Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1290

Search results for: cartesian genetic programming

1290 Evolving Digital Circuits for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

Authors: Zahra Khalid, Gul Muhammad Khan, Arbab Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is explored to design an optimal circuit capable of early stage breast cancer detection. CGP is used to evolve simple multiplexer circuits for detection of malignancy in the Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples of breast. The data set used is extracted from Wisconsins Breast Cancer Database (WBCD). A range of experiments were performed, each with different set of network parameters. The best evolved network detected malignancy with an accuracy of 99.14%, which is higher than that produced with most of the contemporary non-linear techniques that are computational expensive than the proposed system. The evolved network comprises of simple multiplexers and can be implemented easily in hardware without any further complications or inaccuracy, being the digital circuit.

Keywords: Breast cancer detection, cartesian genetic programming, evolvable hardware, fine needle aspiration (FNA).

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1289 Applications of Genetic Programming in Data Mining

Authors: Saleh Mesbah Elkaffas, Ahmed A. Toony

Abstract:

This paper details the application of a genetic programming framework for induction of useful classification rules from a database of income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements for North American public companies. Potentially interesting classification rules are discovered. Anomalies in the discovery process merit further investigation of the application of genetic programming to the dataset for the problem domain.

Keywords: Genetic programming, data mining classification rule.

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1288 Heuristic Search Algorithms for Tuning PUMA 560 Fuzzy PID Controller

Authors: Sufian Ashraf Mazhari, Surendra Kumar

Abstract:

This paper compares the heuristic Global Search Techniques; Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Simulated Annealing, Generalized Pattern Search, genetic algorithm hybridized with Nelder–Mead and Generalized pattern search technique for tuning of fuzzy PID controller for Puma 560. Since the actual control is in joint space ,inverse kinematics is used to generate various joint angles correspoding to desired cartesian space trajectory. Efficient dynamics and kinematics are modeled on Matlab which takes very less simulation time. Performances of all the tuning methods with and without disturbance are compared in terms of ITSE in joint space and ISE in cartesian space for spiral trajectory tracking. Genetic Algorithm hybridized with Generalized Pattern Search is showing best performance.

Keywords: Controller tuning, Fuzzy Control, Genetic Algorithm, Heuristic search, Robot control.

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1287 Solution of Fuzzy Differential Equation under Generalized Differentiability by Genetic Programming

Authors: N. Kumaresan, J. Kavikumar, M. Kumudthaa, Kuru Ratnavelu

Abstract:

In this paper, solution of fuzzy differential equation under general differentiability is obtained by genetic programming (GP). The obtained solution in this method is equivalent or very close to the exact solution of the problem. Accuracy of the solution to this problem is qualitatively better. An illustrative numerical example is presented for the proposed method.

Keywords: Fuzzy differential equation, Generalized differentiability, Genetic programming and H-difference.

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1286 Robotics System Design for Assembly and Disassembly Process

Authors: Nina Danišová, Roman Ružarovský, Karol Velíšek

Abstract:

In this paper is described a new conception of the Cartesian robot for automated assembly and also disassembly process. The advantage of this conception is the utilization the Cartesian assembly robot with its all peripheral automated devices for assembly of the assembled product. The assembly product in the end of the lifecycle can be disassembled with the same Cartesian disassembly robot with the use of the same peripheral automated devices and equipment. It is a new approach to problematic solving and development of the automated assembly systems with respect to lifecycle management of the assembly product and also assembly system with Cartesian robot. It is also important to develop the methodical process for design of automated assembly and disassembly system with Cartesian robot. Assembly and disassembly system use the same Cartesian robot input and output devices, assembly and disassembly units in one workplace with different application. Result of design methodology is the verification and proposition of real automated assembly and disassembly workplace with Cartesian robot for known verified model of assembled actuator.

