Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Radhika Narendra Patel

59 Evaluating Accuracy of Foetal Weight Estimation by Clinicians in Christian Medical College Hospital, India and Its Correlation to Actual Birth Weight: A Clinical Audit

Authors: Aarati Susan Mathew, Radhika Narendra Patel, Jiji Mathew

Abstract:

A retrospective study conducted at Christian Medical College (CMC) Teaching Hospital, Vellore, India on 14th August 2014 to assess the accuracy of clinically estimated foetal weight upon labour admission. Estimating foetal weight is a crucial factor in assessing maternal and foetal complications during and after labour. Medical notes of ninety-eight postnatal women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were studied to evaluate the correlation between their recorded Estimated Foetal Weight (EFW) on admission and actual birth weight (ABW) of the newborn after delivery. Data concerning maternal and foetal demographics was also noted. Accuracy was determined by absolute percentage error and proportion of estimates within 10% of ABW. Actual birth weights ranged from 950-4080g. A strong positive correlation between EFW and ABW (r=0.904) was noted. Term deliveries (≥40 weeks) in the normal weight range (2500-4000g) had a 59.5% estimation accuracy (n=74) compared to pre-term (<40 weeks) with an estimation accuracy of 0% (n=2). Out of the term deliveries, macrosomic babies (>4000g) were underestimated by 25% (n=3) and low birthweight (LBW) babies were overestimated by 12.7% (n=9). Registrars who estimated foetal weight were accurate in babies within normal weight ranges. However, there needs to be an improvement in predicting weight of macrosomic and LBW foetuses. We have suggested the use of an amended version of the Johnson’s formula for the Indian population for improvement and a need to re-audit once implemented.

Keywords: Clinical palpation, estimated foetal weight, pregnancy, India, Johnson’s formula.

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58 Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic based LED Lighting System

Authors: Ankit R Patel, Ankit A Patel, Mahesh A Patel, Dhaval R Vyas

Abstract:

Although lighting systems powered by Photovoltaic (PV) cells have existed for many years, they are not widely used, especially in lighting for buildings, due to their high initial cost and low conversion efficiency. One of the technical challenges facing PV powered lighting systems has been how to use dc power generated by the PV module to energize common light sources that are designed to operate efficiently under ac power. Usually, the efficiency of the dc light sources is very poor compared to ac light sources. Rapid developments in LED lighting systems have made this technology a potential candidate for PV powered lighting systems. This study analyzed the efficiency of each component of PV powered lighting systems to identify optimum system configurations for different applications.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, LED, Modeling of systems, Photovoltaic.

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57 Transient Energy and its Impact on Transmission Line Faults

Authors: Mamta Patel, R. N. Patel

Abstract:

Transmission and distribution lines are vital links between the generating unit and consumers. They are exposed to atmosphere, hence chances of occurrence of fault in transmission line is very high which has to be immediately taken care of in order to minimize damage caused by it. In this paper Discrete wavelet transform of voltage signals at the two ends of transmission lines have been analyzed. The transient energy of the detail information of level five is calculated for different fault conditions. It is observed that the variation of transient energy of healthy and faulted line can give important information which can be very useful in classifying and locating the fault.

Keywords: Wavelet, Discrete wavelet transform, Multiresolution analysis, Transient energy

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56 Generic Data Warehousing for Consumer Electronics Retail Industry

Authors: S. Habte, K. Ouazzane, P. Patel, S. Patel

Abstract:

The dynamic and highly competitive nature of the consumer electronics retail industry means that businesses in this industry are experiencing different decision making challenges in relation to pricing, inventory control, consumer satisfaction and product offerings. To overcome the challenges facing retailers and create opportunities, we propose a generic data warehousing solution which can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronics retailers with a minimum configuration. The solution includes a dimensional data model, a template SQL script, a high level architectural descriptions, ETL tool developed using C#, a set of APIs, and data access tools. It has been successfully applied by ASK Outlets Ltd UK resulting in improved productivity and enhanced sales growth.

Keywords: Consumer electronics retail, dimensional data model, data analysis, generic data warehousing, reporting.

