Search results for: Awais Adnan
54 Image Search by Features of Sorted Gray level Histogram Polynomial Curve
Authors: Awais Adnan, Muhammad Ali, Amir Hanif Dar
Image Searching was always a problem specially when these images are not properly managed or these are distributed over different locations. Currently different techniques are used for image search. On one end, more features of the image are captured and stored to get better results. Storing and management of such features is itself a time consuming job. While on the other extreme if fewer features are stored the accuracy rate is not satisfactory. Same image stored with different visual properties can further reduce the rate of accuracy. In this paper we present a new concept of using polynomials of sorted histogram of the image. This approach need less overhead and can cope with the difference in visual features of image.
Keywords: Sorted Histogram, Polynomial Curves, feature pointsof images, Grayscale, visual properties of image.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1299
53 Comparative Analysis of Transient-Fault Tolerant Schemes for Network on Chips
Authors: Muhammad Ali, Awais Adnan
Network on a chip (NoC) has been proposed as a viable solution to counter the inefficiency of buses in the current VLSI on-chip interconnects. However, as the silicon chip accommodates more transistors, the probability of transient faults is increasing, making fault tolerance a key concern in scaling chips. In packet based communication on a chip, transient failures can corrupt the data packet and hence, undermine the accuracy of data communication. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of transient fault tolerant techniques including end-to-end, node-by-node, and stochastic communication based on flooding principle.
Keywords: NoC, fault-tolerance, transient faults.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1245
52 Urdu Nastaleeq Optical Character Recognition
Authors: Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Inam Shamsher, Awais Adnan
Abstract:This paper discusses the Urdu script characteristics, Urdu Nastaleeq and a simple but a novel and robust technique to recognize the printed Urdu script without a lexicon. Urdu being a family of Arabic script is cursive and complex script in its nature, the main complexity of Urdu compound/connected text is not its connections but the forms/shapes the characters change when it is placed at initial, middle or at the end of a word. The characters recognition technique presented here is using the inherited complexity of Urdu script to solve the problem. A word is scanned and analyzed for the level of its complexity, the point where the level of complexity changes is marked for a character, segmented and feeded to Neural Networks. A prototype of the system has been tested on Urdu text and currently achieves 93.4% accuracy on the average.
Keywords: Cursive Script, OCR, Urdu.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2670
51 OCR For Printed Urdu Script Using Feed Forward Neural Network
Authors: Inam Shamsher, Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Awais Adnan
Abstract:This paper deals with an Optical Character Recognition system for printed Urdu, a popular Pakistani/Indian script and is the third largest understandable language in the world, especially in the subcontinent but fewer efforts are made to make it understandable to computers. Lot of work has been done in the field of literature and Islamic studies in Urdu, which has to be computerized. In the proposed system individual characters are recognized using our own proposed method/ algorithms. The feature detection methods are simple and robust. Supervised learning is used to train the feed forward neural network. A prototype of the system has been tested on printed Urdu characters and currently achieves 98.3% character level accuracy on average .Although the system is script/ language independent but we have designed it for Urdu characters only.
Keywords: Algorithm, Feed Forward Neural Networks, Supervised learning, Pattern Matching.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2883
50 A Real-Time Specific Weed Recognition System Using Statistical Methods
Authors: Imran Ahmed, Muhammad Islam, Syed Inayat Ali Shah, Awais Adnan
Abstract:The identification and classification of weeds are of major technical and economical importance in the agricultural industry. To automate these activities, like in shape, color and texture, weed control system is feasible. The goal of this paper is to build a real-time, machine vision weed control system that can detect weed locations. In order to accomplish this objective, a real-time robotic system is developed to identify and locate outdoor plants using machine vision technology and pattern recognition. The algorithm is developed to classify images into broad and narrow class for real-time selective herbicide application. The developed algorithm has been tested on weeds at various locations, which have shown that the algorithm to be very effectiveness in weed identification. Further the results show a very reliable performance on weeds under varying field conditions. The analysis of the results shows over 90 percent classification accuracy over 140 sample images (broad and narrow) with 70 samples from each category of weeds.
