Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 117

Search results for: Surfactant flooding.

117 Application of SDS/LABS in Recovery Improvement from Fractured Models

Authors: Rasool Razmi, Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat, Reza Janamiri, Amir Hatampou

Abstract:

This work concerns on experimentally investigation of surfactant flooding in fractured porous media. In this study a series of water and surfactant injection processes were performed on micromodels initially saturated with a heavy crude oil. Eight fractured glass micromodels were used to illustrate effects of surfactant types and concentrations on oil recovery efficiency in presence of fractures with different properties i.e. fracture orientation, length and number of fractures. Two different surfactants with different concentrations were tested. The results showed that surfactant flooding would be more efficient by using SDS surfactant aqueous solution and also by locating injection well in a proper position respect to fracture properties. This study demonstrates different physical and chemical conditions that affect the efficiency of this method of enhanced oil recovery.

Keywords: Displacement, Fractured five-spot systems, Heavy oil, Surfactant flooding.

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116 Simultaneous HPAM/SDS Injection in Heterogeneous/Layered Models

Authors: M. H. Sedaghat, A. Zamani, S. Morshedi, R. Janamiri, M. Safdari, I. Mahdavi, A. Hosseini, A. Hatampour

Abstract:

Although lots of experiments have been done in enhanced oil recovery, the number of experiments which consider the effects of local and global heterogeneity on efficiency of enhanced oil recovery based on the polymer-surfactant flooding is low and rarely done. In this research, we have done numerous experiments of water flooding and polymer-surfactant flooding on a five spot glass micromodel in different conditions such as different positions of layers. In these experiments, five different micromodels with three different pore structures are designed. Three models with different layer orientation, one homogenous model and one heterogeneous model are designed. In order to import the effect of heterogeneity of porous media, three types of pore structures are distributed accidentally and with equal ratio throughout heterogeneous micromodel network according to random normal distribution. The results show that maximum EOR recovery factor will happen in a situation where the layers are orthogonal to the path of mainstream and the minimum EOR recovery factor will happen in a situation where the model is heterogeneous. This experiments show that in polymer-surfactant flooding, with increase of angles of layers the EOR recovery factor will increase and this recovery factor is strongly affected by local heterogeneity around the injection zone.

Keywords: Layered Reservoir, Micromodel, Local Heterogeneity, Polymer-Surfactant Flooding, Enhanced Oil Recovery.

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115 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR

Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.

Keywords: Bio-surfactant, Bacteria, Interfacial tension, Sand column.

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114 Effects of Polymers and Alkaline on Recovery Improvement from Fractured Models

Authors: Payam Parvasi, Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat, Reza Janamiri, Amir Hatampour

Abstract:

In this work, several ASP solutions were flooded into fractured models initially saturated with heavy oil at a constant flow rate and different geometrical characteristics of fracture. The ASP solutions are constituted from 2 polymers i.e. a synthetic polymer, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide as well as a biopolymer, a surfactant and 2types of alkaline. The results showed that using synthetic hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer increases ultimate oil recovery; however, type of alkaline does not play a significant rule on oil recovery. In addition, position of the injection well respect to the fracture system has remarkable effects on ASP flooding. For instance increasing angle of fractures with mean flow direction causes more oil recovery and delays breakthrough time. This work can be accounted as a comprehensive survey on ASP flooding which considers most of effective factors in this chemical EOR method.

Keywords: ASP Flooding, Fractured System, Displacement, Heavy Oil.

