Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 866

Search results for: light scattering

866 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.

Keywords: The light-effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons - optical phonon scattering.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 602
865 The Effects of Tissue Optical Parameters and Interface Reflectivity on Light Diffusion in Biological Tissues

Authors: MA. Ansari

Abstract:

In cancer progress, the optical properties of tissues like absorption and scattering coefficient change, so by these changes, we can trace the progress of cancer, even it can be applied for pre-detection of cancer. In this paper, we investigate the effects of changes of optical properties on light penetrated into tissues. The diffusion equation is widely used to simulate light propagation into biological tissues. In this study, the boundary integral method (BIM) is used to solve the diffusion equation. We illustrate that the changes of optical properties can modified the reflectance or penetrating light.

Keywords: Diffusion equation, boundary element method, refractive index

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1714
864 Interaction of Low-Energy Positrons with Mg Atoms: Elastic Scattering, Bound States, and Annihilation

Authors: Mahasen M. Abdel-Mageed, H. S. Zaghloul

Abstract:

Annihilations, phase shifts, scattering lengths and elastic cross sections of low energy positrons scattering from magnesium atoms were studied using the least-squares variational method (LSVM). The possibility of positron binding to the magnesium atoms is investigated. A trial wave function is suggested to represent e+-Mg elastic scattering and scattering parameters were derived to estimate the binding energy and annihilation rates. The trial function is taken to depend on several adjustable parameters, and is improved iteratively by increasing the number of terms. The present results have the same behavior as reported semi-empirical, theoretical and experimental results. Especially, the estimated positive scattering length supports the possibility of positronmagnesium bound state system that was confirmed in previous experimental and theoretical work.

Keywords: Bound wave function, Positron Annihilation, scattering phase shift, scattering length.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 910
863 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 593
862 A Review of the Characteristics and Optimization of Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations

Authors: R. A. Shahmiri, O. C. Standard, J. N. Hart, C. C. Sorrell

Abstract:

The ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades. The strength and toughness of this material can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, which include transformation toughening, crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucence of Y-TZP in polycrystalline form is such that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance. To improve the optical properties of Y-TZP, more detailed study of the optical properties is required; in particular, precise evaluation of the refractive index, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient are necessary. The measurement of the optical parameters has been based on the assumption that light scattered from biological media is isotropically distributed over all angles. In fact, the optical behavior of real biological materials depends on the angular scattering of light due to the anisotropic nature of the materials. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the optical properties (including color, opacity/translucence, scattering, and fluorescence) of zirconia dental ceramics and their control through modification of the chemical composition, phase composition, and surface microstructure.

Keywords: Optical properties, opacity/translucence, scattering, fluorescence, chemical composition, phase composition, surface microstructure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1134
861 A Review on Light Shafts Rendering for Indoor Scenes

Authors: Hatam H. Ali, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Azhar Bin M. Arsad

Abstract:

Rendering light shafts is one of the important topics in computer gaming and interactive applications. The methods and models that are used to generate light shafts play crucial role to make a scene more realistic in computer graphics. This article discusses the image-based shadows and geometric-based shadows that contribute in generating volumetric shadows and light shafts, depending on ray tracing, radiosity, and ray marching technique. The main aim of this study is to provide researchers with background on a progress of light scattering methods so as to make it available for them to determine the technique best suited to their goals. It is also hoped that our classification helps researchers find solutions to the shortcomings of each method.

Keywords: Shaft of lights, realistic images, image-based, and geometric-based.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1350
860 New Investigation of the Exchange Effects Role on the Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of α-Particles on 9Be

Authors: A. Amar, N. Burtebayev, Zh. K. Kerimkulov, M. K. Baktybayev, J. T. Burtebayeva, A. K. Morzabayev, S. K. Sakhiev, N. Saduyev, S. B. Sakuta

Abstract:

Elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles by 9Be nuclei at different incident energies have been analyzed. Optical model parameters (OMPs) of α-particles elastic scattering by 9Be at different energies have been obtained. Coupled Reaction Channel (CRC) of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and transfer reaction has been calculated using Fresco Code. The effect of involving CRC calculations on the analysis of differential cross section has been studied. The transfer reaction of (5He) in the reaction 9Be(α,9Be)α has been studied. The spectroscopic factor of 9Be≡α+5He has been extracted.