Keywords: Weed detection, Image Processing, real-timerecognition, Standard Deviation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2156
49 Object Identification with Color, Texture, and Object-Correlation in CBIR System
Authors: Awais Adnan, Muhammad Nawaz, Sajid Anwar, Tamleek Ali, Muhammad Ali
Abstract:Needs of an efficient information retrieval in recent years in increased more then ever because of the frequent use of digital information in our life. We see a lot of work in the area of textual information but in multimedia information, we cannot find much progress. In text based information, new technology of data mining and data marts are now in working that were started from the basic concept of database some where in 1960. In image search and especially in image identification, computerized system at very initial stages. Even in the area of image search we cannot see much progress as in the case of text based search techniques. One main reason for this is the wide spread roots of image search where many area like artificial intelligence, statistics, image processing, pattern recognition play their role. Even human psychology and perception and cultural diversity also have their share for the design of a good and efficient image recognition and retrieval system. A new object based search technique is presented in this paper where object in the image are identified on the basis of their geometrical shapes and other features like color and texture where object-co-relation augments this search process. To be more focused on objects identification, simple images are selected for the work to reduce the role of segmentation in overall process however same technique can also be applied for other images.
Keywords: Object correlation, Geometrical shape, Color, texture, features, contents.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1911
48 Using Probe Person Data for Travel Mode Detection
Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato, Hideki Yaginuma
Recently GPS data is used in a lot of studies to automatically reconstruct travel patterns for trip survey. The aim is to minimize the use of questionnaire surveys and travel diaries so as to reduce their negative effects. In this paper data acquired from GPS and accelerometer embedded in smart phones is utilized to predict the mode of transportation used by the phone carrier. For prediction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) are employed. Moreover a unique method to improve the prediction results from these algorithms is also proposed. Results suggest that the prediction accuracy of AdaBoost after improvement is relatively better than the rest.
Keywords: Accelerometer, AdaBoost, GPS, Mode Prediction, Support vector Machine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2353
47 Optimization by Ant Colony Hybryde for the Bin-Packing Problem
Authors: Ben Mohamed Ahemed Mohamed, Yassine Adnan
The problem of bin-packing in two dimensions (2BP) consists in placing a given set of rectangular items in a minimum number of rectangular and identical containers, called bins. This article treats the case of objects with a free orientation of 90Ôùª. We propose an approach of resolution combining optimization by colony of ants (ACO) and the heuristic method IMA to resolve this NP-Hard problem.
Keywords: Ant colony algorithm, bin-packing problem, heuristics methods.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1700
46 Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton
Authors: Tawakal Hasnain Baluch, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umer Izhar, Umar Shahbaz Khan
Abstract:This paper will provide the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a lower limb exoskeleton. The forward and inverse kinematics of proposed exoskeleton is performed using Denevit and Hartenberg method. The torques required for the actuators will be calculated using Lagrangian formulation technique. This research can be used to design the control of the proposed exoskeleton.
Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Exoskeleton, Kinematic Analysis, Lower Limb, Rehabilitation RoboticsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4394
45 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis
Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan
Abstract:Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.
Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal PlaneProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2588
44 Signal Reconstruction Using Cepstrum of Higher Order Statistics
Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi, Mahmoud Smadi
This paper presents an algorithm for reconstructing phase and magnitude responses of the impulse response when only the output data are available. The system is driven by a zero-mean independent identically distributed (i.i.d) non-Gaussian sequence that is not observed. The additive noise is assumed to be Gaussian. This is an important and essential problem in many practical applications of various science and engineering areas such as biomedical, seismic, and speech processing signals. The method is based on evaluating the bicepstrum of the third-order statistics of the observed output data. Simulations results are presented that demonstrate the performance of this method.
Keywords: Cepstrum, bicepstrum, third order statisticsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1899
43 A New Internal Architecture Based on Feature Selection for Holonic Manufacturing System
Authors: Jihan Abdulazeez Ahmed, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani
Abstract:This paper suggests a new internal architecture of holon based on feature selection model using the combination of Bees Algorithm (BA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). BA is used to generate features while ANN is used as a classifier to evaluate the produced features. Proposed system is applied on the Wine dataset, the statistical result proves that the proposed system is effective and has the ability to choose informative features with high accuracy.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Holonic Approach, Feature Selection, Bee Algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1920
42 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes
Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari
Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.
