privacy, but also cause changes that interfere in the development process. Security test could be a solution to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the variety of test techniques with the lack of real case studies of applying tests focusing on software development life cycle compromise its effective use. This paper offers an overview of how a Systematic Mapping Study (MS) about security verification, validation and test (VVT) was performed, besides presenting general results about this study.

Keywords: Software test, software security verification validation and test, security test institutionalization, systematic mapping study.

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423 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: Single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material.

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422 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung

Abstract:

As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an ‘optimal’ value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.

Keywords: Cross Validation, Parameter Averaging, Parameter Selection, Regularization Parameter Search.

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421 A Comparison of Some Thresholding Selection Methods for Wavelet Regression

Authors: Alsaidi M. Altaher, Mohd T. Ismail

Abstract:

In wavelet regression, choosing threshold value is a crucial issue. A too large value cuts too many coefficients resulting in over smoothing. Conversely, a too small threshold value allows many coefficients to be included in reconstruction, giving a wiggly estimate which result in under smoothing. However, the proper choice of threshold can be considered as a careful balance of these principles. This paper gives a very brief introduction to some thresholding selection methods. These methods include: Universal, Sure, Ebays, Two fold cross validation and level dependent cross validation. A simulation study on a variety of sample sizes, test functions, signal-to-noise ratios is conducted to compare their numerical performances using three different noise structures. For Gaussian noise, EBayes outperforms in all cases for all used functions while Two fold cross validation provides the best results in the case of long tail noise. For large values of signal-to-noise ratios, level dependent cross validation works well under correlated noises case. As expected, increasing both sample size and level of signal to noise ratio, increases estimation efficiency.

Keywords: wavelet regression, simulation, Threshold.

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420 Validation of Automation Systems using Temporal Logic Model Checking and Groebner Bases

Authors: Quoc-Nam Tran, Anjib Mulepati

Abstract:

Validation of an automation system is an important issue. The goal is to check if the system under investigation, modeled by a Petri net, never enters the undesired states. Usually, tools dedicated to Petri nets such as DESIGN/CPN are used to make reachability analysis. The biggest problem with this approach is that it is impossible to generate the full occurence graph of the system because it is too large. In this paper, we show how computational methods such as temporal logic model checking and Groebner bases can be used to verify the correctness of the design of an automation system. We report our experimental results with two automation systems: the Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system and the traffic light system. Validation of these two systems ranged from 10 to 30 seconds on a PC depending on the optimizing parameters.

Keywords: Computational Intelligence, Temporal Logic Reasoning, Model Checking, Groebner Bases.

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419 Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hungarian Version of Self-Determination Scale

Authors: E. E. Marschalko, K. Kalcza-Janosi, I. Kotta, B. Bibok

Abstract:

There is a scarcity of validated instruments in Hungarian for the assessment of self-determination related traits and behaviors. In order to fill in this gap, the aim of this study was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of Self-Determination Scale (SDS) for the Hungarian population. A total of 4335 adults participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27.97 (SD = 9.60). The sample consisted mostly of females, less than 20% were males. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed for factorial structure checking and validation Cronbach’s alpha was used to examine the reliability of the factors. Our results revealed that the Hungarian version of SDS has good psychometric properties and it is a reliable tool for psychologists who would like to study or assess self-determination traits in their clients. The adapted and validated Hungarian version of SDS is presented in this paper.

Keywords: self-determination, traits, self-determination scale, awareness of self, perceived choice, adults, Hungarian, psychometric properties

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418 Information Retrieval: Improving Question Answering Systems by Query Reformulation and Answer Validation

Authors: Mohammad Reza Kangavari, Samira Ghandchi, Manak Golpour

Abstract:

Question answering (QA) aims at retrieving precise information from a large collection of documents. Most of the Question Answering systems composed of three main modules: question processing, document processing and answer processing. Question processing module plays an important role in QA systems to reformulate questions. Moreover answer processing module is an emerging topic in QA systems, where these systems are often required to rank and validate candidate answers. These techniques aiming at finding short and precise answers are often based on the semantic relations and co-occurrence keywords. This paper discussed about a new model for question answering which improved two main modules, question processing and answer processing which both affect on the evaluation of the system operations. There are two important components which are the bases of the question processing. First component is question classification that specifies types of question and answer. Second one is reformulation which converts the user's question into an understandable question by QA system in a specific domain. The objective of an Answer Validation task is thus to judge the correctness of an answer returned by a QA system, according to the text snippet given to support it. For validating answers we apply candidate answer filtering, candidate answer ranking and also it has a final validation section by user voting. Also this paper described new architecture of question and answer processing modules with modeling, implementing and evaluating the system. The system differs from most question answering systems in its answer validation model. This module makes it more suitable to find exact answer. Results show that, from total 50 asked questions, evaluation of the model, show 92% improving the decision of the system.

