Search results for: pregnancy
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: pregnancy

38 Pregnancy Myths and Early Chilcare: Research Reflections from the Rural Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Azher H. Qamar

Abstract:

Pregnancy is considered a special period in a woman’s life. There are myths about pregnancy that describe gender predictions, dietary beliefs, pregnancy signs, and risk of magic or witchcraft. Majority of these myths is in connection with the early childcare. In traditional societies midwives and experienced women practice and teach these myths to young mothers. Mother who feel special and vulnerable, at the same time feel secure in following these socially transmitted myths. Rural Punjab, a province of Pakistan has a culture rich with beliefs and myths. Myths about pregnancy are significant in rural culture and pregnancy care is seen as mother and childcare. This paper presents my research reflections that I did as a part of my Ph.D studies about early childcare beliefs and rituals practiced in rural Punjab, Pakistan.

Keywords: Myths, Pregnancy, BabyCare, Culture

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37 Current Cosmetic Treatments in Pregnancy

Authors: Daniela F. Maluf, Fernanda Roters, Luma C. F. Silva

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to report the main dermatological alterations occurring during pregnancy and actual cosmetic protocols available and recommended for safe use. Throughout pregnancy, woman's body undergoes many transformations such as hormonal changes and weight gain. These alterations can result in undesirable skin aspects that end up affecting the future mother's life. The main complaints of pregnant women involve melasma advent, varicose veins, edema, and natural skin aging. Even if most of the time is recommended to wait for the birth to use cosmetics, there are some alternatives to prevent and to treat these alterations during pregnancy. For all these cases, there is a need to update information about safety and efficacy of new actives and technologies in cosmetic products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review about the main skin alterations during pregnancy and actual recommended treatments, according to the current legislation.

Keywords: Pregnancy, cosmetic, treatment, physiological changes.

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36 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

Abstract:

The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: Teenage pregnancy, knowledge of nutrition, eating habit.

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35 Low Molecular Weight Heparin during Pregnancy

Authors: Sihana Ahmeti Lika, Merita Dauti, Ledjan Malaj

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to analyze the prophylactic usage of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) along pregnancy and the correlation between their usage and month/week of pregnancy, in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, at Clinical Hospital in Tetovo. A retrospective study was undertaken during 01 January – 31 December 2012. Over of one year, the total number of patients was 4636. Among the 1447 (32.21%) pregnant women, 298 (20.59%) of them were prescribed LMWH. The majority of patients given LMWH, 119 (39.93%) were diagnosed hypercoagulable. The age group with the highest attendance was 25- 35, 141 patients (47.32%). For 195 (65.44%) patients, this was their first pregnancy. Earliest stage of using LMWH was the second month of pregnancy 4 (1.34%) cases. The most common patients were 70 women along the seventh month (23.49%), followed by 68 in the ninth month of pregnancy (22.81%). Women in the 28th gestational week, were found to be the most affected, a total of 55 (78.57%) were in that week. Clexane 2000 and Fraxiparine 0.3 were the most common for which low molecular weight heparin was prescribed. The number of patients which received Clexane 2000 was 84 (28.19%), followed by those with Fraxiparine 0.3 81 (27.18%). The administration of LMWH is associated with long hospitalization (median 14,6 days).

Keywords: Hypercoagulable state, low molecular weight heparin, month of pregnancy, pregnant women.

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34 Perinatal Outcome in Cases with Bleeding during First and Early Second Trimester

Authors: S. Chhabra, C. Tickoo, P. Kalra

Abstract:

Background: Bleeding during first half of pregnancy mostly originates from placenta, some abort, others are at risk of complications. Objective: Study was done to know perinatal outcome with bleeding up to 20 weeks in singleton pregnancy. Material Methods: Subjects were 1020, equal controls managed over 2 years, 435 had viable pregnancy at admission, 135 excluded, 300 followed for perinatal outcome, 99 (19.52% up to 10 weeks), 201 (39.18% of 11-20 weeks). Results: Hypertensive disorders occurred in 24% cases of bleeding within 10 weeks, 22% 11-20 weeks 14.79% controls, placenta previa 4% in 10 weeks, 0.9% 11-20 weeks, 0.97% controls, prelabor rupture of membranes in 16%, 7.45% controls. 20% up to 10 weeks, 35% 11-20 weeks, 18% controls had fetal growth restriction, 34.34% up to 10 weeks 30.35% of 11-20 weeks 17.17% controls had preterm births, perinatal mortality rate in study was 118.62, in controls 68.16 (Uneventful pregnancy in 13.52% study, 46.11% controls). Conclusion: Once bleeding occurs, one third continue pregnancy, maternal neonatal outcome gets affected with variations in cases of bleeding within first 10 weeks & 11-20 weeks.

Keywords: First, Second trimester, bleeding, Disorders, Perinatal Outcome.

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33 Cultural Practices as a Coping Measure for Women who Terminated a Pregnancy in Adolescence: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Botshelo R. Sebola

Abstract:

Unintended pregnancy often results in pregnancy termination. Most countries have legalised the termination of a pregnancy and pregnant adolescents can visit designated clinics without their parents’ consent. In most African and Asian countries, certain cultural practices are performed following any form of childbirth, including abortion, and such practices are ingrained in societies. The aim of this paper was to understand how women who terminated a pregnancy during adolescence coped by embracing cultural practices. A descriptive multiple case study design was adopted for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and reflective diaries were used for data collection. Participants were 13 women aged 20 to 35 years who had terminated a pregnancy in adolescence. Three women kept their soiled sanitary pads, burned them to ash and waited for the rainy season to scatter the ash in a flowing stream. This ritual was performed to appease the ancestors, ask them for forgiveness and as a send-off for the aborted foetus. Five women secretly consulted Sangoma (traditional healers) to perform certain rituals. Three women isolated themselves to perform herbal cleansings, and the last two chose not to engage in any sexual activity for one year, which led to the loss of their partners. This study offers a unique contribution to understanding the solitary journey of women who terminate a pregnancy. The study challenges healthcare professionals who work in clinics that offer pregnancy termination services to look beyond releasing the foetus to advocating and providing women with the necessary care and support in performing cultural practices.

Keywords: Adolescence, case study, cultural rituals, pregnancy.

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32 Outcomes of Teenage Mothers at Dankhunthot Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima

Authors: Nareelux Suwannobol, Supap Chobkhayan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the pregnancy outcomes of teenage mothers at DanKhunThot hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in 573 of teenage pregnant from charts reviewed from 1st October 2010-31st March, 2012. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, mean and Standard Deviation. The results shown several problems and negatives outcomes of pregnancy in teenager such as not attended prenatal care, Low birth weight infants, death fetus in utero and other complications. The results of this study can be utilized in the development of prenatal, perinatal and post natal care services, especially in DanKhunthot Hospital contexts. Moreover, the results were present to the District Health Care committees in order to enhance health care service system for teenage pregnancy of DanKhunthot District in further.

Keywords: Teenage mothers, Pregnancy outcome, Neonatal outcomes, Maternal outcomes.

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31 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Childhood obesity, overweight, smoking, parents, risk factors.

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30 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Late Pregnant Cows on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh

Abstract:

To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A in pregnant dairy cows during late stages of pregnancy, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided into three groups; two treatment groups and one control group. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β-carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P> 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in control group (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P> 0.05). β-Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that single injection of vitamin A during at 7 or 8 month of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: Dry cow, Beta-carotene, Newborn calves, Vitamin A.

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29 Impact of Shearing Date on Behaviors and Performances of Pregnant Rahmani Ewes

Authors: T. M. Mousa-Balabel, M. A. Salama

Abstract:

The effect of shearing date on behaviors and performances of 20 pregnant Rahmani ewes was evaluated in four groups (5each). Ewes were shorn at 70, 100 and 130 days of pregnancy in the first three groups respectively, while the fourth group was maintained unshorn as a control. Some behavioral and physiological data related to ewes in addition, blood cortisol level were recorded. Results revealed a significant increase in the frequencies of comfort and eating behaviors, respiratory rate, pulse rate, lamb birth weight and blood cortisol level in early and mid pregnancy shorn ewes. Also, a slight increase in pregnancy period was observed for those ewes. On the other hand, social behaviors, and core temperature were not affected by shearing. These results conclude that prenatal shearing (early and mid-pregnancy) of ewes increases the frequencies of comfort and eating behaviors, and improves the survival rates of lambs by increasing their birth weights.