Keywords: Feature Extraction, Internal Features, Punch Shapes, Sheet metal, STEP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1509
41 Project Management Success for Contractors
Authors: Hamimah Adnan, Norfashiha Hashim, Mohd Arif Marhani, Mohd Asri Yeop Johari
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the implementation of Project Management practices by UiTM contractors to ensure project success. A questionnaire survey was administered to 120 UiTM contractors in Malaysia. The purpose of this method was to gather information on the contractors- project background and project management skills. It was found that all of the contractors had basic knowledge and understanding of project management skills. It is suggested that a reasonable project plan and an appropriate organizational structure are influential factors for project success. It is recommended that the contractors need to have an effective program of work and up to date information system are emphasized.
Keywords: Project management, success, contractors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2992
40 Bowden Cable Based Powered Ball and Socket Wrist Actuator
Authors: Samee Ahmad, Adnan Masood, Umar S. Khan
Abstract:A 2-Degrees of freedom powered prosthetic wrist actuator has been proposed that can provide the Abduction/Adduction & Flexion/Extension movements of the human wrist. The basic structure of the actuator is a Ball and Socket joint and the force is transmitted from the DC geared servo motors to the joint through the Bowden cables. The proposed design is capable of providing the required DOF in both axes i.e. 85° & 90° in flexion extension axis. The size and weight of the actuator lies within the ranges of an average human being-s wrist.
Keywords: Actuator, Ball & Socket, Bowden Cable, Prosthetic, WristProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3391
39 Özsoy: The First Turkish Opera That Was Desired by Ataturk
Authors: Hilmi Yazıcı
M. Kemal Ataturk was a great leader who was fond of art and he had displayed his being fond of art many times. In his speeches and writings you can see that he had showed his approval to art and the importance of artists and art for the society. During the foundation of republic, he also wanted renovation in art as in other fields and ordered many novelties both in art and society. One of the greatest steps in realizing this was to prepare a national Turkish opera. In this study, it was studied how a Turkish opera, Özsoy was prepared in the context of social and political conditions of that time and what kind of processes it passed. As a result, it is seen that there was two main aims for Ataturk with this opera. First, Ataturk wanted to abolish the sectarian conflict between Iran and Turkey going on for centuries. The second and maybe the most important is that he wanted to make a revolution in the field of art and aimed to reach the level of civilized countries.
Keywords: Opera, Atatürk, Özsoy, Adnan Saygun, The first Turkish opera.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3678
38 Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping
Authors: Adnan A. Y. Mustafa
In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented.
Keywords: Big images, binary images, similarity, matching.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 780
37 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali
Abstract:The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, ad hoc topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1703
36 A Design of Fractional-Order PI Controller with Error Compensation
Authors: Mazidah Tajjudin, Norhashim Mohd Arshad, Ramli Adnan
Fractional-order controller was proven to perform better than the integer-order controller. However, the absence of a pole at origin produced marginal error in fractional-order control system. This study demonstrated the enhancement of the fractionalorder PI over the integer-order PI in a steam temperature control. The fractional-order controller was cascaded with an error compensator comprised of a very small zero and a pole at origin to produce a zero steady-state error for the closed-loop system. Some modification on the error compensator was suggested for different order fractional integrator that can improve the overall phase margin.
Keywords: Fractional-order PI, Ziegler-Nichols tuning, Oustaloup's Recursive Approximation, steam temperature control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2180
35 Tests for Gaussianity of a Stationary Time Series
Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi
Abstract:One of the primary uses of higher order statistics in signal processing has been for detecting and estimation of non- Gaussian signals in Gaussian noise of unknown covariance. This is motivated by the ability of higher order statistics to suppress additive Gaussian noise. In this paper, several methods to test for non- Gaussianity of a given process are presented. These methods include histogram plot, kurtosis test, and hypothesis testing using cumulants and bispectrum of the available sequence. The hypothesis testing is performed by constructing a statistic to test whether the bispectrum of the given signal is non-zero. A zero bispectrum is not a proof of Gaussianity. Hence, other tests such as the kurtosis test should be employed. Examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the presented methods.