Keywords: Answer processing, answer validation, classification, question answering, query reformulation.

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417 Multi-models Approach for Describing and Verifying Constraints Based Interactive Systems

Authors: Mamoun Sqali, Mohamed Wassim Trojet

Abstract:

The requirements analysis, modeling, and simulation have consistently been one of the main challenges during the development of complex systems. The scenarios and the state machines are two successful models to describe the behavior of an interactive system. The scenarios represent examples of system execution in the form of sequences of messages exchanged between objects and are a partial view of the system. In contrast, state machines can represent the overall system behavior. The automation of processing scenarios in the state machines provide some answers to various problems such as system behavior validation and scenarios consistency checking. In this paper, we propose a method for translating scenarios in state machines represented by Discreet EVent Specification and procedure to detect implied scenarios. Each induced DEVS model represents the behavior of an object of the system. The global system behavior is described by coupling the atomic DEVS models and validated through simulation. We improve the validation process with integrating formal methods to eliminate logical inconsistencies in the global model. For that end, we use the Z notation.

Keywords: Scenarios, DEVS, synthesis, validation and verification, simulation, formal verification, z notation.

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416 Development of Perez-Du Mortier Calibration Algorithm for Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurement with Validation using SMARTS Model

Authors: Jedol Dayou, Jackson Hian Wui Chang, Rubena Yusoff, Ag. Sufiyan Abd. Hamid, Fauziah Sulaiman, Justin Sentian

Abstract:

Aerosols are small particles suspended in air that have wide varying spatial and temporal distributions. The concentration of aerosol in total columnar atmosphere is normally measured using aerosol optical depth (AOD). In long-term monitoring stations, accurate AOD retrieval is often difficult due to the lack of frequent calibration. To overcome this problem, a near-sea-level Langley calibration algorithm is developed using the combination of clear-sky detection model and statistical filter. It attempts to produce a dataset that consists of only homogenous and stable atmospheric condition for the Langley calibration purposes. In this paper, a radiance-based validation method is performed to further investigate the feasibility and consistency of the proposed algorithm at different location, day, and time. The algorithm is validated using SMARTS model based n DNI value. The overall results confirmed that the proposed calibration algorithm feasible and consistent for measurements taken at different sites and weather conditions.

Keywords: Aerosol optical depth, direct normal irradiance, Langley calibration, radiance-based validation, SMARTS.

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415 Validation and Projections for Solar Radiation up to 2100: HadGEM2-AO Global Circulation Model

Authors: Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Claudineia Brazil, Deivid Pires, Rafael Haag, Elton Gimenez Rossini

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to evaluate the results of solar radiation projections between 2006 and 2013 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The projections are provided by the General Circulation Models (MCGs) belonging to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5). In all, the results of the simulation of six models are evaluated, compared to monthly data, measured by a network of thirteen meteorological stations of the National Meteorological Institute (INMET). The performance of the models is evaluated by the Nash coefficient and the Bias. The results are presented in the form of tables, graphs and spatialization maps. The ACCESS1-0 RCP 4.5 model presented the best results for the solar radiation simulations, for the most optimistic scenario, in much of the state. The efficiency coefficients (CEF) were between 0.95 and 0.98. In the most pessimistic scenario, HADGen2-AO RCP 8.5 had the best accuracy among the analyzed models, presenting coefficients of efficiency between 0.94 and 0.98. From this validation, solar radiation projection maps were elaborated, indicating a seasonal increase of this climatic variable in some regions of the Brazilian territory, mainly in the spring.

Keywords: climate change, projections, solar radiation, validation.