Keywords: Cartesian robot, design methodology, assembly, disassembly, pneumatic

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1285 Optimal Control Problem, Quasi-Assignment Problem and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Omid S. Fard, Akbar H. Borzabadi

Abstract:

In this paper we apply one of approaches in category of heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithms for obtaining approximate solution of optimal control problems. The firs we convert optimal control problem to a quasi Assignment Problem by defining some usual characters as defined in Genetic algorithm applications. Then we obtain approximate optimal control function as an piecewise constant function. Finally the numerical examples are given.

Keywords: Optimal control, Integer programming, Genetic algorithm, Discrete approximation, Linear programming.

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1284 Genetic Programming Approach to Hierarchical Production Rule Discovery

Authors: Basheer M. Al-Maqaleh, Kamal K. Bharadwaj

Abstract:

Automated discovery of hierarchical structures in large data sets has been an active research area in the recent past. This paper focuses on the issue of mining generalized rules with crisp hierarchical structure using Genetic Programming (GP) approach to knowledge discovery. The post-processing scheme presented in this work uses flat rules as initial individuals of GP and discovers hierarchical structure. Suitable genetic operators are proposed for the suggested encoding. Based on the Subsumption Matrix(SM), an appropriate fitness function is suggested. Finally, Hierarchical Production Rules (HPRs) are generated from the discovered hierarchy. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic Programming, Hierarchy, Knowledge Discovery in Database, Subsumption Matrix.

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1283 Using Genetic Programming to Evolve a Team of Data Classifiers

Authors: Gregor A. Morrison, Dominic P. Searson, Mark J. Willis

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of a genetic programming (GP) algorithm to evolve a team of data classification models. The GP algorithm used in this work is “multigene" in nature, i.e. there are multiple tree structures (genes) that are used to represent team members. Each team member assigns a data sample to one of a fixed set of output classes. A majority vote, determined using the mode (highest occurrence) of classes predicted by the individual genes, is used to determine the final class prediction. The algorithm is tested on a binary classification problem. For the case study investigated, compact classification models are obtained with comparable accuracy to alternative approaches.

Keywords: classification, genetic programming.

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1282 Genetic Programming Approach for Multi-Category Pattern Classification Appliedto Network Intrusions Detection

Authors: K.M. Faraoun, A. Boukelif

Abstract:

This paper describes a new approach of classification using genetic programming. The proposed technique consists of genetically coevolving a population of non-linear transformations on the input data to be classified, and map them to a new space with a reduced dimension, in order to get a maximum inter-classes discrimination. The classification of new samples is then performed on the transformed data, and so become much easier. Contrary to the existing GP-classification techniques, the proposed one use a dynamic repartition of the transformed data in separated intervals, the efficacy of a given intervals repartition is handled by the fitness criterion, with a maximum classes discrimination. Experiments were first performed using the Fisher-s Iris dataset, and then, the KDD-99 Cup dataset was used to study the intrusion detection and classification problem. Obtained results demonstrate that the proposed genetic approach outperform the existing GP-classification methods [1],[2] and [3], and give a very accepted results compared to other existing techniques proposed in [4],[5],[6],[7] and [8].

Keywords: Genetic programming, patterns classification, intrusion detection

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1281 Evolutionary Algorithm Based Centralized Congestion Management for Multilateral Transactions

Authors: T. Mathumathi, S. Ganesh, R. Gunabalan

Abstract:

This work presents an approach for AC load flow based centralized model for congestion management in the forward markets. In this model, transaction maximizes its profit under the limits of transmission line capacities allocated by Independent System Operator (ISO). The voltage and reactive power impact of the system are also incorporated in this model. Genetic algorithm is used to solve centralized congestion management problem for multilateral transactions. Results obtained for centralized model using genetic algorithm is compared with Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) technique. The statistical performances of various algorithms such as best, worst, mean and standard deviations of social welfare are given. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the better performance of genetic algorithm over SQP.

Keywords: Congestion management, Genetic algorithm, Sequential quadratic programming.