Keywords: behavior, blood cortisol, pregnant rahmani ewes, shearing.

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28 Two Cases of VACTERL Association in Pregnancy with Lymphocyte Therapy

Authors: Seyed Mazyar Mortazavi, Masod Memari, Hasan Ali Ahmadi, Zhaleh Abed

Abstract:

VACTERL association is a rare disorder with various congenital malformations. The aetiology remains unknown. Combination of at least three congenital anomalies of the following criteria is required for diagnosis: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb defects. The first case was 1-day old male neonate with multiple congenital anomalies was bore from 28 years old mother. The mother had history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. His anomalies included: defects in thoracic and lumbar vertebral, anal atresia, bilateral hydronephrosis, atrial septal defect, and lower limb abnormality. Other anomalies were cryptorchidism and nasal canal narrowing. The second case was born with 32 weeks gestational age from mother with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. He had thoracic vertebral defect, cardiac anomalies and renal defect. diagnosis based on clinical finding is VACTERL association. Early diagnosis is very important to investigation and treatment of other coexistence anomalies. VACTERL association in mothers with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy has suggested possibly of relationship between VACTERL association and this method of pregnancy.

Keywords: Anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula, atrial septal defect, lymphocyte therapy.

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27 A Bio-Ecological Perspective on Risk Awareness and Factors Associated with Substance Use during Pregnancy in Communities of the Western Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Mutshinye Manguvhewa, Maria Florence, Mansoo Yu

Abstract:

Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential elements related with substance use among women of childbearing-age. Factors associated with substance use during pregnancy were explored using qualitative research approach and bio-ecological theoretical framework was utilised to guide the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Participants accessed from the Department of Social Development who met the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Participants were referred for psychological intervention during the interview if deemed necessary. Braun and Clarke’s six phases of thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. The study adhered to ethical measures for the participants’ protection. Participants had been knowledgeable about the study earlier than the initiation of the interviews and the important points of their voluntary participation had been explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that social factors, individual area and romantic relationship are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant ladies in this sample. Recommendations arising from the study encompass that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centers, Department of Health and future researchers ought to act proactively against substance use all through pregnancy.

Keywords: Bio-ecological factors, pregnancy risk awareness, antenatal care, substance use.

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26 Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in Women during the First Trimester of Pregnancy (Normal Pregnancy and Missed Miscarriage)

Authors: Yahia M., Chaoui N., Chaouch A., Massinissa Yahia

Abstract:

Our study was designed to determine the metabolic  changes of some biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride,  Iron, uric acid, Urea and folic acid) and highlight their changes in 57  women of the region Batna, during the first trimester of pregnancy.  This practical work was done with 27 women with missed  miscarriage, compared with 30 control subjects of normal pregnant  women. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference (P  = 0.0006) between the two groups in serum iron (64.00 vs 93.54) and  in the rate of folate (6.70 vs 9.22) (P <0.001) but no difference was  found regarding the rate of Ca (9.69 vs 10.20), urea (0.19 vs 0.17),  UA (33.96 vs 32.76), CH (1.283 vs 1.431), and TG (0.8852 vs  0.8290). The present study indicates that iron deficiency and folate  are associated with missed miscarriage, but no direct  pathophysiological link has been determined. Further in-depth studies  are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which these deficits  lead to a missed miscarriage.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters, pregnant women, missed miscarriage.