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414 Method Development and Validation for the Determination of Cefixime in Pure and Commercial Dosage Forms by Specrophotometry

Authors: S. N. H. Azmi, B. Iqbal, J. K. Al Mamari, K. A. Al Hattali, W. N. Al Hadhrami

Abstract:

A simple, accurate and precise direct spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of cefixime in tablets and capsules. The method is based on the reaction of cefixime with a mixture of potassium iodide and potassium iodate to form yellow coloured product in ethanol-distilled water medium at room temperature which absorbed maximally at 352 nm. The factors affecting the reaction product were carefully studied and optimized. The validation parameters based on International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, USA) guidelines were followed. The effect of common excipients used as additives has been tested and the tolerance limit was calculated for the determination of cefixime. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4 – 24 ug mL-1 with apparent molar absorptivity of 1.52 × 104 L mol-1cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity of 0.033 ug/cm2/ 0.001 absorbance unit. The limits of detection and quantitation for the proposed method are 0.32 and 1.06 ug mL-1, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of cefixime in pharmaceutical formulations. The results obtained by the proposed method were statistically compared with the reference method using t- and F- values and found no significant difference between the two methods. The proposed method can be used as an alternate method for routine quality control analysis of cefixime in pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: Spectrophotometry, cefixime, validation, pharmaceutical formulations.

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413 Screen of MicroRNA Targets in Zebrafish Using Heterogeneous Data Sources: A Case Study for Dre-miR-10 and Dre-miR-196

Authors: Yanju Zhang, Joost M. Woltering, Fons J. Verbeek

Abstract:

It has been established that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene expression by post-transcriptional regulation of messengerRNAs (mRNAs). However, the precise relationships between microRNAs and their target genes in sense of numbers, types and biological relevance remain largely unclear. Dissecting the miRNA-target relationships will render more insights for miRNA targets identification and validation therefore promote the understanding of miRNA function. In miRBase, miRanda is the key algorithm used for target prediction for Zebrafish. This algorithm is high-throughput but brings lots of false positives (noise). Since validation of a large scale of targets through laboratory experiments is very time consuming, several computational methods for miRNA targets validation should be developed. In this paper, we present an integrative method to investigate several aspects of the relationships between miRNAs and their targets with the final purpose of extracting high confident targets from miRanda predicted targets pool. This is achieved by using the techniques ranging from statistical tests to clustering and association rules. Our research focuses on Zebrafish. It was found that validated targets do not necessarily associate with the highest sequence matching. Besides, for some miRNA families, the frequency of their predicted targets is significantly higher in the genomic region nearby their own physical location. Finally, in a case study of dre-miR-10 and dre-miR-196, it was found that the predicted target genes hoxd13a, hoxd11a, hoxd10a and hoxc4a of dre-miR- 10 while hoxa9a, hoxc8a and hoxa13a of dre-miR-196 have similar characteristics as validated target genes and therefore represent high confidence target candidates.

Keywords: MicroRNA targets validation, microRNA-target relationships, dre-miR-10, dre-miR-196.

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412 Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device

Authors: Lei Lei, Hongbo Zhang, Donald J. Bergstrom, Bing Zhang, K. Y. Song, W. J. Zhang

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model, multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties, structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results from the model are compared with the experimental results in the diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.

Keywords: CFD modeling, validation, microsphere generation, modified T-junction.

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411 Researches on Simulation and Validation of Airborne Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

Authors: Ma Shidong, He Yuncheng, Wang Zhong, Yang Guoqing

Abstract:

In this paper, enhanced ground proximity warning simulation and validation system is designed and implemented. First, based on square grid and sub-grid structure, the global digital terrain database is designed and constructed. Terrain data searching is implemented through querying the latitude and longitude bands and separated zones of global terrain database with the current aircraft position. A combination of dynamic scheduling and hierarchical scheduling is adopted to schedule the terrain data, and the terrain data can be read and delete dynamically in the memory. Secondly, according to the scope, distance, approach speed information etc. to the dangerous terrain in front, and using security profiles calculating method, collision threat detection is executed in real-time, and provides caution and warning alarm. According to this scheme, the implementation of the enhanced ground proximity warning simulation system is realized. Simulations are carried out to verify a good real-time in terrain display and alarm trigger, and the results show simulation system is realized correctly, reasonably and stable.

