Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31100
Removal of Cationic Heavy Metal and HOC from Soil-Washed Water Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Chi Kyu Ahn, Young Mi Kim, Seung Han Woo, Jong Moon Park


Soil washing process with a surfactant solution is a potential technology for the rapid removal of hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) from soil. However, large amount of washed water would be produced during operation and this should be treated effectively by proper methods. The soil washed water for complex contaminated site with HOC and heavy metals might contain high amount of pollutants such as HOC and heavy metals as well as used surfactant. The heavy metals in the soil washed water have toxic effects on microbial activities thus these should be removed from the washed water before proceeding to a biological waste-water treatment system. Moreover, the used surfactant solutions are necessary to be recovered for reducing the soil washing operation cost. In order to simultaneously remove the heavy metals and HOC from soil-washed water, activated carbon (AC) was used in the present study. In an anionic-nonionic surfactant mixed solution, the Cd(II) and phenanthrene (PHE) were effectively removed by adsorption on activated carbon. The removal efficiency for Cd(II) was increased from 0.027 mmol-Cd/g-AC to 0.142 mmol-Cd/g-AC as the mole ratio of SDS increased in the presence of PHE. The adsorptive capacity of PHE was also increased according to the SDS mole ratio due to the decrement of molar solubilization ratios (MSR) for PHE in an anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture. The simultaneous adsorption of HOC and cationic heavy metals using activated carbon could be a useful method for surfactant recovery and the reduction of heavy metal toxicity in a surfactant-enhanced soil washing process.

Keywords: activated carbon, soil washing, Anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture, Cationic heavy metal, HOC

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1430


[1] S.H. Woo, J.M. Park, and B.E. Rittmann, Evaluation of the interaction between biodegradation and sorption of phenanthrene in soil-slurry systems. Biotechnol., Bioeng., vol. 73, pp. 12-24, 2001.
[2] L. Yang, S. Wu, and B. Xing, Enhanced soil washing of phenanthrene by mixed solutions of TX100 and SDBS, Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 4274-4280. 2006.
[3] C.C. West, and J.F. Harwell, Surfactant and subsurface remediation, Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 26, pp. 2324-2330, 1992.
[4] C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong, and B.F. Gibbs, Surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil: a review, Eng. Geol., vol. 60, pp. 371-380, 2001.
[5] B. Zhao, L. Zhu, W. Li, and B. Chen, Solubilization and biodegradation of phenanthrene on mixed anionic-nonionic surfactant solution, Chemosphere, vol. 58, pp. 33-40, 2005.
[6] W. Zhou, and L. Zhu, Enhanced desorption of phenanthrene from contaminated soil using anionic/nonionic mixed surfactant. Environ. Pollut., vol. 147, pp. 350-357, 2007.
[7] H. Yu, L. Zhu, and W. Zhou, Enhanced desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil-water systems with the presence of anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants, J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 142, pp. 354-361, 2007.
[8] R-a, Doong, T-W, Wu, and W-g. Lei, Surfactant enhanced remediation of cadmium contaminated soils, Water Sci. Tech., vol. 37, pp. 65-71, 1998.
[9] A.S. Ramamurthy, D. Vo, X.J., Li, and J. Qu, Surfactant-enhanced removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from a contaminated sandy soil. Water Air Soil Pollut., vol. 190, pp. 197-207, 2008.
[10] M.A. Providenti, H. Lee, and J.T. Trevors, Selected factors limiting the microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds, J. Industrial Microbiology, vol. 12, pp. 379-395, 1993.
[11] D.F. Lowe, C.L. Oubre, and C.H. Ward, Reuse of surfactant and cosolvents for NAPL remediation, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 2000.
[12] H.P. Boehm, Chemical identification of surface groups in advanced in catalysis, vol. 16, Academic Press, New York, pp. 179-274, 1966.
[13] C.K. Ahn, D. Park, S.H. Woo, and J.M. Park, Removal of cationic heavy metal from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with anionic surfactants, J. Hazard. Mater., DOI:10.1016/j.hazmat.2008.09.036, accepted, 2008.
[14] C.K. Ahn, Y.M. Kim, S.H. Woo, and J.M. Park, Selective adsorption of phenanthrene dissolved in surfactant solution using activated carbon, Chemosphere, vol. 69, pp. 1681-1688, 2007.
[15] R.W. Walters, and R.G. Luthy, Equilibrium adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water onto activated carbon, Environ. Sci. Technol., vol 18, pp. 395-403, 1984.
[16] Z. Liu, D.A. Edwards, and R.G. Luthy, Sorption of non-ionic surfactants onto soil, Water Res., vol. 26, pp. 1337-1345, 1992.
[17] N. Narkis, B. and Ben-David, Adsorption of non-ionic surfactants on activated carbon and mineral clay, Water Res, vol. 19, pp. 815-824, 1985.
[18] T. Hayashita, and R.A. Bartsch, Competitive sorption of alkali-metal and alkaline-earth-metal cations by carboxylic acid resins containing acyclic or cyclic polyether units, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 63, pp. 1847-1850, 1991.
[19] C. Pelekani, and V.L. Snoeyink, Competitive adsorption between atrazine and methylene blue on activated carbon: the important of pore size distribution, Carbon, vol. 38, pp. 1423-1436, 2000.
[20] L. Monser, M.B. Amor, and M. Ksibi, Purification of wet phosphoric acid using modified activated carbon, Chem. Eng. Process, vol. 38, pp. 267-271, 1999
[21] C.A. Başar, A. Karagunduz, B. Keskinler, A. Cakici, Effect of presence of ions on surface characteristics of surfactant modified powdered activated carbon (PAC), Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 218, pp. 169-174, 2003.