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25 Negative RT-PCR in a Newborn Infected with Zika Virus: A Case Report

Authors: Vallejo Michael, Acuña Edgar, Roa Juan David, Peñuela Rosa, Parra Alejandra, Casallas Daniela, Rodriguez Sheyla

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Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome is an entity composed by a variety of birth defects presented in newborns that have been exposed to the Zika Virus during pregnancy. The syndrome characteristic features are severe microcephaly, cerebral tissue abnormalities, ophthalmological abnormalities such as uveitis and chorioretinitis, arthrogryposis, clubfoot deformity and muscular tone abnormalities. The confirmatory test is the Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) associated to the physical findings. Here we present the case of a newborn with microcephaly whose mother presented a confirmed Zika Virus infection during the third trimester of pregnancy, despite of the evident findings and the history of Zika infection the RT-PCR in amniotic and cerebrospinal fluid of the newborn was negative. RT-PCR has demonstrated a low sensibility in samples with low viral loads, reason why, we propose a clinical diagnosis in patients with clinical history of Zika Virus infection during pregnancy accompanied by evident clinical manifestations of the child.

Keywords: Zika Virus, polymerase chain reaction, microcephaly, amniotic fluid.

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24 Mathematical Model for Dengue Disease with Maternal Antibodies

Authors: Rujira Kongnuy, Puntani Pongsumpun, I-Ming Tang

Abstract:

Mathematical models can be used to describe the dynamics of the spread of infectious disease between susceptibles and infectious populations. Dengue fever is a re-emerging disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its incidence has increased fourfold since 1970 and outbreaks are now reported quite frequently from many parts of the world. In dengue endemic regions, more cases of dengue infection in pregnancy and infancy are being found due to the increasing incidence. It has been reported that dengue infection was vertically transmitted to the infants. Primary dengue infection is associated with mild to high fever, headache, muscle pain and skin rash. Immune response includes IgM antibodies produced by the 5th day of symptoms and persist for 30-60 days. IgG antibodies appear on the 14th day and persist for life. Secondary infections often result in high fever and in many cases with hemorrhagic events and circulatory failure. In the present paper, a mathematical model is proposed to simulate the succession of dengue disease transmission in pregnancy and infancy. Stability analysis of the equilibrium points is carried out and a simulation is given for the different sets of parameter. Moreover, the bifurcation diagrams of our model are discussed. The controlling of this disease in infant cases is introduced in the term of the threshold condition.

Keywords: Dengue infection, equilibrium states, maternalantibodies, pregnancy and infancy.

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23 Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with TPO Positive Status after Appropriate Dose Adjustments of Thyroxin: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Revathi S. Rajan, Pratibha Malik, Nupur Garg, Smitha Avula, Kamini A. Rao

Abstract:

This study aimed to analyse the pregnancy outcomes in patients with TPO positivity after appropriate L-Thyroxin supplementation with close surveillance. All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Milann-The Fertility Center, Bangalore, India- from Aug 2013 to Oct 2014 whose booking TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L were included along with those pregnant women with prior hypothyroidism who were TPO positive. Those with TPO positive status were vigorously managed with appropriate thyroxin supplementation and the doses were readjusted every 3 to 4 weeks until delivery. Women with recurrent pregnancy loss were also tested for TPO positivity and if tested positive, were monitored serially with TSH and fT4 levels every 3 to 4 weeks and appropriately supplemented with thyroxin when the levels fluctuated. The testing was done after an informed consent in all these women. The statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, MedCalc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used for the analysis of the data. 460 pregnant women were screened for thyroid dysfunction at booking of which 52% were hypothyroid. Majority of them (31.08%) were subclinically hypothyroid and the remaining were overt. 25% of the total no. of patients screened were TPO positive. The various pregnancy complications that were observed in the TPO positive women were gestational glucose intolerance [60%], threatened abortion [21%], midtrimester abortion [4.3%], premature rupture of membranes [4.3%], cervical funneling [4.3%] and fetal growth restriction [3.5%]. 95.6% of the patients who followed up till the end delivered beyond 30 weeks. 42.6% of these patients had previous history of recurrent abortions or adverse obstetric outcome and 21.7% of the delivered babies required NICU admission. Obstetric outcomes in our study in terms of midtrimester abortions, placental abruption, and preterm delivery improved for the better after close monitoring of the thyroid hormone [TSH and fT4] levels every 3 to 4 weeks with appropriate dose adjustment throughout pregnancy. Euthyroid women with TPO positive status enrolled in the study incidentally were those with recurrent abortions/infertility and required thyroxin supplements due to elevated Thyroid hormone (TSH, fT4) levels during the course of their pregnancy. Significant associations were found with age>30 years and Hyperhomocysteinemia [p=0.017], recurrent pregnancy loss or previous adverse obstetric outcomes [p=0.067] and APLA [p=0.029]. TPO antibody levels >600 I U/ml were significantly associated with development of gestational hypertension [p=0.041] and fetal growth restriction [p=0.082]. Euthyroid women with TPO positivity were also screened periodically to counter fluctuations of the thyroid hormone levels with appropriate thyroxin supplementation. Thus, early identification along with aggressive management of thyroid dysfunction and stratification of these patients based on their TPO status with appropriate thyroxin supplementation beginning in the first trimester will aid risk modulation and also help avert complications.