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113 Effect of Nano-Silver on Growth of Saffron in Flooding Stress

Authors: N. Rezvani, A. Sorooshzadeh, N. Farhadi

Abstract:

Saffron (Crocus sativus) is cultivated as spices, medicinal and aromatic plant species. At autumn season, heavy rainfall can cause flooding stress and inhibits growth of saffron. Thus this research was conducted to study the effect of silver ion (as an ethylene inhibitor) on growth of saffron under flooding conditions. The corms of saffron were soaked with one concentration of nano silver (0, 40, 80 or 120 ppm) and then planting under flooding stress or non flooding stress conditions. Results showed that number of roots, root length, root fresh and dry weight, leaves fresh and dry weight were reduced by 10 day flooding stress. Soaking saffron corms with 40 or 80 ppm concentration of nano silver rewarded the effect of flooding stress on the root number, by increasing it. Furthermore, 40 ppm of nano silver increased root length in stress. Nano silver 80 ppm in flooding stress, increased leaves dry weight.

Keywords: Flooding stress, Nano-silver, Saffron.

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112 The Effect of Dispersed MWCNTs Using SDBS Surfactant on Bacterial Growth

Authors: J.E. Park, G.R. Kim, D.J. Yoon, C.H. Sin, I.S. Park, T.S. Bea, M.H. Lee

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive because of their excellent chemical durability mechanical strength and electrical properties. Therefore there is interest in CNTs for not only electrical and mechanical application, but also biological and medical application. In this study, the dispersion power of surfactant-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their effect on the antibacterial activity were examined. Surfactant was used sodium dodecyl-benzenesulfonate (SDBS). UV-vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were used to characterize the dispersion of MWCNTs in the aqueous phase, showing that the surfactant molecules had been adsorbed onto the MWCNTs surface. The surfactant-treated MWCNTs exhibited antimicrobial activities to streptococcus mutans. The optical density growth curves and viable cell number determined by the plating method suggested that the antimicrobial activity of surfactant-treated MWCNTs was both concentration and treatment time-dependent.

Keywords: MWCNT, SDBS, surfactant, antibacterial.

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111 A New Strategy for Minimizing Precipitations during ASP Flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

Authors: Khaled Abdalla Elraies, Shuaib Ahmed

Abstract:

A large quantity of world-s oil reserves exists in carbonate reservoirs. Carbonate reservoirs are very sensitive to chemical enhanced oil recovery process because of containing large amount of calcite, dolomite and calcium sulfate minerals. These minerals cause major obstacles during alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding. Alkali reacts with these minerals and form undesired precipitations which plug effective porous openings, reduce permeability and cause scale occurrence at the wellbore. In this paper, a new chemical combination consists of acrylic acid and alkali was used to minimize precipitation problem during ASP flooding. A series of fluid-fluid compatibility tests were performed using acrylic acid and different concentrations of alkaline. Two types of alkalis namely; sodium carbonate and sodium metaborate were screened. As a result, the combination of acrylic acid and sodium carbonate was not effective in preventing calcium and magnesium precipitations. However, acrylic acid and sodium metaborate showed promising results for keeping all solutions without any precipitations. The ratio of acrylic acid to sodium metaborate of 0.7:1.0 was found to be optimum for achieving a compatible solution for 30 days at 80oC.

Keywords: Fluid-fluid compatibility test, Carbonate reservoirs, Precipitations and ASP flooding.

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110 The Response of Winter Wheat to Flooding

Authors: M. E. Ghobadi, M. Ghobadi, A. Zebarjadi

Abstract:

The effect of flooding can be a serious problem for wheat farmers, even at dry land condition. Amount of flooding damage depends on duration flooding, developmental stage, wheat type and variety. Therefore as a factorial experiment in randomized complete design based on winter bread wheat cultivars (Pishtaz, Marvdasht, Shiraz, Zarin, Shahriar, C-81-4, Sardari, Agosta seed, FGS and Azar2) at stages (Non- flooding stress, flooding at tillering and stem elongation stages for 15 days) carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. During flooding, soil environment of plant roots were water saturated. Analysis of variance showed that flooding had a significant effect on the number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and a grain weight. Hence flooding reduces the number of grain per spike between 27.1 to 42.5 percent, grain weight per spike between 34.7 to 54.4 percent and single grain weight between 12.1 to 15.1 percent. Effects of flooding at the tillering stage reduced higher than stem elongation stage on studied traits. The result also showed that flooding at tillering stage delayed spikelet primordial and floret. Between wheat cultivars was significant for traits, but were different reactions. "Shiraz", "Zarin" and "Shahriar" had the most no. grain per spike, but "Zarin" and "Sardari" had the most grain weight per spike and single grain weight, respectively. Also, interaction between start of flooding and cultivar was significant.