Keywords: Elastic scattering of α-particles, Optical model parameters, Coupled Reaction Channel, the transfer reaction of (5He), the spectroscopic factor of 9Be≡α+5He.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2720
859 Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties

Authors: Jaehyug Lee, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum Insulation Panel (VIP) can achieve very low thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agrees well with additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective thermal conductivity. Thus the materials with backward scattering properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal conductivity of VIPs.

Keywords: Combined conduction and radiation, discrete ordinates interpolation method, scattering phase function, vacuum insulation panel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2266
858 On the Study of the Electromagnetic Scattering by Large Obstacle Based on the Method of Auxiliary Sources

Authors: Sami Hidouri, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

We consider fast and accurate solutions of scattering problems by large perfectly conducting objects (PEC) formulated by an optimization of the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). We present various techniques used to reduce the total computational cost of the scattering problem. The first technique is based on replacing the object by an array of finite number of small (PEC) object with the same shape. The second solution reduces the problem on considering only the half of the object.These t

Keywords: Method of Auxiliary Sources, Scattering, large object, RCS, computational resources.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1498
857 Phenomenological and Semi-microscopic Analysis for Elastic Scattering of Protons on 6,7Li

Authors: A. Amar, N. Burtebayev, Sh. Hamada, Kerimkulov Zhambul, N. Amangieldy

Abstract:

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 6,7Li nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model at the beam energies up to 50 MeV. Differential cross sections for the 6,7Li + p scattering were measured over the proton laboratory–energy range from 400 to 1050 keV. The elastic scattering of 6,7Li+p data at different proton incident energies have been analyzed using singlefolding model. In each case the real potential obtained from the folding model was supplemented by a phenomenological imaginary potential, and during the fitting process the real potential was normalized and the imaginary potential optimized. Normalization factor NR is calculated in the range between 0.70 and 0.84.

Keywords: scattering of protons on 6, 7Li nuclei, Esis88 Codesingle-folding model, phenomenological.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1090
856 Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange

Authors: Brajesh Kumar, Luis Cumbal

Abstract:

An ecofriendly Citrus paradisipeel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nanocatalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5h.

Keywords: Ecofriendly, TiO2 nanoparticles, Citrusparadisi, TEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2553
855 BER Performance of NLOS Underwater Wireless Optical Communication with Multiple Scattering

Authors: V. K. Jagadeesh, K. V. Naveen, P. Muthuchidambaranathan

Abstract:

Recently, there is a lot of interest in the field of under water optical wireless communication for short range because of its high bandwidth. But in most of the previous works line of sight propagation or single scattering of photons only considered. In practical case this is not applicable because of beam blockage in underwater and multiple scattering also occurred during the photons propagation through water. In this paper we consider a non-line of sight underwater wireless optical communication system with multiple scattering and examine the performance of the system using monte carlo simulation. The distribution scattering angle of photons are modeled by Henyey-Greenstein method. The average bit error rate is calculated using on-off keying modulation for different water types.