Keywords: Antinuclear antibody, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Thyroxin, TPO antibody.

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22 Embryo Transfer as an Assisted Reproductive Technology in Farm Animals

Authors: Diah Tri Widayati

Abstract:

Various assisted reproductive techniques have been developed and refined to obtain a large number of offspring from genetically superior animals or obtain offspring from infertile (or subfertile) animals. The embryo transfer is one assisted reproductive technique developed well, aimed at increased productivity of selected females, disease control, importation and exportation of livestock, rapid screening of AI sires for genetically recessive characteristics, treatment or circumvention of certain types of infertility. Embryo transfer also is a useful research tool for evaluating fetal and maternal interactions. This technique has been applied to nearly every species of domestic animal and many species of wildlife and exotic animals, including humans and non-human primates. The successful of embryo transfers have been limited to within-animal, homologous replacement of the embryos. There are several examples of interspecific and intergeneric embryo transfers in which embryos implanted but did not develop to term: sheep and goat, mouse and rat. An immunological rejections and placental incompatibility between the embryo and the surrogate mother appear to restrict interspecific embryo transfer/interspecific pregnancy. Recently, preimplantation embryo manipulation procedures have been applied, such as technique of inner cell mass transfer. This technique will possible to overcome the reproductive barrier interspecific embryo transfer/interspecific pregnancy, if there is a protective mechanism which prevents recognition of the foreign fetus by the mother of the other species

Keywords: Embryo Transfer, Assisted Reproductive Techology, Intraspesific-Interspesific Pregnancy, Inner cell mass.

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21 Sickle Cell Disease: Review of Managements in Pregnancy and the Outcome in Ampang Hospital, Selangor

Authors: Z. Nurzaireena, K. Azalea, T. Azirawaty, S. Jameela, G. Muralitharan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is the review of the management practices of sickle cell disease patients during pregnancy, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcome at Ampang Hospital, Selangor. The study consisted of a review of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease under follow up at the Hematology Clinic, Ampang Hospital over the last seven years to assess their management and maternal-fetal outcome. The results of the review show that Ampang Hospital is considered the public hematology centre for sickle cell disease and had successfully managed three pregnancies throughout the last seven years. Patients’ presentations, managements and maternal-fetal outcome were compared and reviewed for academic improvements. All three patients were seen very early in their pregnancy and had been given a regime of folic acid, antibiotics and thrombo-prophylactic drugs. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal well being was done by the hematologists and obstetricians. Among the patients, there were multiple admissions during the pregnancy for either a painful sickle cell bone crisis, haemolysis following an infection and anemia requiring phenotype- matched blood and exchange transfusions. Broad spectrum antibiotics coverage during and infection, hydration, pain management and venous-thrombolism prophylaxis were mandatory. The pregnancies managed to reach near term in the third trimester but all required emergency caesarean section for obstetric indications. All pregnancies resulted in live births with good fetal outcome. During post partum all were nursed closely in the high dependency units for further complications and were discharged well. Post partum follow up and contraception counseling was comprehensively given for future pregnancies. Sickle cell disease is uncommonly seen in the East, especially in the South East Asian region, yet more cases are seen in the current decade due to improved medical expertise and advance medical laboratory technologies. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for sickle cell patients as increased thrombosis event and risk of infections can lead to multiple crisis, haemolysis, anemia and vaso-occlusive complications including eclampsia, cerebrovasular accidents and acute bone pain. Patients mostly require multiple blood product transfusions thus phenotype-matched blood is required to reduce the risk of alloimmunozation. Emphasizing the risks and complications in preconception counseling and establishing an ultimate pregnancy plan would probably reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality to the mother and unborn child. Early management for risk of infection, thromboembolic events and adequate hydration is mandatory. A holistic approach involving multidisciplinary team care between the hematologist, obstetricians, anesthetist, neonatologist and close nursing care for both mother and baby would ensure the best outcome. In conclusion, sickle cell disease by itself is a high risk medical condition and pregnancy would further amplify the risk. Thus, close monitoring with combine multidisciplinary care, counseling and educating the patients are crucial in achieving the safe outcome.