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1280 Distortion Estimation in Digital Image Watermarking using Genetic Programming

Authors: Labiba Gilani, Asifullah Khan, Anwar M. Mirza

Abstract:

This paper introduces a technique of distortion estimation in image watermarking using Genetic Programming (GP). The distortion is estimated by considering the problem of obtaining a distorted watermarked signal from the original watermarked signal as a function regression problem. This function regression problem is solved using GP, where the original watermarked signal is considered as an independent variable. GP-based distortion estimation scheme is checked for Gaussian attack and Jpeg compression attack. We have used Gaussian attacks of different strengths by changing the standard deviation. JPEG compression attack is also varied by adding various distortions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is able to detect the watermark even in the case of strong distortions and is more robust against attacks.

Keywords: Blind Watermarking, Genetic Programming (GP), Fitness Function, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

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1279 Artificial Neural Network Development by means of Genetic Programming with Graph Codification

Authors: Daniel Rivero, Julián Dorado, Juan R. Rabuñal, Alejandro Pazos, Javier Pereira

Abstract:

The development of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is usually a slow process in which the human expert has to test several architectures until he finds the one that achieves best results to solve a certain problem. This work presents a new technique that uses Genetic Programming (GP) for automatically generating ANNs. To do this, the GP algorithm had to be changed in order to work with graph structures, so ANNs can be developed. This technique also allows the obtaining of simplified networks that solve the problem with a small group of neurons. In order to measure the performance of the system and to compare the results with other ANN development methods by means of Evolutionary Computation (EC) techniques, several tests were performed with problems based on some of the most used test databases. The results of those comparisons show that the system achieves good results comparable with the already existing techniques and, in most of the cases, they worked better than those techniques.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Evolutionary Computation, Genetic Programming.

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1278 Genetic Programming Based Data Projections for Classification Tasks

Authors: César Estébanez, Ricardo Aler, José M. Valls

Abstract:

In this paper we present a GP-based method for automatically evolve projections, so that data can be more easily classified in the projected spaces. At the same time, our approach can reduce dimensionality by constructing more relevant attributes. Fitness of each projection measures how easy is to classify the dataset after applying the projection. This is quickly computed by a Simple Linear Perceptron. We have tested our approach in three domains. The experiments show that it obtains good results, compared to other Machine Learning approaches, while reducing dimensionality in many cases.

Keywords: Classification, genetic programming, projections.

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1277 Binary Programming for Manufacturing Material and Manufacturing Process Selection Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan

Abstract:

The material selection problem is concerned with the determination of the right material for a certain product to optimize certain performance indices in that product such as mass, energy density, and power-to-weight ratio. This paper is concerned about optimizing the selection of the manufacturing process along with the material used in the product under performance indices and availability constraints. In this paper, the material selection problem is formulated using binary programming and solved by genetic algorithm. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total manufacturing cost under performance indices and material and manufacturing process availability constraints.

Keywords: Optimization, Material selection, Process selection, Genetic algorithm.

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1276 Multi Objective Micro Genetic Algorithm for Combine and Reroute Problem

Authors: Soottipoom Yaowiwat, Manoj Lohatepanont, Proadpran Punyabukkana

Abstract:

Several approaches such as linear programming, network modeling, greedy heuristic and decision support system are well-known approaches in solving irregular airline operation problem. This paper presents an alternative approach based on Multi Objective Micro Genetic Algorithm. The aim of this research is to introduce the concept of Multi Objective Micro Genetic Algorithm as a tool to solve irregular airline operation, combine and reroute problem. The experiment result indicated that the model could obtain optimal solutions within a few second.

Keywords: Irregular Airline Operation, Combine and RerouteRoutine, Genetic Algorithm, Micro Genetic Algorithm, Multi ObjectiveOptimization, Evolutionary Algorithm.

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1275 Solving Bus Terminal Location Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Babaie-Kafaki, R. Ghanbari, S.H. Nasseri, E. Ardil

Abstract:

Bus networks design is an important problem in public transportation. The main step to this design, is determining the number of required terminals and their locations. This is an especial type of facility location problem, a large scale combinatorial optimization problem that requires a long time to be solved. The genetic algorithm (GA) is a search and optimization technique which works based on evolutionary principle of natural chromosomes. Specifically, the evolution of chromosomes due to the action of crossover, mutation and natural selection of chromosomes based on Darwin's survival-of-the-fittest principle, are all artificially simulated to constitute a robust search and optimization procedure. In this paper, we first state the problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Then we design a new crossover and mutation for bus terminal location problem (BTLP). We tested the different parameters of genetic algorithm (for a sample problem) and obtained the optimal parameters for solving BTLP with numerical try and error.