Keywords: Non line of sight under Water optical wireless communication, Henyey-Greenstein model, Multiple scattering, Monte-Carlo simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2493
854 The Emission Spectra Due to Exciton-Exciton Collisions in GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well System

Authors: Surendra K Pandey

Abstract:

Optical emission based on excitonic scattering processes becomes important in dense exciton systems in which the average distance between excitons is of the order of a few Bohr radii but still below the exciton screening threshold. The phenomena due to interactions among excited states play significant role in the emission near band edge of the material. The theory of two-exciton collisions for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well systems is a mild attempt to understand the physics associated with the optical spectra due to excitonic scattering processes in these novel systems. The four typical processes considered give different spectral shape, peak position and temperature dependence of the emission spectra. We have used the theory of scattering together with the second order perturbation theory to derive the radiative power spontaneously emitted at an energy ħω by these processes. The results arrived at are purely qualitative in nature. The intensity of emitted light in quantum well systems varies inversely to the square of temperature, whereas in case of bulk materials it simply decreases with the  temperature.

Keywords: Exciton-Exciton Collisions, Excitonic Scattering Processes, Interacting Excitonic States, Quantum Wells.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1216
853 Coherent and Incoherent Scattering Cross Sections for Elements with 13

Authors: Panakkada Latha, K. K. Abdullah, M. P. Unnikrishnan, K. M. Varier, B. R. S. Babu

Abstract:

Coherent and incoherent scattering cross section measurements have been carried out using a HPGe detector on elements in the range of Z = 13 - 50 using 241Am gamma rays. The cross sections have been derived by comparing the net count rate obtained from the Compton peak of aluminium with the corresponding peak of the target. The measured cross sections for the coherent and incoherent processes are compared with theoretical values and earlier reported values. Our results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: Cross section, coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, 241Am.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2115
852 Further Investigation of Elastic Scattering of 16O on 12C at Different Energies

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, N. Amangeldi, A. Amar

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the elastic transfer phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 16O on 12C at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Where, the angular distribution decrease steadily with increasing the scattering angle, then the cross section will increase at backward angles due to the α-transfer process. This reaction was also studied at different energies for tracking the nuclear rainbow phenomenon. The experimental data of the angular distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation predictions. The optical potential codes such as SPIVAL and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5) were used in analysis.

Keywords: Transfer reaction, DWBA, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1088
851 Detailed Phenomenological Study of 14N Elastically Scattered on 12C in a wide Energy Range

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, N. Amangeldi, A. Amar

Abstract:

An experiment was performed with a 24.5 MeV 14N beam on a 12C target in the cyclotron DC-60 located in Astana, Kazakhstan, to study the elastic scattering of 14N on 12C; the scattering was also analyzed at different energies for tracking the phenomenon of remarkable structure at large angles. Its aims were to extend the measurements to very large angles, and attempt to uniquely identify the elastic scattering potential. Good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data has been obtained with suitable optical potential parameters. Optical model calculations with l -dependent imaginary potentials were also applied to the data and relatively good agreement was found.

Keywords: Optical Potential Codes, Elastic Scattering, SPIVALCode.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1310
850 Study of the Elastic Scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on the Nucleus of 27Al at Different Energies near the Coulomb Barrier

Authors: N. Amangeldi, N. Burtebayev, Sh. Hamada, A. Amar

Abstract:

the measurement of the angular distribution for the elastic scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on 27Al has been done at energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon. The optical potential code SPIVAL used in this work to analyze the experimental results. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained.

Keywords: 27Al(16O, 16O)27Al, SPIVAL, 27Al(14N, 14N)27Al, 27Al(12C, 12C)27Al, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1126
849 Systematic Study of the p, d and 3He Elastic Scattering on 6Li

Authors: A. Amar, N. Burtebayev, Kerimkulov Zhambul, Sh. Hamada, N. Amangeldi

Abstract:

the elastic scattering of protons, deuterons and 3He on 6Li at different incident energies have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model using ECIS88 as well as SPI GENOA codes. The potential parameters were extracted in the phenomenological treatment of measured by us angular distributions and literature data. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental differential cross sections was obtained in whole angular range. Parameters for real part of potential have been also calculated microscopically with singleand double-folding model for the p and d, 3He scattering, respectively, using DFPOT code. For best agreement with experiment the normalization factor N for the potential depth is obtained in the range of 0.7-0.9.