Keywords: Anemia, haemoglobinopathies, pregnancy, sickle cell disease.

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20 Effects of Maternal Nutrition at Different Stages of Pregnancy in Bali Cows on Growth Performance of the Offspring to Weaning

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, A. L. Toleng, M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the lifelong effect of in utero nutrition fed at different stages of pregnancy in Bali cows (n = 40): (U1) without in utero nutrition (0 – parturition, negative control); (U2) 0 – 90 d of gestation; (U3) 90 - 180 d of gestation; (U4) 180 d – parturition; and (U5) in utero nutrition along gestation period (0 d to parturition – positive control) on the growth performance of the offspring to weaning age. The results indicated that effect of maternal nutrition on male and female offspring were particularly indicated by the growth performance of both the male and female offspring from birth to weaning.

Keywords: Bali cows, birth weight, maternal nutrition, preweaning daily gain, weaning weight.

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19 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pregnant Women toward Antenatal Care at Public Hospitals in Sana'a City-Yemen

Authors: Abdulfatah Al-Jaradi, Marzoq Ali Odhah, Abdulnasser A. Haza’a

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Background: Antenatal care can be defined as the care provided by skilled healthcare professionals to pregnant women and adolescent girls to ensure the best health conditions for both mother and baby during pregnancy. The components of Antenatal Care (ANC) include risk identification; prevention and management of pregnancy-related or concurrent diseases; and health education and health promotion. The aim of this study: to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women regarding ANC. Methodology: A descriptive knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) study was conducted in public hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. The study population included all pregnant women that intended to the prenatal department and clinical outpatient department; the final sample size was 371 pregnant women. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, statistical package for social sciences SPSS was used to data analysis. The results: Most (79%) of pregnant women had correct answers in total knowledge regarding ANC, and about two-thirds (67%) of pregnant women had performance practice regarding ANC and two-third (68%) of pregnant women had a positive attitude. Conclusions: More than three quarter of pregnant women had good knowledge level, most of pregnant women had moderate practice level, and more than two-thirds of pregnant women had a positive attitude regarding antenatal care. There was a statistically significant association between overall knowledge and practice level toward ANC and demographic characteristics of pregnant women, at P-value ≤ 0.05. Recommendations: we recommended more education and training courses, lecturers, and education sessions in clinical facilitators focused on ANC, which relies on evidence-based interventions provided to women during pregnancy by skilled healthcare providers such as midwives, doctors, and nurses.

Keywords: Antenatal care, knowledge, practice, attitude, pregnant women.

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18 Ultrasonic Assessment of Corpora Lutea and Plasma Progesterone Levels in Early Pregnant and Non Pregnant Cows