Keywords: Bus networks, Genetic algorithm (GA), Locationproblem, Mixed integer programming (MIP).

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1274 Multi-Objective Cellular Manufacturing System under Machines with Different Life-Cycle using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: N. Javadian, J. Rezaeian, Y. Maali

Abstract:

In this paper a multi-objective nonlinear programming model of cellular manufacturing system is presented which minimize the intercell movements and maximize the sum of reliability of cells. We present a genetic approach for finding efficient solutions to the problem of cell formation for products having multiple routings. These methods find the non-dominated solutions and according to decision makers prefer, the best solution will be chosen.

Keywords: Cellular Manufacturing, Genetic Algorithm, Multiobjective, Life-Cycle.

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1273 Predicting Residence Time of Pollutants in Transient Storage Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming

Authors: Rajeev R. Sahay

Abstract:

Rivers have transient storage or dead zones where injected pollutants or solutes are entrapped for considerable period of time, known as residence time, before being released into the main flowing zones of rivers. In this study, a new empirical expression for residence time, implementing genetic programming on published dispersion data, has been derived. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of rivers which are normally known to the authorities. When compared with some reported expressions, based on various statistical indices, it can be concluded that the proposed expression predicts the residence time of pollutants in natural rivers more accurately.

Keywords: Parameter estimation, pollutant transport, residence time, rivers, transient storage.

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1272 A Dual Fitness Function Genetic Algorithm: Application on Deterministic Identical Machine Scheduling

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan, Gürsel A. Süer

Abstract:

In this paper a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-fitness function is proposed and applied to solve the deterministic identical machine scheduling problem. The mating fitness function value was used to determine the mating for chromosomes, while the selection fitness function value was used to determine their survivals. The performance of this algorithm was tested on deterministic identical machine scheduling using simulated data. The results obtained from the proposed GA were compared with classical GA and integer programming (IP). Results showed that dual-fitness function GA outperformed the classical single-fitness function GA with statistical significance for large problems and was competitive to IP, particularly when large size problems were used.

Keywords: Machine scheduling, Genetic algorithms, Due dates, Number of tardy jobs, Number of early jobs, Integer programming, Dual Fitness functions.

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1271 Genetic Folding: Analyzing the Mercer-s Kernels Effect in Support Vector Machine using Genetic Folding

Authors: Mohd A. Mezher, Maysam F. Abbod

Abstract:

Genetic Folding (GF) a new class of EA named as is introduced for the first time. It is based on chromosomes composed of floating genes structurally organized in a parent form and separated by dots. Although, the genotype/phenotype system of GF generates a kernel expression, which is the objective function of superior classifier. In this work the question of the satisfying mapping-s rules in evolving populations is addressed by analyzing populations undergoing either Mercer-s or none Mercer-s rule. The results presented here show that populations undergoing Mercer-s rules improve practically models selection of Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experiment is trained multi-classification problem and tested on nonlinear Ionosphere dataset. The target of this paper is to answer the question of evolving Mercer-s rule in SVM addressed using either genetic folding satisfied kernel-s rules or not applied to complicated domains and problems.

Keywords: Genetic Folding, GF, Evolutionary Algorithms, Support Vector Machine, Genetic Algorithm, Genetic Programming, Multi-Classification, Mercer's Rules

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1270 Simulation and 40 Years of Object-Oriented Programming

Authors: Eugene Kindler

Abstract:

2007 is a jubilee year: in 1967, programming language SIMULA 67 was presented, which contained all aspects of what was later called object-oriented programming. The present paper contains a description of the development unto the objectoriented programming, the role of simulation in this development and other tools that appeared in SIMULA 67 and that are nowadays called super-object-oriented programming.