Keywords: Flooding, winter wheat, yield components

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109 Designing an Agent-Based Model of SMEs to Assess Flood Response Strategies and Resilience

Authors: C. Li, G. Coates, N. Johnson, M. McGuinness

Abstract:

In the UK, flooding is responsible for significant losses to the economy due to the impact on businesses, the vast majority of which are Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Businesses of this nature tend to lack formal plans to aid their response to and recovery from disruptive events such as flooding. This paper reports on work on how an agent-based model (ABM) is being developed based on interview data gathered from SMEs at-risk of flooding and/or have direct experience of flooding. The ABM will enable simulations to be performed allowing investigations of different response strategies which SMEs may employ to lessen the impact of flooding, thus strengthening their resilience.

Keywords: ABM, Flood response, SMEs, Business continuity.

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108 Physicochemical Properties of Microemulsions and their uses in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: T. Kumar, Achinta Bera, Ajay Mandal

Abstract:

Use of microemulsion in enhanced oil recovery has become more attractive in recent years because of its high level of extraction efficiency. Experimental investigations have been made on characterization of microemulsions of oil-brinesurfactant/ cosurfactant system for its use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Sodium dodecyl sulfate, propan-1-ol and heptane were selected as surfactant, cosurfactant and oil respectively for preparation of microemulsion. The effects of salinity on the relative phase volumes and solubilization parameters have also been studied. As salinity changes from low to high value, phase transition takes place from Winsor I to Winsor II via Winsor III. Suitable microemulsion composition has been selected based on its stability and ability to reduce interfacial tension. A series of flooding experiments have been performed using the selected microemulsion. The flooding experiments were performed in a core flooding apparatus using uniform sand pack. The core holder was tightly packed with uniform sands (60-100 mesh) and saturated with brines of different salinities. It was flooded with the brine at 25 psig and the absolute permeability was calculated from the flow rate of the through sand pack. The sand pack was then flooded with the crude oil at 800 psig to irreducible water saturation. The initial water saturation was determined on the basis of mass balance. Waterflooding was conducted by placing the coreholder horizontally at a constant injection pressure at 200 pisg. After water flooding, when water-cut reached above 95%, around 0.5 pore volume (PV) of the above microemulsion slug was injected followed by chasing water. The experiments were repeated using different composition of microemulsion slug. The additional recoveries were calculated by material balance. Encouraging results with additional recovery more than 20% of original oil in place above the conventional water flooding have been observed.

Keywords: Microemulsion Flooding, Enhanced Oil Recovery, Phase Behavior, Optimal salinity

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107 Study of the Sorption of Biosurfactants from l. Pentosus on Sediments

Authors: Devesa-Rey R., Vecino X., Barral M.T., Cruz J.M., Moldes A.B

Abstract:

Losses of surfactant due to sorption need to be considered when selecting surfactant doses for soil bioremediation. The degree of surfactant sorption onto soil depends primarily on the organic carbon fraction of soil and the chemical nature of the surfactant. The use of biosurfactants in the control of the bioavailability of toxicants in soils is an attractive option because of their biodegradability. In this work biosurfactants were produced from a cheap raw material, trimming vine shoots, employing Lactobacillus pentosus. When biosurfactants from L. pentosus was added to sediments the surface tensión of the water containing the sediments rapidly increase, the same behaviour was observed with the chemical surfactant Tween 20; whereas sodyum dodecyl sulphate (SDS) kept the surface tension of the water around 36 mN/m. It means, that the behaviour of biosurfactants from L. pentosus is more similar to non-ionic surfactatns than to anionic surfactants.