Keywords: Non-Gaussian, bispectrum, kurtosis, hypothesistesting, histogram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1770
34 The Importance of Class Attendance and Cumulative GPA for Academic Success in Industrial Engineering Classes
Authors: Suleiman Obeidat, Adnan Bashir, Wisam Abu Jadayil
Abstract:The affect of the attendance percentage, the overall GPA and the number of credit hours the student is enrolled in at specific semester on the grade attained in specific course has been studied. This study has been performed on three courses offered in industrial engineering department at the Hashemite University in Jordan. Study has revealed that the grade attained by a student is strongly affected by the attendance percentage and his overall GPA with a value of R2 of 52.5%. Another model that has been investigated is the relation between the semester GPA and the attendance percentage, the number of credit hours enrolled in at specific semester, and the overall GPA. This model gave us a strong relationship between the semester GPA and attendance percentage and the overall GPA with a value of R2 of 76.2%.
Keywords: Attendance in classes, GPA, Industrial Engineering, GradeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3395
33 Innovative Techniques for Characterization of Nonwoven Insulation Materials Embedded with Aerogel
Authors: Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Rajesh Mishra, Jakub Weiner, Adnan Mazari, Jiri Militky, Veera Kumar Arumugam
The major objective of this study is to understand the potential of a newly fabricated equipment to study the thermal properties of nonwoven textile fabrics treated with aerogel at subzero temperatures. Thermal conductivity was calculated by using the empirical relation Fourier’s law, The relationship between the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples were studied at various environmental temperatures (which was set in the clima temperature system between +25oC to -25oC). The newly fabricated equipment was found to be a suitable for measuring at subzero temperatures. This field of measurements is being developed and will be the subject of further research which will be more suitable for measurement of the various thermal characteristics.
Keywords: Thermal Measurements, Aerogel, Nonwoven, Hot plate Heading.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3141
32 A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method Using Letter Points and Extensions
Authors: Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub, Manal Mohammad Fattani
Abstract:This paper presents a new steganography approach suitable for Arabic texts. It can be classified under steganography feature coding methods. The approach hides secret information bits within the letters benefiting from their inherited points. To note the specific letters holding secret bits, the scheme considers the two features, the existence of the points in the letters and the redundant Arabic extension character. We use the pointed letters with extension to hold the secret bit 'one' and the un-pointed letters with extension to hold 'zero'. This steganography technique is found attractive to other languages having similar texts to Arabic such as Persian and Urdu.
Keywords: Arabic text, Cryptography, Feature coding, Information security, Text steganography, Text watermarking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3377
31 Catalytic Activity of Aluminum Impregnated Catalysts for the Degradation of Waste Polystyrene
Authors: J. Shah, M. Rasul Jan, Adnan
The aluminum impregnated catalysts of Al-alumina (Al-Al2O3), Al-montmorillonite (Al-Mmn) and Al-activated charcoal (Al-AC) of various percent loadings were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized by SEM, XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption (BET). The catalytic properties were investigated in the degradation of waste polystyrene (WPS). The results of catalytic degradation of Al metal, 20% Al-Al2O3, 5% Al-Mmn and 20% Al-AC were compared with each other for optimum conditions. Among the catalyst used 20% Al-Al2O3 was found the most effective catalyst. The BET surface area of 20% Al-Al2O3 determined was 70.2 m2/g. The SEM data revealed the catalyst with porous structure throughout the frame work with small nanosized crystallites. The yield of liquid products with 20% Al-Al2O3 (91.53 ± 2.27 wt%) was the same as compared to Al metal (91.20 ± 0.35 wt%) but the selectivity of hydrocarbons and yield of styrene monomer (56.32 wt%) was higher with 20% Al-Al2O3 catalyst.
Keywords: Impregnation, catalytic degradation, waste polystyrene, styrene.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1857
30 A New Tool for Global Optimization Problems- Cuttlefish Algorithm
Authors: Adel Sabry Eesa, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani, Zeynep Orman
This paper presents a new meta-heuristic bio-inspired optimization algorithm which is called Cuttlefish Algorithm (CFA). The algorithm mimics the mechanism of color changing behavior of the cuttlefish to solve numerical global optimization problems. The colors and patterns of the cuttlefish are produced by reflected light from three different layers of cells. The proposed algorithm considers mainly two processes: reflection and visibility. Reflection process simulates light reflection mechanism used by these layers, while visibility process simulates visibility of matching patterns of the cuttlefish. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested with some other popular bio-inspired optimization algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bees Algorithm (BA) that have been previously proposed in the literature. Simulations and obtained results indicate that the proposed CFA is superior when compared with these algorithms.