Keywords: Simulation, super-object-oriented programming, object-oriented programming, SIMULA.

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1269 Problem Solving in Chilean Higher Education: Figurations Prior in Interpretations of Cartesian Graphs

Authors: Verónica Díaz

Abstract:

A Cartesian graph, as a mathematical object, becomes a tool for configuration of change. Its best comprehension is done through everyday life problem-solving associated with its representation. Despite this, the current educational framework favors general graphs, without consideration of their argumentation. Students are required to find the mathematical function without associating it to the development of graphical language. This research describes the use made by students of configurations made prior to Cartesian graphs with regards to an everyday life problem related to a time and distance variation phenomenon. The theoretical framework describes the function conditions of study and their modeling. This is a qualitative, descriptive study involving six undergraduate case studies that were carried out during the first term in 2016 at University of Los Lagos. The research problem concerned the graphic modeling of a real person’s movement phenomenon, and two levels of analysis were identified. The first level aims to identify local and global graph interpretations; a second level describes the iconicity and referentiality degree of an image. According to the results, students were able to draw no figures before the Cartesian graph, highlighting the need for students to represent the context and the movement of which causes the phenomenon change. From this, they managed Cartesian graphs representing changes in position, therefore, achieved an overall view of the graph. However, the local view only indicates specific events in the problem situation, using graphic and verbal expressions to represent movement. This view does not enable us to identify what happens on the graph when the movement characteristics change based on possible paths in the person’s walking speed.

Keywords: Cartesian graphs, higher education, movement modeling, problem solving.

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1268 A Genetic Algorithm Based Permutation and Non-Permutation Scheduling Heuristics for Finite Capacity Material Requirement Planning Problem

Authors: Watchara Songserm, Teeradej Wuttipornpun

Abstract:

This paper presents a genetic algorithm based permutation and non-permutation scheduling heuristics (GAPNP) to solve a multi-stage finite capacity material requirement planning (FCMRP) problem in automotive assembly flow shop with unrelated parallel machines. In the algorithm, the sequences of orders are iteratively improved by the GA characteristics, whereas the required operations are scheduled based on the presented permutation and non-permutation heuristics. Finally, a linear programming is applied to minimize the total cost. The presented GAPNP algorithm is evaluated by using real datasets from automotive companies. The required parameters for GAPNP are intently tuned to obtain a common parameter setting for all case studies. The results show that GAPNP significantly outperforms the benchmark algorithm about 30% on average.

Keywords: Finite capacity MRP, genetic algorithm, linear programming, flow shop, unrelated parallel machines, application in industries.

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1267 Application of Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Function Optimization

Authors: Panpan Xu, Shulin Sui

Abstract:

The crossover probability and mutation probability are the two important factors in genetic algorithm. The adaptive genetic algorithm can improve the convergence performance of genetic algorithm, in which the crossover probability and mutation probability are adaptively designed with the changes of fitness value. We apply adaptive genetic algorithm into a function optimization problem. The numerical experiment represents that adaptive genetic algorithm improves the convergence speed and avoids local convergence.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Adaptive genetic algorithm, Function optimization.

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1266 2D Validation of a High-order Adaptive Cartesian-grid finite-volume Characteristic- flux Model with Embedded Boundaries

Authors: C. Leroy, G. Oger, D. Le Touzé, B. Alessandrini

Abstract:

A Finite Volume method based on Characteristic Fluxes for compressible fluids is developed. An explicit cell-centered resolution is adopted, where second and third order accuracy is provided by using two different MUSCL schemes with Minmod, Sweby or Superbee limiters for the hyperbolic part. Few different times integrator is used and be describe in this paper. Resolution is performed on a generic unstructured Cartesian grid, where solid boundaries are handled by a Cut-Cell method. Interfaces are explicitely advected in a non-diffusive way, ensuring local mass conservation. An improved cell cutting has been developed to handle boundaries of arbitrary geometrical complexity. Instead of using a polygon clipping algorithm, we use the Voxel traversal algorithm coupled with a local floodfill scanline to intersect 2D or 3D boundary surface meshes with the fixed Cartesian grid. Small cells stability problem near the boundaries is solved using a fully conservative merging method. Inflow and outflow conditions are also implemented in the model. The solver is validated on 2D academic test cases, such as the flow past a cylinder. The latter test cases are performed both in the frame of the body and in a fixed frame where the body is moving across the mesh. Adaptive Cartesian grid is provided by Paramesh without complex geometries for the moment.