Keywords: Biosurfactants, L. pentous, sediments, surface tension

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106 Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana Spore Compatibility with Surfactants

Authors: Sapna Mishra, Peeyush Kumar, Anushree Malik

Abstract:

The spores of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana was evaluated for their compatibility with four surfactants; SDS (sodium dodyl sulphate) and CABS-65 (calcium alkyl benzene sulphonate), Tween 20 (polyethylene sorbitan monolaureate) and Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoleate) at six different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). Incubated spores showed decrease in concentrations due to conversion of spores to hyphae. The maximum germination recorded in 72 h incubated spores varied with surfactant concentration at 49-68% (SDS), 39- 53% (CABS), 78-92% (Tween 80) and 80-92% (Tween 20), while the optimal surfactant concentration for spore germination was found to be 2.5-5%. The surfactant effect on spores was more pronounced with SDS and CABS-65, where significant deterioration and loss in viability of the incubated spores was observed. The effect of Tween 20 and Tween 80 were comparatively less inhibiting. The results of the study would help in surfactant selection for B. bassiana emulsion preparation.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, spore, surfactant, compatibility, germination.

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105 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of Tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: Alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead.

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104 Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Biosurfactants on Residual-Oil Recovery

Authors: S. V. Ukwungwu, A. J. Abbas, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

The increasing high price of natural gas and oil with attendant increase in energy demand on world markets in recent years has stimulated interest in recovering residual oil saturation across the globe. In order to meet the energy security, efforts have been made in developing new technologies of enhancing the recovery of oil and gas, utilizing techniques like CO2 flooding, water injection, hydraulic fracturing, surfactant flooding etc. Surfactant flooding however optimizes production but poses risk to the environment due to their toxic nature. Amongst proven records that have utilized other type of bacterial in producing biosurfactants for enhancing oil recovery, this research uses a technique to combine biosurfactants that will achieve a scale of EOR through lowering interfacial tension/contact angle. In this study, three biosurfactants were produced from three Bacillus species from freeze dried cultures using sucrose 3 % (w/v) as their carbon source. Two of these produced biosurfactants were screened with the TEMCO Pendant Drop Image Analysis for reduction in IFT and contact angle. Interfacial tension was greatly reduced from 56.95 mN.m-1 to 1.41 mN.m-1 when biosurfactants in cell-free culture (Bacillus licheniformis) were used compared to 4. 83mN.m-1 cell-free culture of Bacillus subtilis. As a result, cell-free culture of (Bacillus licheniformis) changes the wettability of the biosurfactant treatment for contact angle measurement to more water-wet as the angle decreased from 130.75o to 65.17o. The influence of microbial treatment on crushed rock samples was also observed by qualitative wettability experiments. Treated samples with biosurfactants remained in the aqueous phase, indicating a water-wet system. These results could prove that biosurfactants can effectively change the chemistry of the wetting conditions against diverse surfaces, providing a desirable condition for efficient oil transport in this way serving as a mechanism for EOR. The environmental friendly effect of biosurfactants applications for industrial purposes play important advantages over chemically synthesized surfactants, with various possible structures, low toxicity, eco-friendly and biodegradability.

Keywords: Bacillus, biosurfactant, enhanced oil recovery, residual oil, wettability.

