Search results for: M. Vanitha Lakshmi
19 Speech Enhancement of Vowels Based on Pitch and Formant Frequency
Authors: R. Rishma Rodrigo, R. Radhika, M. Vanitha Lakshmi
Numerous signal processing based speech enhancement systems have been proposed to improve intelligibility in the presence of noise. Traditionally, studies of neural vowel encoding have focused on the representation of formants (peaks in vowel spectra) in the discharge patterns of the population of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers. A method is presented for recording high-frequency speech components into a low-frequency region, to increase audibility for hearing loss listeners. The purpose of the paper is to enhance the formant of the speech based on the Kaiser window. The pitch and formant of the signal is based on the auto correlation, zero crossing and magnitude difference function. The formant enhancement stage aims to restore the representation of formants at the level of the midbrain. A MATLAB software’s are used for the implementation of the system with low complexity is developed.
Keywords: Formant estimation, formant enhancement, pitch detection, speech analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1498
18 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells
Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya
Abstract:Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.
Keywords: Carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 839
17 Detecting and Secluding Route Modifiers by Neural Network Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: C. N. Vanitha, M. Usha
In a real world scenario, the viability of the sensor networks has been proved by standardizing the technologies. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to both electronic and physical security breaches because of their deployment in remote, distributed, and inaccessible locations. The compromised sensor nodes send malicious data to the base station, and thus, the total network effectiveness will possibly be compromised. To detect and seclude the Route modifiers, a neural network based Pattern Learning predictor (PLP) is presented. This algorithm senses data at any node on present and previous patterns obtained from the en-route nodes. The eminence of any node is upgraded by their predicted and reported patterns. This paper propounds a solution not only to detect the route modifiers, but also to seclude the malevolent nodes from the network. The simulation result proves the effective performance of the network by the presented methodology in terms of energy level, routing and various network conditions.
Keywords: Neural networks, pattern learning, security, wireless sensor networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1173
16 Biotransformation of Artemisinin by using a Novel Soil Isolated Microorganism
Authors: Sreenivasa Rao Parcha, Lakshmi P
Abstract:Artemisinin is a potential antimalarial drug effective against the multidrug resistant forms of Malarial Parasites. The current production of artemisinin is insufficient to meet the global demand. In the present study microbial biotransformation of arteannuin B, a biogenetic precursor of artemisinin to the later has been investigated. Screening studies carried out on several soil borne microorganisms have yielded one novel species with the bioconversion ability. Crude cell free extract of 72h old culture of the isolate had shown the bioconversion activity. On incubation with the substrate arteannuin B, crude cell free extract of the isolate had shown a bioconversion of 18.54% to artemisinin on molar basis with a specific activity of 0.18 units/mg.
Keywords: Arteannuin-B, Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, BioconversionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1618
15 Correlational Analysis between Brain Dominances and Multiple Intelligences
Authors: Lakshmi Dhandabani, Rajeev Sukumaran
Abstract:Aim of this research study is to investigate and establish the characteristics of brain dominances (BD) and multiple intelligences (MI). This experimentation has been conducted for the sample size of 552 undergraduate computer-engineering students. In addition, mathematical formulation has been established to exhibit the relation between thinking and intelligence, and its correlation has been analyzed. Correlation analysis has been statistically measured using Pearson’s coefficient. Analysis of the results proves that there is a strong relational existence between thinking and intelligence. This research is carried to improve the didactic methods in engineering learning and also to improve e-learning strategies.
Keywords: Thinking style assessment, correlational analysis, mathematical model, data analysis, dynamic equilibrium.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1773
14 Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array
Authors: M. Lakshmi, J. Senthil Kumar
Abstract:Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE) Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde- Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.
Keywords: Color Filter Array (CFA), Biorthogonal Wavelet, Vector Quantization (VQ), Differential Evolution (DE).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1805
13 Channel Sounding and PAPR Reduction in OFDM for WiMAX Using Software Defined Radio
Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi
This paper addresses the reduction of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) for the OFDM in Mobile-WiMAX physical layer (PHY) standard. In the process, the best achievable PAPR of 0 dB is found for the OFDM spectrum using phase modulation technique which avoids the nonlinear distortion. The performance of the WiMAX PHY standard is handled by the software defined radio (SDR) prototype in which GNU Radio and USRP N210 employed as software and hardware platforms respectively. It is also found that BER performance is shown for different coding and different modulation schemes. To empathize wireless propagation in specific environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system is designed by using SDR testbed.
Keywords: BER, Channel sounding, GNU Radio, OFDM/OFDMA, USRP N210.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3094
12 Comprehensive Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Subsonic Scarf Inlets
Authors: M. Jegannath, V. Akshaya, B. Arunkumar, G. Lakshmi Soundharya, V. Thenmozhi, S. Varun, V. R. S. Kumar
For scarf inlet design, the primary variable of interest is the circumferential extent over which the extended lower lip is formed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to optimize the aerodynamic shape of a subsonic scarf inlet with aerodynamically shaped center-body with a particular value of the circumferential extent. The parametric analytical studies have been carried out using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. From our preliminary studies, we concluded that for a particular value of circumferential extent, there will be an exact shape of the center-body with certain geometric orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient scarf inlet for modern aircraft engines. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of scarf inlets for modern aircraft engines.