Authors: Abdurraouf Gaja, Salah Al-Dahash, Guru Solmon Raju, Chikara Kubota

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Corpus luteum cross sectional (by ultrasonography) and plasma progesterone (by DELFIA) were estimated in early pregnant and non pregnant cows on days 14th and 20th to 23rd post insemination. On day 14th, corpus luteum sectional area was 348.43 mm2 in pregnant and 387.84mm2 in non pregnant cows. Within days 20th to 23rd, corpus luteum sectional area ranged between 342.06 and 367.90 mm2 in pregnant and between 193.85 and 270.69 mm2 in non pregnant cows. Plasma progesterone level was 2.43 ng/ml in pregnant and 2.46 ng/ml in non pregnant cows on day 14th, while during days 20th to 23rd the level ranged between 2.47 and 2.84 ng/ml in pregnant and between 0.53 and 1.17 ng/ml in non pregnant cows. Results of both luteal tissue areas as well as plasma progesterone levels were highly significantly deferent (P<0.01) between pregnant and non pregnant cows during days 20th to 23rd, but there were no significant differences on day 14th. The correlation between CL cross sectional area and plasma progesterone level was 0.4 in pregnant cows and 0.99 in non pregnant cow. It is clear, from this study, that ultrasonic assessment of corpora lutea is a viable alternative to determine plasma progesterone levels for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

Keywords: Progesterone, ultrasonography, corpus luteum, pregnancy diagnosis, cow.

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17 Reproduction Performance of Etawah Cross Bred Goats in Estrus Synchronization by Controlled Internal Drug Release Implant and Pgf2α Continued by Artificial Insemination

Authors: Diah Tri Widayati, Aris Junaidi, Kresno Suharto, Amelia Oktaviani, Wahyuningsih

Abstract:

The estrus female Etawah cross bred goats were synchronized estrus by controlled internal drug release (CIDR) implants for 10 days combined with PGF2α injection, and continued by artificial insemination (AI) within the hours of 24 period. Vaginal epithelium was taken to determine estrus cycle of the goats without estrus synchronization. The estrus responds (the puffy of vulva and vaginal pH) and percentage of pregnancy were investigated. The data were analyzed descriptively and Independent Sample T-Test. The results showed that the puffy of vulva and vaginal pH were significantly different in synchronized estrus goats and control goats (2.18 ± 0.33 cm vs. 1.20 ± 0.16 cm and 8.55 ± 0.63 vs. 8.22 ± 0.22). Percentage of pregnancy was higher in synchronized estrus goats (73.33%) than in control (53.3%). Estrus synchronization by using CIDR implants and PGF2, continued by AI was effective to improve reproduction performance of Etawah cross bred goats.

Keywords: Artificial insemination, Estrus synchronization, Etawah cross bred goat, Reproduction performance.

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16 Analysis of Model in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Dengue Patients

Authors: R. Kongnuy, P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

We used mathematical model to study the transmission of dengue disease. The model is developed in which the human population is separated into two populations, pregnant and non-pregnant humans. The dynamical analysis method is used for analyzing this modified model. Two equilibrium states are found and the conditions for stability of theses two equilibrium states are established. Numerical results are shown for each equilibrium state. The basic reproduction numbers are found and they are compared by using numerical simulations.

Keywords: Basic reproductive number, dengue disease, equilibrium states, pregnancy.

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15 Dengue Transmission Model between Infantand Pregnant Woman with Antibody

Authors: R. Kongnuy, P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

Dengue, a disease found in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It has become the most common arboviral disease of humans. This disease is caused by any of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN1-DEN4). In many endemic countries, the average age of getting dengue infection is shifting upwards, dengue in pregnancy and infancy are likely to be encountered more frequently. The dynamics of the disease is studied by a compartmental model involving ordinary differential equations for the pregnant, infant human and the vector populations. The stability of each equilibrium point is given. The epidemic dynamic is discussed. Moreover, the numerical results are shown for difference values of dengue antibody.

Keywords: Dengue antibody, infant, pregnant human, mathematical model.

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14 Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi

Authors: Thibaud Berthomier, Ali Mansour, Luc Bressollette, Frédéric Le Roy, Dominique Mottier, Léo Fréchier, Barthélémy Hermenault

Abstract:

Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.

Keywords: Deep venous thrombosis, ultrasonography, elastography, scattering operator, wavelet, spectral clustering.