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103 Effectiveness of Infrastructure Flood Control Due to Development Upstream Land Use: Case Study of Ciliwung Watershed

Authors: Siti Murniningsih, Evi Anggraheni

Abstract:

Various infrastructures such as dams, flood control dams and reservoirs have been developed in the 19th century until the 20th century. These infrastructures are very effective in controlling the river flows and in preventing inundation in the urban area prone to flooding. Flooding in the urban area often brings large impact, affecting every aspect of life and also environment. Ciliwung is one of the rivers allegedly contributes to the flooding problems in Jakarta; various engineering work has been done in Ciliwung river to help controlling the flooding. One of the engineering work is to build Ciawi Dam and Sukamahi Dam. In this research, author is doing the flood calculation with Nakayasu Method, while the previous flooding in that case study is computed using Level Pool Routine. The effectiveness of these dams can be identified by using flood simulation of existing condition and compare it to the flood simulation after the dam construction. The final goal of this study is to determine the effectiveness of flood mitigation infrastructure located at upstream area in reducing the volume of flooding in Jakarta.

Keywords: Effectiveness, flood simulation, infrastructure flooding, level pool routine.

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102 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Sébastien Poncet, Saïd Elkoun

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: Nanofluid, thermal conductivity, pH, transient hot wire, surfactant, Al2O3, stability, dispersion, preparation.

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101 The Study of the Interaction between Catanionic Surface Micelle SDS-CTAB and Insulin at Air/Water Interface

Authors: B. Tah, P. Pal, M. Mahato, R. Sarkar, G. B. Talapatra

Abstract:

Herein, we report the different types of surface morphology due to the interaction between the pure protein Insulin (INS) and catanionic surfactant mixture of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) at air/water interface obtained by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. We characterized the aggregations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in LB films. We found that the INS adsorption increased in presence of catanionic surfactant at air/water interface. The presence of small amount of surfactant induces two-stage growth kinetics due to the pure protein absorption and protein-catanionic surface micelle interaction. The protein remains in native state in presence of small amount of surfactant mixture. Smaller amount of surfactant mixture with INS is producing surface micelle type structure. This may be considered for drug delivery system. On the other hand, INS becomes unfolded and fibrillated in presence of higher amount of surfactant mixture. In both the cases, the protein was successfully immobilized on a glass substrate by the LB technique. These results may find applications in the fundamental science of the physical chemistry of surfactant systems, as well as in the preparation of drug-delivery system.

Keywords: Air/water interface, Catanionic micelle, Insulin, Langmuir-Blodgett film

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100 Removal of Cationic Heavy Metal and HOC from Soil-Washed Water Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Chi Kyu Ahn, Young Mi Kim, Seung Han Woo, Jong Moon Park

Abstract:

Soil washing process with a surfactant solution is a potential technology for the rapid removal of hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) from soil. However, large amount of washed water would be produced during operation and this should be treated effectively by proper methods. The soil washed water for complex contaminated site with HOC and heavy metals might contain high amount of pollutants such as HOC and heavy metals as well as used surfactant. The heavy metals in the soil washed water have toxic effects on microbial activities thus these should be removed from the washed water before proceeding to a biological waste-water treatment system. Moreover, the used surfactant solutions are necessary to be recovered for reducing the soil washing operation cost. In order to simultaneously remove the heavy metals and HOC from soil-washed water, activated carbon (AC) was used in the present study. In an anionic-nonionic surfactant mixed solution, the Cd(II) and phenanthrene (PHE) were effectively removed by adsorption on activated carbon. The removal efficiency for Cd(II) was increased from 0.027 mmol-Cd/g-AC to 0.142 mmol-Cd/g-AC as the mole ratio of SDS increased in the presence of PHE. The adsorptive capacity of PHE was also increased according to the SDS mole ratio due to the decrement of molar solubilization ratios (MSR) for PHE in an anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture. The simultaneous adsorption of HOC and cationic heavy metals using activated carbon could be a useful method for surfactant recovery and the reduction of heavy metal toxicity in a surfactant-enhanced soil washing process.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture, Cationic heavy metal, HOC, Soil washing

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99 Synthesis and Foam Power of New Biodegradable Surfactant

Authors: R. Mousli, A. Tazerouti

Abstract:

This work deals with the synthesis and the determination of some surface properties of a new anionic surfactant belonging to sulfonamide derivatives. The interest in this new surfactant is that its behavior in aqueous solution is interesting both from a fundamental and a practice point of view. Indeed, it is well known that this kind of surfactant leads to the formation of bilayer structures, and the microstructures obtained have applications in various fields, ranging from cosmetics to detergents, to biological systems such as cell membranes and bioreactors. The surfactant synthesized from pure n-alkane by photosulfochlorination and derivatized using N-ethanol amine is a mixture of position isomers. These compounds have been analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry by Electron Impact mode (GC -MS/IE), and IR. The surface tension measurements were carried out, leading to the determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess and the area occupied per molecule at the interface. The foaming power has also been determined by Bartsch method, and the results have been compared to those of commercial surfactants. The stability of the foam formed has also been evaluated. These compounds show good foaming power characterized in most cases by dry foam.

Keywords: Non ionic surfactants, GC-MS, surface properties, CMC, foam power.

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98 Performance Analysis of Flooding Attack Prevention Algorithm in MANETs

Authors: Revathi Venkataraman, M. Pushpalatha, T. Rama Rao

Abstract:

The lack of any centralized infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is one of the greatest security concerns in the deployment of wireless networks. Thus communication in MANET functions properly only if the participating nodes cooperate in routing without any malicious intention. However, some of the nodes may be malicious in their behavior, by indulging in flooding attacks on their neighbors. Some others may act malicious by launching active security attacks like denial of service. This paper addresses few related works done on trust evaluation and establishment in ad hoc networks. Related works on flooding attack prevention are reviewed. A new trust approach based on the extent of friendship between the nodes is proposed which makes the nodes to co-operate and prevent flooding attacks in an ad hoc environment. The performance of the trust algorithm is tested in an ad hoc network implementing the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol.

Keywords: AODV, Flooding, MANETs, trust estimation

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97 Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents

Authors: D. Erdenechimeg, T. Bujinlkham, N. Erdenepurev

Abstract:

The anti-corrosion performance of fatty acid coated mild steel samples is studied. Samples of structural steel coated with collector reagents deposited from surfactant in ethanol solution and overcoated with an epoxy barrier paint. A quantitative corrosion rate was determined by linear polarization resistance method using biopotentiostat/galvanostat 400. Coating morphology was determined by scanning electronic microscopy. A test for hydrophobic surface of steel by surfactant was done. From the samples, the main component or high content iron was determined by chemical method and other metal contents were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Prior to measuring the corrosion rate, mechanical and chemical treatments were performed to prepare the test specimens. Overcoating the metal samples with epoxy barrier paint after exposing them with surfactant the corrosion rate can be inhibited by 34-35 µm/year.

Keywords: Corrosion, linear polarization resistance, coating, surfactant.

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96 Current Distribution and Cathode Flooding Prediction in a PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: A. Jamekhorshid, G. Karimi, I. Noshadi, A. Jahangiri

Abstract:

Non-uniform current distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells results in local over-heating, accelerated ageing, and lower power output than expected. This issue is very critical when fuel cell experiences water flooding. In this work, the performance of a PEM fuel cell is investigated under cathode flooding conditions. Two-dimensional partially flooded GDL models based on the conservation laws and electrochemical relations are proposed to study local current density distributions along flow fields over a wide range of cell operating conditions. The model results show a direct association between cathode inlet humidity increases and that of average current density but the system becomes more sensitive to flooding. The anode inlet relative humidity shows a similar effect. Operating the cell at higher temperatures would lead to higher average current densities and the chance of system being flooded is reduced. In addition, higher cathode stoichiometries prevent system flooding but the average current density remains almost constant. The higher anode stoichiometry leads to higher average current density and higher sensitivity to cathode flooding.

Keywords: Current distribution, Flooding, Hydrogen energysystem, PEM fuel cell.