Keywords: Aerodynamics of scarf inlets, inlet design, modern aircraft inlets, subsonic scarf inlet.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 810
11 Virtual Container Yard: A Paradigm Shift in Container Inventory Management
Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A.W. Wijeratne, Hansa Edirisinghe, Lakshmi Ranwala Rashika Mudunkotuwa
Abstract:A paradigm shift in container inventory management (CIM) is a long-awaited industry need. Virtual container yard (VCY) is a concept developed in 2013 and its primary objective is to minimize shipping transport cost through implementing container exchange between carriers. Shipping lines always try to maintain lower container idle time and provide higher customer satisfaction. However, it is disappointing to note that carriers turn a blind eye to the escalating cost resulted from the present inefficient CIM mechanism. The cost of empty container management is simply transferred to the importers and exporters as freight adjustments. It also creates an environmental hazard. Therefore, it has now become a problem for the society. Therefore, a paradigm shift may be required as the present CIM system is not working for common interests of human beings as it should be.
Keywords: Virtual container yard, imbalance, management, inventory, container inventory management.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 360
10 Analysis and Design of a Novel Active Soft Switched Phase-Shifted Full Bridge Converter
Authors: Naga Brahmendra Yadav Gorla, Dr. Lakshmi Narasamma N
Abstract:This paper proposes an active soft-switching circuit for bridge converters aiming to improve the power conversion efficiency. The proposed circuit achieves loss-less switching for both main and auxiliary switches without increasing the main switch current/voltage rating. A winding coupled to the primary of power transformer ensures ZCS for the auxiliary switches during their turn-off. A 350 W, 100 kHz phase shifted full bridge (PSFB) converter is built to validate the analysis and design. Theoretical loss calculations for proposed circuit is presented. The proposed circuit is compared with passive soft switched PSFB in terms of efficiency and loss in duty cycle.
Keywords: soft switching, passive soft switching, ZVS, ZCS, PSFB.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2592
9 ANN Models for Microstrip Line Synthesis and Analysis
Authors: Dr.K.Sri Rama Krishna, J.Lakshmi Narayana, Dr.L.Pratap Reddy
Abstract:Microstrip lines, widely used for good reason, are broadband in frequency and provide circuits that are compact and light in weight. They are generally economical to produce since they are readily adaptable to hybrid and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technologies at RF and microwave frequencies. Although, the existing EM simulation models used for the synthesis and analysis of microstrip lines are reasonably accurate, they are computationally intensive and time consuming. Neural networks recently gained attention as fast and flexible vehicles to microwave modeling, simulation and optimization. After learning and abstracting from microwave data, through a process called training, neural network models are used during microwave design to provide instant answers to the task learned.This paper presents simple and accurate ANN models for the synthesis and analysis of Microstrip lines to more accurately compute the characteristic parameters and the physical dimensions respectively for the required design specifications.
Keywords: Neural Models, Algorithms, Microstrip Lines, Analysis, SynthesisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1997
8 Experimental Studies on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Methyl Esterand its Diesel Blends
Authors: G Lakshmi Narayana Rao, S Sampath, K Rajagopal
Transesterified vegetable oils (biodiesel) are promising alternative fuel for diesel engines. Used vegetable oils are disposed from restaurants in large quantities. But higher viscosity restricts their direct use in diesel engines. In this study, used cooking oil was dehydrated and then transesterified using an alkaline catalyst. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of Used Cooking oil Methyl Ester (UCME) and its blends with diesel oil are analysed in a direct injection C.I. engine. The fuel properties and the combustion characteristics of UCME are found to be similar to those of diesel. A minor decrease in thermal efficiency with significant improvement in reduction of particulates, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons is observed compared to diesel. The use of transesterified used cooking oil and its blends as fuel for diesel engines will reduce dependence on fossil fuels and also decrease considerably the environmental pollution.
Keywords: Combustion characteristics, diesel engine, emission characteristics, used cooking oil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3624
7 Theoretical Considerations for Software Component Metrics
Authors: V. Lakshmi Narasimhan, Bayu Hendradjaya
Abstract:We have defined two suites of metrics, which cover static and dynamic aspects of component assembly. The static metrics measure complexity and criticality of component assembly, wherein complexity is measured using Component Packing Density and Component Interaction Density metrics. Further, four criticality conditions namely, Link, Bridge, Inheritance and Size criticalities have been identified and quantified. The complexity and criticality metrics are combined to form a Triangular Metric, which can be used to classify the type and nature of applications. Dynamic metrics are collected during the runtime of a complete application. Dynamic metrics are useful to identify super-component and to evaluate the degree of utilisation of various components. In this paper both static and dynamic metrics are evaluated using Weyuker-s set of properties. The result shows that the metrics provide a valid means to measure issues in component assembly. We relate our metrics suite with McCall-s Quality Model and illustrate their impact on product quality and to the management of component-based product development.