Keywords: Finite volume method, cartesian grid, compressible solver, complex geometries, Paramesh.

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1265 Predicting Dispersion Coefficient in Free-Flowing Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming

Authors: Rajeev Ranjan Sahay

Abstract:

Transient storage zones along the flow paths of rivers have great influence on the dispersion of pollutants that are either accidentally or otherwise led into them. The speed with which these pollution clouds get transported and dispersed downstream is, to a large extent, explained by the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the free-flowing zones of rivers (Kf). In the present work, a new empirical expression for Kf has been derived employing genetic programming (GP) on published dispersion data. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of a river that are readily available to field engineers. Based on various performance indices, the proposed expression is found superior to other existing expression for Kf.

Keywords: Dispersion, parameter estimation, rivers, transient pollutant.

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1264 Modified Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Based Artificial Neural Network Application on Wall Shear Stress Prediction

Authors: Zohreh Sheikh Khozani, Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar, Mojtaba Porhemmat

Abstract:

Prediction of wall shear stress in a rectangular channel, with non-homogeneous roughness distribution, was studied. Estimation of shear stress is an important subject in hydraulic engineering, since it affects the flow structure directly. In this study, the Genetic Algorithm Artificial (GAA) neural network is introduced as a hybrid methodology of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and modified Genetic Algorithm (GA) combination. This GAA method was employed to predict the wall shear stress. Various input combinations and transfer functions were considered to find the most appropriate GAA model. The results show that the proposed GAA method could predict the wall shear stress of open channels with high accuracy, by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.064 in the test dataset. Thus, using GAA provides an accurate and practical simple-to-use equation.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, genetic programming, rectangular channel, shear stress.

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1263 A Study on Intuitionistic Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-Hemirings

Authors: S.K. Sardar, D. Mandal, R. Mukherjee

Abstract:

The notions of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideal and normal intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring are introduced and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. Cartesian product of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideals is also defined. Finally a characterization of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideals in terms of fuzzy relations is obtained.

Keywords: Γ-hemiring, fuzzy h-ideal, normal, cartesian product.Mathematics Subject Classification[2000] :08A72, 16Y99

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1262 Multiuser Detection in CDMA Fast Fading Multipath Channel using Heuristic Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed Ismail Shah, Habibullah Jamal

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple heuristic genetic algorithm is used for Multistage Multiuser detection in fast fading environments. Multipath channels, multiple access interference (MAI) and near far effect cause the performance of the conventional detector to degrade. Heuristic Genetic algorithms, a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence, uses evolutionary programming for initial search, which not only helps to converge the solution towards near optimal performance efficiently but also at a very low complexity as compared with optimal detector. This holds true for Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading channels. Experimental results are presented to show the superior performance of the proposed techque over the existing methods.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Multiple AccessInterference (MAI), Multistage Detectors (MSD), SuccessiveInterference Cancellation.

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1261 A Common Automated Programming Platform for Knowledge Based Software Engineering

Authors: Ivan Stanev, Maria Koleva

Abstract:

Common Platform for Automated Programming (CPAP) is defined in details. Two versions of CPAP are described: Cloud based (including set of components for classic programming, and set of components for combined programming); and Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering (KBASE) based (including set of components for automated programming, and set of components for ontology programming). Four KBASE products (Module for Automated Programming of Robots, Intelligent Product Manual, Intelligent Document Display, and Intelligent Form Generator) are analyzed and CPAP contributions to automated programming are presented.

Keywords: Automated Programming, Cloud Computing, Knowledge Based Software Engineering, Service Oriented Architecture.

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