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95 Marangoni Instability in a Fluid Layer with Insoluble Surfactant

Authors: Ainon Syazana Ab. Hamid, Seripah Awang Kechil, Ahmad Sukri Abd. Aziz

Abstract:

The Marangoni convective instability in a horizontal fluid layer with the insoluble surfactant and nondeformable free surface is investigated. The surface tension at the free surface is linearly dependent on the temperature and concentration gradients. At the bottom surface, the temperature conditions of uniform temperature and uniform heat flux are considered. By linear stability theory, the exact analytical solutions for the steady Marangoni convection are derived and the marginal curves are plotted. The effects of surfactant or elasticity number, Lewis number and Biot number on the marginal Marangoni instability are assessed. The surfactant concentration gradients and the heat transfer mechanism at the free surface have stabilizing effects while the Lewis number destabilizes fluid system. The fluid system with uniform temperature condition at the bottom boundary is more stable than the fluid layer that is subjected to uniform heat flux at the bottom boundary.

Keywords: Analytical solutions, Marangoni Instability, Nondeformable free surface, Surfactant.

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94 Urban Growth, Sewerage Network and Flooding Risk: Flooding of November 10, 2001 in Algiers

Authors: Boualem El Kechebour, Djilali Benouar

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to present a expertise on flooding hazard analysis and how to reduce the risk. The analysis concerns the disaster induced by the flood on November 10/11, 2001 in the Bab El Oued district of the city of Algiers.The study begins by an expertise of damages in related with the urban environment and the history of the urban growth of the site. After this phase, the work is focalized on the identification of the existing correlations between the development of the town and its vulnerability. The final step consists to elaborate the interpretations on the interactions between the urban growth, the sewerage network and the vulnerability of the urban system.In conclusion, several recommendations are formulated permitting the mitigation of the risk in the future. The principal recommendations concern the new urban operations and the existing urbanized sites.

Keywords: urban growth, sewerage network, vulnerability of town, flooding risk, mitigation

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93 A Comparison of Conventional and Biodegradable Chelating Agent in Different Type of Surfactant Solutions for Soap Scum Removal

Authors: Prariyada Theptat, Sumaeth Chavadej, John F. Scamehorn

Abstract:

One of the most challenges for hard surface cleaning product is to get rid of soap scum, a filmy sticky layer in the bathroom. The deposits of soap scum can be removed by using a proper surfactant solution with chelating agent. Unfortunately, the conventional chelating agent, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), has low biodegradability, which can be tolerance in water resources and harmful to aquatic animal and microorganism. In this study, two biodegradable chelating agents, ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) were introduced as a replacement of EDTA. The result shows that using GLDA with amphoteric surfactant gave the highest equilibrium solubility of soap scum.

Keywords: Biodegradable chelating agent, EDDS, GLDA, Soap scum.

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92 Influence of Surfactant on Supercooling Degree of Aqueous Titania Nanofluids in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hoda Aslani, Mohammad Moghiman, Mohammad Aslani

Abstract:

Considering the demand to reduce global warming potential and importance of solidification in various applications, there is an increasing interest in energy storage systems to find the efficient phase change materials. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study and comparison on the potential of titania nanofluids with and without surfactant for cooling energy storage systems. A designed cooling generation device based on compression refrigeration cycle is used to explore nanofluids solidification characteristics. In this work, titania nanoparticles of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 wt.% are dispersed in deionized water as base fluid. Measurement of phase change parameters of nanofluids illustrates that the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant to titania nanofluids advances the onset nucleation time and leads to lower solidification time. Also, the experimental results show that only adding 0.02 wt.% titania nanoparticles, especially in the case of nanofluids with a surfactant, can evidently reduce the supercooling degree by nearly 70%. Hence, it is concluded that there is a great energy saving potential in the energy storage systems using titania nanofluid with PVP.

Keywords: Cooling energy storage, nanofluid, PVP, solidification, titania.