Keywords: Component Assembly, Component Based SoftwareEngineering, CORBA Component Model, Software ComponentMetrics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2169
6 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio
Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi
Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.
Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4412
5 Channel Estimation/Equalization with Adaptive Modulation and Coding over Multipath Faded Channels for WiMAX
Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi
Different order modulations combined with different coding schemes, allow sending more bits per symbol, thus achieving higher throughputs and better spectral efficiencies. However, it must also be noted that when using a modulation technique such as 64- QAM with less overhead bits, better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are needed to overcome any Inter symbol Interference (ISI) and maintain a certain bit error ratio (BER). The use of adaptive modulation allows wireless technologies to yielding higher throughputs while also covering long distances. The aim of this paper is to implement an Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) features of the WiMAX PHY in MATLAB and to analyze the performance of the system in different channel conditions (AWGN, Rayleigh and Rician fading channel) with channel estimation and blind equalization. Simulation results have demonstrated that the increment in modulation order causes to increment in throughput and BER values. These results derived a trade-off among modulation order, FFT length, throughput, BER value and spectral efficiency. The BER changes gradually for AWGN channel and arbitrarily for Rayleigh and Rician fade channels.
Keywords: AMC, CSI, CMA, OFDM, OFDMA, WiMAX.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2975
4 Masonry CSEB Building Models under Shaketable Testing-An Experimental Study
Authors: Lakshmi Keshav, V. G. Srisanthi
Abstract:In this experimental investigation shake table tests were conducted on two reduced models that represent normal single room building constructed by Compressed Stabilized Earth Block (CSEB) from locally available soil. One model was constructed with earthquake resisting features (EQRF) having sill band, lintel band and vertical bands to control the building vibration and another one was without Earthquake Resisting Features. To examine the seismic capacity of the models particularly when it is subjected to long-period ground motion by large amplitude by many cycles of repeated loading, the test specimen was shaken repeatedly until the failure. The test results from Hi-end Data Acquisition system show that model with EQRF behave better than without EQRF. This modified masonry model with new material combined with new bands is used to improve the behavior of masonry building.
Keywords: Earth Quake Resisting Features, Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks, Masonry structures, Shake table testing, Horizontal and vertical bands.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2567
3 A Review on Factors Influencing Implementation of Secure Software Development Practices
Authors: Sri Lakshmi Kanniah, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin
More and more businesses and services are depending on software to run their daily operations and business services. At the same time, cyber-attacks are becoming more covert and sophisticated, posing threats to software. Vulnerabilities exist in the software due to the lack of security practices during the phases of software development. Implementation of secure software development practices can improve the resistance to attacks. Many methods, models and standards for secure software development have been developed. However, despite the efforts, they still come up against difficulties in their deployment and the processes are not institutionalized. There is a set of factors that influence the successful deployment of secure software development processes. In this study, the methodology and results from a systematic literature review of factors influencing the implementation of secure software development practices is described. A total of 44 primary studies were analysed as a result of the systematic review. As a result of the study, a list of twenty factors has been identified. Some of factors that affect implementation of secure software development practices are: Involvement of the security expert, integration between security and development team, developer’s skill and expertise, development time and communication between stakeholders. The factors were further classified into four categories which are institutional context, people and action, project content and system development process. The results obtained show that it is important to take into account organizational, technical and people issues in order to implement secure software development initiatives.
Keywords: Secure software development, software development, software security, systematic literature review.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2187
2 Energy Efficient Transmission of Image over DWT-OFDM System
Authors: Lakshmi Pujitha Dachuri, Nalini Uppala
In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms.
In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors. We consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter. The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.
Keywords: Binary channel state, Channel state feedback, DWT-OFDM system, Energy saving, Fading broadcast channel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2714
1 Performance Analysis of Reconstruction Algorithms in Diffuse Optical Tomography
Authors: K. Uma Maheswari, S. Sathiyamoorthy, G. Lakshmi
Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is a non-invasive imaging modality used in clinical diagnosis for earlier detection of carcinoma cells in brain tissue. It is a form of optical tomography which produces gives the reconstructed image of a human soft tissue with by using near-infra-red light. It comprises of two steps called forward model and inverse model. The forward model provides the light propagation in a biological medium. The inverse model uses the scattered light to collect the optical parameters of human tissue. DOT suffers from severe ill-posedness due to its incomplete measurement data. So the accurate analysis of this modality is very complicated. To overcome this problem, optical properties of the soft tissue such as absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, optical flux are processed by the standard regularization technique called Levenberg - Marquardt regularization. The reconstruction algorithms such as Split Bregman and Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction (GPSR) methods are used to reconstruct the image of a human soft tissue for tumour detection. Among these algorithms, Split Bregman method provides better performance than GPSR algorithm. The parameters such as signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), relative error (RE) and CPU time for reconstructing images are analyzed to get a better performance.
Keywords: Diffuse optical tomography, ill-posedness, Levenberg Marquardt method, Split Bregman, the Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1359