Keywords: enhanced ground proximity warning system, digital terrain, look-ahead terrain alarm, terrain display, simulation and validation

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410 Mathematical Modelling of Different Types of Body Support Surface for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Authors: Mahbub C. Mishu, Venketesh N. Dubey, Tamas Hickish, Jonathan Cole

Abstract:

Pressure ulcer is a common problem for today’s healthcare industry. It occurs due to external load applied to the skin. Also when the subject is immobile for a longer period of time and there is continuous load applied to a particular area of human body, blood flow gets reduced and as a result pressure ulcer develops. Body support surface has a significant role in preventing ulceration so it is important to know the characteristics of support surface under loading conditions. In this paper we have presented mathematical models of different types of viscoelastic materials and also we have shown the validation of our simulation results with experiments.

Keywords: Pressure ulcer, viscoelastic material, mathematical model, experimental validation.

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409 Modelling of a Direct Drive Industrial Robot

Authors: C. Perez, O. Reinoso, N. Garcia, J. M. Sabater, L. Gracia

Abstract:

For high-speed control of robots, a good knowledge of system modelling is necessary to obtain the desired bandwidth. In this paper, we present a cartesian robot with a pan/tilt unit in end-effector (5 dof). This robot is implemented with powerful direct drive AC induction machines. The dynamic model, parameter identification and model validation of the robot are studied (including actuators). This work considers the cartesian robot coupled and non linear (contrary to normal considerations for this type of robots). The mechanical and control architecture proposed in this paper is efficient for industrial and research application in which high speed, well known model and very high accuracy are required.

Keywords: Robot modelling, parameter identification and validation, AC servo-motors.

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408 Performance Optimization of Data Mining Application Using Radial Basis Function Classifier

Authors: M. Govindarajan, R. M.Chandrasekaran

Abstract:

Text data mining is a process of exploratory data analysis. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. This paper describes proposed radial basis function Classifier that performs comparative crossvalidation for existing radial basis function Classifier. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of data mining problem: direct Marketing. Direct marketing has become an important application field of data mining. Comparative Cross-validation involves estimation of accuracy by either stratified k-fold cross-validation or equivalent repeated random subsampling. While the proposed method may have high bias; its performance (accuracy estimation in our case) may be poor due to high variance. Thus the accuracy with proposed radial basis function Classifier was less than with the existing radial basis function Classifier. However there is smaller the improvement in runtime and larger improvement in precision and recall. In the proposed method Classification accuracy and prediction accuracy are determined where the prediction accuracy is comparatively high.

Keywords: Text Data Mining, Comparative Cross-validation, Radial Basis Function, runtime, accuracy.

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407 Individual Actuators of a Car-Like Robot with Back Trailer

Authors: Tarek M. Nazih El-Derini, Ahmed K. El-Shenawy

Abstract:

This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T).The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.

Keywords: Kinematics, Modeling, Wheeled Mobile Robot.

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406 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dispersion of Microparticles Emitted by Machining Operation

Authors: F. Tafnout, E. Belut, B. Oesterlé, J.R. Fontaine

Abstract:

As a part of the development of a numerical method of close capture exhausts systems for machining devices, a test rig recreating a situation similar to a grinding operation, but in a perfectly controlled environment, is used. The properties of the obtained spray of solid particles are initially characterized using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), in order to obtain input and validation parameters for numerical simulations. The dispersion of a tracer gas (SF6) emitted simultaneously with the particle jet is then studied experimentally, as the dispersion of such a gas is representative of that of finer particles, whose aerodynamic response time is negligible. Finally, complete modeling of the test rig is achieved to allow comparison with experimental results and thus to progress towards validation of the models used to describe a twophase flow generated by machining operation.

Keywords: Pollutants, capture, tracer gas, SF6, PTV, numericalmodeling.

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405 On Method of Fundamental Solution for Nondestructive Testing

Authors: Jieer Wu, Zheshu Ma

Abstract:

Nondestructive testing in engineering is an inverse Cauchy problem for Laplace equation. In this paper the problem of nondestructive testing is expressed by a Laplace-s equation with third-kind boundary conditions. In order to find unknown values on the boundary, the method of fundamental solution is introduced and realized. Because of the ill-posedness of studied problems, the TSVD regularization technique in combination with L-curve criteria and Generalized Cross Validation criteria is employed. Numerical results are shown that the TSVD method combined with L-curve criteria is more efficient than the TSVD method combined with GCV criteria. The abstract goes here.