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55 Analysis of Network Performance Using Aspect of Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Nisarg A. Patel, Hiren B. Patel

Abstract:

Quantum cryptography is described as a point-to-point secure key generation technology that has emerged in recent times in providing absolute security. Researchers have started studying new innovative approaches to exploit the security of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for a large-scale communication system. A number of approaches and models for utilization of QKD for secure communication have been developed. The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics created a new paradigm for QKD. One of the approaches for use of QKD involved network fashioned security. The main goal was point-to-point Quantum network that exploited QKD technology for end-to-end network security via high speed QKD. Other approaches and models equipped with QKD in network fashion are introduced in the literature as. A different approach that this paper deals with is using QKD in existing protocols, which are widely used on the Internet to enhance security with main objective of unconditional security. Our work is towards the analysis of the QKD in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).

Keywords: QKD, cryptography, quantum cryptography, network performance.

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54 Sentiment Analysis: Comparative Analysis of Multilingual Sentiment and Opinion Classification Techniques

Authors: Sannikumar Patel, Brian Nolan, Markus Hofmann, Philip Owende, Kunjan Patel

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis and opinion mining have become emerging topics of research in recent years but most of the work is focused on data in the English language. A comprehensive research and analysis are essential which considers multiple languages, machine translation techniques, and different classifiers. This paper presents, a comparative analysis of different approaches for multilingual sentiment analysis. These approaches are divided into two parts: one using classification of text without language translation and second using the translation of testing data to a target language, such as English, before classification. The presented research and results are useful for understanding whether machine translation should be used for multilingual sentiment analysis or building language specific sentiment classification systems is a better approach. The effects of language translation techniques, features, and accuracy of various classifiers for multilingual sentiment analysis is also discussed in this study.

Keywords: Cross-language analysis, machine learning, machine translation, sentiment analysis.

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53 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel

Abstract:

Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: Sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition.

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52 Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electrical Discharge Machining

Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Hardik Patel

Abstract:

Productivity and quality are two important aspects that have become great concerns in today’s competitive global market. Every production/manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process, as well as the product developed. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein the selected parameters are still often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as a productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it, with an intention of minimizing surface roughness taken as most important output parameter. These two opposites in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.

Keywords: Material removal rate, TWR, OC, DOE, ANOVA, MINITAB.

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51 Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya, Shobhit K. Patel

Abstract:

The microstrip antennas area has seen some inventive work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. A novel and simple wideband monopole antenna is presented printed on a single dielectric substrate which is fed by a 50 ohm microstrip line having a low-profile antenna structure with two parallel s-shaped meandered line of same size. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube. In this research, S–form microstrip patch antenna is designed from measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application (GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency band at 1.5 GHz, the simulated results for main parameters such as return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns, and gains are also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas, in simplicity design and supply, can satisfy GPS application. Two parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path, introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube.

Keywords: Bandwidth, electrically small antenna, microstrip patch antenna, GPS.

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50 Visualization of Searching and Sorting Algorithms

Authors: Bremananth R, Radhika.V, Thenmozhi.S

Abstract:

Sequences of execution of algorithms in an interactive manner using multimedia tools are employed in this paper. It helps to realize the concept of fundamentals of algorithms such as searching and sorting method in a simple manner. Visualization gains more attention than theoretical study and it is an easy way of learning process. We propose methods for finding runtime sequence of each algorithm in an interactive way and aims to overcome the drawbacks of the existing character systems. System illustrates each and every step clearly using text and animation. Comparisons of its time complexity have been carried out and results show that our approach provides better perceptive of algorithms.

Keywords: Algorithms, Searching, Sorting, Visualization.

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49 A Novel Approach to Avoid Billing Attack on VOIP System

Authors: Narendra M. Shekokar, Satish R. Devane

Abstract:

In a recent year usage of VoIP subscription has increased tremendously as compare to Public Switching Telephone System(PSTN). A VoIP subscriber would like to know the exact tariffs of the calls made using VoIP. As the usage increases, the rate of fraud is also increases, causing users complain about excess billing. This in turn hampers the growth of VoIP .This paper describe the common frauds and attack on VoIP based system and make an attempt to solve the billing attack by creating secured channel between caller and callee.

Keywords: VoIP, Billing-fraud, SSL/TLS, MITM, Replay-attack.