Keywords: Elastic scattering, Esis88 Code single and doublefolding model, phenomenological, DWBA.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1143
848 Differentiation of Cancerous Prostate tissue from Non-Cancerous Prostate tissue by using Elastic Light Single-Scattering Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

Authors: T. Denkçeken, M. Canpolat, Đ. Bassorgun, S. Yücel, M.A. Çiftçioğlu, M. Baykara Murat Canpolat , Tuba Denkçeken , Đbrahim Bassorgun , Selçuk Yücel , M. Akif Çiftçioğlu , Mehmet Baykara

Abstract:

Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy system with a single optical fiber probe was employed to differentiate cancerous prostate tissue from non-cancerous prostate tissue ex-vivo just after radical prostatectomy. First, ELSSS spectra were acquired from cancerous prostate tissue to define its spectral features. Then, spectra were acquired from normal prostate tissue to define difference in spectral features between the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Of the total 66 tissue samples were evaluated from nine patients by ELSSS system. Comparing of histopathology results and ELSSS measurements revealed that sign of the spectral slopes of cancerous prostate tissue is negative and non-cancerous tissue is positive in the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm. Based on the correlation between histopathology results and sign of the spectral slopes, ELSSS system differentiates cancerous prostate tissue from non- cancerous with a sensitivity of 0.95 and a specificity of 0.94.

Keywords: Diagnosis, prostatic neoplasm, prostatectomy, spectrum analysis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1260
847 Further Investigation of α+12C and α+16O Elastic Scattering

Authors: Sh. Hamada

Abstract:

The current work aims to study the rainbow like-structure observed in the elastic scattering of alpha particles on both 12C and 16O nuclei. We reanalyzed the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions data for α+12C and α+16O nuclear systems at different energies using both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models such as: CDM3Y1, DDM3Y1, CDM3Y6 and BDM3Y1. Potential created by BDM3Y1 interaction model has the shallowest depth which reflects the necessity to use higher renormalization factor (Nr). Both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models fairly reproduce the experimental data.

Keywords: Nuclear rainbow, elastic scattering, optical model, double folding, density distribution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1479
846 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behavior of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: Electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, Scattering, Computer software, computation physics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3587
845 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: Light, sacred architecture, liturgy, theology, church.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 905
844 Low Cost Technique for Measuring Luminance in Biological Systems

Authors: N. Chetty, K. Singh

Abstract:

In this work, the relationship between the melanin content in a tissue and subsequent absorption of light through that tissue was determined using a digital camera. This technique proved to be simple, cost effective, efficient and reliable. Tissue phantom samples were created using milk and soy sauce to simulate the optical properties of melanin content in human tissue. Increasing the concentration of soy sauce in the milk correlated to an increase in melanin content of an individual. Two methods were employed to measure the light transmitted through the sample. The first was direct measurement of the transmitted intensity using a conventional lux meter. The second method involved correctly calibrating an ordinary digital camera and using image analysis software to calculate the transmitted intensity through the phantom. The results from these methods were then graphically compared to the theoretical relationship between the intensity of transmitted light and the concentration of absorbers in the sample. Conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and efficiency of these low cost methods.

Keywords: Tissue phantoms, scattering coefficient, albedo, low-cost method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1020
843 Quantification of Peptides based on Isotope Dilution Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

Authors: F. Yaghobian, R. Stosch, B. Güttler

Abstract:

This study aims to demonstrate the quantification of peptides based on isotope dilution surface enhanced Raman scattering (IDSERS). SERS spectra of phenylalanine (Phe), leucine (Leu) and two peptide sequences TGQIFK (T13) and YSFLQNPQTSLCFSESIPTPSNR (T6) as part of the 22-kDa human growth hormone (hGH) were obtained on Ag-nanoparticle covered substrates. On the basis of the dominant Phe and Leu vibrational modes, precise partial least squares (PLS) prediction models were built enabling the determination of unknown T13 and T6 concentrations. Detection of hGH in its physiological concentration in order to investigate the possibility of protein quantification has been achieved.