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91 Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from Contaminated Surfactant Solution using Co-Curren Vacuum Stripping

Authors: Pornchai Suriya-Amrit, Suratsawadee Kungsanant, Boonyarach Kitiyanan

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in utilizing surfactants in remediation processes to separate the hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) from aqueous solution. One attractive process is cloud point extraction (CPE), which utilizes nonionic surfactants as a separating agent. Since the surfactant cost is a key determination of the economic viability of the process, it is important that the surfactants are recycled and reused. This work aims to study the performance of the co-current vacuum stripping using a packed column for HVOCs removal from contaminated surfactant solution. Six types HVOCs are selected as contaminants. The studied surfactant is the branched secondary alcohol ethoxylates (AEs), Tergitol TMN-6 (C14H30O2). The volatility and the solubility of HVOCs in surfactant system are determined in terms of an apparent Henry’s law constant and a solubilization constant, respectively. Moreover, the HVOCs removal efficiency of vacuum stripping column is assessed in terms of percentage of HVOCs removal and the overall liquid phase volumetric mass transfer coefficient. The apparent Henry’s law constant of benzenz , toluene, and ethyl benzene were 7.00×10-5, 5.38×10-5, 3.35× 10-5 respectively. The solubilization constant of benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene were 1.71, 2.68, 7.54 respectively. The HVOCs removal for all solute were around 90 percent.

Keywords: Apparent Henry’s law constant, Branched secondary alcohol ethoxylates, Vacuum Stripping.

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90 Recovery of Copper and DCA from Simulated Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF)Waste Stream

Authors: Chuan-Kun Liu, Chi-Wang Li

Abstract:

Simultaneous recovery of copper and DCA from simulated MEUF concentrated stream was investigated. Effects of surfactant (DCA) and metal (copper) concentrations, surfactant to metal molar ratio (S/M ratio), electroplating voltage, EDTA concentration, solution pH, and salt concentration on metal recovery and current efficiency were studied. Electric voltage of -0.5 V was shown to be optimum operation condition in terms of Cu recovery, current efficiency, and surfactant recovery. Increasing Cu recovery and current efficiency were observed with increases of Cu concentration while keeping concentration of DCA constant. However, increasing both Cu and DCA concentration while keeping S/M ratio constant at 2.5 showed detrimental effect on Cu recovery at DCA concentration higher than 15 mM. Cu recovery decreases with increasing pH while current efficiency showed an opposite trend. It is believed that conductivity is the main cause for discrepancy of Cu recovery and current efficiency observed at different pH. Finally, it was shown that EDTA had adverse effect on both Cu recovery and current efficiency while addition of NaCl salt had negative impact on current efficiency at concentration higher than 8000 mg/L.

Keywords: metal recovery, MEUF waste, surfactant, electroplating.

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89 Fragility Analysis of Weir Structure Subjected to Flooding Water Damage

Authors: Oh Hyeon Jeon, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

In this study, seepage analysis was performed by the level difference between upstream and downstream of weir structure for safety evaluation of weir structure against flooding. Monte Carlo Simulation method was employed by considering the probability distribution of the adjacent ground parameter, i.e., permeability coefficient of weir structure. Moreover, by using a commercially available finite element program (ABAQUS), modeling of the weir structure is carried out. Based on this model, the characteristic of water seepage during flooding was determined at each water level with consideration of the uncertainty of their corresponding permeability coefficient. Subsequently, fragility function could be constructed based on this response from numerical analysis; this fragility function results could be used to determine the weakness of weir structure subjected to flooding disaster. They can also be used as a reference data that can comprehensively predict the probability of failur,e and the degree of damage of a weir structure.

Keywords: Weir structure, seepage, flood disaster fragility, probabilistic risk assessment, Monte-Carlo Simulation, permeability coefficient.

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88 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk

Abstract:

Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: Emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, surfactant, light scattering, release, injection, ultrasound, stability.

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