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48 Measurement of Real Time Drive Cycle for Indian Roads and Estimation of Component Sizing for HEV using LABVIEW

Authors: Varsha Shah, Patel Pritesh, Patel Sagar, PrasantaKundu, RanjanMaheshwari

Abstract:

Performance of vehicle depends on driving patterns and vehicle drive train configuration. Driving patterns depends on traffic condition, road condition and driver behavior. HEV design is carried out under certain constrain like vehicle operating range, acceleration, decelerations, maximum speed and road grades which are directly related to the driving patterns. Therefore the detailed study on HEV performance over a different drive cycle is required for selection and sizing of HEV components. A simple hardware is design to measured velocity v/s time profile of the vehicle by operating vehicle on Indian roads under real traffic conditions. To size the HEV components, a detailed dynamic model of the vehicle is developed considering the effect of inertia of rotating components like wheels, drive chain, engine and electric motor. Using vehicle model and different Indian drive cycles data, total tractive power demanded by vehicle and power supplied by individual components has been calculated.Using above information selection and estimation of component sizing for HEV is carried out so that HEV performs efficiently under hostile driving condition. Complete analysis is carried out in LABVIEW.

Keywords: BLDC motor, Driving cycle, LABVIEW Ultracapacitors, Vehicle Dynamics,

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47 Speech Enhancement of Vowels Based on Pitch and Formant Frequency

Authors: R. Rishma Rodrigo, R. Radhika, M. Vanitha Lakshmi

Abstract:

Numerous signal processing based speech enhancement systems have been proposed to improve intelligibility in the presence of noise. Traditionally, studies of neural vowel encoding have focused on the representation of formants (peaks in vowel spectra) in the discharge patterns of the population of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers. A method is presented for recording high-frequency speech components into a low-frequency region, to increase audibility for hearing loss listeners. The purpose of the paper is to enhance the formant of the speech based on the Kaiser window. The pitch and formant of the signal is based on the auto correlation, zero crossing and magnitude difference function. The formant enhancement stage aims to restore the representation of formants at the level of the midbrain. A MATLAB software’s are used for the implementation of the system with low complexity is developed.

Keywords: Formant estimation, formant enhancement, pitch detection, speech analysis.

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46 The Effects of Speed on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Narendra Singh Yadav, R.P.Yadav

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes communicating through wireless channels without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple "hops" may be needed to exchange data across the network. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come into existence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. Researchers have conducted many simulations comparing the performance of these routing protocols under various conditions and constraints. One question that arises is whether speed of nodes affects the relative performance of routing protocols being studied. This paper addresses the question by simulating two routing protocols AODV and DSDV. Protocols were simulated using the ns-2 and were compared in terms of packet delivery fraction, normalized routing load and average delay, while varying number of nodes, and speed.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, MANET, relative performance

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45 Fusion of Shape and Texture for Unconstrained Periocular Authentication

Authors: D. R. Ambika, K. R. Radhika, D. Seshachalam

Abstract:

Unconstrained authentication is an important component for personal automated systems and human-computer interfaces. Existing solutions mostly use face as the primary object of analysis. The performance of face-based systems is largely determined by the extent of deformation caused in the facial region and amount of useful information available in occluded face images. Periocular region is a useful portion of face with discriminative ability coupled with resistance to deformation. A reliable portion of periocular area is available for occluded images. The present work demonstrates that joint representation of periocular texture and periocular structure provides an effective expression and poses invariant representation. The proposed methodology provides an effective and compact description of periocular texture and shape. The method is tested over four benchmark datasets exhibiting varied acquisition conditions.

Keywords: Periocular authentication, Zernike moments, LBPV, shape and texture fusion.

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44 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: Air pollution, routing protocol, network simulator, rescheduling.

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43 Reconstruction of Binary Matrices Satisfying Neighborhood Constraints by Simulated Annealing

Authors: Divyesh Patel, Tanuja Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented.

Keywords: Discrete Tomography, exactly-1-4-adjacency, simulated annealing.

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42 Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Stepdown Transformers for DC-DC Converter Applications

Authors: Radhika Ambatipudi, Hari Babu Kotte, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

In this paper, multilayered coreless printed circuit board (PCB) step-down power transformers for DC-DC converter applications have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. A set of two different circular spiral step-down transformers were fabricated in the four layered PCB. These transformers have been modelled with the assistance of high frequency equivalent circuit and characterized with both sinusoidal and square wave excitation. This paper provides the comparative results of these two different transformers in terms of their resistances, self, leakage, mutual inductances, coupling coefficient and also their energy efficiencies. The operating regions for optimal performance of these transformers for power transfer applications are determined. These transformers were tested for the output power levels of about 30 Watts within the input voltage range of 12-50 Vrms. The energy efficiency for these step down transformers is observed to be in the range of 90%-97% in MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless Step down Transformer, DC-DC Converterapplications, High frequency transformer, MHz operating frequency, Multilayered PCB transformers, Power Transfer Applications.