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13 The Relationship between Sheep Management and Lamb Mortality

Authors: T. M. Mousa-Balabel

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate lamb mortalities relating to ewes' breed and some managemental factors on 250 pregnant ewes (190-Rahmani, 30-Ossimi and 30-Romanov) at Mehallet Mousa, Animal Production Research Station, Kafr El- Sheikh Province, Egypt. These animals divided into five groups according to the managemental factors used. The results revealed that the lamb mortality was higher in Ossimi breed and lower in Romanov one. In addition, the highest lamb mortality occurred among lambs for unsupplemented ewes, for those had body condition score two and for lambs which born outdoor. Moreover, the lamb survivability was increased by the parity of ewes. From this study it can be concluded that the lamb mortality depends on ewes' body condition score, parity, lambing system (indoor or outdoor), nutrition during pregnancy period and selected breed. In addition, the most important period for lamb survival is the first week of age.

Keywords: lamb mortality, sheep breeds, sheep management, sheep parity.

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12 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in Adult Mice and Their Progeny

Authors: H. Bouaziz, N. Soudania, M. Essafia, I. Ben Amara, A. Hakim, K. Jamoussi, Km. Zeghal, N. Zeghal

Abstract:

In this investigation, we have evaluated the effects of arsenic trioxide on hepatic function in pregnant and lactating Swiss albino mice and their suckling pups. Experiments were carried out on female mice given 175 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Our results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride in As2O3 treated mice and their pups. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity suggested the presence of cholestasis. Transaminase activities as well as lactate deshydrogenase activity in plasma, known as biomarkers of hepatocellular injury, were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with As2O3. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and in glutathione.

Keywords: Antioxidant status, arsenic trioxide, hepatotoxicity, mice, oxidative stress.

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11 Effect of Age and Physiological Status on Some Serum Energy Metabolites and Progesterone in Ouled Djellal Breed Ewes in Algeria

Authors: B. Safsaf, M. Tlidjane, B. Mamache, M. A. Dehimi, H. Boukrous, Aly A. Hassan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of age and physiological status on progesterone and energy metabolism of Ouled Djellal (O.D) breed ewes. 40 healthy ewes were divided into two groups, primiparous and multiparous, with 20 ewes in each group. The body weights (BW) (Kg) were 46.6 ± 4.20 and 59.2 ± 3.02, and consuming less 25 to 30% of their basal energetic requirements. The values of serum glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant ewes. The high to very high significant differences were found during the 15th week of pregnancy for glycaemia and triglyceridemia respectively. Concerning serum progesterone, a very highly significant difference (p<0.001) was noted in the pregnant group, and the values were higher in MP than in PP. After lambing, the triglyceridemia values were slightly lower in primiparous than in multiparous pregnant ewes. In order to prevent imbalance during critical periods of reproduction, we can use the serum metabolic profile.

Keywords: Age, Energy metabolites, Ouled Djellal breed ewes, Physiologic status, Progesterone.

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10 Analysis of a Mathematical Model for Dengue Disease in Pregnant Cases

Authors: Rujira Kongnuy, Puntani Pongsumpun, I-Ming Tang

Abstract:

Dengue fever is an important human arboviral disease. Outbreaks are now reported quite often from many parts of the world. The number of cases involving pregnant women and infant cases are increasing every year. The illness is often severe and complications may occur. Deaths often occur because of the difficulties in early diagnosis and in the improper management of the diseases. Dengue antibodies from pregnant women are passed on to infants and this protects the infants from dengue infections. Antibodies from the mother are transferred to the fetus when it is still in the womb. In this study, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission of this disease in pregnant women. The model is formulated by dividing the human population into pregnant women and non-pregnant human (men and non-pregnant women). Each class is subdivided into susceptible (S), infectious (I) and recovered (R) subclasses. We apply standard dynamical analysis to our model. Conditions for the local stability of the equilibrium points are given. The numerical simulations are shown. The bifurcation diagrams of our model are discussed. The control of this disease in pregnant women is discussed in terms of the threshold conditions.

Keywords: Dengue disease, local stability, mathematical model, pregnancy.

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9 Family History of Obesity and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of history of obesity for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, family history, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eleven studies of family history and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that family history of obesity is a significant risk factor of overweight and /or obesity in offspring; risk for offspring overweight and/or obesity associated with family history varies depending of the family members included in the analysis; and when family history of obesity is present, the offspring are at greater risk for developing obesity or overweight. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Childhood obesity, overweight, family history, risk factors, meta-analysis.

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