Keywords: ill-posed, TSVD, Laplace's equation, inverse problem, L-curve, Generalized Cross Validation.

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404 Coordinated Q–V Controller for Multi-machine Steam Power Plant: Design and Validation

Authors: Jasna Dragosavac, Žarko Janda, J.V. Milanović, Dušan Arnautović

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This paper discusses coordinated reactive power - voltage (Q-V) control in a multi machine steam power plant. The drawbacks of manual Q-V control are briefly listed, and the design requirements for coordinated Q-V controller are specified. Theoretical background and mathematical model of the new controller are presented next followed by validation of developed Matlab/Simulink model through comparison with recorded responses in real steam power plant and description of practical realisation of the controller. Finally, the performance of commissioned controller is illustrated on several examples of coordinated Q-V control in real steam power plant and compared with manual control.

Keywords: Coordinated Voltage Control, Power Plant Control, Reactive Power Control, Sensitivity Matrix

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403 Describing Learning Features of Reusable Resources: A Proposal

Authors: Serena Alvino, Paola Forcheri, Maria Grazia Ierardi, Luigi Sarti

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One of the main advantages of the LO paradigm is to allow the availability of good quality, shareable learning material through the Web. The effectiveness of the retrieval process requires a formal description of the resources (metadata) that closely fits the user-s search criteria; in spite of the huge international efforts in this field, educational metadata schemata often fail to fulfil this requirement. This work aims to improve the situation, by the definition of a metadata model capturing specific didactic features of shareable learning resources. It classifies LOs into “teacher-oriented" and “student-oriented" categories, in order to describe the role a LO is to play when it is integrated into the educational process. This article describes the model and a first experimental validation process that has been carried out in a controlled environment.

Keywords: Learning object, pedagogical metadata, experimental validation.

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402 New Simultaneous High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of NSAIDs and Opioid Analgesics in Advanced Drug Delivery Systems and Human Plasma

Authors: Asad Ullah Madni, Mahmood Ahmad, Naveed Akhtar, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

A new and cost effective RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of non steroidal anti inflammatory dugs Diclofenac sodium (DFS), Flurbiprofen (FLP) and an opioid analgesic Tramadol (TMD) in advanced drug delivery systems (Liposome and Microcapsules), marketed brands and human plasma. Isocratic system was employed for the flow of mobile phase consisting of 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in molar ratio of 67: 33 with adjusted pH of 3.2. The stationary phase was hypersil ODS column (C18, 250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with controlled temperature of 30 C°. DFS in liposomes, microcapsules and marketed drug products was determined in range of 99.76-99.84%. FLP and TMD in microcapsules and brands formulation were 99.78 - 99.94 % and 99.80 - 99.82 %, respectively. Single step liquid-liquid extraction procedure using combination of acetonitrile and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as protein precipitating agent was employed. The detection limits (at S/N ratio 3) of quality control solutions and plasma samples were 10, 20, and 20 ng/ml for DFS, FLP and TMD, respectively. The Assay was acceptable in linear dynamic range. All other validation parameters were found in limits of FDA and ICH method validation guidelines. The proposed method is sensitive, accurate and precise and could be applicable for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industry as well as in human plasma samples for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetics studies.

Keywords: Diclofenac Sodium, Flurbiprofen, Tramadol, HPLCUV detection, Validation.

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401 Adaptation of State/Transition-Based Methods for Embedded System Testing

Authors: Abdelaziz Guerrouat, Harald Richter

Abstract:

In this paper test generation methods and appropriate fault models for testing and analysis of embedded systems described as (extended) finite state machines ((E)FSMs) are presented. Compared to simple FSMs, EFSMs specify not only the control flow but also the data flow. Thus, we define a two-level fault model to cover both aspects. The goal of this paper is to reuse well-known FSM-based test generation methods for automation of embedded system testing. These methods have been widely used in testing and validation of protocols and communicating systems. In particular, (E)FSMs-based specification and testing is more advantageous because (E)FSMs support the formal semantic of already standardised formal description techniques (FDTs) despite of their popularity in the design of hardware and software systems.

Keywords: Formal methods, testing and validation, finite state machines, formal description techniques.

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