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41 Incorporation of SVS CBVLC Supplementary Controller for Damping SSR in Power System

Authors: Narendra Kumar, Sanjiv Kumar

Abstract:

Static VAR System (SVS) is a kind of FACTS device which is used in power system primarily for the purpose of voltage and reactive power control. In this paper presents a systematic approach for designing SVS supplementary controller, which is used to improve the damping of power system oscillation. The combined bus voltage and line current (CBVLC) supplementary controller has been developed and incorporated in the SVS control system located at the middle of the series compensated long transmission line. Damping of torsional stresses due to subsynchronous resonance resulting from series capacitive compensation using CBVLC is investigated in this paper. Simulation results are carried out with MATLAB/Simulink on the IEEE first benchmark model (FBM). The simulation results show that the oscillations are satisfactorily damped out by the SVS supplementary controller. Time domain simulation is performed on power system and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Bus voltage and line current (BVLC), series compensation, sub synchronous resonance (SSR), supplementary controller, eigenvalue investigation.

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40 Dynamic Self-Scheduling of Pumped-Storage Power Plant in Energy and Ancillary Service Markets Using Sliding Window Technique

Authors: P. Kanakasabapathy, Radhika. S,

Abstract:

In the competitive electricity market environment, the profit of the pumped-storage plant in the energy market can be maximized by operating it as a generator, when market clearing price is high and as a pump, to pump water from lower reservoir to upper reservoir, when the price is low. An optimal self-scheduling plan has been developed for a pumped-storage plant, carried out on weekly basis in order to maximize the profit of the plant, keeping into account of all the major uncertainties such as the sudden ancillary service delivery request and the price forecasting errors. For a pumped storage power plant to operate in a real time market successive self scheduling has to be done by considering the forecast of the day-ahead market and the modified reservoir storage due to the ancillary service request of the previous day. Sliding Window Technique has been used for successive self scheduling to ensure profit for the plant.

Keywords: Ancillary services, BPSO, Power System Economics (Electricity markets), Self-Scheduling, Sliding Window Technique.

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39 Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy

Authors: K. A. Mistry, I. B. Patel, A. H. Prajapati

Abstract:

In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.

Keywords: EDAX, hardening coefficient, Micro hardness, Bi-Pb alloy.

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38 Performance Comparison and Analysis of Table-Driven and On-Demand Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Narendra Singh Yadav, R.P.Yadav

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes communicating through wireless channels without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple "hops" may be needed to exchange data across the network. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), the table- driven protocol and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV), an On –Demand protocol and evaluates both protocols based on packet delivery fraction, normalized routing load, average delay and throughput while varying number of nodes, speed and pause time.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, MANET, relative performance

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37 A ZVS Flyback DC-DC Converter using Multilayered Coreless Printed-Circuit Board(PCB) Step-down Power Transformer

Authors: Hari Babu Kotte, Radhika Ambatipudi, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented. The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W, with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC. Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless PCB step down transformer, DC-DCconverter, Flyback, Hard Switched Converter, MHz frequencyregion, Multilayered PCB transformer, Zero Voltage Switching

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36 Oxidation of Amitriptyline by Bromamine-T in Acidic Buffer Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Chandrashekar, R. T. Radhika, B. M. Venkatesha, S. Ananda, Shivalingegowda, T. S. Shashikumar, H. Ramachandra

Abstract:

The kinetics of the oxidation of amitriptyline (AT) by sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide (C6H5SO2NBrNa) has been studied in an acidic buffer medium of pH 1.2 at 303 K. The oxidation reaction of AT was followed spectrophotometrically at maximum wavelength, 410 nm. The reaction rate shows a first order dependence each on concentration of AT and concentration of sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide. The reaction also shows an inverse fractional order dependence at low or high concentration of HCl. The dielectric constant of the solvent shows negative effect on the rate of reaction. The addition of halide ions and the reduction product of BAT have no significant effect on the rate. The rate is unchanged with the variation in the ionic strength (NaClO4) of the medium. Addition of reaction mixtures to be aqueous acrylamide solution did not initiate polymerization, indicating the absence of free radical species. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 and oxidation product of AT is identified. The Michaelis-Menton type of kinetics has been proposed. The CH3C6H5SO2NHBr has been assumed to be the reactive oxidizing species. Thermodynamical parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperatures. A mechanism consistent with observed kinetics is presented.