Keywords: Cuttlefish Algorithm, bio-inspired algorithms, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3678
29 Magnetic Properties Govern the Processes of DNA Replication and the Shortening of the Telomere
Authors: Adnan Y. Rojeab
This hypothesis shows that the induction and the remanent of magnetic properties govern the mechanism processes of DNA replication and the shortening of the telomere. The solenoid–like formation of each parental DNA strand, which exists at the initial stage of the replication process, enables an electric charge transformation through the strand to produce a magnetic field. The magnetic field, in turn, induces the surrounding medium to form a new (replicated) strand by a remanent magnetisation. Through the remanent [residual] magnetisation process, the replicated strand possesses a similar information pattern to that of the parental strand. In the same process, the remanent amount of magnetisation forms the medium in which it has less of both repetitive and pattern magnetisation than that of the parental strand, therefore the replicated strand shows a shortening in the length of its telomeres.
Keywords: DNA replication, magnetic properties, residual magnetisation, shortening of the telomere.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2591
28 Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing
Authors: Sadaf Nawaz, Adnan Ahmed Khan, Asad Mahmood, Chaudhary Farrukh Javed
Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.
Keywords: Cognitive radio, energy detector, periodogram, spectrum sensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 802
27 Parallel Branch and Bound Model Using Logarithmic Sampling (PBLS) for Symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem
Authors: Sheikh Muhammad Azam, Masood-ur-Rehman, Adnan Khalid Bhatti, Nadeem Daudpota
Very Large and/or computationally complex optimization problems sometimes require parallel or highperformance computing for achieving a reasonable time for computation. One of the most popular and most complicate problems of this family is “Traveling Salesman Problem". In this paper we have introduced a Branch & Bound based algorithm for the solution of such complicated problems. The main focus of the algorithm is to solve the “symmetric traveling salesman problem". We reviewed some of already available algorithms and felt that there is need of new algorithm which should give optimal solution or near to the optimal solution. On the basis of the use of logarithmic sampling, it was found that the proposed algorithm produced a relatively optimal solution for the problem and results excellent performance as compared with the traditional algorithms of this series.
Keywords: Parallel execution, symmetric traveling salesman problem, branch and bound algorithm, logarithmic sampling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2226
26 PIIN Suppression Using Random Diagonal Code for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA System
Authors: Hilal Adnan Fadhil, Syed Alwei, R. Badlishah Ahmad
Abstract:A new code for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access system is proposed called Random diagonal (RD) code. This code is constructed using code segment and data segment. One of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data segment is always zero, which means that Phase Intensity Induced Noise (PIIN) is reduced. For the performance analysis, the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, and thermal noise are considered simultaneously. Bit-error rate (BER) performance is compared with Hadamard and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) codes. It is shown that the system using this new code matrices not only suppress PIIN, but also allows larger number of active users compare with other codes. Simulation results shown that using point to point transmission with three encoded channels, RD code has better BER performance than other codes, also its found that at 0 dbm PIIN noise are 10-10 and 10-11 for RD and MFH respectively.
Keywords: OCDMA, MFH, PIIN, and BER.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1670
25 Reliable Line-of-Sight and Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation Channel Identification in Ultra-Wideband Wireless Networks
Authors: Mohamed Adnan Landolsi, Ali F. Almutairi
The paper addresses the problem of line-of-sight (LOS) vs. non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation link identification in ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless networks, which is necessary for improving the accuracy of radiolocation and positioning applications. A LOS/NLOS likelihood hypothesis testing approach is applied based on exploiting distinctive statistical features of the channel impulse response (CIR) using parameters related to the “skewness” of the CIR and its root mean square (RMS) delay spread. A log-normal fit is presented for the probability densities of the CIR parameters. Simulation results show that different environments (residential, office, outdoor, etc.) have measurable differences in their CIR parameters’ statistics, which is then exploited in determining the nature of the propagation channels. Correct LOS/NLOS channel identification rates exceeding 90% are shown to be achievable for most types of environments. Additional improvement is also obtained by combining both CIR skewness and RMS delay statistics.
Keywords: Ultra-wideband, propagation, line-of-sight, non-line-of-sight, identification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1094