Keywords: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, Quantification, Peptides.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1386
842 PPP in Light Rail Transit Systems in Spain

Authors: S. Carpintero, R. Barcham

Abstract:

Light rail systems have proliferated in Spain in the last decade, following a tendency that is common not only in other European countries but also in other parts of the world. This paper reviews the benefits of light rail systems, both related to environmental issues and mobility issues. It analyses the evolution of light rail projects in Spain and shows that light rail systems in this country have evolved towards an extensive use of public-private partnerships. The analysis of the Spanish projects, however, does not contribute any conclusive evidence about whether public-private partnerships have been more efficient than publicly owned enterprises in building and operating light rail systems.

Keywords: Light rail systems, public-private partnerships, BOT.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3012
841 The Effect of Natural Light on the Performance of Visible Light Communication Systems

Authors: Mahmoud Beshr, Ivan Andonovic, Moustafa H. Aly

Abstract:

Visible Light Communication (VLC) offers advantages of low energy consumption, licence free and RF interference free operation. One application area for VLC is in the provision of health centred services circumventing issues of interference with any biomedical device within the environment. VLC performamce is affected by natural light restricting systems avilability and relibility. The paper presents an analysis of the performance of VLC systems under different meteorological conditions. The evaluation considered the impact of natural light as a function of different reflection surfaces in different room sizes.

Keywords: Visible light communication, impulse reponse , performance analysis , natural light.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1416
840 Analysis of the Elastic Scattering of 12C on 11B at Energy near Coulomb Barrier Using Different Optical Potential Codes

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, A. Amar, N. Amangieldy

Abstract:

the aim of that work is to study the proton transfer phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 12C on 11B at energies near the coulomb barrier. This reaction was studied at four different energies 16, 18, 22, 24 MeV. The experimental data of the angular distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation prediction using the optical potential codes such as ECIS88 and SPIVAL. For the raising in the cross section at backward angles due to the transfer process we could use Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5). Our analysis showed that SPIVAL code with l-dependent imaginary potential could be used effectively.

Keywords: Transfer reaction, DWBA, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1100
839 Compton Scattering of Annihilation Photons as a Short Range Quantum Key Distribution Mechanism

Authors: Roman Novak, Matjaz Vencelj

Abstract:

The angular distribution of Compton scattering of two quanta originating in the annihilation of a positron with an electron is investigated as a quantum key distribution (QKD) mechanism in the gamma spectral range. The geometry of coincident Compton scattering is observed on the two sides as a way to obtain partially correlated readings on the quantum channel. We derive the noise probability density function of a conceptually equivalent prepare and measure quantum channel in order to evaluate the limits of the concept in terms of the device secrecy capacity and estimate it at roughly 1.9 bits per 1 000 annihilation events. The high error rate is well above the tolerable error rates of the common reconciliation protocols; therefore, the proposed key agreement protocol by public discussion requires key reconciliation using classical error-correcting codes. We constructed a prototype device based on the readily available monolithic detectors in the least complex setup.

Keywords: Compton scattering, gamma-ray polarization, quantumcryptography, quantum key distribution

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1973
838 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.

Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 582
837 Assessing the Function of Light and Colorin Architectural View

Authors: Gholam Hossein Naseri, Manucher Tamizi

Abstract:

Light is one of the most important qualitative and symbolic factors and has a special position in architecture and urban development in regard to practical function. The main function of light, either natural or artificial, is lighting up the environment and the constructional forms which is called lighting. However, light is used to redefine the urban spaces by architectural genius with regard to three aesthetic, conceptual and symbolic factors. In architecture and urban development, light has a function beyond lighting up the environment, and the designers consider it as one of the basic components. The present research aims at studying the function of light and color in architectural view and their effects in buildings.

Keywords: Architectural View , Color , Light

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1586