Keywords: Amitriptyline, bromamine-T, kinetics, oxidation.

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35 Schmitt Trigger Based SRAM Using Finfet Technology- Shorted Gate Mode

Authors: Vasundara Patel K. S., Harsha N. Bhushan, Kiran G. Gadag, Nischal Prasad B. N., Mohmmed Haroon

Abstract:

The most widely used semiconductor memory types are the Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) and Static Random Access memory (SRAM). Competition among memory manufacturers drives the need to decrease power consumption and reduce the probability of read failure. A technology that is relatively new and has not been explored is the FinFET technology. In this paper, a single cell Schmitt Trigger Based Static RAM using FinFET technology is proposed and analyzed. The accuracy of the result is validated by means of HSPICE simulations with 32nm FinFET technology and the results are then compared with 6T SRAM using the same technology.

Keywords: Schmitt trigger based SRAM, FinFET, and Static Noise Margin.

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34 Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor

Authors: Vasudha Hegde, Narendra Chaulagain, H. M. Ravikumar, Sonu Mishra, Siva Yellampalli

Abstract:

Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.

Keywords: Acoustic sensor, diaphragm based, lumped element modeling, natural frequency, piezoelectric.

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33 Design of a Robust Controller for AGC with Combined Intelligence Techniques

Authors: R. N. Patel, S. K. Sinha, R. Prasad

Abstract:

In this work Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques like Fuzzy logic, Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization have been used to improve the performance of the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system. Instead of applying Genetic Algorithms and Particle swarm optimization independently for optimizing the parameters of the conventional AGC with PI controller, an intelligent tuned Fuzzy logic controller (acting as the secondary controller in the AGC system) has been designed. The controller gives an improved dynamic performance for both hydrothermal and thermal-thermal power systems under a variety of operating conditions.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Automatic generation control, Fuzzy control, Genetic Algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, Power systems.

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32 Thermodynamic Performance of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycles

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) has potential of reducing consumption of fossil fuels and has many favorable characteristics to exploit low-temperature heat sources. In this work thermodynamic performance of ORC with regeneration is comparatively assessed for various working fluids. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters such as the turbine inlet pressure on the characteristics of the system such as net work production, heat input, volumetric flow rate per 1 MW of net work and quality of the working fluid at turbine exit as well as thermal efficiency. Results show that for a given source the thermal efficiency generally increases with increasing of the turbine inlet pressure however has optimal condition for working fluids of low critical pressure such as iso-pentane or n-pentane.

Keywords: low-grade energy source, organic Rankine cycle(ORC), regeneration, Patel-Teja equation.

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31 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Abstract:

Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: Androgenesis, pretreatment, microspore culture, regeneration, albino plants, Oryza sativa.

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30 Tuning Cubic Equations of State for Supercritical Water Applications

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern

Abstract:

Cubic equations of state (EoS), popular due to their simple mathematical form, ease of use, semi-theoretical nature and reasonable accuracy, are normally fitted to vapor-liquid equilibrium P-v-T data. As a result, they often show poor accuracy in the region near and above the critical point. In this study, the performance of the renowned Peng-Robinson (PR) and Patel-Teja (PT) EoS’s around the critical area has been examined against the P-v-T data of water. Both of them display large deviations at critical point. For instance, PR-EoS exhibits discrepancies as high as 47% for the specific volume, 28% for the enthalpy departure and 43% for the entropy departure at critical point. It is shown that incorporating P-v-T data of the supercritical region into the retuning of a cubic EoS can improve its performance at and above the critical point dramatically. Adopting a retuned acentric factor of 0.5491 instead of its genuine value of 0.344 for water in PR-EoS and a new F of 0.8854 instead of its original value of 0.6898 for water in PT-EoS reduces the discrepancies to about one third or less.

Keywords: Equation of state, EoS, supercritical water, SCW.

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